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This article is about the Islamic prophet. Muhammad_sentence_0

For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). Muhammad_sentence_1

For other uses, see Muhammad (disambiguation). Muhammad_sentence_2

For the Islamic view and perspective, see Muhammad in Islam. Muhammad_sentence_3


Islamic prophet

Muhammad مُحَمَّدMuhammad_header_cell_0_0_0

BornMuhammad_header_cell_0_1_0 Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh
(Arabic: مُحَمَّد ٱبْن عَبْد ٱللَّٰه‎)

c. 570 Mecca, Hejaz, ArabiaMuhammad_cell_0_1_1

DiedMuhammad_header_cell_0_2_0 8 June 632(632-06-08) (aged 61–62)

Medina, Hejaz, ArabiaMuhammad_cell_0_2_1

Resting placeMuhammad_header_cell_0_3_0 Green Dome at al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina, ArabiaMuhammad_cell_0_3_1
Other namesMuhammad_header_cell_0_4_0 Muhammad_cell_0_4_1
Years activeMuhammad_header_cell_0_5_0 583–609 CE as merchant

609–632 CE as religious leaderMuhammad_cell_0_5_1

Notable workMuhammad_header_cell_0_6_0 Constitution of MedinaMuhammad_cell_0_6_1
SuccessorMuhammad_header_cell_0_7_0 Succession to MuhammadMuhammad_cell_0_7_1
Spouse(s)Muhammad_header_cell_0_8_0 Muhammad's wives Married Khadija bint Khuwaylid595–619 Sawda bint Zamʿa619–632 Aisha bint Abi Bakrc. 623–632 Hafsa bint Umar624–632 Zaynab bint Khuzayma625–627 Hind bint Abi Umayya625–632 Zaynab bint Jahsh627–632 Juwayriyya bint al-Harith628–632 Ramla bint Abi Sufyan628–632 Rayhana bint Zayd629–631 Safiyya bint Huyayy629–632 Maymunah bint al-Harith630–632 Maria al-Qibtiyya630–632Muhammad_cell_0_8_1
Muhammad's wivesMuhammad_header_cell_0_9_0 MarriedMuhammad_header_cell_0_9_1
Khadija bint KhuwaylidMuhammad_cell_0_10_0 595–619Muhammad_cell_0_10_1
Sawda bint ZamʿaMuhammad_cell_0_11_0 619–632Muhammad_cell_0_11_1
Aisha bint Abi BakrMuhammad_cell_0_12_0 c. 623–632Muhammad_cell_0_12_1
Hafsa bint UmarMuhammad_cell_0_13_0 624–632Muhammad_cell_0_13_1
Zaynab bint KhuzaymaMuhammad_cell_0_14_0 625–627Muhammad_cell_0_14_1
Hind bint Abi UmayyaMuhammad_cell_0_15_0 625–632Muhammad_cell_0_15_1
Zaynab bint JahshMuhammad_cell_0_16_0 627–632Muhammad_cell_0_16_1
Juwayriyya bint al-HarithMuhammad_cell_0_17_0 628–632Muhammad_cell_0_17_1
Ramla bint Abi SufyanMuhammad_cell_0_18_0 628–632Muhammad_cell_0_18_1
Rayhana bint ZaydMuhammad_cell_0_19_0 629–631Muhammad_cell_0_19_1
Safiyya bint HuyayyMuhammad_cell_0_20_0 629–632Muhammad_cell_0_20_1
Maymunah bint al-HarithMuhammad_cell_0_21_0 630–632Muhammad_cell_0_21_1
Maria al-QibtiyyaMuhammad_cell_0_22_0 630–632Muhammad_cell_0_22_1
ChildrenMuhammad_header_cell_0_23_0 See Children of MuhammadMuhammad_cell_0_23_1
Parent(s)Muhammad_header_cell_0_24_0 Abdallah ibn Abd al-Muttalib (father)

Aminah bint Wahb (mother)Muhammad_cell_0_24_1

RelativesMuhammad_header_cell_0_25_0 Family tree of Muhammad, Ahl al-Bayt  ("Family of the House")Muhammad_cell_0_25_1
Personal (Ism)Muhammad_header_cell_0_26_0 MuhammadMuhammad_cell_0_26_1
Patronymic (Nasab)Muhammad_header_cell_0_27_0 Muḥammad ibn Abd Allah ibn Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim ibn Abd Manaf ibn Qusai ibn KilabMuhammad_cell_0_27_1
Teknonymic (Kunya)Muhammad_header_cell_0_28_0 Abu al-QasimMuhammad_cell_0_28_1
Epithet (Laqab)Muhammad_header_cell_0_29_0 Khātam an-Nâbîyīn (Seal of the prophets)Muhammad_cell_0_29_1

Muhammad (Arabic: مُحَمَّد‎, pronounced [muħammad; c. 570 CE – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of Islam. Muhammad_sentence_4

According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to preach and confirm the monotheistic teachings of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. Muhammad_sentence_5

He is believed to be the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad_sentence_6

Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief. Muhammad_sentence_7

Born approximately 570 CE (Year of the Elephant) in the Arabian city of Mecca, Muhammad was orphaned at the age of six. Muhammad_sentence_8

He was raised under the care of his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib, and upon his death, by his uncle Abu Talib. Muhammad_sentence_9

In later years, he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain cave named Hira for several nights of prayer. Muhammad_sentence_10

When he was 40, Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave and receiving his first revelation from God. Muhammad_sentence_11

In 613, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" (islām) to God is the right way of life (dīn), and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam. Muhammad_sentence_12

Muhammad's followers were initially few in number, and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists. Muhammad_sentence_13

To escape ongoing persecution, he sent some of his followers to Abyssinia in 615, before he and his followers migrated from Mecca to Medina (then known as Yathrib) later in 622. Muhammad_sentence_14

This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, also known as the Hijri Calendar. Muhammad_sentence_15

In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. Muhammad_sentence_16

In December 629, after eight years of intermittent fighting with Meccan tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim converts and marched on the city of Mecca. Muhammad_sentence_17

The conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad seized the city with little bloodshed. Muhammad_sentence_18

In 632, a few months after returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage, he fell ill and died. Muhammad_sentence_19

By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam. Muhammad_sentence_20

The revelations (each known as Ayah — literally, "Sign [of God]") that Muhammad reported receiving until his death form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim "Word of God" on which the religion is based. Muhammad_sentence_21

Besides the Quran, Muhammad's teachings and practices (sunnah), found in the Hadith and sira (biography) literature, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic law (see Sharia). Muhammad_sentence_22

Quranic names and appellations Muhammad_section_0

Main article: Names and titles of Muhammad Muhammad_sentence_23

The name Muhammad (/mʊˈhæməd, -ˈhɑːməd/) means "praiseworthy" and appears four times in the Quran. Muhammad_sentence_24

The Quran also addresses Muhammad in the second person by various appellations; prophet, messenger, servant of God ('abd), announcer (bashir), witness (shahid), bearer of good tidings (mubashshir), warner (nathir), reminder (mudhakkir), one who calls [unto God] (dā'ī), light personified (noor), and the light-giving lamp (siraj munir). Muhammad_sentence_25

Sources of biographical information Muhammad_section_1

Main articles: Historiography of early Islam and Historicity of Muhammad Muhammad_sentence_26

Quran Muhammad_section_2

The Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Muhammad_sentence_27

Muslims believe it represents the words of God revealed by the archangel Gabriel to Muhammad. Muhammad_sentence_28

The Quran, however, provides minimal assistance for Muhammad's chronological biography; most Quranic verses do not provide significant historical context. Muhammad_sentence_29

Early biographies Muhammad_section_3

Main article: Prophetic biography Muhammad_sentence_30

Important sources regarding Muhammad's life may be found in the historic works by writers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Muslim era (AH – 8th and 9th century CE). Muhammad_sentence_31

These include traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, which provide additional information about Muhammad's life. Muhammad_sentence_32

The earliest surviving written sira (biographies of Muhammad and quotes attributed to him) is Ibn Ishaq's Life of God's Messenger written c. 767 CE (150 AH). Muhammad_sentence_33

Although the work was lost, this sira was used at great length by Ibn Hisham and to a lesser extent by Al-Tabari. Muhammad_sentence_34

However, Ibn Hisham admits in the preface to his biography of Muhammad that he omitted matters from Ibn Ishaq's biography that "would distress certain people". Muhammad_sentence_35

Another early history source is the history of Muhammad's campaigns by al-Waqidi (death 207 of Muslim era), and the work of his secretary Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi (death 230 of Muslim era). Muhammad_sentence_36

Many scholars accept these early biographies as authentic, though their accuracy is unascertainable. Muhammad_sentence_37

Recent studies have led scholars to distinguish between traditions touching legal matters and purely historical events. Muhammad_sentence_38

In the legal group, traditions could have been subject to invention while historic events, aside from exceptional cases, may have been only subject to "tendential shaping". Muhammad_sentence_39

Hadith Muhammad_section_4

Main article: Hadith Muhammad_sentence_40

Other important sources include the hadith collections, accounts of the verbal and physical teachings and traditions of Muhammad. Muhammad_sentence_41

Hadiths were compiled several generations after his death by followers including Muhammad al-Bukhari, Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj, Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi, Abd ar-Rahman al-Nasai, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, Malik ibn Anas, al-Daraqutni. Muhammad_sentence_42

Some Western academics cautiously view the hadith collections as accurate historical sources. Muhammad_sentence_43

Scholars such as Madelung do not reject the narrations which have been compiled in later periods, but judge them in the context of history and on the basis of their compatibility with the events and figures. Muhammad_sentence_44

Muslim scholars on the other hand typically place a greater emphasis on the hadith literature instead of the biographical literature, since hadiths maintain a verifiable chain of transmission (isnad); the lack of such a chain for the biographical literature makes it less verifiable in their eyes. Muhammad_sentence_45

Pre-Islamic Arabia Muhammad_section_5

Main articles: Pre-Islamic Arabia, Jahiliyyah, and Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia Muhammad_sentence_46

The Arabian Peninsula was, and still is, largely arid with volcanic soil, making agriculture difficult except near oases or springs. Muhammad_sentence_47

Towns and cities dotted the landscape; two of the most prominent being Mecca and Medina. Muhammad_sentence_48

Medina was a large flourishing agricultural settlement, while Mecca was an important financial center for many surrounding tribes. Muhammad_sentence_49

Communal life was essential for survival in the desert conditions, supporting indigenous tribes against the harsh environment and lifestyle. Muhammad_sentence_50

Tribal affiliation, whether based on kinship or alliances, was an important source of social cohesion. Muhammad_sentence_51

Indigenous Arabs were either nomadic or sedentary. Muhammad_sentence_52

Nomadic groups constantly traveled seeking water and pasture for their flocks, while the sedentary settled and focused on trade and agriculture. Muhammad_sentence_53

Nomadic survival also depended on raiding caravans or oases; nomads did not view this as a crime. Muhammad_sentence_54

In pre-Islamic Arabia, gods or goddesses were viewed as protectors of individual tribes, their spirits being associated with sacred trees, stones, springs and wells. Muhammad_sentence_55

As well as being the site of an annual pilgrimage, the Kaaba shrine in Mecca housed 360 idols of tribal patron deities. Muhammad_sentence_56

Three goddesses were revered as God's daughters: Allāt, Manāt and al-'Uzzá. Muhammad_sentence_57

Monotheistic communities existed in Arabia, including Christians and Jews. Muhammad_sentence_58

Hanifs – native pre-Islamic Arabs who "professed a rigid monotheism" – are also sometimes listed alongside Jews and Christians in pre-Islamic Arabia, although their historicity is disputed among scholars. Muhammad_sentence_59

According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad himself was a Hanif and one of the descendants of Ishmael, son of Abraham. Muhammad_sentence_60

The second half of the sixth century was a period of political disorder in Arabia and communication routes were no longer secure. Muhammad_sentence_61

Religious divisions were an important cause of the crisis. Muhammad_sentence_62

Judaism became the dominant religion in Yemen while Christianity took root in the Persian Gulf area. Muhammad_sentence_63

In line with broader trends of the ancient world, the region witnessed a decline in the practice of polytheistic cults and a growing interest in a more spiritual form of religion. Muhammad_sentence_64

While many were reluctant to convert to a foreign faith, those faiths provided intellectual and spiritual reference points. Muhammad_sentence_65

During the early years of Muhammad's life, the Quraysh tribe to which he belonged became a dominant force in western Arabia. Muhammad_sentence_66

They formed the cult association of hums, which tied members of many tribes in western Arabia to the Kaaba and reinforced the prestige of the Meccan sanctuary. Muhammad_sentence_67

To counter the effects of anarchy, Quraysh upheld the institution of sacred months during which all violence was forbidden, and it was possible to participate in pilgrimages and fairs without danger. Muhammad_sentence_68

Thus, although the association of hums was primarily religious, it also had important economic consequences for the city. Muhammad_sentence_69

Life Muhammad_section_6

Childhood and early life Muhammad_section_7

See also: Mawlid, Family tree of Muhammad, and Muhammad in Mecca Muhammad_sentence_70

Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim, was born in Mecca about the year 570 and his birthday is believed to be in the month of Rabi' al-awwal. Muhammad_sentence_71

He belonged to the Banu Hashim clan, part of the Quraysh tribe, and was one of Mecca's prominent families, although it appears less prosperous during Muhammad's early lifetime. Muhammad_sentence_72

Tradition places the year of Muhammad's birth as corresponding with the Year of the Elephant, which is named after the failed destruction of Mecca that year by the Abraha, Yemen's king, who supplemented his army with elephants. Muhammad_sentence_73

Alternatively some 20th century scholars have suggested different years, such as 568 or 569. Muhammad_sentence_74

Muhammad's father, Abdullah, died almost six months before he was born. Muhammad_sentence_75

According to Islamic tradition, soon after birth he was sent to live with a Bedouin family in the desert, as desert life was considered healthier for infants; some western scholars reject this tradition's historicity. Muhammad_sentence_76

Muhammad stayed with his foster-mother, Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb, and her husband until he was two years old. Muhammad_sentence_77

At the age of six, Muhammad lost his biological mother Amina to illness and became an orphan. Muhammad_sentence_78

For the next two years, until he was eight years old, Muhammad was under the guardianship of his paternal grandfather Abdul-Muttalib, of the Banu Hashim clan until his death. Muhammad_sentence_79

He then came under the care of his uncle Abu Talib, the new leader of the Banu Hashim. Muhammad_sentence_80

According to Islamic historian William Montgomery Watt there was a general disregard by guardians in taking care of weaker members of the tribes in Mecca during the 6th century, "Muhammad's guardians saw that he did not starve to death, but it was hard for them to do more for him, especially as the fortunes of the clan of Hashim seem to have been declining at that time." Muhammad_sentence_81

In his teens, Muhammad accompanied his uncle on Syrian trading journeys to gain experience in commercial trade. Muhammad_sentence_82

Islamic tradition states that when Muhammad was either nine or twelve while accompanying the Meccans' caravan to Syria, he met a Christian monk or hermit named Bahira who is said to have foreseen Muhammad's career as a prophet of God. Muhammad_sentence_83

Little is known of Muhammad during his later youth as available information is fragmented, making it difficult to separate history from legend. Muhammad_sentence_84

It is known that he became a merchant and "was involved in trade between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea." Muhammad_sentence_85

Due to his upright character he acquired the nickname "al-Amin" (Arabic: الامين), meaning "faithful, trustworthy" and "al-Sadiq" meaning "truthful" and was sought out as an impartial arbitrator. Muhammad_sentence_86

His reputation attracted a proposal in 595 from Khadijah, a successful businesswoman. Muhammad_sentence_87

Muhammad consented to the marriage, which by all accounts was a happy one. Muhammad_sentence_88

Several years later, according to a narration collected by historian Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad was involved with a well-known story about setting the Black Stone in place in the wall of the Kaaba in 605 CE. Muhammad_sentence_89

The Black Stone, a sacred object, was removed during renovations to the Kaaba. Muhammad_sentence_90

The Meccan leaders could not agree which clan should return the Black Stone to its place. Muhammad_sentence_91

They decided to ask the next man who comes through the gate to make that decision; that man was the 35-year-old Muhammad. Muhammad_sentence_92

This event happened five years before the first revelation by Gabriel to him. Muhammad_sentence_93

He asked for a cloth and laid the Black Stone in its center. Muhammad_sentence_94

The clan leaders held the corners of the cloth and together carried the Black Stone to the right spot, then Muhammad laid the stone, satisfying the honor of all. Muhammad_sentence_95

Beginnings of the Quran Muhammad_section_8

See also: Muhammad's first revelation, History of the Quran, and Wahy Muhammad_sentence_96

Sahih Bukhari narrates Muhammad describing his revelations as "sometimes it is (revealed) like the ringing of a bell". Muhammad_sentence_97

Aisha reported, "I saw the Prophet being inspired Divinely on a very cold day and noticed the sweat dropping from his forehead (as the Inspiration was over)". Muhammad_sentence_98

According to Welch these descriptions may be considered genuine, since they are unlikely to have been forged by later Muslims. Muhammad_sentence_99

Muhammad was confident that he could distinguish his own thoughts from these messages. Muhammad_sentence_100

According to the Quran, one of the main roles of Muhammad is to warn the unbelievers of their eschatological punishment (Quran , Quran ). Muhammad_sentence_101

Occasionally the Quran did not explicitly refer to Judgment day but provided examples from the history of extinct communities and warns Muhammad's contemporaries of similar calamities (Quran ). Muhammad_sentence_102

Muhammad did not only warn those who rejected God's revelation, but also dispensed good news for those who abandoned evil, listening to the divine words and serving God. Muhammad_sentence_103

Muhammad's mission also involves preaching monotheism: The Quran commands Muhammad to proclaim and praise the name of his Lord and instructs him not to worship idols or associate other deities with God. Muhammad_sentence_104

The key themes of the early Quranic verses included the responsibility of man towards his creator; the resurrection of the dead, God's final judgment followed by vivid descriptions of the tortures in Hell and pleasures in Paradise, and the signs of God in all aspects of life. Muhammad_sentence_105

Religious duties required of the believers at this time were few: belief in God, asking for forgiveness of sins, offering frequent prayers, assisting others particularly those in need, rejecting cheating and the love of wealth (considered to be significant in the commercial life of Mecca), being chaste and not committing female infanticide. Muhammad_sentence_106

Opposition Muhammad_section_9

See also: Persecution of Muslims by Meccans and Migration to Abyssinia Muhammad_sentence_107

According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad's wife Khadija was the first to believe he was a prophet. Muhammad_sentence_108

She was followed by Muhammad's ten-year-old cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib, close friend Abu Bakr, and adopted son Zaid. Muhammad_sentence_109

Around 613, Muhammad began to preach to the public (Quran ). Muhammad_sentence_110

Most Meccans ignored and mocked him, though a few became his followers. Muhammad_sentence_111

There were three main groups of early converts to Islam: younger brothers and sons of great merchants; people who had fallen out of the first rank in their tribe or failed to attain it; and the weak, mostly unprotected foreigners. Muhammad_sentence_112

According to Ibn Saad, opposition in Mecca started when Muhammad delivered verses that condemned idol worship and the polytheism practiced by the Meccan forefathers. Muhammad_sentence_113

However, the Quranic exegesis maintains that it began as Muhammad started public preaching. Muhammad_sentence_114

As his followers increased, Muhammad became a threat to the local tribes and rulers of the city, whose wealth rested upon the Ka'aba, the focal point of Meccan religious life that Muhammad threatened to overthrow. Muhammad_sentence_115

Muhammad's denunciation of the Meccan traditional religion was especially offensive to his own tribe, the Quraysh, as they were the guardians of the Ka'aba. Muhammad_sentence_116

Powerful merchants attempted to convince Muhammad to abandon his preaching; he was offered admission to the inner circle of merchants, as well as an advantageous marriage. Muhammad_sentence_117

He refused both of these offers. Muhammad_sentence_118

Tradition records at great length the persecution and ill-treatment towards Muhammad and his followers. Muhammad_sentence_119

Sumayyah bint Khayyat, a slave of a prominent Meccan leader Abu Jahl, is famous as the first martyr of Islam; killed with a spear by her master when she refused to give up her faith. Muhammad_sentence_120

Bilal, another Muslim slave, was tortured by Umayyah ibn Khalaf who placed a heavy rock on his chest to force his conversion. Muhammad_sentence_121

In 615, some of Muhammad's followers emigrated to the Ethiopian Kingdom of Aksum and founded a small colony under the protection of the Christian Ethiopian emperor Aṣḥama ibn Abjar. Muhammad_sentence_122

Ibn Sa'ad mentions two separate migrations. Muhammad_sentence_123

According to him, most of the Muslims returned to Mecca prior to Hijra, while a second group rejoined them in Medina. Muhammad_sentence_124

Ibn Hisham and Tabari, however, only talk about one migration to Ethiopia. Muhammad_sentence_125

These accounts agree that Meccan persecution played a major role in Muhammad's decision to suggest that a number of his followers seek refuge among the Christians in Abyssinia. Muhammad_sentence_126

According to the famous letter of ʿUrwa preserved in al-Tabari, the majority of Muslims returned to their native town as Islam gained strength and high ranking Meccans, such as Umar and Hamzah converted. Muhammad_sentence_127

However, there is a completely different story on the reason why the Muslims returned from Ethiopia to Mecca. Muhammad_sentence_128

According to this account—initially mentioned by Al-Waqidi then rehashed by Ibn Sa'ad and Tabari, but not by Ibn Hisham and not by Ibn Ishaq—Muhammad, desperately hoping for an accommodation with his tribe, pronounced a verse acknowledging the existence of three Meccan goddesses considered to be the daughters of Allah. Muhammad_sentence_129

Muhammad retracted the verses the next day at the behest of Gabriel, claiming that the verses were whispered by the devil himself. Muhammad_sentence_130

Instead, a ridicule of these gods was offered. Muhammad_sentence_131

This episode, known as "The Story of the Cranes," is also known as "Satanic Verses". Muhammad_sentence_132

According to the story, this led to a general reconciliation between Muhammad and the Meccans, and the Abyssinia Muslims began to return home. Muhammad_sentence_133

When they arrived Gabriel had informed Muhammad that the two verses were not part of the revelation, but had been inserted by Satan. Muhammad_sentence_134

Notable scholars at the time argued against the historic authenticity of these verses and the story itself on various grounds. Muhammad_sentence_135

Al-Waqidi was severely criticized by Islamic scholars such as Malik ibn Anas, al-Shafi'i, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Al-Nasa'i, al-Bukhari, Abu Dawood, Al-Nawawi and others as a liar and forger. Muhammad_sentence_136

Later, the incident received some acceptance among certain groups, though strong objections to it continued onwards past the tenth century. Muhammad_sentence_137

The objections continued until rejection of these verses and the story itself eventually became the only acceptable orthodox Muslim position. Muhammad_sentence_138

In 616 (or 617), the leaders of Makhzum and Banu Abd-Shams, two important Quraysh clans, declared a public boycott against Banu Hashim, their commercial rival, to pressure it into withdrawing its protection of Muhammad. Muhammad_sentence_139

The boycott lasted three years but eventually collapsed as it failed in its objective. Muhammad_sentence_140

During this time, Muhammad was able to preach only during the holy pilgrimage months in which all hostilities between Arabs were suspended. Muhammad_sentence_141

Isra and Mi'raj Muhammad_section_10

Main article: Isra and Mi'raj Muhammad_sentence_142

Islamic tradition states that in 620, Muhammad experienced the Isra and Mi'raj, a miraculous night-long journey said to have occurred with the angel Gabriel. Muhammad_sentence_143

At the journey's beginning, the Isra, he is said to have traveled from Mecca on a winged steed to "the farthest mosque." Muhammad_sentence_144

Later, during the Mi'raj, Muhammad is said to have toured heaven and hell, and spoke with earlier prophets, such as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Muhammad_sentence_145

Ibn Ishaq, author of the first biography of Muhammad, presents the event as a spiritual experience; later historians, such as Al-Tabari and Ibn Kathir, present it as a physical journey. Muhammad_sentence_146

Some western scholars hold that the Isra and Mi'raj journey traveled through the heavens from the sacred enclosure at Mecca to the celestial al-Baytu l-Maʿmur (heavenly prototype of the Kaaba); later traditions indicate Muhammad's journey as having been from Mecca to Jerusalem. Muhammad_sentence_147

Last years before Hijra Muhammad_section_11

Muhammad's wife Khadijah and uncle Abu Talib both died in 619, the year thus being known as the "Year of Sorrow". Muhammad_sentence_148

With the death of Abu Talib, leadership of the Banu Hashim clan passed to Abu Lahab, a tenacious enemy of Muhammad. Muhammad_sentence_149

Soon afterward, Abu Lahab withdrew the clan's protection over Muhammad. Muhammad_sentence_150

This placed Muhammad in danger; the withdrawal of clan protection implied that blood revenge for his killing would not be exacted. Muhammad_sentence_151

Muhammad then visited Ta'if, another important city in Arabia, and tried to find a protector, but his effort failed and further brought him into physical danger. Muhammad_sentence_152

Muhammad was forced to return to Mecca. Muhammad_sentence_153

A Meccan man named Mut'im ibn Adi (and the protection of the tribe of Banu Nawfal) made it possible for him to safely re-enter his native city. Muhammad_sentence_154

Many people visited Mecca on business or as pilgrims to the Kaaba. Muhammad_sentence_155

Muhammad took this opportunity to look for a new home for himself and his followers. Muhammad_sentence_156

After several unsuccessful negotiations, he found hope with some men from Yathrib (later called Medina). Muhammad_sentence_157

The Arab population of Yathrib were familiar with monotheism and were prepared for the appearance of a prophet because a Jewish community existed there. Muhammad_sentence_158

They also hoped, by the means of Muhammad and the new faith, to gain supremacy over Mecca; the Yathrib were jealous of its importance as the place of pilgrimage. Muhammad_sentence_159

Converts to Islam came from nearly all Arab tribes in Medina; by June of the subsequent year, seventy-five Muslims came to Mecca for pilgrimage and to meet Muhammad. Muhammad_sentence_160

Meeting him secretly by night, the group made what is known as the "Second Pledge of al-'Aqaba", or, in Orientalists' view, the "Pledge of War". Muhammad_sentence_161

Following the pledges at Aqabah, Muhammad encouraged his followers to emigrate to Yathrib. Muhammad_sentence_162

As with the migration to Abyssinia, the Quraysh attempted to stop the emigration. Muhammad_sentence_163

However, almost all Muslims managed to leave. Muhammad_sentence_164

Hijra Muhammad_section_12

Main article: Hegira Muhammad_sentence_165

Further information: Military career of Muhammad Muhammad_sentence_166

The Hijra is the migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. Muhammad_sentence_167

In June 622, warned of a plot to assassinate him, Muhammad secretly slipped out of Mecca and moved his followers to Medina, 450 kilometres (280 miles) north of Mecca. Muhammad_sentence_168

Migration to Medina Muhammad_section_13

Main article: Muhammad in Medina Muhammad_sentence_169

A delegation, consisting of the representatives of the twelve important clans of Medina, invited Muhammad to serve as chief arbitrator for the entire community; due to his status as a neutral outsider. Muhammad_sentence_170

There was fighting in Yathrib: primarily the dispute involved its Arab and Jewish inhabitants, and was estimated to have lasted for around a hundred years before 620. Muhammad_sentence_171

The recurring slaughters and disagreements over the resulting claims, especially after the Battle of Bu'ath in which all clans were involved, made it obvious to them that the tribal concept of blood-feud and an eye for an eye were no longer workable unless there was one man with authority to adjudicate in disputed cases. Muhammad_sentence_172

The delegation from Medina pledged themselves and their fellow-citizens to accept Muhammad into their community and physically protect him as one of themselves. Muhammad_sentence_173

Muhammad instructed his followers to emigrate to Medina, until nearly all his followers left Mecca. Muhammad_sentence_174

Being alarmed at the departure, according to tradition, the Meccans plotted to assassinate Muhammad. Muhammad_sentence_175

With the help of Ali, Muhammad fooled the Meccans watching him, and secretly slipped away from the town with Abu Bakr. Muhammad_sentence_176

By 622, Muhammad emigrated to Medina, a large agricultural oasis. Muhammad_sentence_177

Those who migrated from Mecca along with Muhammad became known as muhajirun (emigrants). Muhammad_sentence_178

Establishment of a new polity Muhammad_section_14

Main article: Constitution of Medina Muhammad_sentence_179

Among the first things Muhammad did to ease the longstanding grievances among the tribes of Medina was to draft a document known as the Constitution of Medina, "establishing a kind of alliance or federation" among the eight Medinan tribes and Muslim emigrants from Mecca; this specified rights and duties of all citizens, and the relationship of the different communities in Medina (including the Muslim community to other communities, specifically the Jews and other "Peoples of the Book"). Muhammad_sentence_180

The community defined in the Constitution of Medina, Ummah, had a religious outlook, also shaped by practical considerations and substantially preserved the legal forms of the old Arab tribes. Muhammad_sentence_181

The first group of converts to Islam in Medina were the clans without great leaders; these clans had been subjugated by hostile leaders from outside. Muhammad_sentence_182

This was followed by the general acceptance of Islam by the pagan population of Medina, with some exceptions. Muhammad_sentence_183

According to Ibn Ishaq, this was influenced by the conversion of Sa'd ibn Mu'adh (a prominent Medinan leader) to Islam. Muhammad_sentence_184

Medinans who converted to Islam and helped the Muslim emigrants find shelter became known as the ansar (supporters). Muhammad_sentence_185

Then Muhammad instituted brotherhood between the emigrants and the supporters and he chose Ali as his own brother. Muhammad_sentence_186

Beginning of armed conflict Muhammad_section_15

Main article: Battle of Badr Muhammad_sentence_187

See also: List of expeditions of Muhammad Muhammad_sentence_188

Following the emigration, the people of Mecca seized property of Muslim emigrants to Medina. Muhammad_sentence_189

War would later break out between the people of Mecca and the Muslims. Muhammad_sentence_190

Muhammad delivered Quranic verses permitting Muslims to fight the Meccans (see sura Al-Hajj, Quran ). Muhammad_sentence_191

According to the traditional account, on 11 February 624, while praying in the Masjid al-Qiblatayn in Medina, Muhammad received revelations from God that he should be facing Mecca rather than Jerusalem during prayer. Muhammad_sentence_192

Muhammad adjusted to the new direction, and his companions praying with him followed his lead, beginning the tradition of facing Mecca during prayer. Muhammad_sentence_193

In March 624, Muhammad led some three hundred warriors in a raid on a Meccan merchant caravan. Muhammad_sentence_194

The Muslims set an ambush for the caravan at Badr. Muhammad_sentence_195

Aware of the plan, the Meccan caravan eluded the Muslims. Muhammad_sentence_196

A Meccan force was sent to protect the caravan and went on to confront the Muslims upon receiving word that the caravan was safe. Muhammad_sentence_197

The Battle of Badr commenced. Muhammad_sentence_198

Though outnumbered more than three to one, the Muslims won the battle, killing at least forty-five Meccans with fourteen Muslims dead. Muhammad_sentence_199

They also succeeded in killing many Meccan leaders, including Abu Jahl. Muhammad_sentence_200

Seventy prisoners had been acquired, many of whom were ransomed. Muhammad_sentence_201

Muhammad and his followers saw the victory as confirmation of their faith and Muhammad ascribed the victory to the assistance of an invisible host of angels. Muhammad_sentence_202

The Quranic verses of this period, unlike the Meccan verses, dealt with practical problems of government and issues like the distribution of spoils. Muhammad_sentence_203

The victory strengthened Muhammad's position in Medina and dispelled earlier doubts among his followers. Muhammad_sentence_204

As a result, the opposition to him became less vocal. Muhammad_sentence_205

Pagans who had not yet converted were very bitter about the advance of Islam. Muhammad_sentence_206

Two pagans, Asma bint Marwan of the Aws Manat tribe and Abu 'Afak of the 'Amr b. Muhammad_sentence_207

'Awf tribe, had composed verses taunting and insulting the Muslims. Muhammad_sentence_208

They were killed by people belonging to their own or related clans, and Muhammad did not disapprove of the killings. Muhammad_sentence_209

This report, however, is considered by some to be a fabrication. Muhammad_sentence_210

Most members of those tribes converted to Islam, and little pagan opposition remained. Muhammad_sentence_211

Muhammad expelled from Medina the Banu Qaynuqa, one of three main Jewish tribes, but some historians contend that the expulsion happened after Muhammad's death. Muhammad_sentence_212

According to al-Waqidi, after Abd-Allah ibn Ubaiy spoke for them, Muhammad refrained from executing them and commanded that they be exiled from Medina. Muhammad_sentence_213

Following the Battle of Badr, Muhammad also made mutual-aid alliances with a number of Bedouin tribes to protect his community from attacks from the northern part of Hejaz. Muhammad_sentence_214

Conflict with Mecca Muhammad_section_16

Main article: Battle of Uhud Muhammad_sentence_215

The Meccans were eager to avenge their defeat. Muhammad_sentence_216

To maintain economic prosperity, the Meccans needed to restore their prestige, which had been reduced at Badr. Muhammad_sentence_217

In the ensuing months, the Meccans sent ambush parties to Medina while Muhammad led expeditions against tribes allied with Mecca and sent raiders onto a Meccan caravan. Muhammad_sentence_218

Abu Sufyan gathered an army of 3000 men and set out for an attack on Medina. Muhammad_sentence_219

A scout alerted Muhammad of the Meccan army's presence and numbers a day later. Muhammad_sentence_220

The next morning, at the Muslim conference of war, a dispute arose over how best to repel the Meccans. Muhammad_sentence_221

Muhammad and many senior figures suggested it would be safer to fight within Medina and take advantage of the heavily fortified strongholds. Muhammad_sentence_222

Younger Muslims argued that the Meccans were destroying crops, and huddling in the strongholds would destroy Muslim prestige. Muhammad_sentence_223

Muhammad eventually conceded to the younger Muslims and readied the Muslim force for battle. Muhammad_sentence_224

Muhammad led his force outside to the mountain of Uhud (the location of the Meccan camp) and fought the Battle of Uhud on 23 March 625. Muhammad_sentence_225

Although the Muslim army had the advantage in early encounters, lack of discipline on the part of strategically placed archers led to a Muslim defeat; 75 Muslims were killed, including Hamza, Muhammad's uncle who became one of the best known martyrs in the Muslim tradition. Muhammad_sentence_226

The Meccans did not pursue the Muslims; instead, they marched back to Mecca declaring victory. Muhammad_sentence_227

The announcement is probably because Muhammad was wounded and thought dead. Muhammad_sentence_228

When they discovered that Muhammad lived, the Meccans did not return due to false information about new forces coming to his aid. Muhammad_sentence_229

The attack had failed to achieve their aim of completely destroying the Muslims. Muhammad_sentence_230

The Muslims buried the dead and returned to Medina that evening. Muhammad_sentence_231

Questions accumulated about the reasons for the loss; Muhammad delivered Quranic verses indicating that the defeat was twofold: partly a punishment for disobedience, partly a test for steadfastness. Muhammad_sentence_232

Abu Sufyan directed his effort towards another attack on Medina. Muhammad_sentence_233

He gained support from the nomadic tribes to the north and east of Medina; using propaganda about Muhammad's weakness, promises of booty, memories of Quraysh prestige and through bribery. Muhammad_sentence_234

Muhammad's new policy was to prevent alliances against him. Muhammad_sentence_235

Whenever alliances against Medina were formed, he sent out expeditions to break them up. Muhammad_sentence_236

Muhammad heard of men massing with hostile intentions against Medina, and reacted in a severe manner. Muhammad_sentence_237

One example is the assassination of Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf, a chieftain of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir. Muhammad_sentence_238

Al-Ashraf went to Mecca and wrote poems that roused the Meccans' grief, anger and desire for revenge after the Battle of Badr. Muhammad_sentence_239

Around a year later, Muhammad expelled the Banu Nadir from Medina forcing their emigration to Syria; he allowed them to take some possessions, as he was unable to subdue the Banu Nadir in their strongholds. Muhammad_sentence_240

The rest of their property was claimed by Muhammad in the name of God as it was not gained with bloodshed. Muhammad_sentence_241

Muhammad surprised various Arab tribes, individually, with overwhelming force, causing his enemies to unite to annihilate him. Muhammad_sentence_242

Muhammad's attempts to prevent a confederation against him were unsuccessful, though he was able to increase his own forces and stopped many potential tribes from joining his enemies. Muhammad_sentence_243

Siege of Medina Muhammad_section_17

Main article: Battle of the Trench Muhammad_sentence_244

With the help of the exiled Banu Nadir, the Quraysh military leader Abu Sufyan mustered a force of 10,000 men. Muhammad_sentence_245

Muhammad prepared a force of about 3,000 men and adopted a form of defense unknown in Arabia at that time; the Muslims dug a trench wherever Medina lay open to cavalry attack. Muhammad_sentence_246

The idea is credited to a Persian convert to Islam, Salman the Persian. Muhammad_sentence_247

The siege of Medina began on 31 March 627 and lasted two weeks. Muhammad_sentence_248

Abu Sufyan's troops were unprepared for the fortifications, and after an ineffectual siege, the coalition decided to return home. Muhammad_sentence_249

The Quran discusses this battle in sura Al-Ahzab, in verses . Muhammad_sentence_250

During the battle, the Jewish tribe of Banu Qurayza, located to the south of Medina, entered into negotiations with Meccan forces to revolt against Muhammad. Muhammad_sentence_251

Although the Meccan forces were swayed by suggestions that Muhammad was sure to be overwhelmed, they desired reassurance in case the confederacy was unable to destroy him. Muhammad_sentence_252

No agreement was reached after prolonged negotiations, partly due to sabotage attempts by Muhammad's scouts. Muhammad_sentence_253

After the coalition's retreat, the Muslims accused the Banu Qurayza of treachery and besieged them in their forts for 25 days. Muhammad_sentence_254

The Banu Qurayza eventually surrendered; according to Ibn Ishaq, all the men apart from a few converts to Islam were beheaded, while the women and children were enslaved. Muhammad_sentence_255

Walid N. Arafat and Barakat Ahmad have disputed the accuracy of Ibn Ishaq's narrative. Muhammad_sentence_256

Arafat believes that Ibn Ishaq's Jewish sources, speaking over 100 years after the event, conflated this account with memories of earlier massacres in Jewish history; he notes that Ibn Ishaq was considered an unreliable historian by his contemporary Malik ibn Anas, and a transmitter of "odd tales" by the later Ibn Hajar. Muhammad_sentence_257

Ahmad argues that only some of the tribe were killed, while some of the fighters were merely enslaved. Muhammad_sentence_258

Watt finds Arafat's arguments "not entirely convincing", while Meir J. Kister has contradicted the arguments of Arafat and Ahmad. Muhammad_sentence_259

In the siege of Medina, the Meccans exerted the available strength to destroy the Muslim community. Muhammad_sentence_260

The failure resulted in a significant loss of prestige; their trade with Syria vanished. Muhammad_sentence_261

Following the Battle of the Trench, Muhammad made two expeditions to the north, both ended without any fighting. Muhammad_sentence_262

While returning from one of these journeys (or some years earlier according to other early accounts), an accusation of adultery was made against Aisha, Muhammad's wife. Muhammad_sentence_263

Aisha was exonerated from accusations when Muhammad announced he had received a revelation confirming Aisha's innocence and directing that charges of adultery be supported by four eyewitnesses (sura 24, An-Nur). Muhammad_sentence_264

Truce of Hudaybiyyah Muhammad_section_18

Main article: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Muhammad_sentence_265

Although Muhammad had delivered Quranic verses commanding the Hajj, the Muslims had not performed it due to Quraysh enmity. Muhammad_sentence_266

In the month of Shawwal 628, Muhammad ordered his followers to obtain sacrificial animals and to prepare for a pilgrimage (umrah) to Mecca, saying that God had promised him the fulfillment of this goal in a vision when he was shaving his head after completion of the Hajj. Muhammad_sentence_267

Upon hearing of the approaching 1,400 Muslims, the Quraysh dispatched 200 cavalry to halt them. Muhammad_sentence_268

Muhammad evaded them by taking a more difficult route, enabling his followers to reach al-Hudaybiyya just outside Mecca. Muhammad_sentence_269

According to Watt, although Muhammad's decision to make the pilgrimage was based on his dream, he was also demonstrating to the pagan Meccans that Islam did not threaten the prestige of the sanctuaries, that Islam was an Arabian religion. Muhammad_sentence_270

Negotiations commenced with emissaries traveling to and from Mecca. Muhammad_sentence_271

While these continued, rumors spread that one of the Muslim negotiators, Uthman bin al-Affan, had been killed by the Quraysh. Muhammad_sentence_272

Muhammad called upon the pilgrims to make a pledge not to flee (or to stick with Muhammad, whatever decision he made) if the situation descended into war with Mecca. Muhammad_sentence_273

This pledge became known as the "Pledge of Acceptance" or the "Pledge under the Tree". Muhammad_sentence_274

News of Uthman's safety allowed for negotiations to continue, and a treaty scheduled to last ten years was eventually signed between the Muslims and Quraysh. Muhammad_sentence_275

The main points of the treaty included: cessation of hostilities, the deferral of Muhammad's pilgrimage to the following year, and agreement to send back any Meccan who emigrated to Medina without permission from their protector. Muhammad_sentence_276

Many Muslims were not satisfied with the treaty. Muhammad_sentence_277

However, the Quranic sura "Al-Fath" (The Victory) (Quran ) assured them that the expedition must be considered a victorious one. Muhammad_sentence_278

It was later that Muhammad's followers realized the benefit behind the treaty. Muhammad_sentence_279

These benefits included the requirement of the Meccans to identify Muhammad as an equal, cessation of military activity allowing Medina to gain strength, and the admiration of Meccans who were impressed by the pilgrimage rituals. Muhammad_sentence_280

After signing the truce, Muhammad assembled an expedition against the Jewish oasis of Khaybar, known as the Battle of Khaybar. Muhammad_sentence_281

This was possibly due to housing the Banu Nadir who were inciting hostilities against Muhammad, or to regain prestige from what appeared as the inconclusive result of the truce of Hudaybiyya. Muhammad_sentence_282

According to Muslim tradition, Muhammad also sent letters to many rulers, asking them to convert to Islam (the exact date is given variously in the sources). Muhammad_sentence_283

He sent messengers (with letters) to Heraclius of the Byzantine Empire (the eastern Roman Empire), Khosrau of Persia, the chief of Yemen and to some others. Muhammad_sentence_284

In the years following the truce of Hudaybiyya, Muhammad directed his forces against the Arabs on Transjordanian Byzantine soil in the Battle of Mu'tah. Muhammad_sentence_285

Final years Muhammad_section_19

Conquest of Mecca Muhammad_section_20

Main articles: Conquest of Mecca and Muhammad after the conquest of Mecca Muhammad_sentence_286

The truce of Hudaybiyyah was enforced for two years. Muhammad_sentence_287

The tribe of Banu Khuza'a had good relations with Muhammad, whereas their enemies, the Banu Bakr, had allied with the Meccans. Muhammad_sentence_288

A clan of the Bakr made a night raid against the Khuza'a, killing a few of them. Muhammad_sentence_289

The Meccans helped the Banu Bakr with weapons and, according to some sources, a few Meccans also took part in the fighting. Muhammad_sentence_290

After this event, Muhammad sent a message to Mecca with three conditions, asking them to accept one of them. Muhammad_sentence_291

These were: either the Meccans would pay blood money for the slain among the Khuza'ah tribe, they disavow themselves of the Banu Bakr, or they should declare the truce of Hudaybiyyah null. Muhammad_sentence_292

The Meccans replied that they accepted the last condition. Muhammad_sentence_293

Soon they realized their mistake and sent Abu Sufyan to renew the Hudaybiyyah treaty, a request that was declined by Muhammad. Muhammad_sentence_294

Muhammad began to prepare for a campaign. Muhammad_sentence_295

In 630, Muhammad marched on Mecca with 10,000 Muslim converts. Muhammad_sentence_296

With minimal casualties, Muhammad seized control of Mecca. Muhammad_sentence_297

He declared an amnesty for past offences, except for ten men and women who were "guilty of murder or other offences or had sparked off the war and disrupted the peace". Muhammad_sentence_298

Some of these were later pardoned. Muhammad_sentence_299

Most Meccans converted to Islam and Muhammad proceeded to destroy all the statues of Arabian gods in and around the Kaaba. Muhammad_sentence_300

According to reports collected by Ibn Ishaq and al-Azraqi, Muhammad personally spared paintings or frescos of Mary and Jesus, but other traditions suggest that all pictures were erased. Muhammad_sentence_301

The Quran discusses the conquest of Mecca. Muhammad_sentence_302

Conquest of Arabia Muhammad_section_21

Main articles: Battle of Hunayn and Expedition to Tabouk Muhammad_sentence_303

Following the conquest of Mecca, Muhammad was alarmed by a military threat from the confederate tribes of Hawazin who were raising an army double the size of Muhammad's. Muhammad_sentence_304

The Banu Hawazin were old enemies of the Meccans. Muhammad_sentence_305

They were joined by the Banu Thaqif (inhabiting the city of Ta'if) who adopted an anti-Meccan policy due to the decline of the prestige of Meccans. Muhammad_sentence_306

Muhammad defeated the Hawazin and Thaqif tribes in the Battle of Hunayn. Muhammad_sentence_307

In the same year, Muhammad organized an attack against northern Arabia because of their previous defeat at the Battle of Mu'tah and reports of hostility adopted against Muslims. Muhammad_sentence_308

With great difficulty he assembled 30,000 men; half of whom on the second day returned with Abd-Allah ibn Ubayy, untroubled by the damning verses which Muhammad hurled at them. Muhammad_sentence_309

Although Muhammad did not engage with hostile forces at Tabuk, he received the submission of some local chiefs of the region. Muhammad_sentence_310

He also ordered the destruction of any remaining pagan idols in Eastern Arabia. Muhammad_sentence_311

The last city to hold out against the Muslims in Western Arabia was Taif. Muhammad_sentence_312

Muhammad refused to accept the city's surrender until they agreed to convert to Islam and allowed men to destroy the statue of their goddess Al-Lat. Muhammad_sentence_313

A year after the Battle of Tabuk, the Banu Thaqif sent emissaries to surrender to Muhammad and adopt Islam. Muhammad_sentence_314

Many bedouins submitted to Muhammad to safeguard against his attacks and to benefit from the spoils of war. Muhammad_sentence_315

However, the bedouins were alien to the system of Islam and wanted to maintain independence: namely their code of virtue and ancestral traditions. Muhammad_sentence_316

Muhammad required a military and political agreement according to which they "acknowledge the suzerainty of Medina, to refrain from attack on the Muslims and their allies, and to pay the Zakat, the Muslim religious levy." Muhammad_sentence_317

Farewell pilgrimage Muhammad_section_22

In 632, at the end of the tenth year after migration to Medina, Muhammad completed his first true Islamic pilgrimage, setting precedent for the annual Great Pilgrimage, known as Hajj. Muhammad_sentence_318

On the 9th of Dhu al-Hijjah Muhammad delivered his Farewell Sermon, at Mount Arafat east of Mecca. Muhammad_sentence_319

In this sermon, Muhammad advised his followers not to follow certain pre-Islamic customs. Muhammad_sentence_320

For instance, he said a white has no superiority over a black, nor a black any superiority over a white except by piety and good action. Muhammad_sentence_321

He abolished old blood feuds and disputes based on the former tribal system and asked for old pledges to be returned as implications of the creation of the new Islamic community. Muhammad_sentence_322

Commenting on the vulnerability of women in his society, Muhammad asked his male followers to "be good to women, for they are powerless captives (awan) in your households. Muhammad_sentence_323

You took them in God's trust, and legitimated your sexual relations with the Word of God, so come to your senses people, and hear my words ..." He told them that they were entitled to discipline their wives but should do so with kindness. Muhammad_sentence_324

He addressed the issue of inheritance by forbidding false claims of paternity or of a client relationship to the deceased and forbade his followers to leave their wealth to a testamentary heir. Muhammad_sentence_325

He also upheld the sacredness of four lunar months in each year. Muhammad_sentence_326

According to Sunni tafsir, the following Quranic verse was delivered during this event: "Today I have perfected your religion, and completed my favours for you and chosen Islam as a religion for you" (Quran ). Muhammad_sentence_327

According to Shia tafsir, it refers to the appointment of Ali ibn Abi Talib at the pond of Khumm as Muhammad's successor, this occurring a few days later when Muslims were returning from Mecca to Medina. Muhammad_sentence_328

Death and tomb Muhammad_section_23

A few months after the farewell pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and suffered for several days with fever, head pain, and weakness. Muhammad_sentence_329

He died on Monday, 8 June 632, in Medina, at the age of 62 or 63, in the house of his wife Aisha. Muhammad_sentence_330

With his head resting on Aisha's lap, he asked her to dispose of his last worldly goods (seven coins), then spoke his final words: Muhammad_sentence_331

According to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, Muhammad's death may be presumed to have been caused by Medinan fever exacerbated by physical and mental fatigue. Muhammad_sentence_332

Academics Reşit Haylamaz and Fatih Harpci say that Ar-Rafiq Al-A'la is referring to God. Muhammad_sentence_333

He was buried where he died in Aisha's house. Muhammad_sentence_334

During the reign of the Umayyad caliph al-Walid I, al-Masjid an-Nabawi (the Mosque of the Prophet) was expanded to include the site of Muhammad's tomb. Muhammad_sentence_335

The Green Dome above the tomb was built by the Mamluk sultan Al Mansur Qalawun in the 13th century, although the green color was added in the 16th century, under the reign of Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent. Muhammad_sentence_336

Among tombs adjacent to that of Muhammad are those of his companions (Sahabah), the first two Muslim caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar, and an empty one that Muslims believe awaits Jesus. Muhammad_sentence_337

When Saud bin Abdul-Aziz took Medina in 1805, Muhammad's tomb was stripped of its gold and jewel ornamentation. Muhammad_sentence_338

Adherents to Wahhabism, Saud's followers, destroyed nearly every tomb dome in Medina in order to prevent their veneration, and the one of Muhammad is reported to have narrowly escaped. Muhammad_sentence_339

Similar events took place in 1925, when the Saudi militias retook—and this time managed to keep—the city. Muhammad_sentence_340

In the Wahhabi interpretation of Islam, burial is to take place in unmarked graves. Muhammad_sentence_341

Although the practice is frowned upon by the Saudis, many pilgrims continue to practice a ziyarat—a ritual visit—to the tomb. Muhammad_sentence_342

After Muhammad Muhammad_section_24

Further information: Succession to Muhammad, Rashidun, and Muslim conquests Muhammad_sentence_343

Muhammad united several of the tribes of Arabia into a single Arab Muslim religious polity in the last years of his life. Muhammad_sentence_344

With Muhammad's death, disagreement broke out over who his successor would be. Muhammad_sentence_345

Umar ibn al-Khattab, a prominent companion of Muhammad, nominated Abu Bakr, Muhammad's friend and collaborator. Muhammad_sentence_346

With additional support Abu Bakr was confirmed as the first caliph. Muhammad_sentence_347

This choice was disputed by some of Muhammad's companions, who held that Ali ibn Abi Talib, his cousin and son-in-law, had been designated the successor by Muhammad at Ghadir Khumm. Muhammad_sentence_348

Abu Bakr immediately moved to strike against the Byzantine (or Eastern Roman Empire) forces because of the previous defeat, although he first had to put down a rebellion by Arab tribes in an event that Muslim historians later referred to as the Ridda wars, or "Wars of Apostasy". Muhammad_sentence_349

The pre-Islamic Middle East was dominated by the Byzantine and Sassanian empires. Muhammad_sentence_350

The Roman–Persian Wars between the two had devastated the region, making the empires unpopular amongst local tribes. Muhammad_sentence_351

Furthermore, in the lands that would be conquered by Muslims many Christians (Nestorians, Monophysites, Jacobites and Copts) were disaffected from the Eastern Orthodox Church which deemed them heretics. Muhammad_sentence_352

Within a decade Muslims conquered Mesopotamia, Byzantine Syria, Byzantine Egypt, large parts of Persia, and established the Rashidun Caliphate. Muhammad_sentence_353

Islamic social reforms Muhammad_section_25

Main article: Early social changes under Islam Muhammad_sentence_354

According to William Montgomery Watt, religion for Muhammad was not a private and individual matter but "the total response of his personality to the total situation in which he found himself. Muhammad_sentence_355

He was responding [not only]... to the religious and intellectual aspects of the situation but also to the economic, social, and political pressures to which contemporary Mecca was subject." Muhammad_sentence_356

Bernard Lewis says there are two important political traditions in Islam—Muhammad as a statesman in Medina, and Muhammad as a rebel in Mecca. Muhammad_sentence_357

In his view, Islam is a great change, akin to a revolution, when introduced to new societies. Muhammad_sentence_358

Historians generally agree that Islamic social changes in areas such as social security, family structure, slavery and the rights of women and children improved on the status quo of Arab society. Muhammad_sentence_359

For example, according to Lewis, Islam "from the first denounced aristocratic privilege, rejected hierarchy, and adopted a formula of the career open to the talents". Muhammad_sentence_360

Muhammad's message transformed society and moral orders of life in the Arabian Peninsula; society focused on the changes to perceived identity, world view, and the hierarchy of values. Muhammad_sentence_361

Economic reforms addressed the plight of the poor, which was becoming an issue in pre-Islamic Mecca. Muhammad_sentence_362

The Quran requires payment of an alms tax (zakat) for the benefit of the poor; as Muhammad's power grew he demanded that tribes who wished to ally with him implement the zakat in particular. Muhammad_sentence_363

Appearance Muhammad_section_26

In Muhammad al-Bukhari's book Sahih al-Bukhari, in Chapter 61, Hadith 57 & Hadith 60, Muhammad is depicted by two of his companions thus: Muhammad_sentence_364

The description given in Muhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi's book Shama'il al-Mustafa, attributed to Ali ibn Abi Talib and Hind ibn Abi Hala is as follows: Muhammad_sentence_365

The "seal of prophecy" between Muhammad's shoulders is generally described as having been a type of raised mole the size of a pigeon's egg. Muhammad_sentence_366

Another description of Muhammad was provided by Umm Ma'bad, a woman he met on his journey to Medina: Muhammad_sentence_367

Descriptions like these were often reproduced in calligraphic panels (Turkish: hilye), which in the 17th century developed into an art form of their own in the Ottoman Empire. Muhammad_sentence_368

Household Muhammad_section_27

Further information: Muhammad's wives and Ahl al-Bayt Muhammad_sentence_369

Muhammad's life is traditionally defined into two periods: pre-hijra (emigration) in Mecca (from 570 to 622), and post-hijra in Medina (from 622 until 632). Muhammad_sentence_370

Muhammad is said to have had thirteen wives in total (although two have ambiguous accounts, Rayhana bint Zayd and Maria al-Qibtiyya, as wife or concubine). Muhammad_sentence_371

Eleven of the thirteen marriages occurred after the migration to Medina. Muhammad_sentence_372

At the age of 25, Muhammad married the wealthy Khadijah bint Khuwaylid who was 40 years old. Muhammad_sentence_373

The marriage lasted for 25 years and was a happy one. Muhammad_sentence_374

Muhammad did not enter into marriage with another woman during this marriage. Muhammad_sentence_375

After Khadijah's death, Khawla bint Hakim suggested to Muhammad that he should marry Sawda bint Zama, a Muslim widow, or Aisha, daughter of Um Ruman and Abu Bakr of Mecca. Muhammad_sentence_376

Muhammad is said to have asked for arrangements to marry both. Muhammad_sentence_377

Muhammad's marriages after the death of Khadijah were contracted mostly for political or humanitarian reasons. Muhammad_sentence_378

The women were either widows of Muslims killed in battle and had been left without a protector, or belonged to important families or clans with whom it was necessary to honor and strengthen alliances. Muhammad_sentence_379

According to traditional sources Aisha was six or seven years old when betrothed to Muhammad, with the marriage not being consummated until she had reached puberty at the age of nine or ten years old. Muhammad_sentence_380

She was therefore a virgin at marriage. Muhammad_sentence_381

Modern Muslim authors who calculate Aisha's age based on other sources of information, such as a hadith about the age difference between Aisha and her sister Asma, estimate that she was over thirteen and perhaps in her late teens at the time of her marriage. Muhammad_sentence_382

After migration to Medina, Muhammad, who was then in his fifties, married several more women. Muhammad_sentence_383

Muhammad performed household chores such as preparing food, sewing clothes, and repairing shoes. Muhammad_sentence_384

He is also said to have had accustomed his wives to dialogue; he listened to their advice, and the wives debated and even argued with him. Muhammad_sentence_385

Khadijah is said to have had four daughters with Muhammad (Ruqayyah bint Muhammad, Umm Kulthum bint Muhammad, Zainab bint Muhammad, Fatimah Zahra) and two sons (Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad and Qasim ibn Muhammad, who both died in childhood). Muhammad_sentence_386

All but one of his daughters, Fatimah, died before him. Muhammad_sentence_387

Some Shi'a scholars contend that Fatimah was Muhammad's only daughter. Muhammad_sentence_388

Maria al-Qibtiyya bore him a son named Ibrahim ibn Muhammad, but the child died when he was two years old. Muhammad_sentence_389

Nine of Muhammad's wives survived him. Muhammad_sentence_390

Aisha, who became known as Muhammad's favourite wife in Sunni tradition, survived him by decades and was instrumental in helping assemble the scattered sayings of Muhammad that form the Hadith literature for the Sunni branch of Islam. Muhammad_sentence_391

Muhammad's descendants through Fatimah are known as sharifs, syeds or sayyids. Muhammad_sentence_392

These are honorific titles in Arabic, sharif meaning 'noble' and sayed or sayyid meaning 'lord' or 'sir'. Muhammad_sentence_393

As Muhammad's only descendants, they are respected by both Sunni and Shi'a, though the Shi'a place much more emphasis and value on their distinction. Muhammad_sentence_394

Zayd ibn Haritha was a slave that Muhammad bought, freed, and then adopted as his son. Muhammad_sentence_395

He also had a wetnurse. Muhammad_sentence_396

According to a BBC summary, "the Prophet Muhammad did not try to abolish slavery, and bought, sold, captured, and owned slaves himself. Muhammad_sentence_397

But he insisted that slave owners treat their slaves well and stressed the virtue of freeing slaves. Muhammad_sentence_398

Muhammad treated slaves as human beings and clearly held some in the highest esteem". Muhammad_sentence_399

Legacy Muhammad_section_28

Islamic tradition Muhammad_section_29

Main article: Muhammad in Islam Muhammad_sentence_400

Following the attestation to the oneness of God, the belief in Muhammad's prophethood is the main aspect of the Islamic faith. Muhammad_sentence_401

Every Muslim proclaims in Shahadah: "I testify that there is no god but God, and I testify that Muhammad is a Messenger of God." Muhammad_sentence_402

The Shahadah is the basic creed or tenet of Islam. Muhammad_sentence_403

Islamic belief is that ideally the Shahadah is the first words a newborn will hear; children are taught it immediately and it will be recited upon death. Muhammad_sentence_404

Muslims repeat the shahadah in the call to prayer (adhan) and the prayer itself. Muhammad_sentence_405

Non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed. Muhammad_sentence_406

In Islamic belief, Muhammad is regarded as the last prophet sent by God. Muhammad_sentence_407

Quran  states that " (the Quran) is a confirmation of (revelations) that went before it, and a fuller explanation of the Book—wherein there is no doubt—from The Lord of the Worlds.". Muhammad_sentence_408

Similarly, Quran  states "...And before this was the book of Moses, as a guide and a mercy. Muhammad_sentence_409

And this Book confirms (it)...", while commands the believers of Islam to "Say: we believe in God and that which is revealed unto us, and that which was revealed unto Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes, and that which Moses and Jesus received, and which the prophets received from their Lord. Muhammad_sentence_410

We make no distinction between any of them, and unto Him we have surrendered." Muhammad_sentence_411

Muslim tradition credits Muhammad with several miracles or supernatural events. Muhammad_sentence_412

For example, many Muslim commentators and some Western scholars have interpreted the Surah as referring to Muhammad splitting the Moon in view of the Quraysh when they began persecuting his followers. Muhammad_sentence_413

Western historian of Islam Denis Gril believes the Quran does not overtly describe Muhammad performing miracles, and the supreme miracle of Muhammad is identified with the Quran itself. Muhammad_sentence_414

According to Islamic tradition, Muhammad was attacked by the people of Ta'if and was badly injured. Muhammad_sentence_415

The tradition also describes an angel appearing to him and offering retribution against the assailants. Muhammad_sentence_416

It is said that Muhammad rejected the offer and prayed for the guidance of the people of Ta'if. Muhammad_sentence_417

The Sunnah represents actions and sayings of Muhammad (preserved in reports known as Hadith) and covers a broad array of activities and beliefs ranging from religious rituals, personal hygiene, and burial of the dead to the mystical questions involving the love between humans and God. Muhammad_sentence_418

The Sunnah is considered a model of emulation for pious Muslims and has to a great degree influenced the Muslim culture. Muhammad_sentence_419

The greeting that Muhammad taught Muslims to offer each other, "may peace be upon you" (Arabic: as-salamu 'alaykum) is used by Muslims throughout the world. Muhammad_sentence_420

Many details of major Islamic rituals such as daily prayers, the fasting and the annual pilgrimage are only found in the Sunnah and not the Quran. Muhammad_sentence_421

Muslims have traditionally expressed love and veneration for Muhammad. Muhammad_sentence_422

Stories of Muhammad's life, his intercession and of his miracles have permeated popular Muslim thought and poetry. Muhammad_sentence_423

Among Arabic odes to Muhammad, Qasidat al-Burda ("Poem of the Mantle") by the Egyptian Sufi al-Busiri (1211–1294) is particularly well-known, and widely held to possess a healing, spiritual power. Muhammad_sentence_424

The Quran refers to Muhammad as "a mercy (rahmat) to the worlds" (Quran ). Muhammad_sentence_425

The association of rain with mercy in Oriental countries has led to imagining Muhammad as a rain cloud dispensing blessings and stretching over lands, reviving the dead hearts, just as rain revives the seemingly dead earth (see, for example, the Sindhi poem of Shah ʿAbd al-Latif). Muhammad_sentence_426

Muhammad's birthday is celebrated as a major feast throughout the Islamic world, excluding Wahhabi-dominated Saudi Arabia where these public celebrations are discouraged. Muhammad_sentence_427

When Muslims say or write the name of Muhammad, they usually follow it with the Arabic phrase ṣallā llahu ʿalayhi wa-sallam (may God honor him and grant him peace) or the English phrase peace be upon him. Muhammad_sentence_428

In casual writing, the abbreviations SAW (for the Arabic phrase) or PBUH (for the English phrase) are sometimes used; in printed matter, a small calligraphic rendition is commonly used (ﷺ). Muhammad_sentence_429

Sufism Muhammad_section_30

See also: Sufism Muhammad_sentence_430

The Sunnah contributed much to the development of Islamic law, particularly from the end of the first Islamic century. Muhammad_sentence_431

Muslim mystics, known as sufis, who were seeking for the inner meaning of the Quran and the inner nature of Muhammad, viewed the prophet of Islam not only as a prophet but also as a perfect human being. Muhammad_sentence_432

All Sufi orders trace their chain of spiritual descent back to Muhammad. Muhammad_sentence_433

Depictions Muhammad_section_31

Main article: Depictions of Muhammad Muhammad_sentence_434

In line with the hadith's prohibition against creating images of sentient living beings, which is particularly strictly observed with respect to God and Muhammad, Islamic religious art is focused on the word. Muhammad_sentence_435

Muslims generally avoid depictions of Muhammad, and mosques are decorated with calligraphy and Quranic inscriptions or geometrical designs, not images or sculptures. Muhammad_sentence_436

Today, the interdiction against images of Muhammad—designed to prevent worship of Muhammad, rather than God—is much more strictly observed in Sunni Islam (85%–90% of Muslims) and Ahmadiyya Islam (1%) than among Shias (10%–15%). Muhammad_sentence_437

While both Sunnis and Shias have created images of Muhammad in the past, Islamic depictions of Muhammad are rare. Muhammad_sentence_438

They have mostly been limited to the private and elite medium of the miniature, and since about 1500 most depictions show Muhammad with his face veiled, or symbolically represent him as a flame. Muhammad_sentence_439

The earliest extant depictions come from 13th century Anatolian Seljuk and Ilkhanid Persian miniatures, typically in literary genres describing the life and deeds of Muhammad. Muhammad_sentence_440

During the Ilkhanid period, when Persia's Mongol rulers converted to Islam, competing Sunni and Shi'a groups used visual imagery, including images of Muhammad, to promote their particular interpretation of Islam's key events. Muhammad_sentence_441

Influenced by the Buddhist tradition of representational religious art predating the Mongol elite's conversion, this innovation was unprecedented in the Islamic world, and accompanied by a "broader shift in Islamic artistic culture away from abstraction toward representation" in "mosques, on tapestries, silks, ceramics, and in glass and metalwork" besides books. Muhammad_sentence_442

In the Persian lands, this tradition of realistic depictions lasted through the Timurid dynasty until the Safavids took power in the early 16th century. Muhammad_sentence_443

The Safavaids, who made Shi'i Islam the state religion, initiated a departure from the traditional Ilkhanid and Timurid artistic style by covering Muhammad's face with a veil to obscure his features and at the same time represent his luminous essence. Muhammad_sentence_444

Concomitantly, some of the unveiled images from earlier periods were defaced. Muhammad_sentence_445

Later images were produced in Ottoman Turkey and elsewhere, but mosques were never decorated with images of Muhammad. Muhammad_sentence_446

Illustrated accounts of the night journey (mi'raj) were particularly popular from the Ilkhanid period through the Safavid era. Muhammad_sentence_447

During the 19th century, Iran saw a boom of printed and illustrated mi'raj books, with Muhammad's face veiled, aimed in particular at illiterates and children in the manner of graphic novels. Muhammad_sentence_448

Reproduced through lithography, these were essentially "printed manuscripts". Muhammad_sentence_449

Today, millions of historical reproductions and modern images are available in some Muslim-majority countries, especially Turkey and Iran, on posters, postcards, and even in coffee-table books, but are unknown in most other parts of the Islamic world, and when encountered by Muslims from other countries, they can cause considerable consternation and offense. Muhammad_sentence_450

Medieval Christians Muhammad_section_32

See also: Medieval Christian views on Muhammad Muhammad_sentence_451

The earliest documented Christian knowledge of Muhammad stems from Byzantine sources. Muhammad_sentence_452

They indicate that both Jews and Christians saw Muhammad as a false prophet. Muhammad_sentence_453

Another Greek source for Muhammad is Theophanes the Confessor, a 9th-century writer. Muhammad_sentence_454

The earliest Syriac source is the 7th-century writer John bar Penkaye. Muhammad_sentence_455

According to Hossein Nasr, the earliest European literature often refers to Muhammad unfavorably. Muhammad_sentence_456

A few learned circles of Middle Ages Europe – primarily Latin-literate scholars – had access to fairly extensive biographical material about Muhammad. Muhammad_sentence_457

They interpreted the biography through a Christian religious filter, one that viewed Muhammad as a person who seduced the Saracens into his submission under religious guise. Muhammad_sentence_458

Popular European literature of the time portrayed Muhammad as though he were worshipped by Muslims, similar to an idol or a heathen god. Muhammad_sentence_459

In later ages, Muhammad came to be seen as a schismatic: Brunetto Latini's 13th century Li livres dou tresor represents him as a former monk and cardinal, and Dante's Divine Comedy (Inferno, Canto 28), written in the early 1300s, puts Muhammad and his son-in-law, Ali, in Hell "among the sowers of discord and the schismatics, being lacerated by devils again and again." Muhammad_sentence_460

European appreciation Muhammad_section_33

After the Reformation, Muhammad was often portrayed in a similar way. Muhammad_sentence_461

Guillaume Postel was among the first to present a more positive view of Muhammad when he argued that Muhammad should be esteemed by Christians as a valid prophet. Muhammad_sentence_462

Gottfried Leibniz praised Muhammad because "he did not deviate from the natural religion". Muhammad_sentence_463

Henri de Boulainvilliers, in his Vie de Mahomed which was published posthumously in 1730, described Muhammad as a gifted political leader and a just lawmaker. Muhammad_sentence_464

He presents him as a divinely inspired messenger whom God employed to confound the bickering Oriental Christians, to liberate the Orient from the despotic rule of the Romans and Persians, and to spread the knowledge of the unity of God from India to Spain. Muhammad_sentence_465

Voltaire had a somewhat mixed opinion on Muhammad: in his play Le fanatisme, ou Mahomet le Prophète he vilifies Muhammad as a symbol of fanaticism, and in a published essay in 1748 he calls him "a sublime and hearty charlatan", but in his historical survey Essai sur les mœurs, he presents him as legislator and a conqueror and calls him an "enthusiast." Muhammad_sentence_466

Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in his Social Contract (1762), "brushing aside hostile legends of Muhammad as a trickster and impostor, presents him as a sage legislator who wisely fused religious and political powers." Muhammad_sentence_467

Emmanuel Pastoret published in 1787 his Zoroaster, Confucius and Muhammad, in which he presents the lives of these three "great men", "the greatest legislators of the universe", and compares their careers as religious reformers and lawgivers. Muhammad_sentence_468

He rejects the common view that Muhammad is an impostor and argues that the Quran proffers "the most sublime truths of cult and morals"; it defines the unity of God with an "admirable concision." Muhammad_sentence_469

Pastoret writes that the common accusations of his immorality are unfounded: on the contrary, his law enjoins sobriety, generosity, and compassion on his followers: the "legislator of Arabia" was "a great man." Muhammad_sentence_470

Napoleon Bonaparte admired Muhammad and Islam, and described him as a model lawmaker and a great man. Muhammad_sentence_471

Thomas Carlyle in his book Heroes and Hero Worship and the Heroic in History (1840) describes Muhammad as "[a] silent great soul; [...] one of those who cannot but be in earnest". Muhammad_sentence_472

Carlyle's interpretation has been widely cited by Muslim scholars as a demonstration that Western scholarship validates Muhammad's status as a great man in history. Muhammad_sentence_473

Ian Almond says that German Romantic writers generally held positive views of Muhammad: "Goethe’s 'extraordinary' poet-prophet, Herder’s nation builder (...) Schlegel’s admiration for Islam as an aesthetic product, enviably authentic, radiantly holistic, played such a central role in his view of Mohammed as an exemplary world-fashioner that he even used it as a scale of judgement for the classical (the dithyramb, we are told, has to radiate pure beauty if it is to resemble 'a Koran of poetry')." Muhammad_sentence_474

After quoting Heinrich Heine, who said in a letter to some friend that "I must admit that you, great prophet of Mecca, are the greatest poet and that your Quran... will not easily escape my memory", John Tolan goes on to show how Jews in Europe in particular held more nuanced views about Muhammad and Islam, being an ethnoreligious minority feeling discriminated, they specifically lauded Al-Andalus, and thus, "writing about Islam was for Jews a way of indulging in a fantasy world, far from the persecution and pogroms of nineteenth-century Europe, where Jews could live in harmony with their non-Jewish neighbors." Muhammad_sentence_475

Modern historians Muhammad_section_34

Recent writers such as William Montgomery Watt and Richard Bell dismiss the idea that Muhammad deliberately deceived his followers, arguing that Muhammad "was absolutely sincere and acted in complete good faith" and Muhammad's readiness to endure hardship for his cause, with what seemed to be no rational basis for hope, shows his sincerity. Muhammad_sentence_476

Watt, however, says that sincerity does not directly imply correctness: in contemporary terms, Muhammad might have mistaken his subconscious for divine revelation. Muhammad_sentence_477

Watt and Bernard Lewis argue that viewing Muhammad as a self-seeking impostor makes it impossible to understand Islam's development. Muhammad_sentence_478

Alford T. Welch holds that Muhammad was able to be so influential and successful because of his firm belief in his vocation. Muhammad_sentence_479

Other religions Muhammad_section_35

See also: Judaism's views on Muhammad and Muhammad in the Baháʼí Faith Muhammad_sentence_480

Followers of the Baháʼí Faith venerate Muhammad as one of a number of prophets or "Manifestations of God". Muhammad_sentence_481

He is thought to be the final manifestation, or seal of the Adamic cycle, but consider his teachings to have been superseded by those of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Baháʼí faith, and the first Manifestation of the current cycle. Muhammad_sentence_482

Criticism Muhammad_section_36

Main article: Criticism of Muhammad Muhammad_sentence_483

Criticism of Muhammad has existed since the 7th century, when Muhammad was decried by his non-Muslim Arab contemporaries for preaching monotheism, and by the Jewish tribes of Arabia for his unwarranted appropriation of Biblical narratives and figures, vituperation of the Jewish faith, and proclaiming himself as "the last prophet" without performing any miracle nor showing any personal requirement demanded in the Hebrew Bible to distinguish a true prophet chosen by the God of Israel from a false claimant; for these reasons, they gave him the derogatory nickname ha-Meshuggah (Hebrew: מְשֻׁגָּע‬‎, "the Madman" or "the Possessed"). Muhammad_sentence_484

During the Middle Ages various Western and Byzantine Christian thinkers considered Muhammad to be a perverted, deplorable man, a false prophet, and even the Antichrist, as he was frequently seen in Christendom as a heretic or possessed by demons. Muhammad_sentence_485

Some of them, like Thomas Aquinas, criticized Muhammad's promises of carnal pleasure in the afterlife. Muhammad_sentence_486

Modern religious and secular criticism of Islam has concerned Muhammad's sincerity in claiming to be a prophet, his morality, his ownership of slaves, his treatment of enemies, his marriages, his treatment of doctrinal matters, and his psychological condition. Muhammad_sentence_487

Muhammad has been accused of sadism and mercilessness— including the invasion of the Banu Qurayza tribe in Medina—sexual relationships with slaves, and his marriage to Aisha when she was six years old, which according to most estimates was consummated when she was nine. Muhammad_sentence_488

See also Muhammad_section_37

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