Muhammad al-Baqir

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Muhammad al-Baqir_table_infobox_0

Muhammad al-Baqir

مُحَمَّد ٱلْبَاقِر Fifth imam of Twelver and fourth imam of Ismaili ShiaMuhammad al-Baqir_header_cell_0_0_0

BornMuhammad al-Baqir_header_cell_0_1_0 10 May 676
01 Rajab 57 AH

Medina, Umayyad EmpireMuhammad al-Baqir_cell_0_1_1

DiedMuhammad al-Baqir_header_cell_0_2_0 28 January 732 (aged 57)
07 Dhu al-Hijjah 114 AH

Medina, Umayyad EmpireMuhammad al-Baqir_cell_0_2_1

Cause of deathMuhammad al-Baqir_header_cell_0_3_0 Poisoning by Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik according to most Shia MuslimsMuhammad al-Baqir_cell_0_3_1
Resting placeMuhammad al-Baqir_header_cell_0_4_0 Jannat al-Baqi cemetery, Medina, Saudi ArabiaMuhammad al-Baqir_cell_0_4_1
Other namesMuhammad al-Baqir_header_cell_0_5_0 Muhammad ibn ‘Alī ibn HusaynMuhammad al-Baqir_cell_0_5_1
Years activeMuhammad al-Baqir_header_cell_0_6_0 680-733Muhammad al-Baqir_cell_0_6_1
TitleMuhammad al-Baqir_header_cell_0_7_0 ListMuhammad al-Baqir_cell_0_7_1
TermMuhammad al-Baqir_header_cell_0_8_0 712–733 CEMuhammad al-Baqir_cell_0_8_1
PredecessorMuhammad al-Baqir_header_cell_0_9_0 Ali ibn HusaynMuhammad al-Baqir_cell_0_9_1
SuccessorMuhammad al-Baqir_header_cell_0_10_0 Ja'far al-SadiqMuhammad al-Baqir_cell_0_10_1
Spouse(s)Muhammad al-Baqir_header_cell_0_11_0 Farwah bint al-Qasim
Umm Hakīm bint Usayd ibn al-Mughīrā al-ThaqafīMuhammad al-Baqir_cell_0_11_1
ChildrenMuhammad al-Baqir_header_cell_0_12_0 ListMuhammad al-Baqir_cell_0_12_1
ParentsMuhammad al-Baqir_header_cell_0_13_0 Muhammad al-Baqir_cell_0_13_1

Muhammad al-Baqir (Arabic: مُحَمَّد ٱلْبَاقِر‎) full name Muhammad bin 'Ali bin al-Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib, also known as Abu Ja'far or simply al-Baqir ("the one who opens knowledge") (677-733) was the fifth Shia Imam, succeeding his father Zayn al-Abidin and succeeded by his son Ja'far al-Sadiq. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_0

His mother, Fatima Umm abdallah, was the daughter of the second Shia imam, Hasan ibn Ali. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_1

So he was the first Imam descended from both grandsons of Muhammad: Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_2

Al-baqir, as a known religion scholar, laid the foundation of shi'ism, which was elaborated later by his son and successor, Ja'far al-sadiq. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_3

He is revered by Shiite Muslims for his religious leadership, and respected by Sunni Muslims for his knowledge and Islamic scholarship as a jurist in Medina. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_4

Al-baqir lived all his life in the city. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_5

Like his father, he tried not to be engaged in the conflicts fueled against Umayyed Khaliphs, even tried to speak his half-brother, Zayd ibn Ali, out of the conflicts.Al-baqir, spent his time elaborating the theory of Imamat. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_6

He was in Medina, however most of his disciples were living in Kufa. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_7

Birth and early life Muhammad al-Baqir_section_0

See also: Family tree of Ali Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_8

Al-Baqir had a prominent seyyid lineage. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_9

His father was Ali ibn Husayn "Zayn al-Abidin", and his paternal grandfather was Husayn ibn Ali, while his mother was Fatima Umm Abd Allah, and his maternal grandfather was Hasan ibn Ali. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_10

His grandfathers Hasan and Husayn were the two eldest surviving sons of Ali through his first wife Fatimah, the youngest daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_11

Al-Baqir was born in Medina around 56 AH (676 AD), when Muawiyah I was trying to ensure that his son Yazid I could inherit the caliphate. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_12

When Al-Baqir was a child, his family was affected by the Battle of Karbala; he was three or four years old when his grandfather, Husayn, was killed. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_13

According to Ya'qubi, al-Baqir was present at Karbala. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_14

In his youth he witnessed the struggle for power among the Umayyads, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr and a number of Shiite parties, whilst his father maintained a distance from local political activity. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_15

Name Muhammad al-Baqir_section_1

Al-Baqir is an abbreviation of Baqir al-'ilm, which means "he who opens knowledge", and al-Baqir is said to have been known for his knowledge. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_16

According to Ibn Khallikan, he received the nickname "al-Baqir" (the ample) due to the "ample fund of knowledge" he collected. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_17

However, Ya'qubi believed that he was called al-Baqir because he "split open knowledge", examining its depths. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_18

The Shiites believe that Baqir al-'ilm was not an ordinary title, because it was given to him by Muhammad. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_19

According to al-Kulayni, Muhammad's only living companion Jabir ibn Abd Allah would sit in the mosque and cry: "Ya baqir al-ilm, Ya baqir al-ilm". Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_20

Although Medinans thought that Jabir was insane, he assured them that Muhammad had told him: "O Jabir! Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_21

You will meet a man from my family who will have the same name and the same characteristics as mine. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_22

He will split open knowledge extensively." Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_23

According to al-Kulayni, Jabir ibn Abd Allah met al-Baqir when passing a Quran school. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_24

Abd Allah saw that the imam was still a child, and examined him to see if he had the features which Muhammad had described. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_25

Jabir asked, "Characteristics of the Messenger of Allah; by Him in whose hands is my soul, O boy, what is your name?" Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_26

When al-Baqir answered that he was Muhammad ibn Ali ibn al-Husayn, Jabir "approached him, kissed his head and swore by his father and mother that Muhammad had recited greeting upon him." Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_27

. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_28

According to al-Kafi, Imam Baqir stressed the importance of intelligence saying that Allah will hold everyone accountable on the day of judgement according to the degree of intelligence they received in the worldly life. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_29

. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_30

Imamate Muhammad al-Baqir_section_2

During the imamah of Muhammad al-Baqir, riots erupted throughout the Islamic world due to the Umayyad Caliphate's oppression. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_31

Disagreements within the Umayyad party kept them occupied, and they left members of the household undisturbed for some time. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_32

However, tyranny in the Battle of Karbala had attracted many people to the imams. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_33

These conditions had permitted people (particularly the Shiites) to travel to Medina in large groups and visit the imam freely. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_34

The possibility of spreading Islam (which had not existed for the previous imams) was available to the fifth imam, indicated by a number of traditions about the imam and scholars trained under him. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_35

Division Muhammad al-Baqir_section_3

After the death of Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (the fourth Imam), most of the Shiites agreed upon his son al-Baqir as the next imam; a minority favored another son of the imam (Zayd ibn Ali), and became known as Zaidiyyah. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_36

According to Ibn Khallikan, Zaid (Muhammad al-Baqir's brother), appealed for people to support his cause. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_37

According to Al-Masudi, he asked for advice from Muhammad al-Baqir; al-Baqir advised him not to rely on the people of Kufa, explaining how they had previously behaved toward the members of his household. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_38

Zaid did not listen to his brother's advice, and led the people of Kufa in a fruitless riot. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_39

According to Al-Shahrastani, a dispute had arisen between Muhammad al-Baqir and Zaid because Zaid had been following the Mu'tazilite Wasil ibn Ata. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_40

Zaid had also announced that the position of imam was conditional on his appearing publicly to assert his rights. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_41

Muhammad al-Baqir replied, "Your faith then is merely in your father, as such, for according to your theory he was not an imam, for he certainly never came forth to assert his claims." Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_42

Under the Umayyad rulers Muhammad al-Baqir_section_4

Despite his non-involvement in political activities, the Umayyad rulers harassed Muhammad al-Baqir. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_43

Many Shia individuals and delegations came to Medina from Kufa to hear al-Baqir's teachings and ask him questions, among which was who had the right to rule. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_44

He was also distrusted because of the uprising of his brother Zayd ibn Ali and other relatives. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_45

Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik made a pilgrimage to Mecca, where Mohammed al-Baqir and his son Ja'far al-Sadiq were present. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_46

At a gathering, al-Baqir delivered a sermon: "We are the favorite and chosen servants of God, and His vicegerents on the face of the earth. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_47

One who obeys us is successful and one who opposes would be evil and wretched." Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_48

His statements were conveyed to Hisham, who wrote to the governor of Medina when he returned to his court in Syria instructing him to send al-Baqir and his son to Damascus. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_49

When they arrived, he kept them waiting for three days; on the fourth he called them to court, where he was practicing archery with his officials. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_50

His School Muhammad al-Baqir_section_5

Muhammad al-Baqir is known for establishing the school of Law, known as the Ja'fari Madhhab. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_51

He brought back rituals like the expression Heyya ala al-salat (come to the best of deed) to Adhan; forbade wiping the soles of footwear, instead of feet, in the Wudu; and lifted prohibition from Nikah mut'ah. Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_52

Al-Baqir also was initiator of some principles which later became distinctive tenets of Twelver Shia Islam, such as Nass (the Imam's explicit designation of his successor), Ilm (the special knowledge of the Imam), Ismah (the infallibility of the Imam) and Taqiyya (precautionary dissimulation in order to avoid persecution). Muhammad al-Baqir_sentence_53


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad al-Baqir.