Munich

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For other uses of "Munich" or "München", see Munich (disambiguation). Munich_sentence_0

Munich_table_infobox_0

Munich

MünchenMunich_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryMunich_header_cell_0_1_0 GermanyMunich_cell_0_1_1
StateMunich_header_cell_0_2_0 BavariaMunich_cell_0_2_1
Admin. regionMunich_header_cell_0_3_0 Upper Bavaria Munich_cell_0_3_1
DistrictMunich_header_cell_0_4_0 Urban districtMunich_cell_0_4_1
First mentionedMunich_header_cell_0_5_0 1158Munich_cell_0_5_1
SubdivisionsMunich_header_cell_0_6_0 25 boroughsMunich_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentMunich_header_cell_0_7_0
Lord mayorMunich_header_cell_0_8_0 Dieter Reiter (SPD)Munich_cell_0_8_1
Governing partiesMunich_header_cell_0_9_0 Greens / SPDMunich_cell_0_9_1
AreaMunich_header_cell_0_10_0
CityMunich_header_cell_0_11_0 310.43 km (119.86 sq mi)Munich_cell_0_11_1
ElevationMunich_header_cell_0_12_0 520 m (1,710 ft)Munich_cell_0_12_1
Population (2019-12-31)Munich_header_cell_0_13_0
CityMunich_header_cell_0_14_0 1,484,226Munich_cell_0_14_1
DensityMunich_header_cell_0_15_0 4,800/km (12,000/sq mi)Munich_cell_0_15_1
UrbanMunich_header_cell_0_16_0 2,606,021Munich_cell_0_16_1
MetroMunich_header_cell_0_17_0 5,991,144Munich_cell_0_17_1
Time zoneMunich_header_cell_0_18_0 UTC+01:00 (CET)Munich_cell_0_18_1
Summer (DST)Munich_header_cell_0_19_0 UTC+02:00 (CEST)Munich_cell_0_19_1
Postal codesMunich_header_cell_0_20_0 80331–81929Munich_cell_0_20_1
Dialling codesMunich_header_cell_0_21_0 089Munich_cell_0_21_1
Vehicle registrationMunich_header_cell_0_22_0 MMunich_cell_0_22_1
WebsiteMunich_header_cell_0_23_0 Munich_cell_0_23_1

Munich (/ˈmjuːnɪk/ MEW-nik; German: München [ˈmʏnçn̩ (listen); Bavarian: Minga [ˈmɪŋ(ː)ɐ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. Munich_sentence_1

With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of July 31, 2020, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, and thus the largest which does not constitute its own state, as well as the 11th-largest city in the European Union. Munich_sentence_2

The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Munich_sentence_3

Straddling the banks of the River Isar (a tributary of the Danube) north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany (4,500 people per km). Munich_sentence_4

Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna. Munich_sentence_5

The city was first mentioned in 1158. Munich_sentence_6

Catholic Munich strongly resisted the Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes. Munich_sentence_7

Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, Munich became a major European centre of arts, architecture, culture and science. Munich_sentence_8

In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared. Munich_sentence_9

In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP. Munich_sentence_10

After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". Munich_sentence_11

The city was heavily bombed during World War II, but has restored most of its traditional cityscape. Munich_sentence_12

After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Munich_sentence_13

The city hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics and was one of the host cities of the 1974 and 2006 FIFA World Cups. Munich_sentence_14

Today, Munich is a global centre of art, science, technology, finance, publishing, culture, innovation, education, business, and tourism and enjoys a very high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey, and being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018. Munich_sentence_15

According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute, Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015. Munich_sentence_16

It is one of the most prosperous and fastest growing cities in Germany. Munich_sentence_17

Munich's economy is based on high tech, automobiles, the service sector and creative industries, as well as IT, biotechnology, engineering and electronics among many others. Munich_sentence_18

The city houses many multinational companies, such as BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde, Allianz and MunichRE. Munich_sentence_19

It is also home to two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions, and world class technology and science museums like the Deutsches Museum and BMW Museum. Munich_sentence_20

Munich's numerous architectural and cultural attractions, sports events, exhibitions and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism. Munich_sentence_21

The city is home to more than 530,000 people of foreign background, making up 37.7% of its population. Munich_sentence_22

History Munich_section_0

Main articles: History of Munich and Timeline of Munich Munich_sentence_23

Geography Munich_section_1

Topography Munich_section_2

Munich lies on the elevated plains of Upper Bavaria, about 50 km (31 mi) north of the northern edge of the Alps, at an altitude of about 520 m (1,706 ft) ASL. Munich_sentence_24

The local rivers are the Isar and the Würm. Munich_sentence_25

Munich is situated in the Northern Alpine Foreland. Munich_sentence_26

The northern part of this sandy plateau includes a highly fertile flint area which is no longer affected by the folding processes found in the Alps, while the southern part is covered with morainic hills. Munich_sentence_27

Between these are fields of fluvio-glacial out-wash, such as around Munich. Munich_sentence_28

Wherever these deposits get thinner, the ground water can permeate the gravel surface and flood the area, leading to marshes as in the north of Munich. Munich_sentence_29

Climate Munich_section_3

By Köppen classification templates and updated data the climate is oceanic (Cfb), independent of the isotherm but with some humid continental (Dfb) features like warm to hot summers and cold winters, but without permanent snow cover. Munich_sentence_30

The proximity to the Alps brings higher volumes of rainfall and consequently greater susceptibility to flood problems. Munich_sentence_31

Studies of adaptation to climate change and extreme events are carried out, one of them is the Isar Plan of the EU Adaptation Climate. Munich_sentence_32

The city center lies between both climates, while the airport of Munich has a humid continental climate. Munich_sentence_33

The warmest month, on average, is July. Munich_sentence_34

The coolest is January. Munich_sentence_35

Showers and thunderstorms bring the highest average monthly precipitation in late spring and throughout the summer. Munich_sentence_36

The most precipitation occurs in July, on average. Munich_sentence_37

Winter tends to have less precipitation, the least in February. Munich_sentence_38

The higher elevation and proximity to the Alps cause the city to have more rain and snow than many other parts of Germany. Munich_sentence_39

The Alps affect the city's climate in other ways too; for example, the warm downhill wind from the Alps (föhn wind), which can raise temperatures sharply within a few hours even in the winter. Munich_sentence_40

Being at the centre of Europe, Munich is subject to many climatic influences, so that weather conditions there are more variable than in other European cities, especially those further west and south of the Alps. Munich_sentence_41

At Munich's official weather stations, the highest and lowest temperatures ever measured are 37.5 °C (100 °F), on 27 July 1983 in Trudering-Riem, and −31.6 °C (−24.9 °F), on 12 February 1929 in Botanic Garden of the city. Munich_sentence_42

Climate change Munich_section_4

In Munich the general trend of global warming with a rise of medium yearly temperatures of about 1 °C in Germany over the last 120 years can be observed as well. Munich_sentence_43

In November 2016 the city council concluded officially that a further rise in medium temperature, a higher number of heat extremes, a rise in the number of hot days and nights with temperatures higher than 20 °C (tropical nights), a change in precipitation patterns, as well as a rise in the number of local instances of heavy rain, is to be expected as part of the ongoing climate change. Munich_sentence_44

The city administration decided to support a joint study from its own Referat für Gesundheit und Umwelt (department for health and environmental issues) and the German Meteorological Service that will gather data on local weather. Munich_sentence_45

The data is supposed to be used to create a plan for action for adapting the city to better deal with climate change as well as an integrated action program for climate protection in Munich. Munich_sentence_46

With the help of those programs issues regarding spatial planning and settlement density, the development of buildings and green spaces as well as plans for functioning ventilation in a cityscape can be monitored and managed. Munich_sentence_47

Demographics Munich_section_5

Main article: Population growth of Munich Munich_sentence_48

From only 24,000 inhabitants in 1700, the city population doubled about every 30 years. Munich_sentence_49

It was 100,000 in 1852, 250,000 in 1883 and 500,000 in 1901. Munich_sentence_50

Since then, Munich has become Germany's third-largest city. Munich_sentence_51

In 1933, 840,901 inhabitants were counted, and in 1957 over 1 million. Munich_sentence_52

Immigration Munich_section_6

In July 2017, Munich had 1.42 million inhabitants; 421,832 foreign nationals resided in the city as of 31 December 2017 with 50.7% of these residents being citizens of EU member states, and 25.2% citizens in European states not in the EU (including Russia and Turkey). Munich_sentence_53

The largest groups of foreign nationals were Turks (39,204), Croats (33,177), Italians (27,340), Greeks (27,117), Poles (27,945), Austrians (21,944), and Romanians (18,085). Munich_sentence_54

The largest foreign resident groups by 31 December 2018 Munich_sentence_55

Religion Munich_section_7

About 45% of Munich's residents are not affiliated with any religious group; this ratio represents the fastest growing segment of the population. Munich_sentence_56

As in the rest of Germany, the Catholic and Protestant churches have experienced a continuous decline in membership. Munich_sentence_57

As of 31 December 2017, 31.8% of the city's inhabitants were Catholic, 11.4% Protestant, 0.3% Jewish, and 3.6% were members of an Orthodox Church (Eastern Orthodox or Oriental Orthodox). Munich_sentence_58

About 1% adhere to other Christian denominations. Munich_sentence_59

There is also a small Old Catholic parish and an English-speaking parish of the Episcopal Church in the city. Munich_sentence_60

According to Munich Statistical Office, in 2013 about 8.6% of Munich's population was Muslim. Munich_sentence_61

Politics Munich_section_8

As the capital of Bavaria, Munich is an important political centre for both the state and country as a whole. Munich_sentence_62

It is the seat of the Landtag of Bavaria, the State Chancellery, and all state departments. Munich_sentence_63

Several national and international authorities are located in Munich, including the Federal Finance Court of Germany and the European Patent Office. Munich_sentence_64

Mayor Munich_section_9

The current mayor of Munich is Dieter Reiter of the centre-left Social Democratic Party (SPD), who was elected in 2014 and re-elected in 2020. Munich_sentence_65

Munich has a much stronger left-wing tradition than the rest of the state, which has been dominated by the conservative Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU) on a federal, state, and local level since the establishment of the Federal Republic in 1949. Munich_sentence_66

Munich, by contrast, has been governed by the SPD for all but six years since 1948. Munich_sentence_67

As of the 2020 local elections, green and centre-left parties also hold a majority in the city council (Stadtrat). Munich_sentence_68

The most recent mayoral election was held on 15 March 2020, with a runoff held on 29 March, and the results were as follows: Munich_sentence_69

City council Munich_section_10

The Munich city council (Stadtrat) governs the city alongside the Mayor. Munich_sentence_70

The most recent city council election was held on 15 March 2020, and the results were as follows: Munich_sentence_71

Munich_table_general_1

PartyMunich_header_cell_1_0_0 Lead candidateMunich_header_cell_1_0_2 VotesMunich_header_cell_1_0_3 %Munich_header_cell_1_0_4 +/-Munich_header_cell_1_0_5 SeatsMunich_header_cell_1_0_6 +/-Munich_header_cell_1_0_7
Munich_cell_1_1_0 Alliance 90/The Greens (Grüne)Munich_cell_1_1_1 Katrin HabenschadenMunich_cell_1_1_2 11,762,516Munich_cell_1_1_3 29.1Munich_cell_1_1_4 12.5Munich_cell_1_1_5 23Munich_cell_1_1_6 10Munich_cell_1_1_7
Munich_cell_1_2_0 Christian Social Union (CSU)Munich_cell_1_2_1 Kristina FrankMunich_cell_1_2_2 9,986,014Munich_cell_1_2_3 24.7Munich_cell_1_2_4 7.8Munich_cell_1_2_5 20Munich_cell_1_2_6 6Munich_cell_1_2_7
Munich_cell_1_3_0 Social Democratic Party (SPD)Munich_cell_1_3_1 Dieter ReiterMunich_cell_1_3_2 8,884,562Munich_cell_1_3_3 22.0Munich_cell_1_3_4 8.8Munich_cell_1_3_5 18Munich_cell_1_3_6 7Munich_cell_1_3_7
Munich_cell_1_4_0 Ecological Democratic Party (ÖDP)Munich_cell_1_4_1 Tobias RuffMunich_cell_1_4_2 1,598,539Munich_cell_1_4_3 4.0Munich_cell_1_4_4 1.4Munich_cell_1_4_5 3Munich_cell_1_4_6 1Munich_cell_1_4_7
Munich_cell_1_5_0 Alternative for Germany (AfD)Munich_cell_1_5_1 Iris WassillMunich_cell_1_5_2 1,559,476Munich_cell_1_5_3 3.9Munich_cell_1_5_4 1.4Munich_cell_1_5_5 3Munich_cell_1_5_6 1Munich_cell_1_5_7
Munich_cell_1_6_0 Free Democratic Party (FDP)Munich_cell_1_6_1 Jörg HoffmannMunich_cell_1_6_2 1,420,194Munich_cell_1_6_3 3.5Munich_cell_1_6_4 0.1Munich_cell_1_6_5 3Munich_cell_1_6_6 ±0Munich_cell_1_6_7
Munich_cell_1_7_0 The Left (Die Linke)Munich_cell_1_7_1 Stefan JagelMunich_cell_1_7_2 1,319,464Munich_cell_1_7_3 3.3Munich_cell_1_7_4 0.8Munich_cell_1_7_5 3Munich_cell_1_7_6 1Munich_cell_1_7_7
Munich_cell_1_8_0 Free Voters of Bavaria (FW)Munich_cell_1_8_1 Hans-Peter MehlingMunich_cell_1_8_2 1,008,400Munich_cell_1_8_3 2.5Munich_cell_1_8_4 0.2Munich_cell_1_8_5 2Munich_cell_1_8_6 ±0Munich_cell_1_8_7
Munich_cell_1_9_0 Volt Germany (Volt)Munich_cell_1_9_1 Felix SprollMunich_cell_1_9_2 732,853Munich_cell_1_9_3 1.8Munich_cell_1_9_4 NewMunich_cell_1_9_5 1Munich_cell_1_9_6 NewMunich_cell_1_9_7
Munich_cell_1_10_0 Die PARTEI (PARTEI)Munich_cell_1_10_1 Marie BurneleitMunich_cell_1_10_2 528,949Munich_cell_1_10_3 1.3Munich_cell_1_10_4 NewMunich_cell_1_10_5 1Munich_cell_1_10_6 NewMunich_cell_1_10_7
Munich_cell_1_11_0 Pink List (Rosa Liste)Munich_cell_1_11_1 Thomas NiederbühlMunich_cell_1_11_2 396,324Munich_cell_1_11_3 1.0Munich_cell_1_11_4 0.9Munich_cell_1_11_5 1Munich_cell_1_11_6 ±0Munich_cell_1_11_7
Munich_cell_1_12_0 Munich ListMunich_cell_1_12_1 Dirk HöpnerMunich_cell_1_12_2 339,705Munich_cell_1_12_3 0.8Munich_cell_1_12_4 NewMunich_cell_1_12_5 1Munich_cell_1_12_6 NewMunich_cell_1_12_7
Munich_cell_1_13_0 Bavaria Party (BP)Munich_cell_1_13_1 Richard ProglMunich_cell_1_13_2 273,737Munich_cell_1_13_3 0.7Munich_cell_1_13_4 0.2Munich_cell_1_13_5 1Munich_cell_1_13_6 ±0Munich_cell_1_13_7
Munich_cell_1_14_0 mutMunich_cell_1_14_1 Stephanie DilbaMunich_cell_1_14_2 247,679Munich_cell_1_14_3 0.6Munich_cell_1_14_4 NewMunich_cell_1_14_5 0Munich_cell_1_14_6 NewMunich_cell_1_14_7
Munich_cell_1_15_0 FAIRMunich_cell_1_15_1 Kemal OrakMunich_cell_1_15_2 142,455Munich_cell_1_15_3 0.4Munich_cell_1_15_4 NewMunich_cell_1_15_5 0Munich_cell_1_15_6 NewMunich_cell_1_15_7
Munich_cell_1_16_0 Together Bavaria (ZuBa)Munich_cell_1_16_1 Cetin OranerMunich_cell_1_16_2 120,975Munich_cell_1_16_3 0.3Munich_cell_1_16_4 NewMunich_cell_1_16_5 0Munich_cell_1_16_6 NewMunich_cell_1_16_7
Munich_cell_1_17_0 BIAMunich_cell_1_17_1 Karl RichterMunich_cell_1_17_2 86,358Munich_cell_1_17_3 0.2Munich_cell_1_17_4 0.5Munich_cell_1_17_5 0Munich_cell_1_17_6 ±0Munich_cell_1_17_7
Valid votesMunich_header_cell_1_18_0 531,527Munich_header_cell_1_18_3 97.6Munich_header_cell_1_18_4 Munich_header_cell_1_18_5 Munich_header_cell_1_18_6 Munich_header_cell_1_18_7
Invalid votesMunich_header_cell_1_19_0 12,937Munich_header_cell_1_19_3 2.4Munich_header_cell_1_19_4 Munich_header_cell_1_19_5 Munich_header_cell_1_19_6 Munich_header_cell_1_19_7
TotalMunich_header_cell_1_20_0 544,464Munich_header_cell_1_20_3 100.0Munich_header_cell_1_20_4 Munich_header_cell_1_20_5 80Munich_header_cell_1_20_6 ±0Munich_header_cell_1_20_7
Electorate/voter turnoutMunich_header_cell_1_21_0 1,110,571Munich_header_cell_1_21_3 49.0Munich_header_cell_1_21_4 7.0Munich_header_cell_1_21_5 Munich_header_cell_1_21_6 Munich_header_cell_1_21_7
Source:Munich_cell_1_22_0

Sister cities Munich_section_11

Munich is twinned with the following cities (date of agreement shown in parentheses): Edinburgh, Scotland (1954), Verona, Italy (1960), Bordeaux, France (1964), Sapporo, Japan (1972), Cincinnati, Ohio, United States (1989), Kyiv, Ukraine (1989) and Harare, Zimbabwe (1996). Munich_sentence_72

Subdivisions Munich_section_12

Main article: Boroughs of Munich Munich_sentence_73

Since the administrative reform in 1992, Munich is divided into 25 boroughs or Stadtbezirke, which themselves consist of smaller quarters. Munich_sentence_74

Allach-Untermenzing (23), Altstadt-Lehel (1), Aubing-Lochhausen-Langwied (22), Au-Haidhausen (5), Berg am Laim (14), Bogenhausen (13), Feldmoching-Hasenbergl (24), Hadern (20), Laim (25), Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt (2), Maxvorstadt (3), Milbertshofen-Am Hart (11), Moosach (10), Neuhausen-Nymphenburg (9), Obergiesing (17), Pasing-Obermenzing (21), Ramersdorf-Perlach (16), Schwabing-Freimann (12), Schwabing-West (4), Schwanthalerhöhe (8), Sendling (6), Sendling-Westpark (7), Thalkirchen-Obersendling-Forstenried-Fürstenried-Solln (19), Trudering-Riem (15) and Untergiesing-Harlaching (18). Munich_sentence_75

Architecture Munich_section_13

Main article: Architecture of Munich Munich_sentence_76

The city has an eclectic mix of historic and modern architecture, because historic buildings destroyed in World War II were reconstructed, and new landmarks were built. Munich_sentence_77

A survey by the Society's Centre for Sustainable Destinations for the National Geographic Traveller chose over 100 historic destinations around the world and ranked Munich 30th. Munich_sentence_78

Inner city Munich_section_14

At the centre of the city is the Marienplatz – a large open square named after the Mariensäule, a Marian column in its centre – with the Old and the New Town Hall. Munich_sentence_79

Its tower contains the Rathaus-Glockenspiel. Munich_sentence_80

Three gates of the demolished medieval fortification survive – the Isartor in the east, the Sendlinger Tor in the south and the Karlstor in the west of the inner city. Munich_sentence_81

The Karlstor leads up to the Stachus, a square dominated by the Justizpalast (Palace of Justice) and a fountain. Munich_sentence_82

The Peterskirche close to Marienplatz is the oldest church of the inner city. Munich_sentence_83

It was first built during the Romanesque period, and was the focus of the early monastic settlement in Munich before the city's official foundation in 1158. Munich_sentence_84

Nearby St. Peter the Gothic hall-church Heiliggeistkirche (The Church of the Holy Spirit) was converted to baroque style from 1724 onwards and looks down upon the Viktualienmarkt. Munich_sentence_85

The Frauenkirche serves as the cathedral for the Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising. Munich_sentence_86

The nearby Michaelskirche is the largest renaissance church north of the Alps, while the Theatinerkirche is a basilica in Italianate high baroque, which had a major influence on Southern German baroque architecture. Munich_sentence_87

Its dome dominates the Odeonsplatz. Munich_sentence_88

Other baroque churches in the inner city include the Bürgersaalkirche, the Trinity Church and the St. Anna Damenstiftskirche. Munich_sentence_89

The Asamkirche was endowed and built by the Brothers Asam, pioneering artists of the rococo period. Munich_sentence_90

The large Residenz palace complex (begun in 1385) on the edge of Munich's Old Town, Germany's largest urban palace, ranks among Europe's most significant museums of interior decoration. Munich_sentence_91

Having undergone several extensions, it contains also the treasury and the splendid rococo Cuvilliés Theatre. Munich_sentence_92

Next door to the Residenz the neo-classical opera, the National Theatre was erected. Munich_sentence_93

Among the baroque and neoclassical mansions which still exist in Munich are the Palais Porcia, the Palais Preysing, the Palais Holnstein and the Prinz-Carl-Palais. Munich_sentence_94

All mansions are situated close to the Residenz, same as the Alte Hof, a medieval castle and first residence of the Wittelsbach dukes in Munich. Munich_sentence_95

Lehel, a middle-class quarter east of the Altstadt, is characterised by numerous well-preserved townhouses. Munich_sentence_96

The St. Anna im Lehel is the first rococo church in Bavaria. Munich_sentence_97

St. Munich_sentence_98 Lukas is the largest Protestant Church in Munich. Munich_sentence_99

Royal avenues and squares Munich_section_15

Four grand royal avenues of the 19th century with official buildings connect Munich's inner city with its then-suburbs: Munich_sentence_100

The neoclassical Brienner Straße, starting at Odeonsplatz on the northern fringe of the Old Town close to the Residenz, runs from east to west and opens into the Königsplatz, designed with the "Doric" Propyläen, the "Ionic" Glyptothek and the "Corinthian" State Museum of Classical Art, behind it St. Munich_sentence_101 Boniface's Abbey was erected. Munich_sentence_102

The area around Königsplatz is home to the Kunstareal, Munich's gallery and museum quarter (as described below). Munich_sentence_103

Ludwigstraße also begins at Odeonsplatz and runs from south to north, skirting the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, the St. Louis church, the Bavarian State Library and numerous state ministries and palaces. Munich_sentence_104

The southern part of the avenue was constructed in Italian renaissance style, while the north is strongly influenced by Italian Romanesque architecture. Munich_sentence_105

The Siegestor (gate of victory) sits at the northern end of Ludwigstraße, where the latter passes over into Leopoldstraße and the district of Schwabing begins. Munich_sentence_106

The neo-Gothic Maximilianstraße starts at Max-Joseph-Platz, where the Residenz and the National Theatre are situated, and runs from west to east. Munich_sentence_107

The avenue is framed by elaborately structured neo-Gothic buildings which house, among others, the Schauspielhaus, the Building of the district government of Upper Bavaria and the Museum of Ethnology. Munich_sentence_108

After crossing the river Isar, the avenue circles the Maximilianeum, which houses the state parliament. Munich_sentence_109

The western portion of Maximilianstraße is known for its designer shops, luxury boutiques, jewellery stores, and one of Munich's foremost five-star hotels, the Hotel Vier Jahreszeiten. Munich_sentence_110

Prinzregentenstraße runs parallel to Maximilianstraße and begins at Prinz-Carl-Palais. Munich_sentence_111

Many museums are on the avenue, such as the Haus der Kunst, the Bavarian National Museum and the Schackgalerie. Munich_sentence_112

The avenue crosses the Isar and circles the Friedensengel monument, then passing the Villa Stuck and Hitler's old apartment. Munich_sentence_113

The Prinzregententheater is at Prinzregentenplatz further to the east. Munich_sentence_114

Other boroughs Munich_section_16

In Schwabing and Maxvorstadt, many beautiful streets with continuous rows of Gründerzeit buildings can be found. Munich_sentence_115

Rows of elegant town houses and spectacular urban palais in many colours, often elaborately decorated with ornamental details on their façades, make up large parts of the areas west of Leopoldstraße (Schwabing's main shopping street), while in the eastern areas between Leopoldstraße and Englischer Garten similar buildings alternate with almost rural-looking houses and whimsical mini-castles, often decorated with small towers. Munich_sentence_116

Numerous tiny alleys and shady lanes connect the larger streets and little plazas of the area, conveying the legendary artist's quarter's flair and atmosphere convincingly like it was at the turn of the 20th century. Munich_sentence_117

The wealthy district of Bogenhausen in the east of Munich is another little-known area (at least among tourists) rich in extravagant architecture, especially around Prinzregentenstraße. Munich_sentence_118

One of Bogenhausen's most beautiful buildings is Villa Stuck, famed residence of painter Franz von Stuck. Munich_sentence_119

Two large baroque palaces in Nymphenburg and Oberschleissheim are reminders of Bavaria's royal past. Munich_sentence_120

Schloss Nymphenburg (Nymphenburg Palace), some 6 km (4 mi) north west of the city centre, is surrounded by an park and is considered to be one of Europe's most beautiful royal residences. Munich_sentence_121

2 km (1 mi) northwest of Nymphenburg Palace is Schloss Blutenburg (Blutenburg Castle), an old ducal country seat with a late-Gothic palace church. Munich_sentence_122

Schloss Fürstenried (Fürstenried Palace), a baroque palace of similar structure to Nymphenburg but of much smaller size, was erected around the same time in the south west of Munich. Munich_sentence_123

The second large baroque residence is Schloss Schleissheim (Schleissheim Palace), located in the suburb of Oberschleissheim, a palace complex encompassing three separate residences: Altes Schloss Schleissheim (the old palace), Neues Schloss Schleissheim (the new palace) and Schloss Lustheim (Lustheim Palace). Munich_sentence_124

Most parts of the palace complex serve as museums and art galleries. Munich_sentence_125

Deutsches Museum's Flugwerft Schleissheim flight exhibition centre is located nearby, on the Schleissheim Special Landing Field. Munich_sentence_126

The Bavaria statue before the neo-classical Ruhmeshalle is a monumental, bronze sand-cast 19th-century statue at Theresienwiese. Munich_sentence_127

The Grünwald castle is the only medieval castle in the Munich area which still exists. Munich_sentence_128

St Michael in Berg am Laim is a church in the suburbs. Munich_sentence_129

Another church of Johann Michael Fischer is St George in Bogenhausen. Munich_sentence_130

Most of the boroughs have parish churches which originate from the Middle Ages, such as the church of pilgrimage St Mary in Ramersdorf. Munich_sentence_131

The oldest church within the city borders is Heilig Kreuz in Fröttmaning next to the Allianz-Arena, known for its Romanesque fresco. Munich_sentence_132

Especially in its suburbs, Munich features a wide and diverse array of modern architecture, although strict culturally sensitive height limitations for buildings have limited the construction of skyscrapers to avoid a loss of views to the distant Bavarian Alps. Munich_sentence_133

Most high-rise buildings are clustered at the northern edge of Munich in the skyline, like the Hypo-Haus, the Arabella High-Rise Building, the Highlight Towers, Uptown Munich, Münchner Tor and the BMW Headquarters next to the Olympic Park. Munich_sentence_134

Several other high-rise buildings are located near the city centre and on the Siemens campus in southern Munich. Munich_sentence_135

A landmark of modern Munich is also the architecture of the sport stadiums (as described below). Munich_sentence_136

In Fasangarten is the former McGraw Kaserne, a former US army base, near Stadelheim Prison. Munich_sentence_137

Parks Munich_section_17

Munich is a densely-built city but has numerous public parks. Munich_sentence_138

The Englischer Garten, close to the city centre and covering an area of 3.7 km (1.4 sq mi), is larger than Central Park in New York City, and is one of the world's largest urban public parks. Munich_sentence_139

It contains a naturist (nudist) area, numerous bicycle and jogging tracks as well as bridle-paths. Munich_sentence_140

It was designed and laid out by Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, both for pleasure and as a work area for the city's vagrants and homeless. Munich_sentence_141

Nowadays it is entirely a park, its southern half being dominated by wide open areas, hills, monuments and beach-like stretches (along the streams Eisbach and Schwabinger Bach). Munich_sentence_142

In contrast, its less-frequented northern part is much quieter, with many old trees and thick undergrowth. Munich_sentence_143

Multiple beer gardens can be found in both parts of the Englischer Garten, the most well known being located at the Chinese Pagoda. Munich_sentence_144

Other large green spaces are the modern Olympiapark, the Westpark, and the parks of Nymphenburg Palace (with the Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg to the north), and Schleissheim Palace. Munich_sentence_145

The city's oldest park is the Hofgarten, near the Residenz, dating back to the 16th century. Munich_sentence_146

The site of the largest beer garden in town, the former royal Hirschgarten was founded in 1780 for deer, which still live there. Munich_sentence_147

The city's zoo is the Tierpark Hellabrunn near the Flaucher Island in the Isar in the south of the city. Munich_sentence_148

Another notable park is Ostpark located in the Ramersdorf-Perlach borough which also houses the Michaelibad, the largest water park in Munich. Munich_sentence_149

Sports Munich_section_18

Main article: Sport in Munich Munich_sentence_150

Football Munich_section_19

Main article: Football in Munich Munich_sentence_151

Munich is home to several professional football teams including Bayern Munich, Germany's most successful club and a multiple UEFA Champions League winner. Munich_sentence_152

Other notable clubs include 1860 Munich, who were long time their rivals on a somewhat equal footing, but currently play in the 3rd Division 3. Munich_sentence_153 Liga along with another former Bundesliga club SpVgg Unterhaching. Munich_sentence_154

Basketball Munich_section_20

FC Bayern Munich Basketball is currently playing in the Beko Basket Bundesliga. Munich_sentence_155

The city hosted the final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket 1993, where the German national basketball team won the gold medal. Munich_sentence_156

Ice hockey Munich_section_21

The city's ice hockey club is EHC Red Bull München who play in the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. Munich_sentence_157

The team has won three DEL Championships, in 2016, 2017 and 2018. Munich_sentence_158

Olympics Munich_section_22

Munich hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics; the Munich Massacre took place in the Olympic village. Munich_sentence_159

It was one of the host cities for the 2006 Football World Cup, which was not held in Munich's Olympic Stadium, but in a new football specific stadium, the Allianz Arena. Munich_sentence_160

Munich bid to host the 2018 Winter Olympic Games, but lost to Pyeongchang. Munich_sentence_161

In September 2011 the DOSB President Thomas Bach confirmed that Munich would bid again for the Winter Olympics in the future. Munich_sentence_162

Road Running Munich_section_23

Regular annual road running events in Munich are the Munich Marathon in October, the Stadtlauf end of June, the company run B2Run in July, the New Year's Run on 31 December, the Spartan Race Sprint, the Olympia Alm Crosslauf and the Bestzeitenmarathon. Munich_sentence_163

Swimming Munich_section_24

Public sporting facilities in Munich include ten indoor swimming pools and eight outdoor swimming pools, which are operated by the Munich City Utilities (SWM) communal company. Munich_sentence_164

Popular indoor swimming pools include the Olympia Schwimmhalle of the 1972 Summer Olympics, the wave pool Cosimawellenbad, as well as the Müllersches Volksbad which was built in 1901. Munich_sentence_165

Further, swimming within Munich's city limits is also possible in several artificial lakes such as for example the Riemer See or the Langwieder lake district. Munich_sentence_166

River surfing Munich_section_25

Munich has a reputation as a surfing hotspot, offering the world's best known river surfing spot, the Eisbach wave, which is located at the southern edge of the Englischer Garten park and used by surfers day and night and throughout the year. Munich_sentence_167

Half a kilometre down the river, there is a second, easier wave for beginners, the so-called Kleine Eisbachwelle. Munich_sentence_168

Two further surf spots within the city are located along the river Isar, the wave in the Floßlände channel and a wave downstream of the Wittelsbacherbrücke bridge. Munich_sentence_169

Culture Munich_section_26

Language Munich_section_27

Main article: Bavarian language Munich_sentence_170

The Bavarian dialects are spoken in and around Munich, with its variety West Middle Bavarian or Old Bavarian (Westmittelbairisch / Altbairisch). Munich_sentence_171

Austro-Bavarian has no official status by the Bavarian authorities or local government, yet is recognised by the SIL and has its own ISO-639 code. Munich_sentence_172

Museums Munich_section_28

The Deutsches Museum or German Museum, located on an island in the River Isar, is the largest and one of the oldest science museums in the world. Munich_sentence_173

Three redundant exhibition buildings that are under a protection order were converted to house the Verkehrsmuseum, which houses the land transport collections of the Deutsches Museum. Munich_sentence_174

Deutsches Museum's Flugwerft Schleissheim flight exhibition centre is located nearby, on the Schleissheim Special Landing Field. Munich_sentence_175

Several non-centralised museums (many of those are public collections at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität) show the expanded state collections of palaeontology, geology, mineralogy, zoology, botany and anthropology. Munich_sentence_176

The city has several important art galleries, most of which can be found in the Kunstareal, including the Alte Pinakothek, the Neue Pinakothek, the Pinakothek der Moderne and the Museum Brandhorst. Munich_sentence_177

The Alte Pinakothek contains a treasure trove of the works of European masters between the 14th and 18th centuries. Munich_sentence_178

The collection reflects the eclectic tastes of the Wittelsbachs over four centuries, and is sorted by schools over two floors. Munich_sentence_179

Major displays include Albrecht Dürer's Christ-like Self-Portrait (1500), his Four Apostles, Raphael's paintings The Canigiani Holy Family and Madonna Tempi as well as Peter Paul Rubens large Judgment Day. Munich_sentence_180

The gallery houses one of the world's most comprehensive Rubens collections. Munich_sentence_181

The Lenbachhaus houses works by the group of Munich-based modernist artists known as Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider). Munich_sentence_182

An important collection of Greek and Roman art is held in the Glyptothek and the Staatliche Antikensammlung (State Antiquities Collection). Munich_sentence_183

King Ludwig I managed to acquire such pieces as the Medusa Rondanini, the Barberini Faun and figures from the Temple of Aphaea on Aegina for the Glyptothek. Munich_sentence_184

Another important museum in the Kunstareal is the Egyptian Museum. Munich_sentence_185

The gothic Morris dancers of Erasmus Grasser are exhibited in the Munich City Museum in the old gothic arsenal building in the inner city. Munich_sentence_186

Another area for the arts next to the Kunstareal is the Lehel quarter between the old town and the river Isar: the Museum Five Continents in Maximilianstraße is the second largest collection in Germany of artefacts and objects from outside Europe, while the Bavarian National Museum and the adjoining Bavarian State Archaeological Collection in Prinzregentenstraße rank among Europe's major art and cultural history museums. Munich_sentence_187

The nearby Schackgalerie is an important gallery of German 19th-century paintings. Munich_sentence_188

The former Dachau concentration camp is 16 km (10 mi) outside the city. Munich_sentence_189

Arts and literature Munich_section_29

Munich is a major international cultural centre and has played host to many prominent composers including Orlando di Lasso, W.A. Munich_sentence_190 Mozart, Carl Maria von Weber, Richard Wagner, Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss, Max Reger and Carl Orff. Munich_sentence_191

With the Munich Biennale founded by Hans Werner Henze, and the A*DEvantgarde festival, the city still contributes to modern music theatre. Munich_sentence_192

Some of classical music's best-known pieces have been created in and around Munich by composers born in the area, for example, Richard Strauss's tone poem Also sprach Zarathustra or Carl Orff's Carmina Burana. Munich_sentence_193

At the Nationaltheater several of Richard Wagner's operas were premiered under the patronage of Ludwig II of Bavaria. Munich_sentence_194

It is the home of the Bavarian State Opera and the Bavarian State Orchestra. Munich_sentence_195

Next door, the modern Residenz Theatre was erected in the building that had housed the Cuvilliés Theatre before World War II. Munich_sentence_196

Many operas were staged there, including the premiere of Mozart's Idomeneo in 1781. Munich_sentence_197

The Gärtnerplatz Theatre is a ballet and musical state theatre while another opera house, the Prinzregententheater, has become the home of the Bavarian Theatre Academy and the Munich Chamber Orchestra. Munich_sentence_198

The modern Gasteig centre houses the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra. Munich_sentence_199

The third orchestra in Munich with international importance is the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. Munich_sentence_200

Its primary concert venue is the Herkulessaal in the former city royal residence, the Munich Residenz. Munich_sentence_201

Many important conductors have been attracted by the city's orchestras, including Felix Weingartner, Hans Pfitzner, Hans Rosbaud, Hans Knappertsbusch, Sergiu Celibidache, James Levine, Christian Thielemann, Lorin Maazel, Rafael Kubelík, Eugen Jochum, Sir Colin Davis, Mariss Jansons, Bruno Walter, Georg Solti, Zubin Mehta and Kent Nagano. Munich_sentence_202

A stage for shows, big events and musicals is the Deutsche Theater. Munich_sentence_203

It is Germany's largest theatre for guest performances. Munich_sentence_204

Munich's contributions to modern popular music are often overlooked in favour of its strong association with classical music, but they are numerous: the city has had a strong music scene in the 1960s and 1970s, with many internationally renowned bands and musicians frequently performing in its clubs. Munich_sentence_205

Furthermore, Munich was the centre of Krautrock in southern Germany, with many important bands such as Amon Düül II, Embryo or Popol Vuh hailing from the city. Munich_sentence_206

In the 1970s, the Musicland Studios developed into one of the most prominent recording studios in the world, with bands such as the Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple and Queen recording albums there. Munich_sentence_207

Munich also played a significant role in the development of electronic music, with genre pioneer Giorgio Moroder, who invented synth disco and electronic dance music, and Donna Summer, one of disco music's most important performers, both living and working in the city. Munich_sentence_208

In the late 1990s, Electroclash was substantially co-invented if not even invented in Munich, when DJ Hell introduced and assembled international pioneers of this musical genre through his International DeeJay Gigolo Records label here. Munich_sentence_209

Other examples of notable musicians and bands from Munich are Konstantin Wecker, , Spider Murphy Gang, Münchener Freiheit, Lou Bega, Megaherz, FSK, Colour Haze and Sportfreunde Stiller. Munich_sentence_210

Music is so important in the Bavarian capital that the city hall gives permissions every day to ten musicians for performing in the streets around Marienplatz. Munich_sentence_211

This is how performers such as Olga Kholodnaya and Alex Jacobowitz are entertaining the locals and the tourists every day. Munich_sentence_212

Next to the Bavarian Staatsschauspiel in the Residenz Theatre (Residenztheater), the Munich Kammerspiele in the Schauspielhaus is one of the most important German language theatres in the world. Munich_sentence_213

Since Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's premieres in 1775 many important writers have staged their plays in Munich such as Christian Friedrich Hebbel, Henrik Ibsen and Hugo von Hofmannsthal. Munich_sentence_214

The city is known as the second largest publishing centre in the world (around 250 publishing houses have offices in the city), and many national and international publications are published in Munich, such as Arts in Munich, LAXMag and Prinz. Munich_sentence_215

At the turn of the 20th century, Munich, and especially its suburb of Schwabing, was the preeminent cultural metropolis of Germany. Munich_sentence_216

Its importance as a centre for both literature and the fine arts was second to none in Europe, with numerous German and non-German artists moving there. Munich_sentence_217

For example, Wassily Kandinsky chose Munich over Paris to study at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste München, and, along with many other painters and writers living in Schwabing at that time, had a profound influence on modern art. Munich_sentence_218

Prominent literary figures worked in Munich especially during the final decades of the Kingdom of Bavaria, the so-called Prinzregentenzeit (literally "prince regent's time") under the reign of Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria, a period often described as a cultural Golden Age for both Munich and Bavaria as a whole. Munich_sentence_219

Among them were luminaries such as Thomas Mann, Heinrich Mann, Paul Heyse, Rainer Maria Rilke, Ludwig Thoma, Fanny zu Reventlow, Oskar Panizza, Gustav Meyrink, Max Halbe, Erich Mühsam and Frank Wedekind. Munich_sentence_220

For a short while, Vladimir Lenin lived in Schwabing, where he wrote and published his most important work, What Is to Be Done? Munich_sentence_221

Central to Schwabing's bohemian scene (although they were actually often located in the nearby Maxvorstadt quarter) were Künstlerlokale (artist's cafés) like Café Stefanie or Kabarett Simpl, whose liberal ways differed fundamentally from Munich's more traditional localities. Munich_sentence_222

The Simpl, which survives to this day (although with little relevance to the city's contemporary art scene), was named after Munich's anti-authoritarian satirical magazine Simplicissimus, founded in 1896 by Albert Langen and Thomas Theodor Heine, which quickly became an important organ of the Schwabinger Bohème. Munich_sentence_223

Its caricatures and biting satirical attacks on Wilhelmine German society were the result of countless of collaborative efforts by many of the best visual artists and writers from Munich and elsewhere. Munich_sentence_224

The period immediately before World War I saw continued economic and cultural prominence for the city. Munich_sentence_225

Thomas Mann wrote in his novella Gladius Dei about this period: "München leuchtete" (literally "Munich shone"). Munich_sentence_226

Munich remained a centre of cultural life during the Weimar period, with figures such as Lion Feuchtwanger, Bertolt Brecht, Peter Paul Althaus, Stefan George, Ricarda Huch, Joachim Ringelnatz, Oskar Maria Graf, Annette Kolb, Ernst Toller, Hugo Ball and Klaus Mann adding to the already established big names. Munich_sentence_227

Karl Valentin was Germany's most important cabaret performer and comedian and is to this day well-remembered and beloved as a cultural icon of his hometown. Munich_sentence_228

Between 1910 and 1940, he wrote and performed in many absurdist sketches and short films that were highly influential, earning him the nickname of "Charlie Chaplin of Germany". Munich_sentence_229

Many of Valentin's works wouldn't be imaginable without his congenial female partner Liesl Karlstadt, who often played male characters to hilarious effect in their sketches. Munich_sentence_230

After World War II, Munich soon again became a focal point of the German literary scene and remains so to this day, with writers as diverse as Wolfgang Koeppen, Erich Kästner, Eugen Roth, Alfred Andersch, Elfriede Jelinek, Hans Magnus Enzensberger, Michael Ende, Franz Xaver Kroetz, Gerhard Polt, John Vincent Palatine and Patrick Süskind calling the city their home. Munich_sentence_231

From the Gothic to the Baroque era, the fine arts were represented in Munich by artists like Erasmus Grasser, Jan Polack, Johann Baptist Straub, Ignaz Günther, Hans Krumpper, Ludwig von Schwanthaler, Cosmas Damian Asam, Egid Quirin Asam, Johann Baptist Zimmermann, Johann Michael Fischer and François de Cuvilliés. Munich_sentence_232

Munich had already become an important place for painters like Carl Rottmann, Lovis Corinth, Wilhelm von Kaulbach, Carl Spitzweg, Franz von Lenbach, Franz von Stuck, Karl Piloty and Wilhelm Leibl when Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), a group of expressionist artists, was established in Munich in 1911. Munich_sentence_233

The city was home to the Blue Rider's painters Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Alexej von Jawlensky, Gabriele Münter, Franz Marc, August Macke and Alfred Kubin. Munich_sentence_234

Kandinsky's first abstract painting was created in Schwabing. Munich_sentence_235

Munich was (and in some cases, still is) home to many of the most important authors of the New German Cinema movement, including Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Werner Herzog, Edgar Reitz and Herbert Achternbusch. Munich_sentence_236

In 1971, the Filmverlag der Autoren was founded, cementing the city's role in the movement's history. Munich_sentence_237

Munich served as the location for many of Fassbinder's films, among them Ali: Fear Eats the Soul. Munich_sentence_238

The Hotel Deutsche Eiche near Gärtnerplatz was somewhat like a centre of operations for Fassbinder and his "clan" of actors. Munich_sentence_239

New German Cinema is considered by far the most important artistic movement in German cinema history since the era of German Expressionism in the 1920s. Munich_sentence_240

In 1919, the Bavaria Film Studios were founded, which developed into one of Europe's largest film studios. Munich_sentence_241

Directors like Alfred Hitchcock, Billy Wilder, Orson Welles, John Huston, Ingmar Bergman, Stanley Kubrick, Claude Chabrol, Fritz Umgelter, Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Wolfgang Petersen and Wim Wenders made films there. Munich_sentence_242

Among the internationally well-known films produced at the studios are The Pleasure Garden (1925) by Alfred Hitchcock, The Great Escape (1963) by John Sturges, Paths of Glory (1957) by Stanley Kubrick, Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (1971) by Mel Stuart and both Das Boot (1981) and The Neverending Story (1984) by Wolfgang Petersen. Munich_sentence_243

Munich remains one of the centres of the German film and entertainment industry. Munich_sentence_244

Festivals Munich_section_30

Annual "High End Munich" trade show. Munich_sentence_245

Starkbierfest Munich_section_31

March and April, city-wide: Starkbierfest is held for three weeks during Lent, between Carnival and Easter, celebrating Munich's “strong beer”. Munich_sentence_246

Starkbier was created in 1651 by the local Paulaner monks who drank this 'Flüssiges Brot', or ‘liquid bread’ to survive the fasting of Lent. Munich_sentence_247

It became a public festival in 1751 and is now the second largest beer festival in Munich. Munich_sentence_248

Starkbierfest is also known as the “fifth season”, and is celebrated in beer halls and restaurants around the city. Munich_sentence_249

Frühlingsfest Munich_section_32

April and May, Theresienwiese: Held for two weeks from the end of April to the beginning of May, Frühlingsfest celebrates spring and the new local spring beers, and is commonly referred to as the "little sister of Oktoberfest". Munich_sentence_250

There are two beer tents, Hippodrom and Festhalle Bayernland, as well as one roofed beer garden, Münchner Weißbiergarten. Munich_sentence_251

There are also roller coasters, fun houses, slides, and a Ferris wheel. Munich_sentence_252

Other attractions of the festival include a flea market on the festival's first Saturday, a “Beer Queen” contest, a vintage car show on the first Sunday, fireworks every Friday night, and a "Day of Traditions" on the final day. Munich_sentence_253

Auer Dult Munich_section_33

Main article: Auer Dult Munich_sentence_254

May, August, and October, Mariahilfplatz: Auer Dult is Europe's largest jumble sale, with fairs of its kind dating back to the 14th century. Munich_sentence_255

The Auer Dult is a traditional market with 300 stalls selling handmade crafts, household goods, and local foods, and offers carnival rides for children. Munich_sentence_256

It has taken place over nine days each, three times a year. Munich_sentence_257

since 1905. Munich_sentence_258

Kocherlball Munich_section_34

July, English Garden: Traditionally a ball for Munich's domestic servants, cooks, nannies, and other household staff, Kocherlball, or ‘cook’s ball’ was a chance for the lower classes to take the morning off and dance together before the families of their households woke up. Munich_sentence_259

It now runs between 6 and 10 am the third Sunday in July at the Chinese Tower in Munich's English Garden. Munich_sentence_260

Tollwood Munich_section_35

July and December, Olympia Park: For three weeks in July, and then three weeks in December, Tollwood showcases fine and performing arts with live music, circus acts, and several lanes of booths selling handmade crafts, as well as organic international cuisine. Munich_sentence_261

According to the festival's website, Tollwood's goal is to promote culture and the environment, with the main themes of ", internationality, and openness". Munich_sentence_262

To promote these ideals, 70% of all Tollwood events and attractions are free. Munich_sentence_263

Oktoberfest Munich_section_36

September and October, Theresienwiese: The largest beer festival in the world, Munich's Oktoberfest runs for 16–18 days from the end of September through early October. Munich_sentence_264

Oktoberfest is a celebration of the wedding of Bavarian Crown Prince Ludwig to Princess Therese of Saxony-Hildburghausen which took place on October 12, 1810. Munich_sentence_265

In the last 200 years the festival has grown to span 85 acres and now welcomes over 6 million visitors every year. Munich_sentence_266

There are 14 beer tents which together can seat 119,000 attendees at a time, and serve beer from the six major breweries of Munich: Augustiner, Hacker-Pschorr, Löwenbräu, Paulaner, Spaten and Staatliches Hofbräuhaus. Munich_sentence_267

Over 7 million liters of beer are consumed at each Oktoberfest. Munich_sentence_268

There are also over 100 rides ranging from bumper cars to full-sized roller coasters, as well as the more traditional Ferris wheels and swings. Munich_sentence_269

Food can be bought in each tent, as well as at various stalls throughout the fairgrounds. Munich_sentence_270

Oktoberfest hosts 144 caterers and employees 13,000 people. Munich_sentence_271

Christkindlmarkt Munich_section_37

November and December, city-wide: Munich's Christmas Markets, or Christkindlmärkte, are held throughout the city from late November until Christmas Eve, the largest spanning the Marienplatz and surrounding streets. Munich_sentence_272

There are hundreds of stalls selling handmade goods, Christmas ornaments and decorations, and Bavarian Christmas foods including pastries, roasted nuts, and gluwein. Munich_sentence_273

Mini-Munich Late-July to mid-August, city-wide: provides kids ages 7–15 with the opportunity to participate in a spielstadt, the German term for a miniature city composed almost entirely of children. Munich_sentence_274

Funded by , this play city is run by young Germans performing the same duties as adults, including voting in city council, paying taxes, and building businesses. Munich_sentence_275

The experimental game was invented in Munich in the 1970s and has since spread to other countries like Egypt and China. Munich_sentence_276

Cultural history trails and bicycle routes Munich_section_38

Since 2001, historically interesting places in Munich can be explored via the cultural history trails (KulturGeschichtsPfade). Munich_sentence_277

Sign-posted cycle routes are the Outer Äußere Radlring (outer cycle route) and the RadlRing München. Munich_sentence_278

Culinary specialities Munich_section_39

The Munich cuisine contributes to the Bavarian cuisine. Munich_sentence_279

Münchner Weisswurst ("white sausage") was invented here in 1857. Munich_sentence_280

It is a Munich speciality. Munich_sentence_281

Traditionally eaten only before noon – a tradition dating to a time before refrigerators – these morsels are often served with sweet mustard and freshly baked pretzels. Munich_sentence_282

Beers and breweries Munich_section_40

Munich is known for its breweries and the Weissbier (or Weißbier / Weizenbier, wheat beer) is a speciality from Bavaria. Munich_sentence_283

Helles, a pale lager with a translucent gold colour is the most popular Munich beer today, although it's not old (only introduced in 1895) and is the result of a change in beer tastes. Munich_sentence_284

Helles has largely replaced Munich's dark beer, Dunkles, which gets its colour from roasted malt. Munich_sentence_285

It was the typical beer in Munich in the 19th century, but it is now more of a speciality. Munich_sentence_286

Starkbier is the strongest Munich beer, with 6%–9% alcohol content. Munich_sentence_287

It is dark amber in colour and has a heavy malty taste. Munich_sentence_288

It is available and is sold particularly during the Lenten Starkbierzeit (strong beer season), which begins on or before St. Joseph's Day (19 March). Munich_sentence_289

The beer served at Oktoberfest is a special type of Märzen beer with a higher alcohol content than regular Helles. Munich_sentence_290

There are countless Wirtshäuser (traditional Bavarian ale houses/restaurants) all over the city area, many of which also have small outside areas. Munich_sentence_291

Biergärten (beer gardens) are popular fixtures of Munich's gastronomic landscape. Munich_sentence_292

They are central to the city's culture and serve as a kind of melting pot for members of all walks of life, for locals, expatriates and tourists alike. Munich_sentence_293

It is allowed to bring one's own food to a beer garden, however, it is forbidden to bring one's own drinks. Munich_sentence_294

There are many smaller beer gardens and around twenty major ones, providing at least a thousand seats, with four of the largest in the Englischer Garten: Chinesischer Turm (Munich's second largest beer garden with 7,000 seats), Seehaus, Hirschau and Aumeister. Munich_sentence_295

Nockherberg, Hofbräukeller (not to be confused with the Hofbräuhaus) and Löwenbräukeller are other beer gardens. Munich_sentence_296

Hirschgarten is the largest beer garden in the world, with 8,000 seats. Munich_sentence_297

There are six main breweries in Munich: Augustiner-Bräu, Hacker-Pschorr, Hofbräu, Löwenbräu, Paulaner and Spaten-Franziskaner-Bräu (separate brands Spaten and Franziskaner, the latter of which mainly for Weissbier). Munich_sentence_298

Also much consumed, though not from Munich and thus without the right to have a tent at the Oktoberfest, are Tegernseer and Schneider Weisse, the latter of which has a major beer hall in Munich. Munich_sentence_299

Smaller breweries are becoming more prevalent in Munich, such as Giesinger Bräu. Munich_sentence_300

However, these breweries do not have tents at Oktoberfest. Munich_sentence_301

Circus Munich_section_41

The Circus Krone based in Munich is one of the largest circuses in Europe. Munich_sentence_302

It was the first and still is one of only a few in Western Europe to also occupy a building of its own. Munich_sentence_303

Nightlife Munich_section_42

Nightlife in Munich is located mostly in the city centre (Altstadt-Lehel) and the boroughs Maxvorstadt, Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt, Au-Haidhausen and Schwabing. Munich_sentence_304

Between Sendlinger Tor and Maximiliansplatz lies the so-called Feierbanane (party banana), a roughly banana-shaped unofficial party zone spanning 1.3 kilometres (0.8 miles) along Sonnenstraße, characterised by a high concentration of clubs, bars and restaurants. Munich_sentence_305

The Feierbanane has become the mainstream focus of Munich's nightlife and tends to become crowded, especially at weekends. Munich_sentence_306

It has also been the subject of some debate among city officials because of alcohol-related security issues and the party zone's general impact on local residents as well as day-time businesses. Munich_sentence_307

Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt's two main quarters, Gärtnerplatzviertel and Glockenbachviertel, are both considered decidedly less mainstream than most other nightlife hotspots in the city and are renowned for their many hip and laid back bars and clubs as well as for being Munich's main centres of gay culture. Munich_sentence_308

On warm spring or summer nights, hundreds of young people gather at Gärtnerplatz to relax, talk with friends and drink beer. Munich_sentence_309

Maxvorstadt has many smaller bars that are especially popular with university students, whereas Schwabing, once Munich's first and foremost party district with legendary clubs such as Big Apple, PN, Domicile, Hot Club, Piper Club, Tiffany, Germany's first large-scale disco Blow Up and the underwater nightclub Yellow Submarine, as well as many bars such as Schwabinger 7 or Schwabinger Podium, has lost much of its nightlife activity in the last decades, mainly due to gentrification and the resulting high rents. Munich_sentence_310

It has become the city's most coveted and expensive residential district, attracting affluent citizens with little interest in partying. Munich_sentence_311

Since the mid-1990s, the Kunstpark Ost and its successor Kultfabrik, a former industrial complex that was converted to a large party area near München Ostbahnhof in Berg am Laim, hosted more than 30 clubs and was especially popular among younger people and residents of the metropolitan area surrounding Munich. Munich_sentence_312

The Kultfabrik was closed at the end of the year 2015 to convert the area into a residential and office area. Munich_sentence_313

Apart from the Kultfarbik and the smaller Optimolwerke, there is a wide variety of establishments in the urban parts of nearby Haidhausen. Munich_sentence_314

Before the Kunstpark Ost, there had already been an accumulation of internationally known nightclubs in the remains of the abandoned former Munich-Riem Airport. Munich_sentence_315

Munich nightlife tends to change dramatically and quickly. Munich_sentence_316

Establishments open and close every year, and due to gentrification and the overheated housing market many survive only a few years, while others last longer. Munich_sentence_317

Beyond the already mentioned venues of the 1960s and 1970s, nightclubs with international recognition in recent history included Tanzlokal Größenwahn, Atomic Cafe and the techno clubs Babalu, Ultraschall, KW – Das Heizkraftwerk, Natraj Temple and MMA Club (Mixed Munich Arts). Munich_sentence_318

From 1995 to 2001, Munich was also home to the Union Move, one of the largest technoparades in Germany. Munich_sentence_319

Munich has two directly connected gay quarters, which basically can be seen as one: Gärtnerplatzviertel and Glockenbachviertel, both part of the Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt district. Munich_sentence_320

Freddie Mercury had an apartment near the Gärtnerplatz and transsexual icon Romy Haag had a club in the city centre for many years. Munich_sentence_321

Munich has more than 100 night clubs and thousands of bars and restaurants within city limits. Munich_sentence_322

Some notable nightclubs are: popular techno clubs are Blitz Club, Harry Klein, Rote Sonne, Bahnwärter Thiel, Bob Beaman, Pimpernel, Charlie and Palais. Munich_sentence_323

Popular mixed music clubs are Call me Drella, Cord, Wannda Circus, Tonhalle, Backstage, Muffathalle, Ampere, Pacha, P1, Zenith, Minna Thiel and the party ship Alte Utting. Munich_sentence_324

Some notable bars (pubs are located all over the city) are Charles Schumann's Cocktail Bar, Havana Club, Sehnsucht, Bar Centrale, Ksar, Holy Home, Eat the Rich, Negroni, Die Goldene Bar and Bei Otto (a bavarian-style pub). Munich_sentence_325

Education Munich_section_43

Colleges and universities Munich_section_44

Munich is a leading location for science and research with a long list of Nobel Prize laureates from Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen in 1901 to Theodor Hänsch in 2005. Munich_sentence_326

Munich has become a spiritual centre already since the times of Emperor Louis IV when philosophers like Michael of Cesena, Marsilius of Padua and William of Ockham were protected at the emperor's court. Munich_sentence_327

The Ludwig Maximilian University (LMU) and the Technische Universität München (TU or TUM), were two of the first three German universities to be awarded the title elite university by a selection committee composed of academics and members of the Ministries of Education and Research of the Federation and the German states (Länder). Munich_sentence_328

Only the two Munich universities and the Technical University of Karlsruhe (now part of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology) have held this honour, and the implied greater chances of attracting research funds, since the first evaluation round in 2006. Munich_sentence_329

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Primary and secondary schools Munich_section_45

Grundschule in Munich: Munich_sentence_330

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Gymnasiums in Munich: Munich_sentence_331

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Realschule in Munich: Munich_sentence_332

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International schools in Munich: Munich_sentence_333

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Scientific research institutions Munich_section_46

Max Planck Society Munich_section_47

The Max Planck Society, an independent German non-profit research organisation, has its administrative headquarters in Munich. Munich_sentence_334

The following institutes are located in the Munich area: Munich_sentence_335

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Fraunhofer Society Munich_section_48

The Fraunhofer Society, the German non-profit research organization for applied research, has its headquarters in Munich. Munich_sentence_336

The following institutes are located in the Munich area: Munich_sentence_337

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  • Applied and Integrated Security –Munich_item_6_59
  • Embedded Systems and Communication -Munich_item_6_60
  • Modular Solid-State Technologies -Munich_item_6_61
  • Building Physics –Munich_item_6_62
  • Process Engineering and Packaging –Munich_item_6_63

Other research institutes Munich_section_49

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Economy Munich_section_50

Munich has the strongest economy of any German city and the lowest unemployment rate (5.4% in July 2020) of any German city of more than a million people (the others being Berlin, Hamburg and Cologne). Munich_sentence_338

The city is also the economic centre of southern Germany. Munich_sentence_339

Munich topped the ranking of the magazine Capital in February 2005 for the economic prospects between 2002 and 2011 in 60 German cities. Munich_sentence_340

Munich is a financial center and a global city and holds the headquarters of many companies. Munich_sentence_341

This includes more companies listed by the DAX than any other German city, as well as the German or European headquarters of many foreign companies such as McDonald's and Microsoft. Munich_sentence_342

One of the best known newly established Munich companies is Flixbus. Munich_sentence_343

Manufacturing Munich_section_51

Munich holds the headquarters of Siemens AG (electronics), BMW (car), MAN AG (truck manufacturer, engineering), MTU Aero Engines (aircraft engine manufacturer), Linde (gases) and Rohde & Schwarz (electronics). Munich_sentence_344

Among German cities with more than 500,000 inhabitants, purchasing power is highest in Munich (€26,648 per inhabitant) as of 2007. Munich_sentence_345

In 2006, Munich blue-collar workers enjoyed an average hourly wage of €18.62 (ca. $20). Munich_sentence_346

The breakdown by cities proper (not metropolitan areas) of Global 500 cities listed Munich in 8th position in 2009. Munich_sentence_347

Munich is also a centre for biotechnology, software and other service industries. Munich_sentence_348

Munich is also the home of the headquarters of many other large companies such as the injection moulding machine manufacturer Krauss-Maffei, the camera and lighting manufacturer Arri, the semiconductor firm Infineon Technologies (headquartered in the suburban town of Neubiberg), lighting giant Osram, as well as the German or European headquarters of many foreign companies such as Microsoft. Munich_sentence_349

Finance Munich_section_52

Munich has significance as a financial centre (second only to Frankfurt), being home of HypoVereinsbank and the Bayerische Landesbank. Munich_sentence_350

It outranks Frankfurt though as home of insurance companies such as Allianz (insurance) and Munich Re (re-insurance). Munich_sentence_351

Media Munich_section_53

Munich is the largest publishing city in Europe and home to the Süddeutsche Zeitung, one of Germany's biggest daily newspapers. Munich_sentence_352

The city is also the location of the programming headquarters of Germany's largest public broadcasting network, ARD, while the largest commercial network, Pro7-Sat1 Media AG, is headquartered in the suburb of Unterföhring. Munich_sentence_353

The headquarters of the German branch of Random House, the world's largest publishing house, and of Burda publishing group are also in Munich. Munich_sentence_354

The Bavaria Film Studios are located in the suburb of Grünwald. Munich_sentence_355

They are one of Europe's biggest film production studios. Munich_sentence_356

Transport Munich_section_54

Munich has an extensive public transport system consisting of an underground metro, trams, buses and high-speed rail. Munich_sentence_357

In 2015, the transport modal share in Munich was 38 percent public transport, 25 percent car, 23 percent walking, and 15 percent bicycle. Munich_sentence_358

Its public transport system delivered 566 million passenger trips that year. Munich_sentence_359

Munich is the hub of a well-developed regional transportation system, including the second-largest airport in Germany and the Berlin–Munich high-speed railway, which connects Munich to the German capital city with a journey time of about 4 hours. Munich_sentence_360

The trade fair transport logistic is held every two years at the Neue Messe München (Messe München International). Munich_sentence_361

Flixmobility which offers intercity coach service is headquartered in Munich. Munich_sentence_362

Public transport Munich_section_55

For its urban population of 2.6 million people, Munich and its closest suburbs have a comprehensive network of public transport incorporating the Munich U-Bahn (underground railway), the Munich S-Bahn (suburban trains), trams and buses. Munich_sentence_363

The system is supervised by the Munich Transport and Tariff Association (Münchner Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund GmbH). Munich_sentence_364

The Munich tramway is the oldest existing public transportation system in the city, which has been in operation since 1876. Munich_sentence_365

Munich also has an extensive network of bus lines. Munich_sentence_366

The extensive network of subway and tram lines assist and complement pedestrian movement in the city centre. Munich_sentence_367

The 700m-long Kaufinger Straße, which starts near the Main train station, forms a pedestrian east–west spine that traverses almost the entire centre. Munich_sentence_368

Similarly, Weinstraße leads off northwards to the Hofgarten. Munich_sentence_369

These major spines and many smaller streets cover an extensive area of the centre that can be enjoyed on foot and bike. Munich_sentence_370

The transformation of the historic area into a pedestrian priority zone enables and invites walking and biking by making these active modes of transport comfortable, safe and enjoyable. Munich_sentence_371

These attributes result from applying the principle of "filtered permability", which selectively restricts the number of roads that run through the centre. Munich_sentence_372

While certain streets are discontinuous for cars, they connect to a network of pedestrian and bike paths, which permeate the entire centre. Munich_sentence_373

In addition, these paths go through public squares and open spaces increasing the enjoyment of the trip (see image). Munich_sentence_374

The logic of filtering a mode of transport is fully expressed in a comprehensive model for laying out neighbourhoods and districts – the Fused Grid. Munich_sentence_375

Munich Public Transportation Statistics Munich_section_56

The average amount of time people spend commuting to and from work with public transit in Munich on a weekday is 56 min. Munich_sentence_376

11% of public transit users, spend more than two hours travelling each day. Munich_sentence_377

The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is ten minutes, whilst 6% of passengers wait for over twenty minutes on average every day. Munich_sentence_378

The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 9.2 km, while 21% travel for over 12 km in a single direction. Munich_sentence_379

Cycling Munich_section_57

Main article: Cycling in Munich Munich_sentence_380

Cycling has a strong presence in the city and is recognised as a good alternative to motorised transport. Munich_sentence_381

The growing number of bicycle lanes are widely used throughout the year. Munich_sentence_382

Cycle paths can be found alongside the majority of sidewalks and streets, although the newer and/or renovated ones are much easier to tell apart from pavements than older ones. Munich_sentence_383

The cycle paths usually involve a longer route than by the road, as they are diverted around objects, and the presence of pedestrians can make them quite slow. Munich_sentence_384

A modern bike hire system is available within the area bounded by the Mittlerer Ring. Munich_sentence_385

München Hauptbahnhof Munich_section_58

Main article: München Hauptbahnhof Munich_sentence_386

München Hauptbahnhof is the main railway station located in the city centre and is one of three long-distance stations in Munich, the others being München Ost (to the east) and München-Pasing (to the west). Munich_sentence_387

All stations are connected to the public transport system and serve as transportation hubs. Munich_sentence_388

München Hauptbahnhof serves about 450,000 passengers a day, which puts it on par with other large stations in Germany, such as Hamburg Hauptbahnhof and Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof. Munich_sentence_389

It and München Ost are two of the 21 stations in Germany classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 1 station. Munich_sentence_390

The mainline station is a terminal station with 32 platforms. Munich_sentence_391

The subterranean S-Bahn with 2 platforms and U-Bahn stations with 6 platforms are through stations. Munich_sentence_392

ICE highspeed trains stop at Munich-Pasing and Munich-Hauptbahnhof only. Munich_sentence_393

InterCity and EuroCity trains to destinations east of Munich also stop at Munich East. Munich_sentence_394

Since 28 May 2006 Munich has been connected to Nuremberg via Ingolstadt by the 300 km/h (186 mph) Nuremberg–Munich high-speed railway line. Munich_sentence_395

In 2017, the Berlin–Munich high-speed railway opened, providing a journey time of less than 4 hours between the two German cities. Munich_sentence_396

Autobahns Munich_section_59

Munich is an integral part of the motorway network of southern Germany. Munich_sentence_397

Motorways from Stuttgart (W), Nuremberg, Frankfurt and Berlin (N), Deggendorf and Passau (E), Salzburg and Innsbruck (SE), Garmisch Partenkirchen (S) and Lindau (SW) terminate at Munich, allowing direct access to the different parts of Germany, Austria and Italy. Munich_sentence_398

Traffic, however, is often very heavy in and around Munich. Munich_sentence_399

Traffic jams are commonplace during rush hour as well as at the beginning and end of major holidays in Germany. Munich_sentence_400

There are few "green waves" or roundabouts, and the city's prosperity often causes an abundance of obstructive construction sites. Munich_sentence_401

Other contributing factors are the extraordinarily high rates of car ownership per capita (multiple times that of Berlin), the city's historically grown and largely preserved centralised urban structure, which leads to a very high concentration of traffic in specific areas, and sometimes poor planning (for example bad traffic light synchronisation and a less than ideal ring road). Munich_sentence_402

Munich International Airport Munich_section_60

Franz Josef Strauss International Airport (IATA: MUC, ICAO: EDDM) is the second-largest airport in Germany and seventh-largest in Europe after London Heathrow, Paris Charles de Gaulle, Frankfurt, Amsterdam, Madrid and Istanbul Atatürk. Munich_sentence_403

It is used by about 46 million passengers a year, and lies some 30 km (19 mi) north east of the city centre. Munich_sentence_404

It replaced the smaller Munich-Riem airport in 1992. Munich_sentence_405

The airport can be reached by suburban train lines from the city. Munich_sentence_406

From the main railway station the journey takes 40–45 minutes. Munich_sentence_407

An express train will be added that will cut down travel time to 20–25 minutes with limited stops on dedicated tracks. Munich_sentence_408

A magnetic levitation train (called Transrapid), which was to have run at speeds of up to 400 km/h (249 mph) from the central station to the airport in a travel time of 10 minutes, had been approved, but was cancelled in March 2008 because of cost escalation and after heavy protests. Munich_sentence_409

Lufthansa opened its second hub at the airport when Terminal 2 was opened in 2003. Munich_sentence_410

Other airports Munich_section_61

In 2008, the Bavarian state government granted a licence to expand Oberpfaffenhofen Air Station located west of Munich, for commercial use. Munich_sentence_411

These plans were opposed by many residents in the Oberpfaffenhofen area as well as other branches of local Government, including the city of Munich, which took the case to court. Munich_sentence_412

However, in October 2009, the permit allowing up to 9725 business flights per year to depart from or land at Oberpfaffenhofen was confirmed by a regional judge. Munich_sentence_413

Despite being 110 km (68 mi) from Munich, Memmingen Airport has been advertised as Airport Munich West. Munich_sentence_414

After 2005, passenger traffic of nearby Augsburg Airport was relocated to Munich Airport, leaving the Augsburg region of Bavaria without an air passenger airport within close reach. Munich_sentence_415

Around Munich Munich_section_62

Nearby towns Munich_section_63

The Munich agglomeration sprawls across the plain of the Alpine foothills comprising about 2.6 million inhabitants. Munich_sentence_416

Several smaller traditional Bavarian towns and cities like Dachau, Freising, Erding, Starnberg, Landshut and Moosburg are today part of the Greater Munich Region, formed by Munich and the surrounding districts, making up the Munich Metropolitan Region, which has a population of about 6 million people. Munich_sentence_417

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  • Munich_item_8_71
  • Munich_item_8_72
  • Munich_item_8_73
  • Munich_item_8_74
  • Munich_item_8_75
  • Munich_item_8_76
  • Munich_item_8_77
  • Munich_item_8_78
  • Munich_item_8_79

Recreation Munich_section_64

South of Munich, there are numerous nearby freshwater lakes such as Lake Starnberg, Ammersee, Chiemsee, Walchensee, Kochelsee, Tegernsee, Schliersee, Simssee, Staffelsee, Wörthsee, Kirchsee and the Osterseen (Easter Lakes), which are popular among the people of Munich for recreation, swimming and watersports and can be quickly reached by car and a few also by Munich's S-Bahn. Munich_sentence_418

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  • Munich_item_9_80
  • Munich_item_9_81
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  • Munich_item_9_84
  • Munich_item_9_85
  • Munich_item_9_86
  • Munich_item_9_87
  • Munich_item_9_88

Notable people Munich_section_65

See also: List of honorary citizens of Munich Munich_sentence_419

Born in Munich Munich_section_66

Notable residents Munich_section_67

International relations Munich_section_68

Munich has seven sister cities. Munich_sentence_420

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See also Munich_section_69

Munich_unordered_list_11


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Munich.