Music of Cuba

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Music of Cuba_table_infobox_0

Music of CubaMusic of Cuba_header_cell_0_0_0
General topicsMusic of Cuba_header_cell_0_1_0
GenresMusic of Cuba_header_cell_0_2_0
Specific formsMusic of Cuba_header_cell_0_3_0
Religious musicMusic of Cuba_header_cell_0_4_0 Music of Cuba_cell_0_4_1
Traditional musicMusic of Cuba_header_cell_0_5_0 Music of Cuba_cell_0_5_1
Media and performanceMusic of Cuba_header_cell_0_6_0
Music awardsMusic of Cuba_header_cell_0_7_0 Beny Moré AwardMusic of Cuba_cell_0_7_1
Nationalistic and patriotic songsMusic of Cuba_header_cell_0_8_0
National anthemMusic of Cuba_header_cell_0_9_0 La BayamesaMusic of Cuba_cell_0_9_1
Regional musicMusic of Cuba_header_cell_0_10_0

The music of Cuba, including its instruments, performance and dance, comprises a large set of unique traditions influenced mostly by west African and European (especially Spanish) music. Music of Cuba_sentence_0

Due to the syncretic nature of most of its genres, Cuban music is often considered one of the richest and most influential regional musics of the world. Music of Cuba_sentence_1

For instance, the son cubano merges an adapted Spanish guitar (tres), melody, harmony, and lyrical traditions with Afro-Cuban percussion and rhythms. Music of Cuba_sentence_2

Almost nothing remains of the original native traditions, since the native population was exterminated in the 16th century. Music of Cuba_sentence_3

Since the 19th century Cuban music has been hugely popular and influential throughout the world. Music of Cuba_sentence_4

It has been perhaps the most popular form of regional music since the introduction of recording technology. Music of Cuba_sentence_5

Cuban music has contributed to the development of a wide variety of genre and musical styles around the globe, most notably in Latin America, the Caribbean, West Africa and Europe. Music of Cuba_sentence_6

Examples include rhumba, Afro-Cuban jazz, salsa, soukous, many West African re-adaptations of Afro-Cuban music (Orchestra Baobab, Africando), Spanish fusion genres (notably with flamenco), and a wide variety of genres in Latin America. Music of Cuba_sentence_7

Overview Music of Cuba_section_0

Large numbers of enslaved Africans and European, mostly Spanish, immigrants came to Cuba and brought their own forms of music to the island. Music of Cuba_sentence_8

European dances and folk musics included zapateo, fandango, paso doble and retambico. Music of Cuba_sentence_9

Later, northern European forms like minuet, gavotte, mazurka, contradanza, and the waltz appeared among urban whites. Music of Cuba_sentence_10

There was also an immigration of Chinese indentured laborers later in the 19th century. Music of Cuba_sentence_11

Fernando Ortiz, the first great Cuban folklorist, described Cuba's musical innovations as arising from the interplay ('transculturation') between enslaved Africans settled on large sugar plantations and Spaniards from different regions such as Andalusia and Canary Islands. Music of Cuba_sentence_12

The enslaved Africans and their descendants made many percussion instruments and preserved rhythms they had known in their homeland. Music of Cuba_sentence_13

The most important instruments were the drums, of which, there were originally about fifty different types; today only the bongos, congas and batá drums are regularly seen (the timbales are descended from kettle drums in Spanish military bands). Music of Cuba_sentence_14

Also important are the claves, two short hardwood batons, and the cajón, a wooden box, originally made from crates. Music of Cuba_sentence_15

Claves are still used often, and wooden boxes (cajones) were widely used during periods when the drum was banned. Music of Cuba_sentence_16

In addition, there are other percussion instruments in use for African-origin religious ceremonies. Music of Cuba_sentence_17

Chinese immigrants contributed the corneta china (Chinese cornet), a Chinese reed instrument still played in the comparsas, or carnival groups, of Santiago de Cuba. Music of Cuba_sentence_18

The great instrumental contribution of the Spanish was their guitar, but even more important was the tradition of European musical notation and techniques of musical composition. Music of Cuba_sentence_19

Hernando de la Parra's archives give some of our earliest available information on Cuban music. Music of Cuba_sentence_20

He reported instruments including the clarinet, violin and vihuela. Music of Cuba_sentence_21

There were few professional musicians at the time, and fewer still of their songs survive. Music of Cuba_sentence_22

One of the earliest is Ma Teodora, supposed to be related to a freed slave, Teodora Ginés of Santiago de Cuba, who was famous for her compositions. Music of Cuba_sentence_23

The piece is said to be similar to 16th-, 17th- and 18th-century Spanish popular songs and dances. Music of Cuba_sentence_24

Cuban music has its principal roots in Spain and West Africa, but over time has been influenced by diverse genres from different countries. Music of Cuba_sentence_25

Important among these are France (and its colonies in the Americas), and the United States. Music of Cuba_sentence_26

Cuban music has been immensely influential in other countries. Music of Cuba_sentence_27

It contributed not only to the development of jazz and salsa, but also to the Argentine tango, Ghanaian high-life, West African Afrobeat, Dominican Bachata and Merengue, Colombian Cumbia and Spanish Nuevo flamenco and to the Arabo-Cuban music (Hanine Y Son Cubano) developed by Michel Elefteriades in the 1990s. Music of Cuba_sentence_28

The African beliefs and practices certainly influenced Cuba's music. Music of Cuba_sentence_29

Polyrhythmic percussion is an inherent part of African music, as melody is part of European music. Music of Cuba_sentence_30

Also, in African tradition, percussion is always joined to song and dance, and to a particular social setting. Music of Cuba_sentence_31

The result of the meeting of European and African cultures is that most Cuban popular music is creolized. Music of Cuba_sentence_32

This creolization of Cuban life has been happening for a long time, and by the 20th century, elements of African belief, music and dance were well integrated into popular and folk forms. Music of Cuba_sentence_33

18th and 19th centuries Music of Cuba_section_1

Among internationally heralded composers of the "serious" genre can be counted the Baroque composer Esteban Salas y Castro (1725–1803), who spent much of his life teaching and writing music for the Church. Music of Cuba_sentence_34

He was followed in the Cathedral of Santiago de Cuba by the priest Juan París (1759–1845). Music of Cuba_sentence_35

París was an exceptionally industrious man, and an important composer. Music of Cuba_sentence_36

He encouraged continuous and diverse musical events. Music of Cuba_sentence_37

Aside from rural music and Afro-Cuban folk music, the most popular kind of urban Creole dance music in the 19th century was the contradanza, which commenced as a local form of the English country dance and the derivative French contredanse and Spanish contradanza. Music of Cuba_sentence_38

While many contradanzas were written for dance, from the mid-century several were written as light-classical parlor pieces for piano. Music of Cuba_sentence_39

The first distinguished composer in this style was Manuel Saumell (1818–1870), who is sometimes accordingly hailed as the father of Cuban creole musical development. Music of Cuba_sentence_40

According to Helio Orovio, "After Saumell's visionary work, all that was left to do was to develop his innovations, all of which profoundly influenced the history of Cuban nationalist musical movements." Music of Cuba_sentence_41

In the hands of his successor, Ignacio Cervantes Kawanagh, the piano idiom related to the contradanza achieved even greater sophistication. Music of Cuba_sentence_42

Cervantes was called by Aaron Copland a "Cuban Chopin" because of his Chopinesque piano compositions. Music of Cuba_sentence_43

Cervantes' reputation today rests almost solely upon his famous forty-one Danzas Cubanas, which Carpentier said, "occupy the place that the Norwegian Dances of Grieg or the Slavic Dances of Dvořák occupy in the musics of their respective countries". Music of Cuba_sentence_44

Cervantes' never-finished opera, Maledetto, is forgotten. Music of Cuba_sentence_45

In the 1840s, the habanera emerged as a languid vocal song using the contradanza rhythm. Music of Cuba_sentence_46

(Non-Cubans sometimes called Cuban contradanzas "habaneras.") Music of Cuba_sentence_47

The habanera went on to become popular in Spain and elsewhere. Music of Cuba_sentence_48

The Cuban contradanza/danza was also an important influence on the Puerto Rican danza, which went on to enjoy its own dynamic and distinctive career lasting through the 1930s. Music of Cuba_sentence_49

In Cuba, in the 1880s the contradanza/danza gave birth to the danzón, which effectively superseded it in popularity. Music of Cuba_sentence_50

Laureano Fuentes (1825–1898) came from a family of musicians and wrote the first opera to be composed on the island, La hija de Jefté (Jefte's daughter). Music of Cuba_sentence_51

This was later lengthened and staged under the title Seila. Music of Cuba_sentence_52

His numerous works spanned all genres. Music of Cuba_sentence_53

Gaspar Villate (1851–1891) produced abundant and wide-ranging work, all centered on opera. Music of Cuba_sentence_54

José White (1836–1918), a mulatto of a Spanish father and an Afrocuban mother, was a composer and a violinist of international merit. Music of Cuba_sentence_55

He learned to play sixteen instruments, and lived, variously, in Cuba, Latin America and Paris. Music of Cuba_sentence_56

His most famous work is La bella cubana, a habanera. Music of Cuba_sentence_57

During the middle years of the 19th century, a young American musician came to Havana: Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829–1869), whose father was a Jewish businessman from London, and his mother a white creole of French Catholic background. Music of Cuba_sentence_58

Gottschalk was brought up mostly by his black grandmother and nurse Sally, both from Saint-Domingue. Music of Cuba_sentence_59

He was a piano prodigy who had listened to the music and seen the dancing in Congo Square, New Orleans from childhood. Music of Cuba_sentence_60

His period in Cuba lasted from 1853 to 1862, with visits to Puerto Rico and Martinique squeezed in. Music of Cuba_sentence_61

He composed many creolized pieces, such as the habanera Bamboula, Op. 2 (Danse de negres) (1845), the title referring to a bass Afro-Caribbean drum; El cocoye (1853), a version of a rhythmic melody already present in Cuba; the contradanza Ojos criollos (Danse cubaine) (1859) and a version of María de la O, which refers to a Cuban mulatto singer. Music of Cuba_sentence_62

These numbers made use of typical Cuban rhythmic patterns. Music of Cuba_sentence_63

At one of his farewell concerts he played his Adiós a Cuba to huge applause and shouts of 'bravo!' Music of Cuba_sentence_64

Unfortunately, his score for the work has not survived. Music of Cuba_sentence_65

In February 1860 Gottschalk produced a huge work La nuit des tropiques in Havana. Music of Cuba_sentence_66

The work used about 250 musicians and a choir of 200 singers plus a tumba francesa group from Santiago de Cuba. Music of Cuba_sentence_67

He produced another huge concert the following year, with new material. Music of Cuba_sentence_68

These shows probably dwarfed anything seen in the island before or since, and no doubt were unforgettable for those who attended. Music of Cuba_sentence_69

20th-century classical and art music Music of Cuba_section_2

Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th a number of composers excel within the Cuban music panorama. Music of Cuba_sentence_70

They cultivated genres such as the popular song and the concert lied, dance music, the zarzuela and the vernacular theatre, as well as symphonic music. Music of Cuba_sentence_71

Among others, we should mention Hubert de Blanck (1856-1932); José Mauri (1856-1937); Manuel Mauri (1857-1939); José Marín Varona; Eduardo Sánchez de Fuentes (1874-1944); Jorge Anckermann (1877-1941); Luis Casas Romero (1882-1950) and Mario Valdés Costa (1898-1930). Music of Cuba_sentence_72

The work of José Marín Varona links the Cuban musical activity from the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. Music of Cuba_sentence_73

In 1896, the composer included in his zarzuela "El Brujo" the first Cuban guajira which has been historically documented. Music of Cuba_sentence_74

About this piece, composer Eduardo Sánchez de Fuentes said: "The honest critique of a not very far day will bestow the author of the immortal guajira of "El Brujo" the honor to which he is undoubtedly entitled at any time". Music of Cuba_sentence_75

Gonzalo Roig (1890–1970) was a major force in the first half of the century. Music of Cuba_sentence_76

A composer and orchestral director, he qualified in piano, violin and composition theory. Music of Cuba_sentence_77

In 1922 he was one of the founders of the National Symphony Orchestra, which he conducted. Music of Cuba_sentence_78

In 1927 he was appointed Director of the Havana School of Music. Music of Cuba_sentence_79

As a composer he specialized in the zarzuela, a musical theatre form, very popular up to World War II. Music of Cuba_sentence_80

In 1931 he co-founded a bufo company (comic theatre) at the Teatro Martí in Havana. Music of Cuba_sentence_81

He was the composer of the most well-known Cuban zarzuela, Cecilia Valdés, based on the famous 19th-century novel about a Cuban mulata. Music of Cuba_sentence_82

It was premiered in 1932. Music of Cuba_sentence_83

He founded various organizations and wrote frequently on musical topics. Music of Cuba_sentence_84

One of the greatest Cuban pianist/composers of the 20th century was Ernesto Lecuona (1895–1963). Music of Cuba_sentence_85

Lecuona composed over six hundred pieces, mostly in the Cuban vein, and was a pianist of exceptional quality. Music of Cuba_sentence_86

He was a prolific composer of songs and music for stage and film. Music of Cuba_sentence_87

His works consisted of zarzuela, Afro-Cuban and Cuban rhythms, suites and many songs that became Latin standards. Music of Cuba_sentence_88

They include Siboney, Malagueña and The Breeze And I (Andalucía). Music of Cuba_sentence_89

In 1942 his great hit Always in my heart (Siempre en mi Corazon) was nominated for an Oscar for Best Song; it lost out to White Christmas. Music of Cuba_sentence_90

The Ernesto Lecuona Symphonic Orchestra performed the premiere of Lecuona's Black Rhapsody in the Cuban Liberation Day Concert at Carnegie Hall on 10 October 1943. Music of Cuba_sentence_91

Although their music is rarely played today, "Amadeo Roldán (1900–1939) and Alejandro García Caturla (1906–1940) were Cuba's symphonic revolutionaries during the first half of the 20th Century. Music of Cuba_sentence_92

They both played a part in Afrocubanismo: the movement in black-themed Cuban culture with origins in the 1920s, and extensively analysed by Fernando Ortiz. Music of Cuba_sentence_93

Roldan, born in Paris to a Cuban mulatta and a Spanish father, came to Cuba in 1919 and became the concert-master (first-chair violin) of the new Orquesta Sinfónica de La Habana in 1922. Music of Cuba_sentence_94

There he met Caturla, at sixteen a second violin. Music of Cuba_sentence_95

Roldan's compositions included Overture on Cuban themes (1925), and two ballets: La Rebambaramba (1928) and El milagro de Anaquille (1929). Music of Cuba_sentence_96

There followed a series of Ritmicas and Poema negra (1930) and Tres toques (march, rites, dance) (1931). Music of Cuba_sentence_97

In Motivos de son (1934) he wrote eight pieces for voice and instruments based on the poet Nicolás Guillén's set of poems with the same title. Music of Cuba_sentence_98

His last composition was two Piezas infantiles for piano (1937). Music of Cuba_sentence_99

Roldan died young, at 38, of a disfiguring facial cancer (he had been an inveterate smoker). Music of Cuba_sentence_100

After his student days, Caturla lived all his life in the small central town of Remedios, where he became a lawyer to support his growing family. Music of Cuba_sentence_101

His Tres danzas cubanas for symphony orchestra was first performed in Spain in 1929. Music of Cuba_sentence_102

Bembe was premiered in Havana the same year. Music of Cuba_sentence_103

His Obertura cubana won first prize in a national contest in 1938. Music of Cuba_sentence_104

Caturla was murdered at 34 by a young gambler. Music of Cuba_sentence_105

Founded in 1942 under the guidance of José Ardévol (1911–1981), a Catalan composer established in Cuba since 1930, the "Grupo de Renovación Musical" served as a platform for a group of young composers to develop a proactive movement with the purpose of improving and literally renovating the quality of the Cuban musical environment. Music of Cuba_sentence_106

During its existence from 1942 to 1948, the group organized numerous concerts at the Havana Lyceum in order to present their avant-garde compositions to the general public and fostered within its members the development of many future conductors, art critics, performers and professors. Music of Cuba_sentence_107

They also started a process of investigation and reevaluation of the Cuban music in general, discovering the outstanding work of Carlo Borbolla and promoting the compositions of Saumell, Cervantes, Caturla and Roldán. Music of Cuba_sentence_108

The "Grupo de Renovación Musical" included the following composers: Hilario González, Harold Gramatges, Julián Orbón, Juan Antonio Cámara, Serafín Pro, Virginia Fleites, Gisela Hernández, Enrique Aparicio Bellver, Argeliers León, Dolores Torres and Edgardo Martín. Music of Cuba_sentence_109

Other contemporary Cuban composers that were little or no related at all to the "Groupo de Renovación Musical" were: Aurelio de la Vega, Joaquín Nin-Culmell, Alfredo Diez Nieto and Natalio Galán. Music of Cuba_sentence_110

Although, in Cuba, many composers have written both classical and popular creole types of music, the distinction became clearer after 1960, when (at least initially) the regime frowned on popular music and closed most of the night-club venues, whilst providing financial support for classical music rather than creole forms. Music of Cuba_sentence_111

From then on, most musicians have kept their careers on one side of the invisible line or the other. Music of Cuba_sentence_112

After the Cuban Revolution in 1959, a new crop of classical musicians came onto the scene. Music of Cuba_sentence_113

The most important of these is guitarist Leo Brouwer, who have made significant contributions to the technique and repertoire of the modern classical guitar, and has been the director of the National Symphony Orchestra of Cuba. Music of Cuba_sentence_114

His directorship in the early 1970s of the "Grupo de Experimentacion Sonora del ICAIC" was instrumental in the formation and consolidation of the Nueva trova movement. Music of Cuba_sentence_115

Other important composers from the early post-revolution period that began in 1959 were: Carlos Fariñas and Juan Blanco, a pioneer of "concrete" and "electroacoustic music" in Cuba. Music of Cuba_sentence_116

Closely following the early post-revolution generation, a group of young composers started to attract the attention of the public that attended classical music concerts. Music of Cuba_sentence_117

Most of them had obtained degrees in reputable Schools outside the country thanks to scholarships granted by the government, like Sergio Fernández Barroso (also known as Sergio Barroso), that received a post-graduate degree from the Superior Academy of Music in Prague, and Roberto Valera, who studied with Witold Rudziński and Andrzej Dobrowolski in Poland. Music of Cuba_sentence_118

Three other composers belong to this group: Calixto Alvarez, Carlos Malcolm and Héctor Angulo. Music of Cuba_sentence_119

In 1962, the North American composer Federico Smith arrives in Havana. Music of Cuba_sentence_120

He embraced the Cuban nation as his own country and became one of the most accomplished musicians living and working in Cuba at that time. Music of Cuba_sentence_121

He remained in Cuba until his death, and made an important contribution to the Cuban musical patrimony. Music of Cuba_sentence_122

During the early 1970s, a group of musicians and composers, most of them graduated from the National School of Arts and the Havana Conservatory, gathered around an organization recently created by the government as the junior section of UNEAC (National Union of Writers and Artists of Cuba), the "Brigada Hermanos Saíz. Music of Cuba_sentence_123

Some of its member were composers Juan Piñera (nephew of the renowned Cuban writer Virgilio Piñera), Flores Chaviano, Armando Rodriguez Ruidiaz, Danilo Avilés, Magaly Ruiz, Efraín Amador Piñero and José Loyola . Music of Cuba_sentence_124

Other contemporary composers less involved with the organization were José María Vitier, Julio Roloff, and Jorge López Marín. Music of Cuba_sentence_125

After the Cuban Revolution (1959), many future Cuban composers emigrated at a very young age and developed most of their careers outside the country. Music of Cuba_sentence_126

Within this group are the composers Tania León, Orlando Jacinto García, Armando Tranquilino, Odaline de la Martinez, José Raul Bernardo, Jorge Martín (composer) and Raul Murciano. Music of Cuba_sentence_127

21st-century classical and art music Music of Cuba_section_3

During the last decades of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century a new generation of composers emerged into the Cuban classical music panorama. Music of Cuba_sentence_128

Most of them received a solid musical education provided by the official arts school system created by the Cuban government and graduated from the Instituto Superior de Arte (ISA). Music of Cuba_sentence_129

Some of those composers are Louis Franz Aguirre, Ileana Pérez Velázquez, Keila María Orozco, Viviana Ruiz, Fernando (Archi) Rodríguez Alpízar, Yalil Guerra, Eduardo Morales Caso, Ailem Carvajal Gómez., Irina Escalante Chernova. Music of Cuba_sentence_130

and Evelin Ramón. Music of Cuba_sentence_131

All of them have emigrated and currently live and work in other countries. Music of Cuba_sentence_132

Electroacoustic music in Cuba Music of Cuba_section_4

Classical guitar in Cuba Music of Cuba_section_5

Main article: Classical Guitar in Cuba Music of Cuba_sentence_133

From the 16th to the 19th century Music of Cuba_section_6

The guitar (as it is known today or in one of its historical versions) has been present in Cuba since the discovery of the island by Spain. Music of Cuba_sentence_134

As early as the 16th century, a musician named Juan Ortiz, from the village of Trinidad, is mentioned by famous chronicler Bernal Díaz del Castillo as "gran tañedor de vihuela y viola" ("a great performer of the vihuela and the guitar"). Music of Cuba_sentence_135

Another "vihuelista", Alonso Morón from Bayamo, is also mentioned in the Spanish conquest chronicles during the 16th century. Music of Cuba_sentence_136

A disciple of famous Spanish guitarist Dionisio Aguado, José Prudencio Mungol was the first Cuban guitarist trained in the Spanish guitar tradition. Music of Cuba_sentence_137

In 1893 he performed at a much acclaimed concert in Havana, after returning from Spain. Music of Cuba_sentence_138

Mungol actively participated in the musical life of Havana and was a professor at the Hubert de Blanck conservatory. Music of Cuba_sentence_139

20th century and beyond Music of Cuba_section_7

Severino López was born in Matanzas. Music of Cuba_sentence_140

He studied guitar in Cuba with Juan Martín Sabio and Pascual Roch, and in Spain with renowned Catalan guitarist Miguel Llobet. Music of Cuba_sentence_141

Severino López is considered the initiator in Cuba of the guitar school founded by Francisco Tárrega in Spain. Music of Cuba_sentence_142

Clara Romero (1888-1951), founder of the modern Cuban School of Guitar, studied in Spain with Nicolás Prats and in Cuba with Félix Guerrero. Music of Cuba_sentence_143

She inaugurated the guitar department at the Havana Municipal Conservatory in 1931, where she also introduced the teachings of the Cuban folk guitar style. Music of Cuba_sentence_144

She created the Guitar Society of Cuba (Sociedad Guitarrística de Cuba) in 1940, and also the "Guitar" (Guitarra) magazine, with the purpose of promoting the Society's activities. Music of Cuba_sentence_145

She was the professor of many Cuban guitarists including her son Isaac Nicola and her daughter Clara (Cuqui) Nicola. Music of Cuba_sentence_146

After studying with his mother, Clara Romero, at the Havana Municipal Conservatory, Isaac Nicola (1916 – 1997) continued his training in Paris with Emilio Pujol, a disciple of Francisco Tárrega. Music of Cuba_sentence_147

He also studied the vihuela with Pujol and researched about the guitar's history and literature. Music of Cuba_sentence_148

Modern Cuban Guitar School Music of Cuba_section_8

After the Cuban revolution in 1959, Isaac Nicola and other professors such as Marta Cuervo, Clara (Cuqui) Nicola, Marianela Bonet and Leopoldina Núñez were integrated to the national music schools system, where a unified didactical method was implemented. Music of Cuba_sentence_149

This was a nucleus for the later development of a national Cuban Guitar School with which a new generation of guitarists and composers collaborated. Music of Cuba_sentence_150

Maybe the most important contribution to the modern Cuban guitar technique and repertoire comes from Leo Brouwer (born 1939). Music of Cuba_sentence_151

The grandson of Ernestina Lecuona, sister of Ernesto Lecuona, Brouwer began studying the guitar with his father and after some time continued with Isaac Nicola. Music of Cuba_sentence_152

He taught himself harmony, counterpoint, musical forms and orchestration before completing his studies at the Juilliard School and the University of Hartford. Music of Cuba_sentence_153

New generations Music of Cuba_section_9

Since the 1960s, several generations of guitar performers, professors and composers have been formed under the Cuban Guitar School at educational institutions such as the Havana Municipal Conservatory, the National School of Arts, and the Instituto Superior de Arte. Music of Cuba_sentence_154

Others, such as Manuel Barrueco, a concertist of international renown, developed their careers outside the country. Music of Cuba_sentence_155

Among many other guitarists related to the Cuban Guitar School are Carlos Molina, Sergio Vitier, Flores Chaviano, Efraín Amador Piñero, Armando Rodriguez Ruidiaz, Martín Pedreira, Lester Carrodeguas, Mario Daly, José Angel Pérez Puentes and Teresa Madiedo. Music of Cuba_sentence_156

A younger group includes guitarists Rey Guerra, Aldo Rodríguez Delgado, Pedro Cañas, Leyda Lombard, Ernesto Tamayo, Miguel Bonachea, Joaquín Clerch and Yalil Guerra. Music of Cuba_sentence_157

Classical piano in Cuba Music of Cuba_section_10

Main article: Classical piano in Cuba Music of Cuba_sentence_158

After its arrival in Cuba at the end of the 18th century, the pianoforte (commonly called piano) rapidly became one of the favorite instruments among the Cuban population. Music of Cuba_sentence_159

Along with the humble guitar, the piano accompanied the popular Cuban "guarachas" and "contradanzas" (derived from the European Country Dances) at salons and ballrooms in Havana and all over the country. Music of Cuba_sentence_160

As early as in 1804, a concert program in Havana announced a vocal concert "accompanied at the fortepiano by a distinguished foreigner recently arrived" and in 1832, Juan Federico Edelmann (1795-1848), a renowned pianist, son of a famous Alsatian composer and pianist, arrived in Havana and gave a very successful concert at the Teatro Principal. Music of Cuba_sentence_161

Encouraged by the warm welcome, Edelmann decided to stay in Havana, and he was very soon promoted to an important position within the Santa Cecilia Philharmonic Society. Music of Cuba_sentence_162

In 1836, he opened a music store and publishing company. Music of Cuba_sentence_163

One of the most prestigious Cuban musicians, Ernesto Lecuona (1895-1963), began studying piano with his sister Ernestina and continued with Peyrellade, Saavedra, Nin and Hubert de Blanck. Music of Cuba_sentence_164

A child prodigy, Lecuona gave a concert, at just five, at the Círculo Hispano. Music of Cuba_sentence_165

When he graduated from the National Conservatory, he was awarded the First Prize and the Gold Medal of his class by unanimous decision of the board. Music of Cuba_sentence_166

He is by far the Cuban composer of greatest international recognition and his contributions to the Cuban piano tradition are considered exceptional. Music of Cuba_sentence_167

Classical violin in Cuba Music of Cuba_section_11

Main article: Classical violin in Cuba Music of Cuba_sentence_168

From the 16th to the 18th century Music of Cuba_section_12

Bowed stringed instruments have been present in Cuba since the 16th century. Music of Cuba_sentence_169

Musician Juan Ortiz from the Ville of Trinidad is mentioned by chronicler Bernal Díaz del Castillo as a "great performer of "vihuela" and "viola". Music of Cuba_sentence_170

On In 1764, Esteban Salas y Castro, became the new chapel master of the Santiago de Cuba Cathedral, and to fulfill his musical duties he counted with a small vocal-instrumental group that included two violins. Music of Cuba_sentence_171

In 1793, numerous colonists fleeing from the slave revolt in Saint Domingue arrived in Santiago de Cuba, and an orchestra consisting of a flute, oboe, clarinet, trumpet, three horns, three violins, viola, two violoncellos, and percussion was founded. Music of Cuba_sentence_172

From the 18th to the 19th century Music of Cuba_section_13

During the transition from the 18th to the 19th centuries, the Havanese Ulpiano Estrada (1777–1847) offered violin lessons and conducted the Teatro Principal orchestra from 1817 to 1820. Music of Cuba_sentence_173

Apart from his activity as a violinist, Estrada kept a very active musical career as a conductor of numerous orchestras, bands and operas, and composing many contradanzas and other dance pieces, such as minuets and valses. Music of Cuba_sentence_174

José Vandergutch, Belgian violinist, arrived at Havana along with his father Juan and brother Francisco, also violinists. Music of Cuba_sentence_175

They returned at a later time to Belgium, but José established his permanent residence in Havana, where he acquired great recognition. Music of Cuba_sentence_176

Vandergutch offered numerous concerts as a soloist and accompanied by several orchestras, around the mid-19th century. Music of Cuba_sentence_177

He was a member of the Classical Music Association and also a Director of The "Asociación Musical de Socorro Mutuo de La Habana." Music of Cuba_sentence_178

Within the universe of the classical Cuban violin during the 19th century, there are two outstanding Masters that may be considered among the greatest violin virtuosos of all time; they are José White Lafitte y Claudio Brindis de Salas Garrido. Music of Cuba_sentence_179

After receiving his first musical instruction from his father, the virtuoso Cuban violinist José White Lafitte (1835–1918) offered his first concert in Matanzas on March 21, 1854. Music of Cuba_sentence_180

In that presentation he was accompanied by the famous American pianist and composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk, whom encouraged him to further his musical instruction in Paris, and also collected funds for that purpose. Music of Cuba_sentence_181

José White studied musical composition in the Conservatoire de Paris from 1855 to 1871. Music of Cuba_sentence_182

Just ten months after his arrival he won the first prize in the violin category on the Conservatorie's contest and was highly praised by Gioachino Rossini. Music of Cuba_sentence_183

At a later time he was a professor of the renowned violinists George Enescu and Jacques Thibaud. Music of Cuba_sentence_184

From 1877 to 1889, White was appointed as Director of the Imperial Conservatory in Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, where he also served as court musician of the Emperor Pedro II. Music of Cuba_sentence_185

At a later time he returned to Paris where he stayed until his death. Music of Cuba_sentence_186

The famous violin named "Swan's song" was his preferred instrument and his most famous composition is the Habanera "La bella cubana". Music of Cuba_sentence_187

White also composed many other pieces, including a concert for violin and orchestra. Music of Cuba_sentence_188

Claudio José Domingo Brindis de Salas y Garrido (1852–1911) was a renowned Cuban violinist, son of the also famous violinist, double-bassist and conductor Claudio Brindis de Salas (1800-1972), which conducted one of the most popular orchestras of Havana during the first half of the 19th century, named "La Concha de Oro" (The Golden Conch). Music of Cuba_sentence_189

Claudio José surpassed the fame and expertise of his father and came to acquire international recognition. Music of Cuba_sentence_190

Claudio Brindis de Salas Garrido began his musical studies with his father and continued with Maestros José Redondo and the Belgian José Vandergutch. Music of Cuba_sentence_191

He offered his first concert in Havana in 1863, in which Vandegutch participated as accompanist. Music of Cuba_sentence_192

The famous pianist and composer Ignacio Cervantes also participated in that event. Music of Cuba_sentence_193

According with the contemporary critique, Brindis de Salas was considered one of the most outstanding violinists of his time at an international level. Music of Cuba_sentence_194

Alejo Carpentier referred to him as: "The most outstanding black violinist from the 19th century... something without any precedent in the musical history of the continent". Music of Cuba_sentence_195

The French government named him member of the Légion d'Honneur, and gave him a nobility title of "Baron". Music of Cuba_sentence_196

In Buenos Aires he received a genuine Stradivarius, and while living in Berlin he married a German lady, was named Chamber Musician of the Emperor and received an honorary citizenship from that country. Music of Cuba_sentence_197

Brindis de Salas died poor and forgotten in 1911 from tuberculosis, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Music of Cuba_sentence_198

In 1930 his remains were transferred to Havana with great honors. Music of Cuba_sentence_199

Another outstanding Cuban violinist from the 19th century was Rafael Díaz Albertini (1857–1928). Music of Cuba_sentence_200

He studied violin with José Vandergutch and Anselmo López (1841-1858), well known Havanese violinist that was dedicated also to music publishing. Music of Cuba_sentence_201

In 1870, Albertini travelled to Paris with the purpose of perfecting his technique with famous violinist Jean-Delphin Alard, and in 1875 received First prize in the Paris Contest, in which he subsequently participated as a Juror. Music of Cuba_sentence_202

He toured extensively through the world, accompanied some times by prestigious Masters such as Hugo Wolf and Camille Saint-Saëns. Music of Cuba_sentence_203

In 1894 he made presentations, along with Ignacion Cervantes, through the most important cities of Cuba. Music of Cuba_sentence_204

A list of prominent Cuban violinist from the second half of the 19th century and the first of the 20th may include: Manuel Muñoz Cedeño (b. Music of Cuba_sentence_205

1813), José Domingo Bousquet (b. Music of Cuba_sentence_206

1823), Carlos Anckermann (b. Music of Cuba_sentence_207

1829), Antonio Figueroa (b. Music of Cuba_sentence_208

1852), Ramón Figueroa (b. Music of Cuba_sentence_209

1862), Juan Torroella (b.1874), Casimiro Zertucha (b. Music of Cuba_sentence_210

1880), Joaquín Molina (b. Music of Cuba_sentence_211

1884), Marta de La Torre (1888), Catalino Arjona (b. Music of Cuba_sentence_212

1895) and Diego Bonilla (1898-). Music of Cuba_sentence_213

From the 20th to the 21st century Music of Cuba_section_14

During the first half of the 20th century the name of Amadeo Roldán stands out (1900–1939), because apart from an excellent violinist, professor and conductor, Roldán is considered one of the most important Cuban composers of all time. Music of Cuba_sentence_214

After his graduation at the Conservatoire de Paris in 1935 with just 16 years old, the renowned Cuban violinist Ángel Reyes (1919–1988) developed a very successful career as a soloist and also accompanied by prestigious orchestras of many countries. Music of Cuba_sentence_215

He established his residence in the United States at a very young age, obtained an award in the Ysaÿe Contest in Brussels and was a professor at the Michigan and Northwestern Universities, until his retirement in 1985. Music of Cuba_sentence_216

Eduardo Hernández Asiaín (1911-2010) was born in Havana, began his musical studies at a very early age and offered his first concert with just seven years old. Music of Cuba_sentence_217

When he was 14, he obtained the First Award at the Municipal Conservatory of Havana and was appointed as Concertino of the Havana Symphony Orchestra. Music of Cuba_sentence_218

In 1932, he travelled to Madrid to further his musical education with professors Enrique Fernández Arbós and Antonio Fernández Bordas. Music of Cuba_sentence_219

Since 1954, Hernández Asiaín performed as a soloist with the orchestras from the Pasdeloup Concert Society and the Radiodiffusion française in Paris, the "Orquesta Nacional de España", the "Orquesta Sinfónica de Bilbao", the "Orquesta de Cámara de Madrid" and the "Orquesta Sinfónica y de Cámara de San Sebastián", of which he is the founder. Music of Cuba_sentence_220

In 1968, he was appointed as First Violin of the "Cuarteto Clásico" of RTVE, participating with pianist Isabel Picaza González in the "Quinteto Clásico de RNE", with which he offered concerts and made numerous recordings in Spain and other countries. Music of Cuba_sentence_221

He also toured extensively through the US. Music of Cuba_sentence_222

Other prominent Cuban violinists from the first half of the 20th century are: Robero Valdés Arnau (1919-1974), Alberto Bolet and Virgilio Diago. Music of Cuba_sentence_223

After 1959, already in the post revolutionary period, stands out a Cuban violinist that has made a substantial contribution, not just to the development of the violin and the bowed string instruments, but also to the national musical culture in general. Music of Cuba_sentence_224

Evelio Tieles began to study music in Cuba with his father, Evelio Tieles Soler, when he was just seven years old, and continued at a later time with professor Joaquín Molina. Music of Cuba_sentence_225

Between 1952 and 1954, Tieles studied violin in Paris, France, with Jacques Thibaud and René Benedetti. Music of Cuba_sentence_226

In 1955 he returned to Paris and studied at the National Superior Music Conservatory in that city, and in 1958, he continued his musical training at Conservatorio Tchaikovsky in Moscú, where he was a disciple of renowned violinists David Oistrakh and Igor Oistrakh. Music of Cuba_sentence_227

Tieles graduated in 1963 and by recommendation of the Conservatory he pursued his master's degree from 1963 to 1966, with the same mentioned professors. Music of Cuba_sentence_228

Tieles received also professional training from the prestigious violinists Henryk Szeryng and Eduardo Hernández Asiaín. Music of Cuba_sentence_229

Evelio Tieles has offered numerous presentations as a concert performer, in a duo with his brother, pianist Cecilio Tieles, or accompanied by the Cuban National Symphony Orchestra and other symphonic and chamber ensembles. Music of Cuba_sentence_230

He has performed along with prestigious conductors such as Thomas Sanderling, Boris Brott, Enrique González Mántici y Manuel Duchesne Cuzán, among others. Music of Cuba_sentence_231

Tieles has established his residence in Spain since 1984, and he teaches violin in the Vila-Seca Conservatory, in the province of Tarragona, where he has been appointed as "Professor Emeritus". Music of Cuba_sentence_232

He has also served at the Superior Conservatory of the Barcelona Lyceum as Chief of the Chamber Music Department (1991–1998), Head of the Division of Bowed String Instruments (1986-2002) and Academic Director (2000–2002). Music of Cuba_sentence_233

Apart from his outstanding career as a concert performer and professor, during the Post-Revolutionary period, Tieles promoted and organized in Cuba the bowed string instruments training, fundamentally for the violin. Music of Cuba_sentence_234

Another prominent violinist is professor Alla Tarán (1941). Music of Cuba_sentence_235

She was formed as a violinist in her native Ukraine and worked as a professor of Chamber Ensemble Practice. Music of Cuba_sentence_236

Tarán established her residence in Cuba since 1969. Music of Cuba_sentence_237

Alfredo Muñoz (1949) began studying the violin at Conservatorio Orbon in Havana, Cuba, and subsequently continued at the National School of Arts and the Instituto Superior de Arte (ISA). Music of Cuba_sentence_238

He joined the National Symphony Orchestra as a violinist in 1972 and since then has been very active as a soloist and a member of the White Trio, in Cuba and abroad. Music of Cuba_sentence_239

He is currently a professor at the Instituto Superior de Artes (ISA). Music of Cuba_sentence_240

Other Cuban violinists that have developed their careers between the 20th and the 21st century are: Armando Toledo (1950), Julián Corrales (1954), Miguel del Castillo and Ricardo Jústiz. Music of Cuba_sentence_241

21st century Music of Cuba_section_15

The 19th century Music of Cuba_section_16

The first documented operatic event in Havana took place in 1776. Music of Cuba_sentence_242

That presentation was mentioned in a note published in the newspaper Diario de La Habana on December 19, 1815: "Today, Wednesday 19th of the current, if the weather allows, the new tragic opera of merit in three acts that contains 17 pieces of music, titled Dido Abandoned will be performed ... Music of Cuba_sentence_243

This is one of the premiere dramas from the French theater. Music of Cuba_sentence_244

In Italy, the one composed by renowned Metastasio deserved a singular applause, and was sung in this city on October 12, 1776." Music of Cuba_sentence_245

Cristóbal Martínez Corrés was the first Cuban opera composer, but his Works, such as El diablo contrabandista and Don papanero were never premiered and haven't been preserved until the present time. Music of Cuba_sentence_246

Born in Havana, in 1822, composer and pianist Martínez Corrés established his residence together with his family in France when he was just nine years old; and at a later tame they went to Italy. Music of Cuba_sentence_247

Due to his premature death, a third opera named Safo, never surpassed an early creative stage. Music of Cuba_sentence_248

Martínez Corrés died in Genoa, in 1842. Music of Cuba_sentence_249

Gaspar Villate y Montes was born in Havana, in 1851 and since an early age he showed a great musical talent. Music of Cuba_sentence_250

As a child, he began to study piano with Nicolás Ruiz Espadero and in 1867, when he was just 16 years old, he composed his first opera on a drama by Victor Hugo, titled Angelo, tirano de Padua. Music of Cuba_sentence_251

A year later, at the beginning of the 1868 war, he travelled to the United States with his family and upon his return to Havana in 1871 he wrote another opera called Las primeras armas de Richelieu. Music of Cuba_sentence_252

Villate travelled to France with the purpose to continue his music studies in the Paris Conservatory, where he received classes from François Bazin, Victorien de Joncieres and Adolphe Danhauser. Music of Cuba_sentence_253

He composed numerous instrumental pieces such as contradanzas, habaneras, romances and waltzes, and in 1877 he premiered with great audience acclaim his opera Zilia in Paris, which was presented in Havana in 1881. Music of Cuba_sentence_254

Since then, Villate focused his efforts mainly in opera and composed pieces such as La Zarina and Baltazar, premiered at La Haya and Teatro Real de Madrid respectively. Music of Cuba_sentence_255

It is known that he worked on an opera with a Cuban theme called Cristóbal Colón, but its manuscript has been lost. Music of Cuba_sentence_256

Villate died in Paris in 1891, soon after starting to compose a lyrical drama called Lucifer, from which some fragments have been preserved. Music of Cuba_sentence_257

From 1901 to 1959 Music of Cuba_section_17

Eduardo Sánchez de Fuentes was born in Havana, in 1874, within an artistic family; his father was a writer and his mother a pianist and singer. Music of Cuba_sentence_258

He began his musical studies at Conservatorio Hubert de Blanck and at a later time took classes from Carlos Anckermann. Music of Cuba_sentence_259

He received also a Law Degree in 1894. Music of Cuba_sentence_260

When Sánchez de Fuentes was just 18 years old, he composed the famous Habanera "Tú", which became an extraordinary international success. Music of Cuba_sentence_261

Alejo Carpentier said it was: "the most famous Habanera". Music of Cuba_sentence_262

On October 26, 1898, Sánchez de Fuentes premiered at the Albisu Theater in Havana his first opera called Yumuri, based on the Island's colonization theme. Music of Cuba_sentence_263

In it, an aborigine princess falls in love with a handsome Spanish conqueror, which abducts her at the wedding ceremony with another indigenous character. Music of Cuba_sentence_264

At the end, while escaping, both suffer a tragic death during an earthquake. Music of Cuba_sentence_265

Sánchez de Fuentes would go on to compose another five operas: El Náufrago (1901), Dolorosa (1910), Doreya (1918), El Caminante (1921) and Kabelia (1942). Music of Cuba_sentence_266

From 1960 to present time Music of Cuba_section_18

Hispanic heritage Music of Cuba_section_19

It is obvious that the first popular music played in Cuba after the Spanish conquest was brought by the Spanish conquerors themselves, and was most likely borrowed from the Spanish popular music in vogue during the 16th century. Music of Cuba_sentence_267

From the 16th to the 18th century some danceable songs that emerged in Spain were associated with Hispanic America, or considered to have originated in America. Music of Cuba_sentence_268

Some of these songs with picturesque names such as Sarabande, Chaconne, Zambapalo, Retambico and Gurumbé, among others, shared a common trait, its characteristic rhythm called Hemiola or Sesquiáltera (in Spain). Music of Cuba_sentence_269

This rhythm has been described as the alternation or superposition of a duple meter and a triple meter (6/8 + 3/4), and its utilization was widespread in the Spanish territory since at least the 13th century, where it appears in one of the Cantigas de Santa María (Como poden per sas culpas). Music of Cuba_sentence_270

Hemiola or Sesquiáltera is also a typical rhythm within the African musical traditions, both from the North of the Continent as from the South. Music of Cuba_sentence_271

Therefore, it is quite probable that the original song-dances brought by the Spanish to America already included elements from the African culture with which the enslaved Africans that arrived to the Island were familiar; and they further utilized them in order to create new creole genres. Music of Cuba_sentence_272

The well known Son de la Ma Teodora, an ancient Cuban song, as well as the first Cuban autochthonous genres, Punto and Zapateo, show the Sesquiáltera rhythm on their accompaniment, which greatly associate those genres to the Spanish song-dances from the 16th to the 18th centuries. Music of Cuba_sentence_273

Música campesina (peasant music) Music of Cuba_section_20

It seems that Punto and Zapateo Cubano were the first autochthonous musical genres of the Cuban nation. Music of Cuba_sentence_274

Although the first printed sample of a Cuban Creole Zapateo (Zapateo Criollo) was not published until 1855 in the "Álbum Regio of Vicente Díaz de Comas", it is possible to find references about the existence of those genres since long time before. Music of Cuba_sentence_275

Its structural characteristics have survived almost unaltered through a period of more than two hundred years and they are usually considered the most typically Hispanic Cuban popular music genres. Music of Cuba_sentence_276

Cuban musicologists María Teresa Linares, Argeliers León and Rolando Antonio Pérez coincide in thinking that Punto and Zapateo are based on Spanish dance –songs (such as chacone and sarabande) that arrived first at the most important population centers such as Havana and Santiago de Cuba and then spread throughout the surrounding rural areas where they were adopted and modified by the peasant (campesino) population at a later time. Music of Cuba_sentence_277

Punto guajiro Music of Cuba_section_21

Punto guajiro or Punto Cubano, or simply Punto is a sung genre of Cuban music, an improvised poetic-music art that emerged in the western and central regions of Cuba during the 19th century. Music of Cuba_sentence_278

Although Punto appears to come from an Andalusian origin, it is a true Cuban genre because of its creole modifications. Music of Cuba_sentence_279

Punto is played by a group with various types of plucked string instruments: the tiple (a treble guitar currently in disuse), the Spanish guitar, the Cuban tres, and the laúd. Music of Cuba_sentence_280

The word punto refers to the use of a plucked technique (punteado), rather than strumming (rasgueado). Music of Cuba_sentence_281

Also some percussion instruments have been utilized such as the clave, the güiro and the guayo ( a metallic scraper). Music of Cuba_sentence_282

Singers gather themselves in contending teams, and improvise their lines. Music of Cuba_sentence_283

They sing fixed melodies called "tonadas" which are based on a meter of ten strophe verses called "décimas", with intervals between stanzas to give the singers some time to prepare the next verse. Music of Cuba_sentence_284

Early compositions were sometimes recorded and published, as were the names of some of the singers and composers. Music of Cuba_sentence_285

Beginning around 1935, Punto reached a peak of popularity on Cuban radio. Music of Cuba_sentence_286

Punto was one of the first Cuban genres recorded by American companies at the beginning of the 20th century, but at a later time the interest decayed and little effort was made to continue recording the live radio performances. Music of Cuba_sentence_287

A fan of this genre, stenographer Aida Bode, wrote down many verses as they were broadcast and finally, in 1997, her transcriptions were published in book form. Music of Cuba_sentence_288

Celina González and Albita Rodríguez both sang Punto at the beginning of their careers, proving that the genre is still alive. Music of Cuba_sentence_289

Celina had one of the greatest voices in popular music, and her supporting group Campo Alegre was outstanding. Music of Cuba_sentence_290

For aficionados, however, Indio Naborí (Sabio Jesús Orta Ruiz, b. Music of Cuba_sentence_291

30 September 1922) is the greatest name in Punto for his "decima" poetry, which he wrote daily for the radio and newspapers. Music of Cuba_sentence_292

He is also a published author with several collections of his poetry, much of which has a political nueva trova edge. Music of Cuba_sentence_293

Zapateo Music of Cuba_section_22

Main article: Zapateo Music of Cuba_sentence_294

Zapateo is a typical dance of the Cuban "campesino" or "guajiro," of Spanish origin. Music of Cuba_sentence_295

It is a dance of pairs, involving tapping of the feet, mostly performed by the male partner. Music of Cuba_sentence_296

Illustrations exist from previous centuries and today it survives cultivated by Folk Music Groups as a fossil genre. Music of Cuba_sentence_297

It was accompanied by tiple, guitar and güiro, in combined 6/8 and 3/4 rhythm (hemiola), accented on the first of every three quavers. Music of Cuba_sentence_298

Guajira Music of Cuba_section_23

Main article: Guajira (music) Music of Cuba_sentence_299

A genre of Cuban song similar to the Punto cubano and the Criolla. Music of Cuba_sentence_300

It contains bucolic countryside lyrics, similar to décima poetry. Music of Cuba_sentence_301

Its music shows a mixture of 6/8 and 3/4 rhythms called Hemiola. Music of Cuba_sentence_302

According to Sánchez de Fuentes, its first section is usually presented in a minor key, and its second section in its direct major relative key. Music of Cuba_sentence_303

The term Guajira is now used mostly to describe a slow dance music in 4/4 time, a fusion of the Guajira (music) and the Son (called Guajira-Son). Music of Cuba_sentence_304

Singer and guitarist Guillermo Portabales was the most outstanding representative of this genre. Music of Cuba_sentence_305

Criolla Music of Cuba_section_24

Main article: Criolla Music of Cuba_sentence_306

Criolla is a genre of Cuban music which is closely related to the music of the Cuban Coros de Clave and a genre of Cuban popular music called Clave. Music of Cuba_sentence_307

The Clave became a very popular genre in the Cuban vernacular theater and was created by composer Jorge Anckermann based on the style of the Coros de Clave. Music of Cuba_sentence_308

The Clave served, in turn, as a model for the creation of a new genre called Criolla. Music of Cuba_sentence_309

According to musicologist Helio Orovio, "Carmela", the first Criolla, was composed by Luis Casas Romero in 1909, which also created one of the most famous Criollas of all time, "El Mambí". Music of Cuba_sentence_310

African heritage Music of Cuba_section_25

Main article: Music of African Heritage in Cuba Music of Cuba_sentence_311

Origins of Cuban African groups Music of Cuba_section_26

Clearly, the origin of African groups in Cuba is due to the island's long history of slavery. Music of Cuba_sentence_312

Compared to the US, slavery started in Cuba much earlier and continued for decades afterwards. Music of Cuba_sentence_313

Cuba was the last country in the Americas to abolish the importation of slaves, and the second last to free the slaves. Music of Cuba_sentence_314

In 1807 the British Parliament outlawed slavery, and from then on the British Navy acted to intercept Portuguese and Spanish slave ships. Music of Cuba_sentence_315

By 1860 the trade with Cuba was almost extinguished; the last slave ship to Cuba was in 1873. Music of Cuba_sentence_316

The abolition of slavery was announced by the Spanish Crown in 1880, and put into effect in 1886. Music of Cuba_sentence_317

Two years later, Brazil abolished slavery. Music of Cuba_sentence_318

Subsequent organization Music of Cuba_section_27

The roots of most Afro-Cuban musical forms lie in the cabildos, self-organized social clubs for the African slaves, separate cabildos for separate cultures. Music of Cuba_sentence_319

The cabildos were formed mainly from four groups: the Yoruba (the Lucumi in Cuba); the Congolese (Palo in Cuba); Dahomey (the Fon or Arará). Music of Cuba_sentence_320

Other cultures were undoubtedly present, more even than listed above, but in smaller numbers, and they did not leave such a distinctive presence. Music of Cuba_sentence_321

Cabildos preserved African cultural traditions, even after the abolition of slavery in 1886. Music of Cuba_sentence_322

At the same time, African religions were transmitted from generation to generation throughout Cuba, Haiti, other islands and Brazil. Music of Cuba_sentence_323

These religions, which had a similar but not identical structure, were known as Lucumi or Regla de Ocha if they derived from the Yoruba, Palo from Central Africa, Vodú from Haiti, and so on. Music of Cuba_sentence_324

The term Santería was first introduced to account for the way African spirits were joined to Catholic saints, especially by people who were both baptized and initiated, and so were genuinely members of both groups. Music of Cuba_sentence_325

Outsiders picked up the word and have tended to use it somewhat indiscriminately. Music of Cuba_sentence_326

It has become a kind of catch-all word, rather like salsa in music. Music of Cuba_sentence_327

African sacred music in Cuba Music of Cuba_section_28

Yoruba and Congolese rituals Music of Cuba_section_29

Main articles: Yoruba people, Lucumi religion, Kongo people, Palo (religion), and Batá Music of Cuba_sentence_328

Religious traditions of African origin have survived in Cuba, and are the basis of ritual music, song and dance quite distinct from the secular music and dance. Music of Cuba_sentence_329

The religion of Yoruban origin is known as Lucumí or Regla de Ocha; the religion of Congolese origin is known as Palo, as in palos del monte. Music of Cuba_sentence_330

There are also, in the Oriente region, forms of Haitian ritual together with its own instruments, music etc. Music of Cuba_sentence_331

Clave Music of Cuba_section_30

Main article: clave (rhythm) Music of Cuba_sentence_332

The clave rhythmic pattern is used as a tool for temporal organization in Afro-Cuban music, such as rumba, conga de comparsa, son, mambo (music), salsa, Latin jazz, songo and timba. Music of Cuba_sentence_333

The five-stroke clave pattern (distributed in groups of 3 + 2 or 2 + 3 beats) represents the structural core of many Afro-Cuban rhythms. Music of Cuba_sentence_334

Just as a keystone holds an arch in place, the clave pattern holds the rhythm together in Afro-Cuban music. Music of Cuba_sentence_335

The clave pattern originated in sub-Saharan African music traditions, where it serves essentially the same function as it does in Cuba. Music of Cuba_sentence_336

The pattern is also found in the African diaspora musics of Haitian Vodou drumming and Afro-Brazilian music. Music of Cuba_sentence_337

The clave pattern is used in North American popular music as a rhythmic motif or ostinato, or simply a form of rhythmic decoration. Music of Cuba_sentence_338

Cuban Carnival Music of Cuba_section_31

Main article: Cuban Carnival Music of Cuba_sentence_339

In Cuba, the word comparsa refers to the "Cabildos de Nación" neighbourhood groups that took part in the carnival authorized by the Spanish government on the Three Kings Day (Día de Reyes) during the colonial period. Music of Cuba_sentence_340

Conga is of African origin, and derives from street celebrations of the African spirits. Music of Cuba_sentence_341

The distinction is blurred today, but in the past the congas have been prohibited from time to time. Music of Cuba_sentence_342

Carnival as a whole was banned by the revolutionary government for many years, and still does not take place with the regularity of old. Music of Cuba_sentence_343

Conga drums are played (along with other typical instruments) in comparsas of all kinds. Music of Cuba_sentence_344

Santiago de Cuba and Havana were the two main centers for street carnivals. Music of Cuba_sentence_345

Two types of dance music (at least) owe their origin to comparsa music: Music of Cuba_sentence_346

Conga: an adaptation of comparsa music and dance for social dances. Music of Cuba_sentence_347

Eliseo Grenet may be the person who first created this music, but it was the Lecuona Cuban Boys who took it around the world. Music of Cuba_sentence_348

The conga became, and perhaps still is, the best-known Cuban music and dance style for non-latins. Music of Cuba_sentence_349

Mozambique is a comparsa-type dance music developed by Pello el Afrokan (Pedro Izquierdo) in 1963. Music of Cuba_sentence_350

It had a brief period of high popularity, peaked in 1965, and was soon forgotten. Music of Cuba_sentence_351

Apparently, to make it work properly, it needed 16 drums plus other percussion and dancers. Music of Cuba_sentence_352

Tumba francesa Music of Cuba_section_32

Characteristics of the rural rumba Music of Cuba_section_33

One of the most salient characteristics of the rural Rumbitas was its own form, very similar to the African typical song structure. Music of Cuba_sentence_353

In this case, the entire piece was based on a single musical fragment or phrase of short duration that was repeated, with some variations, time and time again; often alternating with a choir. Music of Cuba_sentence_354

This style was called "Montuno" (literally "from the countryside") due to its rural origin. Music of Cuba_sentence_355

Another characteristic of the new genre was the superposition of different rhythmic patterns simultaneously executed, similarly to the way it is utilized in the Urban Rumba, which is also a common trait of the African musical tradition. Music of Cuba_sentence_356

Those layers or "franjas de sonoridades" according to Argeliers León, were assigned to different instruments that were gradually incorporated to the group. Music of Cuba_sentence_357

Therefore, the ensemble grew from the traditional Tiple and Güiro, to a one that included: guitar, "bandurria", Cuban lute, claves, and other instruments such as the"tumbandera", the "marímbula", the "botija", the bongoes, the common "machete" (cutlass) and the accordion. Music of Cuba_sentence_358

Some important musical functions were assigned to the sonority layers, such as the: "Time Line" or Clave Rhythm performed by the claves, a "1-eighth note + 2-sixteenth notes" rhythm played by the güiro or the machete, the patterns of the "guajeo" by the Tres (instrument), the improvisation on the bongoes and the anticipated bass on the "tumbandera" or the "botija". Music of Cuba_sentence_359

Proto-son Music of Cuba_section_34

The origin of the Cuban son can be traced to the rural rumbas, called proto-sones (primeval sones) by musicologist Danilo Orozco. Music of Cuba_sentence_360

They show, in a partial or embryonic form, all the characteristics that at a later time were going to identify the Son style: The repetition of a phrase called montuno, the clave pattern, a rhythmic counterpoint between different layers of the musical texture, the guajeo from the Tres, the rhythms from the guitar, the bongoes and the double bass and the call and response style between soloist and choir. Music of Cuba_sentence_361

According to Radamés Giro: at a later time the refrain (estribillo) or montuno was tied to a quatrain (cuarteta – copla) called regina, which was how the peasants from the Eastern side of the country called the quatrain. Music of Cuba_sentence_362

In this way, the structure refrain–quatrain–refrain appears at a very early stage in the Son Oriental, like in one of the most ancient Sones called "Son de Máquina" (Machine Son) which comprises three reginas with its correspondent refrains. Music of Cuba_sentence_363

During an investigative project about the Valera-Miranda family (old Soneros) conducted by Danilo Orozco in the region of Guantánamo, he recorded a sample of Nengón, which is considered an ancestor of the Changüí. Music of Cuba_sentence_364

It shows the previously mentioned refrain–quatrain–refrain structure. Music of Cuba_sentence_365

In this case, the several repetitions of the refrain constitute a true "montuno." Music of Cuba_sentence_366

Refrain: Yo he nacido para ti nengón, yo he nacido para ti nengón, yo he nacido para ti Nengón... (I was born for you Nengón...) Music of Cuba_sentence_367

Nengón Music of Cuba_section_35

The "Nengón" is considered a Proto-Son, precursor of the Changüí and also of the Oriental Son. Music of Cuba_sentence_368

Its main characteristic is the alternance of improvised verses between a soloist and a choir. Music of Cuba_sentence_369

The Nengón is played with Tres, Guitar, Güiro and Tingotalango or Tumbandera. Music of Cuba_sentence_370

Changüí Music of Cuba_section_36

Main article: Changüí Music of Cuba_sentence_371

Changüí is a type of son from the eastern provinces (area of Santiago de Cuba and Guantánamo), formerly known as Oriente. Music of Cuba_sentence_372

It shares relevant characteristics with the Oriental Son in regard to rhythms, instruments and choral refrains; and at the same time it shows certain original elements. Music of Cuba_sentence_373

Changüí exists today in the form of dozens of small groups, mostly from Guantanamo province. Music of Cuba_sentence_374

The instrumentation is similar to that of the early Son groups who set up in Havana before 1920. Music of Cuba_sentence_375

These son groups, for example, the early Sexteto Boloña and Sexteto Habanero, used either marimbulas or botijas as bass instruments before they changed over to the double bass, musically a more flexible instrument. Music of Cuba_sentence_376

Changui is a genuinely distinctive music and culture practiced by residents of the Guantanamo province with its own distinctive social dance form (couple dance). Music of Cuba_sentence_377

Guantanameros engage in Changui in house parties (called Peñas), street parties, concerts at venues such as Casa de Changui, a weekly Monday night dance broadcast live on Radio Guantanamo, an annual Changui festival to celebrate the anniversary of Chito Latanble, and the bi-annual Festival de Changui. Music of Cuba_sentence_378

There is often a Changui function on most nights of the week at the Province. Music of Cuba_sentence_379

Some modern orchestras, such as Orquesta Revé, have claimed Changüí as their main influence. Music of Cuba_sentence_380

Whether this is accurate, or not, is unclear. Music of Cuba_sentence_381

Sucu-Sucu Music of Cuba_section_37

We can also find in Isla de Pinos, at the opposite Western side of the Island a primeval Proto-Son called Sucu-Sucu, which also shows the same structure of the Oriental Proto-Sones. Music of Cuba_sentence_382

According to Maria Teresa Linares, In the Sucu-Sucu the music is similar to a Son Montuno in its formal, melodic, instrumental and harmonic structure. Music of Cuba_sentence_383

A soloist alternates with a choir and improvises on a quatrain or a "décima." Music of Cuba_sentence_384

The instrumental section is introduced by the Tres, gradually joined by the other instruments. Music of Cuba_sentence_385

The introduction of eight measures is followed by the refrain by the choir that alternates with the soloist several times. Music of Cuba_sentence_386

An urban legend claims that the name "Sucu Sucu" came from the grandmother of one of the local musicians in la Isla de Juventud. Music of Cuba_sentence_387

The band was playing in the patio, and the dances were dancing while shuffling their feet on the sandy floor. Music of Cuba_sentence_388

The grandmother came out of the house to say "Please stop making noise with all that sucu sucu," referring to the sound of shuffling feet on a sandy floor. Music of Cuba_sentence_389

The legend claim that the name stuck, and the music the dancers were dancing too started to be named "Sucu Sucu". Music of Cuba_sentence_390

Trova Music of Cuba_section_38

Main article: Trova Music of Cuba_sentence_391

In the 19th century, Santiago de Cuba became the focal point of a group of itinerant musicians, troubadors, who moved around earning their living by singing and playing the guitar. Music of Cuba_sentence_392

They were of great importance as composers, and their songs have been transcribed for all genres of Cuban music Music of Cuba_sentence_393

Pepe Sánchez, born José Sánchez (1856–1918), is known as the father of the trova style and the creator of the Cuban bolero. Music of Cuba_sentence_394

He had no formal training in music. Music of Cuba_sentence_395

With remarkable natural talent, he composed numbers in his head and never wrote them down. Music of Cuba_sentence_396

As a result, most of these numbers are now lost for ever, though some two dozen or so survive because friends and disciples transcribed them. Music of Cuba_sentence_397

His first bolero, Tristezas, is still remembered today. Music of Cuba_sentence_398

He also created advertisement jingles before radio was born. Music of Cuba_sentence_399

He was the model and teacher for the great trovadores who followed him. Music of Cuba_sentence_400

The first, and one of the longest-lived, was Sindo Garay (1867–1968). Music of Cuba_sentence_401

He was an outstanding composer of trova songs, and his best have been sung and recorded many times. Music of Cuba_sentence_402

Garay was also musically illiterate – in fact, he only taught himself the alphabet at 16 – but in his case not only were scores recorded by others, but there are recordings. Music of Cuba_sentence_403

Garay settled in Havana in 1906, and in 1926 joined Rita Montaner and others to visit Paris, spending three months there. Music of Cuba_sentence_404

He broadcast on radio, made recordings and survived into modern times. Music of Cuba_sentence_405

He used to say "Not many men have shaken hands with both José Martí and Fidel Castro!" Music of Cuba_sentence_406

José 'Chicho' Ibáñez (1875–1981) was even longer-lived than Garay. Music of Cuba_sentence_407

Ibáñez was the first trovador to specialize in the son; he also sang guaguancós and pieces from the abakuá. Music of Cuba_sentence_408

The composer Rosendo Ruiz (1885–1983) was another long-lived trovador. Music of Cuba_sentence_409

He was the author of a well-known guitar manual. Music of Cuba_sentence_410

Alberto Villalón (1882–1955), and Manuel Corona (1880–1950) were of similar stature. Music of Cuba_sentence_411

Garay, Ruiz, Villalón and Corona are known as the four greats of the trova, though the following trovadores are also highly regarded. Music of Cuba_sentence_412

Patricio Ballagas (1879–1920); María Teresa Vera (1895–1965), Lorenzo Hierrezuelo (1907–1993), Ñico Saquito (Antonio Fernandez: 1901–1982), Carlos Puebla (1917–1989) and Compay Segundo (Máximo Francisco Repilado Muñoz: 1907–2003) were all great trova musicians. Music of Cuba_sentence_413

El Guayabero (Faustino Oramas: 1911–2007) was the last of the old trova. Music of Cuba_sentence_414

Trova musicians often worked in pairs and trios, some of them exclusively so (Compay Segundo). Music of Cuba_sentence_415

As the sexteto/septeto/conjunto genre grew many of them joined in the larger groups. Music of Cuba_sentence_416

And let's not forget the Trio Matamoros, who worked together for most of their lives. Music of Cuba_sentence_417

Matamoros was one of the greats. Music of Cuba_sentence_418

Bolero Music of Cuba_section_39

Main articles: Bolero § Cuba, and Trova Music of Cuba_sentence_419

This is a song and dance form quite different from its Spanish namesake. Music of Cuba_sentence_420

It originated in the last quarter of the 19th century with the founder of the traditional trova, Pepe Sánchez. Music of Cuba_sentence_421

He wrote the first bolero, Tristezas, which is still sung today. Music of Cuba_sentence_422

The bolero has always been a staple part of the trova musician's repertoire. Music of Cuba_sentence_423

Originally, there were two sections of 16 bars in 2/4 time separated by an instrumental section on the Spanish guitar called the pasacalle. Music of Cuba_sentence_424

The bolero proved to be exceptionally adaptable, and led to many variants. Music of Cuba_sentence_425

Typical was the introduction of sychopation leading to the bolero-moruno, bolero-beguine, bolero-mambo, bolero-cha. Music of Cuba_sentence_426

The bolero-son became for several decades the most popular rhythm for dancing in Cuba, and it was this rhythm that the international dance community picked up and taught as the wrongly-named 'rumba'. Music of Cuba_sentence_427

The Cuban bolero was exported all over the world, and is still popular. Music of Cuba_sentence_428

Leading composers of the bolero were Sindo Garay, Rosendo Ruiz, Carlos Puebla, and Agustín Lara (Mexico). Music of Cuba_sentence_429

Canción Music of Cuba_section_40

Main article: Canción Music of Cuba_sentence_430

Canción means 'song' in Spanish. Music of Cuba_sentence_431

It is a popular genre of Latin American music, particularly in Cuba, where many of the compositions originate. Music of Cuba_sentence_432

Its roots lie in Spanish, French and Italian popular song forms. Music of Cuba_sentence_433

Originally highly stylized, with "intricate melodies and dark, enigmatic and elaborate lyrics" The canción was democratized by the trova movement in the latter part of the 19th century, when it became a vehicle for the aspirations and feelings of the population. Music of Cuba_sentence_434

Canción gradually fused with other forms of Cuban music, such as the bolero. Music of Cuba_sentence_435

Tropical waltz Music of Cuba_section_41

The waltz (El vals) arrived in Cuba by 1814. Music of Cuba_sentence_436

It was the first dance in which couples were not linked by a communal sequence pattern. Music of Cuba_sentence_437

It was, and still is, danced in 3/4 time with the accent on the first beat. Music of Cuba_sentence_438

It was originally thought scandalous because couples faced each other, held each other in the 'closed' hold, and, so to speak, ignored the surrounding community. Music of Cuba_sentence_439

The waltz entered all countries in the Americas; its relative popularity in 19th-century Cuba is hard to estimate. Music of Cuba_sentence_440

Indigenous Cuban dances did not use the closed hold with couples dancing independently until the danzón later in the century, though the guaracha might be an earlier example. Music of Cuba_sentence_441

The waltz has another characteristic: it is a 'travelling' dance, with couples moving round the arena. Music of Cuba_sentence_442

In Latin dances, progressive movement of dancers is unusual, but does occur in the conga, the samba and the tango. Music of Cuba_sentence_443

The Tropical waltz was performed in a slower tempo and frequently included a sung melody with a text. Music of Cuba_sentence_444

Those texts usually referred to the beauties of the Cuban countryside, the longing of the Siboneyes (Cuban aboriginee) and other creole themes. Music of Cuba_sentence_445

With accents on its three beats, its melody was fluid and composed of equal value notes. Music of Cuba_sentence_446

It was similar to many other songs in which the melody was treated in a syllabic way, where the first beat was not stressed by a brief anacrusis but had a tendency to move toward the second beat like in the peasant (guajiro) song. Music of Cuba_sentence_447

Son Music of Cuba_section_42

Main article: Son (music) Music of Cuba_sentence_448

Son cubano is a style of music and dance that originated in Cuba and gained worldwide popularity during the 1930s. Music of Cuba_sentence_449

Son combines the structure and traits of the Spanish canción with Afro-Cuban stylistic and percussion instruments elements. Music of Cuba_sentence_450

The Cuban Son is one of the most influential and widespread forms of Latin American music: its derivatives and fusions, especially salsa, have spread across the world. Music of Cuba_sentence_451

The Son, said Cristóbal Díaz, is the most important genre of Cuban music, and the least studied. Music of Cuba_sentence_452

It can fairly be said that son is to Cuba what the tango is to Argentina, or the samba to Brazil. Music of Cuba_sentence_453

In addition, it is perhaps the most flexible of all forms of Latin-American music. Music of Cuba_sentence_454

Its great strength is its fusion between European and African musical traditions. Music of Cuba_sentence_455

Its most characteristic instruments are the Cuban instrument known as the tres, and the well-known double-headed bongó; these are present from the start to the present day. Music of Cuba_sentence_456

Also typical are the claves, the Spanish guitar, the double bass (replacing the early botija or marímbula), early on the cornet or trumpet and finally the piano. Music of Cuba_sentence_457

In spite of a traditional tendency to attribute the origin of Cuban Son to the Eastern region of Cuba (Oriente), most recently, some musicologists have shown a more inclusive stance. Music of Cuba_sentence_458

Although Alejo Carpentier, Emilio Grenet and Cristóbal Díaz Ayala support the "Eastern origin" theory, Argeliers León doesn't mention anything about it in his pivotal work "Del Canto y el Tiempo", as well as María Teresa Linares in "The Music between Cuba and Spain." Music of Cuba_sentence_459

Ramadamés Giro states about this subject: "If Son was an artistic phenomenon that was developing since the second half of the 19th century – and not just in the old Oriente (Eastern) province -, it is logical to suppose, but not to affirm, that long before 1909 it was heard in the Capital City (Havana) because of the aforementioned reasons." Music of Cuba_sentence_460

It was in Havana where the encounter of the rural rumba and the urban rumba, that had been developing separately during the second half of the 19th century, took place. Music of Cuba_sentence_461

The guaracheros and rumberos that used to play with the Tiple and the Guiro finally met other Rumberos that sang and danced accompanied by the wooden box (cajón) and the Cuban Clave, and the result was the fusion of both styles in a new genre called Son. Music of Cuba_sentence_462

Around 1910 the Son most likely adopted the clave rhythm from the Havana-based rumba, which had been developed in the late 19th century in Havana and Matanzas. Music of Cuba_sentence_463

The mass popularization of Son music led to an increased valorization of Afro-Cuban street culture and of the artists who created it. Music of Cuba_sentence_464

It also opened the door for other music genres with Afro-Cuban roots to become popular in Cuba and throughout the world. Music of Cuba_sentence_465

Cuban jazz Music of Cuba_section_43

The history of jazz in Cuba was obscured for many years, but it has become clear that its history in Cuba is virtually as long as its history in the US. Music of Cuba_sentence_466

Much more is now known about early Cuban jazz bands, but a full assessment is plagued by the lack of recordings. Music of Cuba_sentence_467

Migrations and visits to and from the US and the mutual exchange of recordings and sheet music kept musicians in the two countries in touch. Music of Cuba_sentence_468

In the first part of the 20th century, there were close relations between musicians in Cuba and those in New Orleans. Music of Cuba_sentence_469

The orchestra leader in the famous Tropicana Club, Armando Romeu Jr, was a leading figure in the post-World War II development of Cuban jazz. Music of Cuba_sentence_470

The phenomenon of cubop and the jam sessions in Havana and New York organized by Cachao created genuine fusions that influence musicians today. Music of Cuba_sentence_471

A key historian of early Cuban jazz is Leonardo Acosta. Music of Cuba_sentence_472

Others have explored the history of jazz and Latin jazz more from the U.S. perspective. Music of Cuba_sentence_473

Early Cuban jazz bands Music of Cuba_section_44

The Jazz Band Sagua was founded in Sagua la Grande in 1914 by Pedro Stacholy (director & piano). Music of Cuba_sentence_474

Members: Hipólito Herrera (trumpet); Norberto Fabelo (cornet); Ernesto Ribalta (flute & sax); Humberto Domínguez (violin); Luciano Galindo (trombone); Antonio Temprano (tuba); Tomás Medina (drum kit); Marino Rojo (güiro). Music of Cuba_sentence_475

For fourteen years they played at the Teatro Principal de Sagua. Music of Cuba_sentence_476

Stacholy studied under Antonio Fabré in Sagua, and completed his studies in New York, where he stayed for three years. Music of Cuba_sentence_477

The Cuban Jazz Band was founded in 1922 by Jaime Prats in Havana. Music of Cuba_sentence_478

The personnel included his son Rodrigo Prats on violin, the great flautist Alberto Socarrás on flute and saxophone and Pucho Jiménez on slide trombone. Music of Cuba_sentence_479

The line-up would probably have included double bass, kit drum, banjo, cornet at least. Music of Cuba_sentence_480

Earlier works cited this as the first jazz band in Cuba, but evidently there were earlier groups. Music of Cuba_sentence_481

In 1924 Moisés Simons (piano) founded a group which played on the roof garden of the Plaza Hotel in Havana, and consisted of piano, violin, two saxes, banjo, double bass, drums and timbales. Music of Cuba_sentence_482

Its members included Virgilio Diago (violin); Alberto Soccarás (alto saz, flute); José Ramón Betancourt (tenor sax); Pablo O'Farrill (d. bass). Music of Cuba_sentence_483

In 1928, still at the same venue, Simons hired Julio Cueva, a famous trumpeter, and Enrique Santiesteban, a future media star, as vocalist and drummer. Music of Cuba_sentence_484

These were top instrumentalists, attracted by top fees of $8 a day. Music of Cuba_sentence_485

During the 1930s, several bands played Jazz in Havana, such as those of Armando Romeu, Isidro Pérez, Chico O'Farrill and Germán Lebatard. Music of Cuba_sentence_486

Their most important contribution was its own instrumental format itself, which introduced the typical Jazz sonority to the Cuban audience. Music of Cuba_sentence_487

Another important element within this process were the arrangements of Cuban musicians such as Romeu, O'Farrill, Bebo Valdés, Peruchín Jústiz and Leopoldo "Pucho" Escalante. Music of Cuba_sentence_488

Afro-Cuban jazz Music of Cuba_section_45

Main article: Afro-Cuban jazz Music of Cuba_sentence_489

Afro-Cuban jazz is the earliest form of Latin jazz and mixes Afro-Cuban clave-based rhythms with jazz harmonies and techniques of improvisation. Music of Cuba_sentence_490

Afro-Cuban jazz first emerged in the early 1940s, with the Cuban musicians Mario Bauza and Frank Grillo "Machito" in the band Machito and his Afro-Cubans, based in New York City. Music of Cuba_sentence_491

In 1947 the collaborations of bebop innovator Dizzy Gillespie with Cuban percussionist Chano Pozo brought Afro-Cuban rhythms and instruments, most notably the tumbadora and the bongo, into the East Coast jazz scene. Music of Cuba_sentence_492

Early combinations of jazz with Cuban music, such as Dizzy's and Pozo's "Manteca" and Charlie Parker's and Machito's "Mangó Mangüé", were commonly referred to as "Cubop", short for Cuban bebop. Music of Cuba_sentence_493

During its first decades, the Afro-Cuban jazz movement was stronger in the United States than in Cuba itself. Music of Cuba_sentence_494

In the early 1970s, the Orquesta Cubana de Música Moderna and later Irakere brought Afro-Cuban jazz into the Cuban music scene, influencing new styles such as songo. Music of Cuba_sentence_495

Diversification and popularization Music of Cuba_section_46

Cuban music enters the United States Music of Cuba_section_47

In 1930, Don Azpiazú had the first million-selling record of Cuban music: The Peanut Vendor (El Manisero), with Antonio Machín as the singer. Music of Cuba_sentence_496

This number had been orchestrated and included in N.Y. theatre by Azpiazú before recording, which no doubt helped with the publicity. Music of Cuba_sentence_497

The Lecuona Cuban Boys became the best-known Cuban touring ensemble: they were the ones who first used the conga drum in their conjunto, and popularized the conga as a dance. Music of Cuba_sentence_498

Xavier Cugat at the Waldorf Astoria was highly influential. Music of Cuba_sentence_499

In 1941 Desi Arnaz popularized the comparsa drum (similar to the conga) in the U.S with his performances of Babalú. Music of Cuba_sentence_500

There was a real 'rumba craze' at the time. Music of Cuba_sentence_501

Later, Mario Bauza and Machito set up in New York and Miguelito Valdés also arrived there. Music of Cuba_sentence_502

1940s and '50s Music of Cuba_section_48

In the 1940s, Chano Pozo formed part of the bebop revolution in jazz, playing conga with Dizzy Gillespie and Machito in New York City. Music of Cuba_sentence_503

Cuban jazz had started much earlier, in Havana, in the period 1910–1930. Music of Cuba_sentence_504

Arsenio Rodríguez, one of Cuba's most famous tres players and conjunto leaders, emphasised the son's African roots by adapting the guaguancó style, and by adding a cowbell and conga to the rhythm section. Music of Cuba_sentence_505

He also expanded the role of the tres as a solo instrument. Music of Cuba_sentence_506

In the late 1930s and 40s, the danzonera Arcaño y sus Maravillas incorporated more syncopation and added a montuno (as in son), transforming the music played by charanga orchestras. Music of Cuba_sentence_507

The big band era Music of Cuba_section_49

The big band era arrived in Cuba in the 1940s, and became a dominant format that survives. Music of Cuba_sentence_508

Two great arranger-bandleaders deserve special credit for this, Armando Romeu Jr. Music of Cuba_sentence_509

and Damaso Perez Prado. Music of Cuba_sentence_510

Armando Romeu Jr. led the Tropicana Cabaret orchestra for 25 years, starting in 1941. Music of Cuba_sentence_511

He had experience playing with visiting American jazz groups as well as a complete mastery of Cuban forms of music. Music of Cuba_sentence_512

In his hands the Tropicana presented not only Afrocuban and other popular Cuban music, but also Cuban jazz and American big band compositions. Music of Cuba_sentence_513

Later he conducted the Orquesta Cubana de Musica Moderna. Music of Cuba_sentence_514

Damaso Perez Prado had a number of hits, and sold more 78s than any other Latin music of the day. Music of Cuba_sentence_515

He took over the role of pianist/arranger for the Orquesta Casino de la Playa in 1944, and immediately began introducing new elements into its sound. Music of Cuba_sentence_516

The orchestra began to sound more Afrocuban, and at the same time Prado took influences from Stravinsky, Stan Kenton and elsewhere. Music of Cuba_sentence_517

By the time he left the orchestra in 1946 he had put together the elements of his big band mambo. Music of Cuba_sentence_518

"Above all, we must point out the work of Perez Prado as an arranger, or better yet, composer and arranger, and his clear influence on most other Cuban arrangers from then on." Music of Cuba_sentence_519

Benny Moré, considered by many as the greatest Cuban singer of all time, was in his heyday in the 1950s. Music of Cuba_sentence_520

He had an innate musicality and fluid tenor voice, which he colored and phrased with great expressivity. Music of Cuba_sentence_521

Although he could not read music, Moré was a master of all the genres, including son montuno, mambo, guaracha, guajira, cha cha cha, afro, canción, guaguancó, and bolero. Music of Cuba_sentence_522

His orchestra, the Banda Gigante, and his music, was a development – more flexible and fluid in style – of the Perez Prado orchestra, which he sang with in 1949–1950. Music of Cuba_sentence_523

Cuban music in the US Music of Cuba_section_50

Three great innovations based on Cuban music hit the US after World War II: the first was Cubop, the latest latin jazz fusion. Music of Cuba_sentence_524

In this, Mario Bauza and the Machito orchestra on the Cuban side and Dizzy Gillespie on the American side were prime movers. Music of Cuba_sentence_525

The rumbustious conguero Chano Pozo was also important, for he introduced jazz musicians to basic Cuban rhythms. Music of Cuba_sentence_526

Cuban jazz has continued to be a significant influence. Music of Cuba_sentence_527

The mambo first entered the United States around 1950, though ideas had been developing in Cuba and Mexico City for some time. Music of Cuba_sentence_528

The mambo as understood in the United States and Europe was considerably different from the danzón-mambo of Orestes "Cachao" Lopez, which was a danzon with extra syncopation in its final part. Music of Cuba_sentence_529

The mambo—which became internationally famous—was a big band product, the work of Perez Prado, who made some sensational recordings for RCA in their new recording studios in Mexico City in the late 1940s. Music of Cuba_sentence_530

About 27 of those recordings had Benny Moré as the singer, though the best sellers were mainly instrumentals. Music of Cuba_sentence_531

The big hits included "Que rico el mambo" (Mambo Jambo); "Mambo No. Music of Cuba_sentence_532 5"; "Mambo #8"; "Cherry Pink (and Apple Blossom White)". Music of Cuba_sentence_533

The later (1955) hit "Patricia" was a mambo/rock fusion. Music of Cuba_sentence_534

Mambo of the Prado kind was more a descendant of the son and the guaracha than the danzón. Music of Cuba_sentence_535

In the U.S. the mambo craze lasted from about 1950 to 1956, but its influence on the bugaloo and salsa that followed it was considerable. Music of Cuba_sentence_536

Violinist Enrique Jorrín invented the chachachá in the early 1950s. Music of Cuba_sentence_537

This was developed from the danzón by increased syncopation. Music of Cuba_sentence_538

The chachachá became more popular outside Cuba when the big bands of Perez Prado and Tito Puente produced arrangements that attracted American and European audiences. Music of Cuba_sentence_539

Along with "Nuyoricans" Ray Barretto and Tito Puente and others, several waves of Cuban immigrants introduced their ideas into US music. Music of Cuba_sentence_540

Among these was Celia Cruz, a guaracha singer. Music of Cuba_sentence_541

Others were active in Latin jazz, such as percussionist Patato Valdés of the Cuban-oriented "Tipíca '73", linked to the Fania All-Stars. Music of Cuba_sentence_542

Several former members of Irakere have also become highly successful in the US, among them Paquito D'Rivera and Arturo Sandoval. Music of Cuba_sentence_543

Tata Güines, a famous conguero, moved to New York City in 1957, playing with jazz players such as Dizzy Gillespie, Maynard Ferguson, and Miles Davis at Birdland. Music of Cuba_sentence_544

As a percussionist, he performed with Josephine Baker and Frank Sinatra. Music of Cuba_sentence_545

He returned to Cuba in 1959 after Fidel Castro came to power in the Cuban Revolution, which he helped fund with contributions from his earnings as a musician. Music of Cuba_sentence_546

Mambo Music of Cuba_section_51

Main article: Mambo (music) Music of Cuba_sentence_547

Mambo is a musical genre and dance style that developed originally in Cuba. Music of Cuba_sentence_548

The word "Mambo", similarly to other afroamerican musical denominations as conga, milonga, bomba, tumba, samba, bamba, bamboula, tambo, tango, cumbé, cumbia and candombe, denote an African origin, particularly from Congo, due to the presence of certain characteristic combinations of sounds, such as mb, ng and nd, which belong to the Niger-Congo linguistic complex. Music of Cuba_sentence_549

The earliest roots of the Cuban Mambo can be traced to the "Danzón de Nuevo Ritmo" (Danzón with a new rhythm) made popular by the orchestra "Arcaño y sus Maravillas" conducted by famous bandleader Antonio Arcaño. Music of Cuba_sentence_550

He was the first to denominate a section of the popular Cuban Danzón as a "Mambo." Music of Cuba_sentence_551

It was Arcaño's cellist, Orestes López, who created the first Danzón called "Mambo" (1938). Music of Cuba_sentence_552

In this piece, some syncopated motives, taken from the Son style, were combined with improvised flute passages. Music of Cuba_sentence_553

Pianist and arranger from Matanzas, Cuba, Dámaso Pérez Prado (1927) established his residence in Havana at the beginning of the 1940s and began to work at night clubs and orchestras, such as Paulina Alvarez's and Casino de La Playa. Music of Cuba_sentence_554

In 1949 he traveled to Mexico looking for job opportunities and achieved great success with a new style, to which he assigns a name that had been already utilized by Antonio Arcaño, the "Mambo." Music of Cuba_sentence_555

Perez Prado's style differed from the previous "Mambo" concept. Music of Cuba_sentence_556

The new style possessed a greater influence from the North-American Jazz band music, and an expanded instrumentation consisting of four or five trumpets, four of five saxophones, double bass, drum set, maracas, cowbell, congas and bongoes. Music of Cuba_sentence_557

The new "Mambo" included a catchy counterpoint between the trumpets and the saxophones, that impulsed the body to move along with the rhythm, stimulated at the end of each musical phrase by a characteristic deep throat sound expression. Music of Cuba_sentence_558

Prado's recordings were meant for the Latin American and U.S. Latino markets, but some of his most celebrated mambos, such as "Mambo No. Music of Cuba_sentence_559

5" and "Que Rico el Mambo", quickly crossed over to the United States. Music of Cuba_sentence_560

Chachachá Music of Cuba_section_52

Main article: Cha-cha-chá (music) Music of Cuba_sentence_561

Chachachá is a genre of Cuban music. Music of Cuba_sentence_562

It has been a popular dance music which developed from the Danzón-mambo in the early 1950s, and became widely popular throughout the entire world. Music of Cuba_sentence_563

Chachachávis a Cuban music genre whose creation has been traditionally attributed to Cuban composer and violinist Enrique Jorrín, which began his career playing for the charanga band Orquesta América. Music of Cuba_sentence_564

According to the testimony of Enrique Jorrín, he composed some "Danzones" in which the musician of the orchestra had to sing short refrains, and this style was very successful. Music of Cuba_sentence_565

In the Danzón "Constancia" he introduced some montunos and the audience was motivated to join in singing the refrains. Music of Cuba_sentence_566

Jorrín also asked the members of the orchestra to sing in unison so the lyrics may be heard more clearly and achieve a greater impact in the audience. Music of Cuba_sentence_567

That way of singing also helped to mask the poor singing skills of the orchestra members. Music of Cuba_sentence_568

Since its inception, Chachachá music had a close relationship with the dancer's steps. Music of Cuba_sentence_569

The well-known name Chachachá came into being with the help of the dancers at the Silver Star Club in Havana. Music of Cuba_sentence_570

When the dance was coupled to the rhythm of the music, it became evident that the dancer's feet were making a peculiar sound as they grazed the floor on three successive beats. Music of Cuba_sentence_571

It was like an onomatopoeia that sounded as: Chachachá. Music of Cuba_sentence_572

From this peculiar sound, a music genre was born which motivated people from around the world to dance at its catchy rhythm. Music of Cuba_sentence_573

According to Olavo ALén: "During the 1950s, Chachachá maintained its popularity thanks to the efforts of many Cuban composers who were familiar with the technique of composing danzones and who unleashed their creativity on the Chachachá", such as Rosendo Ruiz, Jr. ("Los Marcianos" and "Rico Vacilón"), Félix Reina ("Dime Chinita," "Como Bailan Cha-cha-chá los Mexicanos"), Richard Egűes ("El Bodeguero" and "La Cantina") and Rafael Lay ("Cero Codazos, Cero Cabezazos"). Music of Cuba_sentence_574

The Chachachá was first presented to the public through the instrumental medium of the charanga, a typical Cuban dance band format made up of a flute, strings, piano, bass and percussion. Music of Cuba_sentence_575

The popularity of the Chachachá also revived the popularity of this kind of orchestra. Music of Cuba_sentence_576

Filin Music of Cuba_section_53

1960s and 70s Music of Cuba_section_54

1980s to the present Music of Cuba_section_55

Rock music in Cuba Music of Cuba_section_56

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