Musical instrument

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A musical instrument is a device created or adapted to make musical sounds. Musical instrument_sentence_0

In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument. Musical instrument_sentence_1

The history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Musical instrument_sentence_2

Early musical instruments may have been used for ritual, such as a horn to signal success on the hunt, or a drum in a religious ceremony. Musical instrument_sentence_3

Cultures eventually developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment. Musical instrument_sentence_4

Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications and technologies. Musical instrument_sentence_5

The date and origin of the first device considered a musical instrument is disputed. Musical instrument_sentence_6

The oldest object that some scholars refer to as a musical instrument, a simple flute, dates back as far as 67,000 years. Musical instrument_sentence_7

Some consensus dates early flutes to about 37,000 years ago. Musical instrument_sentence_8

However, most historians believe that determining a specific time of musical instrument invention is impossible, as many early musical instruments were made from animal skins, bone, wood and other non-durable materials. Musical instrument_sentence_9

Musical instruments developed independently in many populated regions of the world. Musical instrument_sentence_10

However, contact among civilizations caused rapid spread and adaptation of most instruments in places far from their origin. Musical instrument_sentence_11

By the Middle Ages, instruments from Mesopotamia were in maritime Southeast Asia, and Europeans played instruments originating from North Africa. Musical instrument_sentence_12

Development in the Americas occurred at a slower pace, but cultures of North, Central, and South America shared musical instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_13

By 1400, musical instrument development slowed in many areas and was dominated by the Occident. Musical instrument_sentence_14

During the Classical and Romantic periods of music, lasting from roughly 1750 to 1900, many new musical instruments were developed. Musical instrument_sentence_15

While the evolution of traditional musical instruments slowed beginning in the 20th century, the proliferation of electricity led to the invention of new electric instruments, such as electric guitars, synthesizers and the theremin. Musical instrument_sentence_16

Musical instrument classification is a discipline in its own right, and many systems of classification have been used over the years. Musical instrument_sentence_17

Instruments can be classified by their effective range, their material composition, their size, role, etc. Musical instrument_sentence_18

However, the most common academic method, Hornbostel–Sachs, uses the means by which they produce sound. Musical instrument_sentence_19

The academic study of musical instruments is called organology. Musical instrument_sentence_20

Definition and basic operation Musical instrument_section_0

A musical instrument is used to make musical sounds. Musical instrument_sentence_21

Once humans moved from making sounds with their bodies — for example, by clapping—to using objects to create music from sounds, musical instruments were born. Musical instrument_sentence_22

Primitive instruments were probably designed to emulate natural sounds, and their purpose was ritual rather than entertainment. Musical instrument_sentence_23

The concept of melody and the artistic pursuit of musical composition were probably unknown to early players of musical instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_24

A person sounding a bone flute to signal the start of a hunt does so without thought of the modern notion of "making music". Musical instrument_sentence_25

Musical instruments are constructed in a broad array of styles and shapes, using many different materials. Musical instrument_sentence_26

Early musical instruments were made from "found objects" such as shells and plant parts. Musical instrument_sentence_27

As instruments evolved, so did the selection and quality of materials. Musical instrument_sentence_28

Virtually every material in nature has been used by at least one culture to make musical instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_29

One plays a musical instrument by interacting with it in some way — for example, by plucking the strings on a string instrument, striking the surface of a drum, or blowing into an animal horn. Musical instrument_sentence_30

Archaeology Musical instrument_section_1

Researchers have discovered archaeological evidence of musical instruments in many parts of the world. Musical instrument_sentence_31

Some artifacts have been dated to 67,000 years old, while critics often dispute the findings. Musical instrument_sentence_32

Consensus solidifying about artifacts dated back to around 37,000 years old and later. Musical instrument_sentence_33

Artifacts made from durable materials, or constructed using durable methods, have been found to survive. Musical instrument_sentence_34

As such, the specimens found cannot be irrefutably placed as the earliest musical instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_35

In July 1995, Slovenian archaeologist Ivan Turk discovered a bone carving in the northwest region of Slovenia. Musical instrument_sentence_36

The carving, named the Divje Babe Flute, features four holes that Canadian musicologist Bob Fink determined could have been used to play four notes of a diatonic scale. Musical instrument_sentence_37

Researchers estimate the flute's age at between 43,400 and 67,000 years old, making it the oldest known musical instrument and the only musical instrument associated with Neanderthal culture. Musical instrument_sentence_38

However, some archaeologists and ethnomusicologists dispute the flute's status as a musical instrument. Musical instrument_sentence_39

German archaeologists have found mammoth bone and swan bone flutes dating back to 30,000 to 37,000 years old in the Swabian Alps. Musical instrument_sentence_40

The flutes were made in the Upper Paleolithic age, and are more commonly accepted as being the oldest known musical instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_41

Archaeological evidence of musical instruments was discovered in excavations at the Royal Cemetery in the Sumerian city of Ur. Musical instrument_sentence_42

These instruments, one of the first ensembles of instruments yet discovered, include nine lyres ( the Lyres of Ur), two harps, a silver double flute, a sistra and cymbals. Musical instrument_sentence_43

A set of reed-sounded silver pipes discovered in Ur was the likely predecessor of modern bagpipes. Musical instrument_sentence_44

The cylindrical pipes feature three side-holes that allowed players to produce whole tone scales. Musical instrument_sentence_45

These excavations, carried out by Leonard Woolley in the 1920s, uncovered non-degradable fragments of instruments and the voids left by the degraded segments that, together, have been used to reconstruct them. Musical instrument_sentence_46

The graves these instruments were buried in have been carbon dated to between 2600 and 2500 BC, providing evidence that these instruments were used in Sumeria by this time. Musical instrument_sentence_47

Archaeologists in the Jiahu site of central Henan province of China have found flutes made of bones that date back 7,000 to 9,000 years, representing some of the "earliest complete, playable, tightly-dated, multinote musical instruments" ever found. Musical instrument_sentence_48

History Musical instrument_section_2

Scholars agree that there are no completely reliable methods of determining the exact chronology of musical instruments across cultures. Musical instrument_sentence_49

Comparing and organizing instruments based on their complexity is misleading, since advancements in musical instruments have sometimes reduced complexity. Musical instrument_sentence_50

For example, construction of early slit drums involved felling and hollowing out large trees; later slit drums were made by opening bamboo stalks, a much simpler task. Musical instrument_sentence_51

German musicologist Curt Sachs, one of the most prominent musicologists and musical ethnologists in modern times, argues that it is misleading to arrange the development of musical instruments by workmanship, since cultures advance at different rates and have access to different raw materials. Musical instrument_sentence_52

For example, contemporary anthropologists comparing musical instruments from two cultures that existed at the same time but differed in organization, culture, and handicraft cannot determine which instruments are more "primitive". Musical instrument_sentence_53

Ordering instruments by geography is also not totally reliable, as it cannot always be determined when and how cultures contacted one another and shared knowledge. Musical instrument_sentence_54

Sachs proposed that a geographical chronology until approximately 1400 is preferable, however, due to its limited subjectivity. Musical instrument_sentence_55

Beyond 1400, one can follow the overall development of musical instruments by time period. Musical instrument_sentence_56

The science of marking the order of musical instrument development relies on archaeological artifacts, artistic depictions, and literary references. Musical instrument_sentence_57

Since data in one research path can be inconclusive, all three paths provide a better historical picture. Musical instrument_sentence_58

Primitive and prehistoric Musical instrument_section_3

Until the 19th century AD, European-written music histories began with mythological accounts mingled with scripture of how musical instruments were invented. Musical instrument_sentence_59

Such accounts included Jubal, descendant of Cain and "father of all such as handle the harp and the organ" (Genesis 4:21) Pan, inventor of the pan pipes, and Mercury, who is said to have made a dried tortoise shell into the first lyre. Musical instrument_sentence_60

Modern histories have replaced such mythology with anthropological speculation, occasionally informed by archeological evidence. Musical instrument_sentence_61

Scholars agree that there was no definitive "invention" of the musical instrument since the definition of the term "musical instrument" is completely subjective to both the scholar and the would-be inventor. Musical instrument_sentence_62

For example, a Homo habilis slapping his body could be the makings of a musical instrument regardless of the being's intent. Musical instrument_sentence_63

Among the first devices external to the human body that are considered instruments are rattles, stampers, and various drums. Musical instrument_sentence_64

These instruments evolved due to the human motor impulse to add sound to emotional movements such as dancing. Musical instrument_sentence_65

Eventually, some cultures assigned ritual functions to their musical instruments, using them for hunting and various ceremonies. Musical instrument_sentence_66

Those cultures developed more complex percussion instruments and other instruments such as ribbon reeds, flutes, and trumpets. Musical instrument_sentence_67

Some of these labels carry far different connotations from those used in modern day; early flutes and trumpets are so-labeled for their basic operation and function rather than resemblance to modern instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_68

Among early cultures for whom drums developed ritual, even sacred importance are the Chukchi people of the Russian Far East, the indigenous people of Melanesia, and many cultures of Africa. Musical instrument_sentence_69

In fact, drums were pervasive throughout every African culture. Musical instrument_sentence_70

One East African tribe, the Wahinda, believed it was so holy that seeing a drum would be fatal to any person other than the sultan. Musical instrument_sentence_71

Humans eventually developed the concept of using musical instruments to produce melody, which was previously common only in singing. Musical instrument_sentence_72

Similar to the process of reduplication in language, instrument players first developed repetition and then arrangement. Musical instrument_sentence_73

An early form of melody was produced by pounding two stamping tubes of slightly different sizes—one tube would produce a "clear" sound and the other would answer with a "darker" sound. Musical instrument_sentence_74

Such instrument pairs also included bullroarers, slit drums, shell trumpets, and skin drums. Musical instrument_sentence_75

Cultures who used these instrument pairs associated them with gender; the "father" was the bigger or more energetic instrument, while the "mother" was the smaller or duller instrument. Musical instrument_sentence_76

Musical instruments existed in this form for thousands of years before patterns of three or more tones would evolve in the form of the earliest xylophone. Musical instrument_sentence_77

Xylophones originated in the mainland and archipelago of Southeast Asia, eventually spreading to Africa, the Americas, and Europe. Musical instrument_sentence_78

Along with xylophones, which ranged from simple sets of three "leg bars" to carefully tuned sets of parallel bars, various cultures developed instruments such as the ground harp, ground zither, musical bow, and jaw harp. Musical instrument_sentence_79

Antiquity Musical instrument_section_4

Images of musical instruments begin to appear in Mesopotamian artifacts in 2800 BC or earlier. Musical instrument_sentence_80

Beginning around 2000 BC, Sumerian and Babylonian cultures began delineating two distinct classes of musical instruments due to division of labor and the evolving class system. Musical instrument_sentence_81

Popular instruments, simple and playable by anyone, evolved differently from professional instruments whose development focused on effectiveness and skill. Musical instrument_sentence_82

Despite this development, very few musical instruments have been recovered in Mesopotamia. Musical instrument_sentence_83

Scholars must rely on artifacts and cuneiform texts written in Sumerian or Akkadian to reconstruct the early history of musical instruments in Mesopotamia. Musical instrument_sentence_84

Even the process of assigning names to these instruments is challenging since there is no clear distinction among various instruments and the words used to describe them. Musical instrument_sentence_85

Although Sumerian and Babylonian artists mainly depicted ceremonial instruments, historians have distinguished six idiophones used in early Mesopotamia: concussion clubs, clappers, sistra, bells, cymbals, and rattles. Musical instrument_sentence_86

Sistra are depicted prominently in a great relief of Amenhotep III, and are of particular interest because similar designs have been found in far-reaching places such as Tbilisi, Georgia and among the Native American Yaqui tribe. Musical instrument_sentence_87

The people of Mesopotamia preferred stringed instruments, as evidenced by their proliferation in Mesopotamian figurines, plaques, and seals. Musical instrument_sentence_88

Innumerable varieties of harps are depicted, as well as lyres and lutes, the forerunner of modern stringed instruments such as the violin. Musical instrument_sentence_89

Musical instruments used by the Egyptian culture before 2700 BC bore striking similarity to those of Mesopotamia, leading historians to conclude that the civilizations must have been in contact with one another. Musical instrument_sentence_90

Sachs notes that Egypt did not possess any instruments that the Sumerian culture did not also possess. Musical instrument_sentence_91

However, by 2700 BC the cultural contacts seem to have dissipated; the lyre, a prominent ceremonial instrument in Sumer, did not appear in Egypt for another 800 years. Musical instrument_sentence_92

Clappers and concussion sticks appear on Egyptian vases as early as 3000 BC. Musical instrument_sentence_93

The civilization also made use of sistra, vertical flutes, double clarinets, arched and angular harps, and various drums. Musical instrument_sentence_94

Little history is available in the period between 2700 BC and 1500 BC, as Egypt (and indeed, Babylon) entered a long violent period of war and destruction. Musical instrument_sentence_95

This period saw the Kassites destroy the Babylonian empire in Mesopotamia and the Hyksos destroy the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. Musical instrument_sentence_96

When the Pharaohs of Egypt conquered Southwest Asia in around 1500 BC, the cultural ties to Mesopotamia were renewed and Egypt's musical instruments also reflected heavy influence from Asiatic cultures. Musical instrument_sentence_97

Under their new cultural influences, the people of the New Kingdom began using oboes, trumpets, lyres, lutes, castanets, and cymbals. Musical instrument_sentence_98

Unlike Mesopotamia and Egypt, professional musicians did not exist in Israel between 2000 and 1000 BC. Musical instrument_sentence_99

While the history of musical instruments in Mesopotamia and Egypt relies on artistic representations, the culture in Israel produced few such representations. Musical instrument_sentence_100

Scholars must therefore rely on information gleaned from the Bible and the Talmud. Musical instrument_sentence_101

The Hebrew texts mention two prominent instruments associated with Jubal: the ugab (pipes) and kinnor (lyre). Musical instrument_sentence_102

Other instruments of the period included the tof (frame drum), pa'amon (small bells or jingles), shofar, and the trumpet-like hasosra. Musical instrument_sentence_103

The introduction of a monarchy in Israel during the 11th century BC produced the first professional musicians and with them a drastic increase in the number and variety of musical instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_104

However, identifying and classifying the instruments remains a challenge due to the lack of artistic interpretations. Musical instrument_sentence_105

For example, stringed instruments of uncertain design called nevals and asors existed, but neither archaeology nor etymology can clearly define them. Musical instrument_sentence_106

In her book A Survey of Musical Instruments, American musicologist Sibyl Marcuse proposes that the nevel must be similar to vertical harp due to its relation to nabla, the Phoenician term for "harp". Musical instrument_sentence_107

In Greece, Rome, and Etruria, the use and development of musical instruments stood in stark contrast to those cultures' achievements in architecture and sculpture. Musical instrument_sentence_108

The instruments of the time were simple and virtually all of them were imported from other cultures. Musical instrument_sentence_109

Lyres were the principal instrument, as musicians used them to honor the gods. Musical instrument_sentence_110

Greeks played a variety of wind instruments they classified as aulos (reeds) or syrinx (flutes); Greek writing from that time reflects a serious study of reed production and playing technique. Musical instrument_sentence_111

Romans played reed instruments named tibia, featuring side-holes that could be opened or closed, allowing for greater flexibility in playing modes. Musical instrument_sentence_112

Other instruments in common use in the region included vertical harps derived from those of the Orient, lutes of Egyptian design, various pipes and organs, and clappers, which were played primarily by women. Musical instrument_sentence_113

Evidence of musical instruments in use by early civilizations of India is almost completely lacking, making it impossible to reliably attribute instruments to the Munda and Dravidian language-speaking cultures that first settled the area. Musical instrument_sentence_114

Rather, the history of musical instruments in the area begins with the Indus Valley Civilization that emerged around 3000 BC. Musical instrument_sentence_115

Various rattles and whistles found among excavated artifacts are the only physical evidence of musical instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_116

A clay statuette indicates the use of drums, and examination of the Indus script has also revealed representations of vertical arched harps identical in design to those depicted in Sumerian artifacts. Musical instrument_sentence_117

This discovery is among many indications that the Indus Valley and Sumerian cultures maintained cultural contact. Musical instrument_sentence_118

Subsequent developments in musical instruments in India occurred with the Rigveda, or hymns. Musical instrument_sentence_119

These songs used various drums, shell trumpets, harps, and flutes. Musical instrument_sentence_120

Other prominent instruments in use during the early centuries AD were the snake charmer's double clarinet, bagpipes, barrel drums, cross flutes, and short lutes. Musical instrument_sentence_121

In all, India had no unique musical instruments until the Middle Ages. Musical instrument_sentence_122

Musical instruments such as zithers appeared in Chinese writings around 12th century BC and earlier. Musical instrument_sentence_123

Early Chinese philosophers such as Confucius (551–479 BC), Mencius (372–289 BC), and Laozi shaped the development of musical instruments in China, adopting an attitude toward music similar to that of the Greeks. Musical instrument_sentence_124

The Chinese believed that music was an essential part of character and community, and developed a unique system of classifying their musical instruments according to their material makeup. Musical instrument_sentence_125

Idiophones were extremely important in Chinese music, hence the majority of early instruments were idiophones. Musical instrument_sentence_126

Poetry of the Shang dynasty mentions bells, chimes, drums, and globular flutes carved from bone, the latter of which has been excavated and preserved by archaeologists. Musical instrument_sentence_127

The Zhou dynasty saw percussion instruments such as clappers, troughs, wooden fish, and (wooden tiger). Musical instrument_sentence_128

Wind instruments such as flute, pan-pipes, pitch-pipes, and mouth organs also appeared in this time period. Musical instrument_sentence_129

The xiao (an end-blown flute) and various other instruments that spread through many cultures, came into use in China during and after the Han dynasty. Musical instrument_sentence_130

Although civilizations in Central America attained a relatively high level of sophistication by the eleventh century AD, they lagged behind other civilizations in the development of musical instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_131

For example, they had no stringed instruments; all of their instruments were idiophones, drums, and wind instruments such as flutes and trumpets. Musical instrument_sentence_132

Of these, only the flute was capable of producing a melody. Musical instrument_sentence_133

In contrast, pre-Columbian South American civilizations in areas such as modern-day Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile were less advanced culturally but more advanced musically. Musical instrument_sentence_134

South American cultures of the time used pan-pipes as well as varieties of flutes, idiophones, drums, and shell or wood trumpets. Musical instrument_sentence_135

Middle Ages Musical instrument_section_5

During the period of time loosely referred to as the Middle Ages, China developed a tradition of integrating musical influence from other regions. Musical instrument_sentence_136

The first record of this type of influence is in 384 AD, when China established an orchestra in its imperial court after a conquest in Turkestan. Musical instrument_sentence_137

Influences from Middle East, Persia, India, Mongolia, and other countries followed. Musical instrument_sentence_138

In fact, Chinese tradition attributes many musical instruments from this period to those regions and countries. Musical instrument_sentence_139

Cymbals gained popularity, along with more advanced trumpets, clarinets, pianos, oboes, flutes, drums, and lutes. Musical instrument_sentence_140

Some of the first bowed zithers appeared in China in the 9th or 10th century, influenced by Mongolian culture. Musical instrument_sentence_141

India experienced similar development to China in the Middle Ages; however, stringed instruments developed differently as they accommodated different styles of music. Musical instrument_sentence_142

While stringed instruments of China were designed to produce precise tones capable of matching the tones of chimes, stringed instruments of India were considerably more flexible. Musical instrument_sentence_143

This flexibility suited the slides and tremolos of Hindu music. Musical instrument_sentence_144

Rhythm was of paramount importance in Indian music of the time, as evidenced by the frequent depiction of drums in reliefs dating to the Middle Ages. Musical instrument_sentence_145

The emphasis on rhythm is an aspect native to Indian music. Musical instrument_sentence_146

Historians divide the development of musical instruments in medieval India between pre-Islamic and Islamic periods due to the different influence each period provided. Musical instrument_sentence_147

In pre-Islamic times, idiophones such as handbells, cymbals, and peculiar instruments resembling gongs came into wide use in Hindu music. Musical instrument_sentence_148

The gong-like instrument was a bronze disk that was struck with a hammer instead of a mallet. Musical instrument_sentence_149

Tubular drums, stick zithers (veena), short fiddles, double and triple flutes, coiled trumpets, and curved India horns emerged in this time period. Musical instrument_sentence_150

Islamic influences brought new types of drums, perfectly circular or octagonal as opposed to the irregular pre-Islamic drums. Musical instrument_sentence_151

Persian influence brought oboes and sitars, although Persian sitars had three strings and Indian version had from four to seven. Musical instrument_sentence_152

The Islamic culture also introduced double-clarinet instruments as the Alboka (from Arab, al-buq or "horn") nowadays only alive in Basque Country. Musical instrument_sentence_153

It must be played using the technique of the circular breathing. Musical instrument_sentence_154

Southeast Asian musical innovations include those during a period of Indian influence that ended around 920 AD. Musical instrument_sentence_155

Balinese and Javanese music made use of xylophones and metallophones, bronze versions of the former. Musical instrument_sentence_156

The most prominent and important musical instrument of Southeast Asia was the gong. Musical instrument_sentence_157

While the gong likely originated in the geographical area between Tibet and Burma, it was part of every category of human activity in maritime Southeast Asia including Java. Musical instrument_sentence_158

The areas of Mesopotamia and the Arabian Peninsula experiences rapid growth and sharing of musical instruments once they were united by Islamic culture in the seventh century. Musical instrument_sentence_159

Frame drums and cylindrical drums of various depths were immensely important in all genres of music. Musical instrument_sentence_160

Conical oboes were involved in the music that accompanied wedding and circumcision ceremonies. Musical instrument_sentence_161

Persian miniatures provide information on the development of kettle drums in Mesopotamia that spread as far as Java. Musical instrument_sentence_162

Various lutes, zithers, dulcimers, and harps spread as far as Madagascar to the south and modern-day Sulawesi to the east. Musical instrument_sentence_163

Despite the influences of Greece and Rome, most musical instruments in Europe during the Middles Ages came from Asia. Musical instrument_sentence_164

The lyre is the only musical instrument that may have been invented in Europe until this period. Musical instrument_sentence_165

Stringed instruments were prominent in Middle Age Europe. Musical instrument_sentence_166

The central and northern regions used mainly lutes, stringed instruments with necks, while the southern region used lyres, which featured a two-armed body and a crossbar. Musical instrument_sentence_167

Various harps served Central and Northern Europe as far north as Ireland, where the harp eventually became a national symbol. Musical instrument_sentence_168

Lyres propagated through the same areas, as far east as Estonia. Musical instrument_sentence_169

European music between 800 and 1100 became more sophisticated, more frequently requiring instruments capable of polyphony. Musical instrument_sentence_170

The 9th-century Persian geographer Ibn Khordadbeh mentioned in his lexicographical discussion of music instruments that, in the Byzantine Empire, typical instruments included the urghun (organ), shilyani (probably a type of harp or lyre), salandj (probably a bagpipe) and the lyra. Musical instrument_sentence_171

The Byzantine lyra, a bowed string instrument, is an ancestor of most European bowed instruments, including the violin. Musical instrument_sentence_172

The monochord served as a precise measure of the notes of a musical scale, allowing more accurate musical arrangements. Musical instrument_sentence_173

Mechanical hurdy-gurdies allowed single musicians to play more complicated arrangements than a fiddle would; both were prominent folk instruments in the Middle Ages. Musical instrument_sentence_174

Southern Europeans played short and long lutes whose pegs extended to the sides, unlike the rear-facing pegs of Central and Northern European instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_175

Idiophones such as bells and clappers served various practical purposes, such as warning of the approach of a leper. Musical instrument_sentence_176

The ninth century revealed the first bagpipes, which spread throughout Europe and had many uses from folk instruments to military instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_177

The construction of pneumatic organs evolved in Europe starting in fifth-century Spain, spreading to England in about 700. Musical instrument_sentence_178

The resulting instruments varied in size and use from portable organs worn around the neck to large pipe organs. Musical instrument_sentence_179

Literary accounts of organs being played in English Benedictine abbeys toward the end of the tenth century are the first references to organs being connected to churches. Musical instrument_sentence_180

Reed players of the Middle Ages were limited to oboes; no evidence of clarinets exists during this period. Musical instrument_sentence_181

Modern Musical instrument_section_6

Renaissance Musical instrument_section_7

Musical instrument development was dominated by the Occident from 1400 on, indeed, the most profound changes occurred during the Renaissance period. Musical instrument_sentence_182

Instruments took on other purposes than accompanying singing or dance, and performers used them as solo instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_183

Keyboards and lutes developed as polyphonic instruments, and composers arranged increasingly complex pieces using more advanced tablature. Musical instrument_sentence_184

Composers also began designing pieces of music for specific instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_185

In the latter half of the sixteenth century, orchestration came into common practice as a method of writing music for a variety of instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_186

Composers now specified orchestration where individual performers once applied their own discretion. Musical instrument_sentence_187

The polyphonic style dominated popular music, and the instrument makers responded accordingly. Musical instrument_sentence_188

Beginning in about 1400, the rate of development of musical instruments increased in earnest as compositions demanded more dynamic sounds. Musical instrument_sentence_189

People also began writing books about creating, playing, and cataloging musical instruments; the first such book was Sebastian Virdung's 1511 treatise Musica getuscht und ausgezogen ('Music Germanized and Abstracted'). Musical instrument_sentence_190

Virdung's work is noted as being particularly thorough for including descriptions of "irregular" instruments such as hunters' horns and cow bells, though Virdung is critical of the same. Musical instrument_sentence_191

Other books followed, including Arnolt Schlick's Spiegel der Orgelmacher und Organisten ('Mirror of Organ Makers and Organ Players') the following year, a treatise on organ building and organ playing. Musical instrument_sentence_192

Of the instructional books and references published in the Renaissance era, one is noted for its detailed description and depiction of all wind and stringed instruments, including their relative sizes. Musical instrument_sentence_193

This book, the Syntagma musicum by Michael Praetorius, is now considered an authoritative reference of sixteenth-century musical instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_194

In the sixteenth century, musical instrument builders gave most instruments – such as the violin – the "classical shapes" they retain today. Musical instrument_sentence_195

An emphasis on aesthetic beauty also developed; listeners were as pleased with the physical appearance of an instrument as they were with its sound. Musical instrument_sentence_196

Therefore, builders paid special attention to materials and workmanship, and instruments became collectibles in homes and museums. Musical instrument_sentence_197

It was during this period that makers began constructing instruments of the same type in various sizes to meet the demand of consorts, or ensembles playing works written for these groups of instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_198

Instrument builders developed other features that endure today. Musical instrument_sentence_199

For example, while organs with multiple keyboards and pedals already existed, the first organs with solo stops emerged in the early fifteenth century. Musical instrument_sentence_200

These stops were meant to produce a mixture of timbres, a development needed for the complexity of music of the time. Musical instrument_sentence_201

Trumpets evolved into their modern form to improve portability, and players used mutes to properly blend into chamber music. Musical instrument_sentence_202

Baroque Musical instrument_section_8

Beginning in the seventeenth century, composers began writing works to a higher emotional degree. Musical instrument_sentence_203

They felt that polyphony better suited the emotional style they were aiming for and began writing musical parts for instruments that would complement the singing human voice. Musical instrument_sentence_204

As a result, many instruments that were incapable of larger ranges and dynamics, and therefore were seen as unemotional, fell out of favor. Musical instrument_sentence_205

One such instrument was the shawm. Musical instrument_sentence_206

Bowed instruments such as the violin, viola, baryton, and various lutes dominated popular music. Musical instrument_sentence_207

Beginning in around 1750, however, the lute disappeared from musical compositions in favor of the rising popularity of the guitar. Musical instrument_sentence_208

As the prevalence of string orchestras rose, wind instruments such as the flute, oboe, and bassoon were readmitted to counteract the monotony of hearing only strings. Musical instrument_sentence_209

In the mid-seventeenth century, what was known as a hunter's horn underwent transformation into an "art instrument" consisting of a lengthened tube, a narrower bore, a wider bell, and much wider range. Musical instrument_sentence_210

The details of this transformation are unclear, but the modern horn or, more colloquially, French horn, had emerged by 1725. Musical instrument_sentence_211

The slide trumpet appeared, a variation that includes a long-throated mouthpiece that slid in and out, allowing the player infinite adjustments in pitch. Musical instrument_sentence_212

This variation on the trumpet was unpopular due to the difficulty involved in playing it. Musical instrument_sentence_213

Organs underwent tonal changes in the Baroque period, as manufacturers such as Abraham Jordan of London made the stops more expressive and added devices such as expressive pedals. Musical instrument_sentence_214

Sachs viewed this trend as a "degeneration" of the general organ sound. Musical instrument_sentence_215

Classical and Romantic Musical instrument_section_9

During the Classical and Romantic periods of music, lasting from roughly 1750 to 1900, a great deal of musical instruments capable of producing new timbres and higher volume were developed and introduced into popular music. Musical instrument_sentence_216

The design changes that broadened the quality of timbres allowed instruments to produce a wider variety of expression. Musical instrument_sentence_217

Large orchestras rose in popularity and, in parallel, the composers determined to produce entire orchestral scores that made use of the expressive abilities of modern instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_218

Since instruments were involved in collaborations of a much larger scale, their designs had to evolve to accommodate the demands of the orchestra. Musical instrument_sentence_219

Some instruments also had to become louder to fill larger halls and be heard over sizable orchestras. Musical instrument_sentence_220

Flutes and bowed instruments underwent many modifications and design changes—most of them unsuccessful—in efforts to increase volume. Musical instrument_sentence_221

Other instruments were changed just so they could play their parts in the scores. Musical instrument_sentence_222

Trumpets traditionally had a "defective" range—they were incapable of producing certain notes with precision. Musical instrument_sentence_223

New instruments such as the clarinet, saxophone, and tuba became fixtures in orchestras. Musical instrument_sentence_224

Instruments such as the clarinet also grew into entire "families" of instruments capable of different ranges: small clarinets, normal clarinets, bass clarinets, and so on. Musical instrument_sentence_225

Accompanying the changes to timbre and volume was a shift in the typical pitch used to tune instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_226

Instruments meant to play together, as in an orchestra, must be tuned to the same standard lest they produce audibly different sounds while playing the same notes. Musical instrument_sentence_227

Beginning in 1762, the average concert pitch began rising from a low of 377 vibrations to a high of 457 in 1880 Vienna. Musical instrument_sentence_228

Different regions, countries, and even instrument manufacturers preferred different standards, making orchestral collaboration a challenge. Musical instrument_sentence_229

Despite even the efforts of two organized international summits attended by noted composers like Hector Berlioz, no standard could be agreed upon. Musical instrument_sentence_230

Twentieth century to present Musical instrument_section_10

The evolution of traditional musical instruments slowed beginning in the 20th century. Musical instrument_sentence_231

Instruments such as the violin, flute, french horn, and harp are largely the same as those manufactured throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Musical instrument_sentence_232

Gradual iterations do emerge; for example, the "New Violin Family" began in 1964 to provide differently sized violins to expand the range of available sounds. Musical instrument_sentence_233

The slowdown in development was practical response to the concurrent slowdown in orchestra and venue size. Musical instrument_sentence_234

Despite this trend in traditional instruments, the development of new musical instruments exploded in the twentieth century, and the variety of instruments developed overshadows any prior period. Musical instrument_sentence_235

The proliferation of electricity in the 20th century lead to the creation of an entirely new category of musical instruments: electronic instruments, or electrophones. Musical instrument_sentence_236

The vast majority of electrophones produced in the first half of the 20th century were what Sachs called "electromechanical instruments"; they have mechanical parts that produce sound vibrations, and these vibrations are picked up and amplified by electrical components. Musical instrument_sentence_237

Examples of electromechanical instruments include Hammond organs and electric guitars. Musical instrument_sentence_238

Sachs also defined a subcategory of "radioelectric instruments" such as the theremin, which produces music through the player's hand movements around two antennas. Musical instrument_sentence_239

The latter half of the 20th century saw the evolution of synthesizers, which produce sound using analog or digital circuits and microchips. Musical instrument_sentence_240

In the late 1960s, Bob Moog and other inventors developed the first commercial synthesizers, such as the Moog synthesizer. Musical instrument_sentence_241

Whereas once they had filled rooms, synthesizers now can be embedded in any electronic device, and are ubiquitous in modern music. Musical instrument_sentence_242

Samplers, introduced around 1980, allow users to sample and reuse existing sounds, and were important to the development of hip hop. Musical instrument_sentence_243

1982 saw the introduction of MIDI, a standardized means of synchronizing electronic instruments that remains an industry standard. Musical instrument_sentence_244

The modern proliferation of computers and microchips has created an industry of electronic musical instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_245

Classification Musical instrument_section_11

Main article: Musical instrument classification Musical instrument_sentence_246

There are many different methods of classifying musical instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_247

Various methods examine aspects such as the physical properties of the instrument (material, color, shape, etc.), the use for the instrument, the means by which music is produced with the instrument, the range of the instrument, and the instrument's place in an orchestra or other ensemble. Musical instrument_sentence_248

Most methods are specific to a geographic area or cultural group and were developed to serve the unique classification requirements of the group. Musical instrument_sentence_249

The problem with these specialized classification schemes is that they tend to break down once they are applied outside of their original area. Musical instrument_sentence_250

For example, a system based on instrument use would fail if a culture invented a new use for the same instrument. Musical instrument_sentence_251

Scholars recognize Hornbostel–Sachs as the only system that applies to any culture and, more important, provides only possible classification for each instrument. Musical instrument_sentence_252

The most common types of instrument classifications are strings, brass, woodwind, and percussion. Musical instrument_sentence_253

Ancient systems Musical instrument_section_12

An ancient Hindu system named the Natya Shastra, written by the sage Bharata Muni and dating from between 200 BC and 200 AD, divides instruments into four main classification groups: instruments where the sound is produced by vibrating strings; percussion instruments with skin heads; instruments where the sound is produced by vibrating columns of air; and "solid", or non-skin, percussion instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_254

This system was adapted to some degree in 12th-century Europe by Johannes de Muris, who used the terms tensibilia (stringed instruments), inflatibilia (wind instruments), and percussibilia (all percussion instruments). Musical instrument_sentence_255

In 1880, Victor-Charles Mahillon adapted the Natya Shastra and assigned Greek labels to the four classifications: chordophones (stringed instruments), membranophones (skin-head percussion instruments), aerophones (wind instruments), and autophones (non-skin percussion instruments). Musical instrument_sentence_256

Hornbostel–Sachs Musical instrument_section_13

Erich von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs adopted Mahillon's scheme and published an extensive new scheme for classification in Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914. Musical instrument_sentence_257

Hornbostel and Sachs used most of Mahillon's system, but replaced the term autophone with idiophone. Musical instrument_sentence_258

The original Hornbostel–Sachs system classified instruments into four main groups: Musical instrument_sentence_259

Musical instrument_unordered_list_0

  • Idiophones, which produce sound by vibrating the primary body of the instrument itself; they are sorted into concussion, percussion, shaken, scraped, split, and plucked idiophones, such as claves, xylophone, guiro, slit drum, mbira, and rattle.Musical instrument_item_0_0
  • Membranophones, which produce sound by a vibrating a stretched membrane; they may be drums (further sorted by the shape of the shell), which are struck by hand, with a stick, or rubbed, but kazoos and other instruments that use a stretched membrane for the primary sound (not simply to modify sound produced in another way) are also considered membranophones.Musical instrument_item_0_1
  • Chordophones, which produce sound by vibrating one or more strings; they are sorted into according to the relationship between the string(s) and the sounding board or chamber. For example, if the strings are laid out parallel to the sounding board and there is no neck, the instrument is a zither whether it is plucked like an autoharp or struck with hammers like a piano. If the instrument has strings parallel to the sounding board or chamber and the strings extend past the board with a neck, then the instrument is a lute, whether the sound chamber is constructed of wood like a guitar or uses a membrane like a banjo.Musical instrument_item_0_2
  • Aerophones, which produce a sound with a vibrating column of air; they are sorted into free aerophones such as a bullroarer or whip, which move freely through the air; reedless aerophones such as flutes and recorders, which cause the air to pass over a sharp edge; reed instruments, which use a vibrating reed (this category may be further divided into two classifications: single-reeded and double-reeded instruments. Examples of the former are clarinets and saxophones, while the latter includes oboes and bassoons); and lip-vibrated aerophones such as trumpets, trombones and tubas, for which the lips themselves function as vibrating reeds.Musical instrument_item_0_3

Sachs later added a fifth category, electrophones, such as theremins, which produce sound by electronic means. Musical instrument_sentence_260

Within each category are many subgroups. Musical instrument_sentence_261

The system has been criticised and revised over the years, but remains widely used by ethnomusicologists and organologists. Musical instrument_sentence_262

Schaeffner Musical instrument_section_14

Andre Schaeffner, a curator at the Musée de l'Homme, disagreed with the Hornbostel–Sachs system and developed his own system in 1932. Musical instrument_sentence_263

Schaeffner believed that the pure physics of a musical instrument, rather than its specific construction or playing method, should always determine its classification. Musical instrument_sentence_264

(Hornbostel–Sachs, for example, divide aerophones on the basis of sound production, but membranophones on the basis of the shape of the instrument). Musical instrument_sentence_265

His system divided instruments into two categories: instruments with solid, vibrating bodies and instruments containing vibrating air. Musical instrument_sentence_266

Range Musical instrument_section_15

Main article: Range (music) Musical instrument_sentence_267

Musical instruments are also often classified by their musical range in comparison with other instruments in the same family. Musical instrument_sentence_268

This exercise is useful when placing instruments in context of an orchestra or other ensemble. Musical instrument_sentence_269

These terms are named after singing voice classifications: Musical instrument_sentence_270

Musical instrument_unordered_list_1

Some instruments fall into more than one category. Musical instrument_sentence_271

For example, the cello may be considered tenor, baritone or bass, depending on how its music fits into the ensemble. Musical instrument_sentence_272

The trombone and French horn may be alto, tenor, baritone, or bass depending on the range it is played in. Musical instrument_sentence_273

Many instruments have their range as part of their name: soprano saxophone, tenor saxophone, baritone horn, alto flute, bass guitar, etc. Additional adjectives describe instruments above the soprano range or below the bass, for example the sopranino saxophone and contrabass clarinet. Musical instrument_sentence_274

When used in the name of an instrument, these terms are relative, describing the instrument's range in comparison to other instruments of its family and not in comparison to the human voice range or instruments of other families. Musical instrument_sentence_275

For example, a bass flute's range is from C3 to F♯6, while a bass clarinet plays about one octave lower. Musical instrument_sentence_276

Construction Musical instrument_section_16

The materials used in making musical instruments vary greatly by culture and application. Musical instrument_sentence_277

Many of the materials have special significance owing to their source or rarity. Musical instrument_sentence_278

Some cultures worked substances from the human body into their instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_279

In ancient Mexico, for example, the material drums were made from might contain actual human body parts obtained from sacrificial offerings. Musical instrument_sentence_280

In New Guinea, drum makers would mix human blood into the adhesive used to attach the membrane. Musical instrument_sentence_281

Mulberry trees are held in high regard in China owing to their mythological significance—instrument makers would hence use them to make zithers. Musical instrument_sentence_282

The Yakuts believe that making drums from trees struck by lightning gives them a special connection to nature. Musical instrument_sentence_283

Musical instrument construction is a specialized trade that requires years of training, practice, and sometimes an apprenticeship. Musical instrument_sentence_284

Most makers of musical instruments specialize in one genre of instruments; for example, a luthier makes only stringed instruments. Musical instrument_sentence_285

Some make only one type of instrument such as a piano. Musical instrument_sentence_286

Whatever the instrument constructed, the instrument maker must consider materials, construction technique, and decoration, creating a balanced instrument that is both functional and aesthetically pleasing. Musical instrument_sentence_287

Some builders are focused on a more artistic approach and develop experimental musical instruments, often meant for individual playing styles developed by the builder themself. Musical instrument_sentence_288

User interfaces Musical instrument_section_17

Regardless of how the sound is produced, many musical instruments have a keyboard as the user interface. Musical instrument_sentence_289

Keyboard instruments are any instruments that are played with a musical keyboard, which is a row of small keys that can be pressed. Musical instrument_sentence_290

Every key generates one or more sounds; most keyboard instruments have extra means (pedals for a piano, stops and a pedal keyboard for an organ) to manipulate these sounds. Musical instrument_sentence_291

They may produce sound by wind being fanned (organ) or pumped (accordion), vibrating strings either hammered (piano) or plucked (harpsichord), by electronic means (synthesizer), or in some other way. Musical instrument_sentence_292

Sometimes, instruments that do not usually have a keyboard, such as the glockenspiel, are fitted with one. Musical instrument_sentence_293

Though they have no moving parts and are struck by mallets held in the player's hands, they have the same physical arrangement of keys and produce soundwaves in a similar manner. Musical instrument_sentence_294

The theremin, an electrophone, is played without physical contact by the player. Musical instrument_sentence_295

The theremin senses the proximity of the player's hands, which triggers changes in its sound. Musical instrument_sentence_296

More recently, a MIDI controller keyboard used with a digital audio workstation may have a musical keyboard and a bank of sliders, knobs, and buttons that change many sound parameters of a synthesizer. Musical instrument_sentence_297

See also Musical instrument_section_18

Musical instrument_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: instrument.