Musical instrument classification

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Throughout history, various methods of musical instrument classification have been used in organology. Musical instrument classification_sentence_0

The most commonly used system divides instruments into string instruments, woodwind instruments, brass instruments and percussion instruments; however, other schemes have been devised. Musical instrument classification_sentence_1

Chinese classification Musical instrument classification_section_0

The oldest known scheme of classifying instruments is Chinese and may date as far back as the second millennium BC. Musical instrument classification_sentence_2

It grouped instruments according to the materials they are made of. Musical instrument classification_sentence_3

Instruments made of stone were in one group, those of wood in another, those of silk are in a third, and those of bamboo in a fourth, as recorded in the Yo Chi (record of ritual music and dance), compiled from sources of the Chou period (9th–5th centuries BC) and corresponding to the four seasons and four winds. Musical instrument classification_sentence_4

The eight-fold system of ba yin/ pa yin (八音 "eight sounds", "octave"), from the same source, occurred gradually, and in the legendary Emperor Zhun's time (3rd millennium BC) it is believed to have been presented in the following order: metal ( 金Jin), stone (石Shi), silk (絲si), bamboo (竹zhu), gourd (匏pao), clay (土tu), leather (革ge), and wood (木mu) classes, and it correlated to the eight seasons and eight winds of Chinese culture, autumn and west, autumn-winter and NW, summer and south, spring and east, winter-spring and NE, summer-autumn and SW, winter and north, and spring-summer and SE, respectively. Musical instrument classification_sentence_5

However, the Chou-Li (Rites of Chou), an anonymous treatise compiled from earlier sources in about the 2nd century BC, had the following order: metal, stone, clay, leather, silk, wood, gourd, and bamboo. Musical instrument classification_sentence_6

The same order was presented in the Tso Chuan (Commentary of Tso), attributed to Tso Chiu-Ming, probably compiled in the 4th century BC. Musical instrument classification_sentence_7

Much later, Ming dynasty (14th–17th century) scholar Chu Tsai Yu recognized three groups: those instruments using muscle power or used for musical accompaniment, those that are blown, and those that are rhythmic, a scheme which was probably the first scholarly attempt, while the earlier ones were traditional, folk taxonomies. Musical instrument classification_sentence_8

More usually, instruments are classified according to how the sound is initially produced (regardless of post-processing, i.e., an electric guitar is still a string-instrument regardless of what analog or digital/computational post-processing effects pedals may be used with it). Musical instrument classification_sentence_9

Western classification Musical instrument classification_section_1

The modern system divides instruments into wind, strings and percussion. Musical instrument classification_sentence_10

It is of Greek origin (in the Hellenistic period, prominent proponents being Nicomachus and Porphyry). Musical instrument classification_sentence_11

The scheme was later expanded by Martin Agricola, who distinguished plucked string instruments, such as guitars, from bowed string instruments, such as violins. Musical instrument classification_sentence_12

Classical musicians today do not always maintain this division (although plucked strings are grouped separately from bowed strings in sheet music), but distinguish between wind instruments with a reed (woodwinds) and those where the air is set in motion directly by the lips (brass instruments). Musical instrument classification_sentence_13

Many instruments do not fit very neatly into this scheme. Musical instrument classification_sentence_14

The serpent, for example, ought to be classified as a brass instrument, as a column of air is set in motion by the lips. Musical instrument classification_sentence_15

However, it looks more like a woodwind instrument, and is closer to one in many ways, having finger-holes to control pitch, rather than valves. Musical instrument classification_sentence_16

Keyboard instruments do not fit easily into this scheme. Musical instrument classification_sentence_17

For example, the piano has strings, but they are struck by hammers, so it is not clear whether it should be classified as a string instrument or a percussion instrument. Musical instrument classification_sentence_18

For this reason, keyboard instruments are often regarded as inhabiting a category of their own, including all instruments played by a keyboard, whether they have struck strings (like the piano), plucked strings (like the harpsichord) or no strings at all (like the celesta). Musical instrument classification_sentence_19

It might be said that with these extra categories, the classical system of instrument classification focuses less on the fundamental way in which instruments produce sound, and more on the technique required to play them. Musical instrument classification_sentence_20

Various names have been assigned to these three traditional Western groupings: Musical instrument classification_sentence_21

Musical instrument classification_unordered_list_0

  • Boethius (5th and 6th centuries) labelled them intensione ut nervis, spiritu ut tibiis ("breath in the tube"), and percussione;Musical instrument classification_item_0_0
  • Cassiodorus, a younger contemporary of Boethius, used the names tensibilia, percussionalia, and inflatilia;Musical instrument classification_item_0_1
  • Roger Bacon (13th century) dubbed them tensilia, inflativa, and percussionalia;Musical instrument classification_item_0_2
  • Ugolino da Orvieto (14th and 15th centuries) called them intensione ut nervis, spiritu ut tibiis, and percussione;Musical instrument classification_item_0_3
  • Sebastien de Brossard (1703) referred to them as enchorda or entata (but only for instruments with several strings), pneumatica or empneousta, and krusta (from the Greek for hit or strike) or pulsatilia (for percussives);Musical instrument classification_item_0_4
  • Filippo Bonanni (1722) used vernacular names: sonori per il fiato, sonori per la tensione, and sonori per la percussione;Musical instrument classification_item_0_5
  • Joseph Majer (1732) called them pneumatica, pulsatilia (percussives including plucked instruments), and fidicina (from fidula, fiddle) (for bowed instruments);Musical instrument classification_item_0_6
  • Johann Eisel (1738) dubbed them pneumatica, pulsatilia, and fidicina;Musical instrument classification_item_0_7
  • Johannes de Muris (1784) used the terms chordalia, foraminalia (from foramina, "bore" in reference to the bored tubes), and vasalia (for "vessels");Musical instrument classification_item_0_8
  • Regino of Prum (1784) called them tensibile, inflatile, and percussionabile.Musical instrument classification_item_0_9
  • Ottoman encyclopedist Hadji Khalifa (17th century) also recognized the same three classes in his Kashf al-Zunun an Asami al-Kutub wa al-Funun ("Clarification and Conjecture About the Names of Books and Sciences"), a treatise on the origin and construction of musical instruments. but this was exceptional for Near Eastern writers as they mostly ignored the percussion group as did early Hellenistic Greeks, the Near Eastern culture traditionally and that period of Greek history having low regard for that group.Musical instrument classification_item_0_10
  • The T'boli of Mindanao use the same three categories as well, but group the strings (t'duk) with the winds (nawa) together based on a gentleness-strength dichotomy (lemnoy-megel, respectively), regarding the percussion group (tembol) as strong and the winds-strings group as gentle. The division pervades T'boli thought about cosmology, social characters of men and women, and artistic styles.Musical instrument classification_item_0_11

Mahillon and Hornbostel–Sachs systems Musical instrument classification_section_2

An ancient system of Indian origin, dating from the 4th or 3rd century BC, in the Natya Shastra, a theoretical treatise on music and dramaturgy, by Bharata Muni, divides instruments into four main classification groups: instruments where the sound is produced by vibrating strings (tata vadya, "stretched instruments"); instruments where the sound is produced by vibrating columns of air (susira vadya, "hollow instruments"); percussion instruments made of wood or metal (Ghana vadya, "solid instruments"); and percussion instruments with skin heads, or drums (avanaddha vadya, "covered instruments"). Musical instrument classification_sentence_22

Victor-Charles Mahillon later adopted a system very similar to this. Musical instrument classification_sentence_23

He was the curator of the musical instrument collection of the conservatoire in Brussels, and for the 1888 catalogue of the collection divided instruments into four groups: strings, winds, drums, and other percussion. Musical instrument classification_sentence_24

This scheme was later taken up by Erich von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs who published an extensive new scheme for classication in Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914. Musical instrument classification_sentence_25

Their scheme is widely used today, and is most often known as the Hornbostel–Sachs system (or the Sachs–Hornbostel system). Musical instrument classification_sentence_26

The original Sachs–Hornbostel system classified instruments into four main groups: Musical instrument classification_sentence_27

Musical instrument classification_ordered_list_1

  1. idiophones, such as the xylophone, which produce sound by vibrating themselves;Musical instrument classification_item_1_12
  2. membranophones, such as drums or kazoos, which produce sound by a vibrating membrane;Musical instrument classification_item_1_13
  3. chordophones, such as the piano or cello, which produce sound by vibrating strings;Musical instrument classification_item_1_14
  4. aerophones, such as the pipe organ or oboe, which produce sound by vibrating columns of air.Musical instrument classification_item_1_15

Later Sachs added a fifth category, electrophones, such as theremins, which produce sound by electronic means. Musical instrument classification_sentence_28

Modern synthesizers and electronic instruments fall in this category. Musical instrument classification_sentence_29

Within each category are many subgroups. Musical instrument classification_sentence_30

The system has been criticized and revised over the years, but remains widely used by ethnomusicologists and organologists. Musical instrument classification_sentence_31

One notable example of this criticism is that care should be taken with electrophones, as some electronic instruments like the electric guitar (chordophone) and some electronic keyboards (sometimes idiophones or chordophones) can produce music without electricity or the use of an amplifier. Musical instrument classification_sentence_32

In the Hornbostel–Sachs classification of musical instruments, lamellophones are considered plucked idiophones, a category that includes various forms of jaw harp and the European mechanical music box, as well as the huge variety of African and Afro-Latin thumb pianos such as the mbira and marimbula. Musical instrument classification_sentence_33

André Schaeffner Musical instrument classification_section_3

In 1932, comparative musicologist (ethnomusicologist) André Schaeffner developed a new classification scheme that was "exhaustive, potentially covering all real and conceivable instruments". Musical instrument classification_sentence_34

Schaeffner's system has only two top-level categories which he denoted by Roman numerals: Musical instrument classification_sentence_35

Musical instrument classification_unordered_list_2

  • I: instruments that make sound from vibrating solids:Musical instrument classification_item_2_16
    • I.A: no tension (free solid, for example, xylophones, cymbals, or claves);Musical instrument classification_item_2_17
    • I.B: linguaphones (lamellophones) (solid fixed at only one end, such as a kalimba or thumb piano);Musical instrument classification_item_2_18
    • I.C: chordophones (solid fixed at both ends, i.e. strings such as piano or harp); plus drumsMusical instrument classification_item_2_19
  • II: instruments that make sound from vibrating air (such as clarinets, trumpets, or bull-roarers.)Musical instrument classification_item_2_20

The system agrees with Mahillon and Hornbostel–Sachs for chordophones, but groups percussion instruments differently. Musical instrument classification_sentence_36

2nd-century Greek grammarian, sophist, and rhetoritician Julius Pollux, in the chapter called De Musica of his ten-volume Onomastikon, presented the two-class system, percussion (including strings) and winds, which persisted in medieval and postmedieval Europe. Musical instrument classification_sentence_37

It was used by St. Musical instrument classification_sentence_38 Augustine (4th and 5th centuries), in his De Ordine, applying the terms rhythmic (percussion and strings), organic (winds), and adding harmonic (the human voice); Isidore of Seville (6th to 7th centuries); Hugh of Saint Victor (12th century), also adding the voice; Magister Lambertus (13th century), adding the human voice as well; and Michael Praetorius (17th century). Musical instrument classification_sentence_39

The Kpelle of West Africa also use this system. Musical instrument classification_sentence_40

They distinguish the struck (yàle), including both beaten and plucked, and the blown (fêe). Musical instrument classification_sentence_41

The yàle group is subdivided into five categories: instruments possessing lamellas (the sanzas); those possessing strings; those possessing a membrane (various drums); hollow wooden, iron, or bottle containers; and various rattles and bells. Musical instrument classification_sentence_42

The Hausa, also of West Africa, classify drummers into those who beat drums and those who beat (pluck) strings (the other four player classes are blowers, singers, acclaimers, and talkers), Kartomi does not specify if these two classifications pre-date Schaeffner or Pollux. Musical instrument classification_sentence_43

The concept, the way the person produces the sound, is human-centered, which is part of their traditional culture so presumably they at least pre-date Schaeffner. Musical instrument classification_sentence_44

The MSA (Multi-Dimensional Scalogram Analysis) of René Lysloff and Jim Matson, using 37 variables, including characteristics of the sounding body, resonator, substructure, sympathetic vibrator, performance context, social context, and instrument tuning and construction, corroborated Schaeffner, producing two categories, aerophones and the chordophone-membranophone-idiophone combination. Musical instrument classification_sentence_45

Elementary organology Musical instrument classification_section_4

Another similar system is the five-class, physics-based organology that was presented by Steve Mann in 2007, comprises Gaiaphones (Chordophones, Membranophones, and Idiophones), Hydraulophones, Aerophones, Plasmaphones, and Quintephones (electrically and optically produced music), the names referring to the five essences, earth, water, wind, fire and the quintessence, thus adding three new categories to the Schaeffner taxonomy. Musical instrument classification_sentence_46

Elementary organology, also known as physical organology, is a classification scheme based on the elements (i.e. states of matter) in which sound production takes place. Musical instrument classification_sentence_47

"Elementary" refers both to "element" (state of matter) and to something that is fundamental or innate (physical). Musical instrument classification_sentence_48

The elementary organology map can be traced to Kartomi, Schaeffner, Yamaguchi, and others, as well as to the Greek and Roman concepts of elementary classification of all objects, not just musical instruments. Musical instrument classification_sentence_49

Elementary organology categorizes musical instruments by their classical element, i.e. Musical instrument classification_sentence_50

Musical instrument classification_table_general_0

Musical instrument classification_header_cell_0_0_0 ElementMusical instrument classification_header_cell_0_0_1 StateMusical instrument classification_header_cell_0_0_2 CategoryMusical instrument classification_header_cell_0_0_3 Musical instrument classification_header_cell_0_0_4
1Musical instrument classification_cell_0_1_0 EarthMusical instrument classification_cell_0_1_1 solidsMusical instrument classification_cell_0_1_2 gaiaphonesMusical instrument classification_cell_0_1_3 the first category proposed by Andre SchaeffnerMusical instrument classification_cell_0_1_4
2Musical instrument classification_cell_0_2_0 WaterMusical instrument classification_cell_0_2_1 liquidsMusical instrument classification_cell_0_2_2 hydraulophonesMusical instrument classification_cell_0_2_3 Musical instrument classification_cell_0_2_4
3Musical instrument classification_cell_0_3_0 AirMusical instrument classification_cell_0_3_1 gasesMusical instrument classification_cell_0_3_2 aerophonesMusical instrument classification_cell_0_3_3 the second category proposed by Andre SchaeffnerMusical instrument classification_cell_0_3_4
4Musical instrument classification_cell_0_4_0 FireMusical instrument classification_cell_0_4_1 plasmasMusical instrument classification_cell_0_4_2 plasmaphonesMusical instrument classification_cell_0_4_3 Musical instrument classification_cell_0_4_4
5Musical instrument classification_cell_0_5_0 Quintessence/IdeaMusical instrument classification_cell_0_5_1 informaticsMusical instrument classification_cell_0_5_2 quintephonesMusical instrument classification_cell_0_5_3 Musical instrument classification_cell_0_5_4

Range Musical instrument classification_section_5

Instruments can be classified by their musical range in comparison with other instruments in the same family. Musical instrument classification_sentence_51

These terms are named after singing voice classifications: Musical instrument classification_sentence_52

Musical instrument classification_unordered_list_3

Some instruments fall into more than one category: for example, the cello may be considered either tenor or bass, depending on how its music fits into the ensemble, and the trombone may be alto, tenor, or bass and the French horn, bass, baritone, tenor, or alto, depending on which range it is played. Musical instrument classification_sentence_53

In a typical concert band setting, the first alto saxophone covers soprano parts, while the second alto saxophone covers alto parts. Musical instrument classification_sentence_54

Many instruments include their range as part of their name: soprano saxophone, alto saxophone, tenor saxophone, baritone saxophone, baritone horn, alto flute, bass flute, bass guitar, etc. Additional adjectives describe instruments above the soprano range or below the bass, for example: sopranino recorder, sopranino saxophone, contrabass recorder, contrabass clarinet. Musical instrument classification_sentence_55

When used in the name of an instrument, these terms are relative, describing the instrument's range in comparison to other instruments of its family and not in comparison to the human voice range or instruments of other families. Musical instrument classification_sentence_56

For example, a bass flute's range is from C3 to F♯6, while a bass clarinet plays about one octave lower. Musical instrument classification_sentence_57

Other classifications Musical instrument classification_section_6

Instruments can be categorized according to a common use, such as signal instruments, a category that may include instruments in different Hornbostel–Sachs categories such as trumpets, drums, and gongs. Musical instrument classification_sentence_58

An example based on this criterion is Bonanni (e.g., festive, military, and religious). Musical instrument classification_sentence_59

He separately classified them according to geography and era. Musical instrument classification_sentence_60

Jean-Benjamin de la Borde (1780) classified instruments according to ethnicity, his categories being black, Abyssinian, Chinese, Arabic, Turkisk, and Greek. Musical instrument classification_sentence_61

Instruments can be classified according to the ensemble in which they play, or the role they play in the ensemble. Musical instrument classification_sentence_62

For example, the horn section in popular music typically includes both brass instruments and woodwind instruments. Musical instrument classification_sentence_63

The symphony orchestra typically has the strings in the front, the woodwinds in the middle, and the basses, brass, and percussion in the back. Musical instrument classification_sentence_64

Indonesian instruments Musical instrument classification_section_7

Classifications done for the Indonesian ensemble, the gamelan, were done by Jaap Kunst (1949), Martopangrawit, Poerbapangrawit, and Sumarsam (all in 1984). Musical instrument classification_sentence_65

Kunst described five categories: nuclear theme (cantus firmus in Latin and balungan ("skeletal framework") in Indonesian); colotomic ( a word invented by Kunst) (interpunctuating), the gongs; countermelodic; paraphrasing (panerusan), subdivided as close to the nuclear theme and ornamental filling; agogic (tempo-regulating), drums. Musical instrument classification_sentence_66

R. Ng. Musical instrument classification_sentence_67

Martopangrawit has two categories, irama (the rhythm instruments) and lagu (the melodic instruments), the former corresponds to Kunst's classes 2 and 5, and the latter to Kunst's 1, 3, and 4. Musical instrument classification_sentence_68

Kodrat Poerbapangrawit, similar to Kunst, derives six categories: balungan, the saron, demung, and slenthem; rerenggan (ornamental), the gendèr, gambang, and bonang); wiletan (variable formulaic melodic), rebab and male chorus (gerong); singgetan (interpunctuating); kembang (floral), flute and female voice; jejeging wirama (tempo regulating), drums. Musical instrument classification_sentence_69

Sumarsam's scheme comprises: Musical instrument classification_sentence_70

Musical instrument classification_unordered_list_4

  • an inner melodic group (lagu)(with a wide range), divided asMusical instrument classification_item_4_27
    • elaborating (rebab, gerong, gendèr (a metallophone), gambang (a xylophone), pesindhen (female voice), celempung (plucked strings), suling (flute));Musical instrument classification_item_4_28
    • mediating ( between the 1st and 3rd subdivisions (bonang (gong-chimes), saron panerus(a loud metallophone); andMusical instrument classification_item_4_29
    • abstracting (balungan, "melodic abstraction")( with a 1-octave range), loud and soft metallophones (saron barung, demung, and slenthem);Musical instrument classification_item_4_30
  • an outer circle, the structural group (gongs), which underlines the structure of the work;Musical instrument classification_item_4_31
  • and occupying the space outside the outer circle, the kendang, a tempo-regulating group (drums).Musical instrument classification_item_4_32

The gamelan is also divided into front, middle, and back, much like the symphony orchestra. Musical instrument classification_sentence_71

An orally transmitted Javanese taxonomy has 8 groupings: Musical instrument classification_sentence_72

Musical instrument classification_unordered_list_5

  • ricikan dijagur ("instruments beaten with a padded hammer," e.g., suspended gongs);Musical instrument classification_item_5_33
  • ricikan dithuthuk ("instruments knocked with a hard or semihard hammer," e.g., saron (similar to the glockenspiel) and gong-chimes);Musical instrument classification_item_5_34
  • ricikan dikebuk ("hand-beaten instruments", e.g., kendhang (drum);Musical instrument classification_item_5_35
  • ricikan dipethik ("plucked instruments");Musical instrument classification_item_5_36
  • ricikan disendal ("pulled instruments," e.g., trump harp with string mechanism);Musical instrument classification_item_5_37
  • ricikan dikosok ("bowed instruments");Musical instrument classification_item_5_38
  • ricikan disebul ("blown instruments");Musical instrument classification_item_5_39
  • ricikan dikocok ("shaken instruments").Musical instrument classification_item_5_40

A Javanese classification transmitted in literary form is as follows: Musical instrument classification_sentence_73

Musical instrument classification_unordered_list_6

  • ricikan prunggu/wesi ("instruments made of bronze or iron");Musical instrument classification_item_6_41
  • ricikan kulit ("leather instruments", drums);Musical instrument classification_item_6_42
  • ricikan kayu ("wooden instruments");Musical instrument classification_item_6_43
  • ricikan kawat/tali ("string instruments");Musical instrument classification_item_6_44
  • ricikan bambu pring ("bamboo instruments", e.g., flutes).Musical instrument classification_item_6_45

This is much like the pa yin. Musical instrument classification_sentence_74

It is suspected of being old but its age is unknown. Musical instrument classification_sentence_75

Minangkabau musicians (of West Sumatra) use the following taxonomy for bunyi-bunyian ("objects that sound"): dipukua ("beaten"), dipupuik ("blown), dipatiek ("plucked"), ditariek ("pulled"), digesek ("bowed"), dipusiang ("swung"). Musical instrument classification_sentence_76

The last one is for the bull-roarer. Musical instrument classification_sentence_77

They also distinguish instruments on the basis of origin because of sociohistorical contacts, and recognize three categories: Mindangkabau (Minangkabau asli), Arabic (asal Arab), and Western (asal Barat), each of these divided up according to the five categories. Musical instrument classification_sentence_78

Classifying musical instruments on the basis sociohistorical factors as well as mode of sound production is common in Indonesia. Musical instrument classification_sentence_79

The Batak of North Sumatra recognize the following classes: beaten (alat pukul or alat palu), blown (alat tiup), bowed (alat gesek), and plucked (alat petik) instruments, but their primary classification is of ensembles. Musical instrument classification_sentence_80

West African instruments Musical instrument classification_section_8

In West Africa, tribes such as the Dan, Gio, Kpelle, Hausa, Akan, and Dogon, use a human-centered system. Musical instrument classification_sentence_81

It derives from 4 myth-based parameters: the musical instrument's nonhuman owner (spirit, mask, sorcerer, or animal), the mode of transmission to the human realm (by gift, exchange, contract, or removal), the making of the instrument by a human (according to instructions from a nonhuman, for instance), and the first human owner. Musical instrument classification_sentence_82

Most instruments are said to have a nonhuman origin, but some are believed invented by humans, e.g., the xylophone and the lamellophone. Musical instrument classification_sentence_83

Kurt Reinhard Musical instrument classification_section_9

In 1960, German musicologist Kurt Reinhard presented a stylistic taxonomy, as opposed to a morphological one, with two divisions determined by either single or multiple voices playing. Musical instrument classification_sentence_84

Each of these two divisions was subdivided according to pitch changeability (not changeable, freely changeable, and changeable by fixed intervals), and also by tonal continuity (discontinuous (as the marimba and drums) and continuous (the friction instruments (including bowed) and the winds), making 12 categories. Musical instrument classification_sentence_85

He also proposed classification according to whether they had dynamic tonal variability, a characteristic that separates whole eras (e.g., the baroque from the classical) as in the transition from the terraced dynamics of the harpsichord to the crescendo of the piano, grading by degree of absolute loudness, timbral spectra, tunability, and degree of resonance. Musical instrument classification_sentence_86

Persia Musical instrument classification_section_10

Al-Farabi, Persian scholar of the 10th century, also distinguished tonal duration. Musical instrument classification_sentence_87

In one of his four schemes, in his two-volume Kitab al-Musiki al-Kabir (Great Book of Music) he identified five classes, in order of ranking, as follows: the human voice, the bowed strings (the rebab) and winds, plucked strings, percussion, and dance, the first three pointed out as having continuous tone. Musical instrument classification_sentence_88

Ibn Sina, Persian scholar of the 11th century, presented a scheme in his Kitab al-Najat (Book of the Delivery), made the same distinction. Musical instrument classification_sentence_89

He used two classes. Musical instrument classification_sentence_90

In his Kitab al-Shifa (Book of Soul Healing), he proposed another taxonomy, of five classes: fretted instruments, unfretted (open) stringed, lyres and harps, bowed stringed, wind (reeds and some other woodwinds, such as the flute and bagpipe), other wind instruments such as the organ, and the stick-struck santur (a board zither). Musical instrument classification_sentence_91

The distinction between fretted and open was in classic Persian fashion. Musical instrument classification_sentence_92

See also Musical instrument classification_section_11

Musical instrument classification_unordered_list_7


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musical instrument classification.