Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

For other people named Mustafa Kamal, see Mustafa Kamal (disambiguation). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_0

Kemal Atatürk (or alternatively written as Kamâl Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha until 1934, commonly referred to as Mustafa Kemal Atatürk; c. 1881 – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish field marshal, revolutionary statesman, author, and the founding father of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first president from 1923 until his death in 1938. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_1

He undertook sweeping progressive reforms, which modernized Turkey into a secular, industrial nation. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_2

Ideologically a secularist and nationalist, his policies and theories became known as Kemalism. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_3

Due to his military and political accomplishments, Atatürk is regarded as one of the most important political leaders of the 20th century. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_4

Atatürk came to prominence for his role in securing the Ottoman Turkish victory at the Battle of Gallipoli (1915) during World War I. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_5

Following the defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, he led the Turkish National Movement, which resisted mainland Turkey's partition among the victorious Allied powers. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_6

Establishing a provisional government in the present-day Turkish capital Ankara, he defeated the forces sent by the Allies, thus emerging victorious from what was later referred to as the Turkish War of Independence. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_7

He subsequently proceeded to abolish the decrepit Ottoman Empire and proclaimed the foundation of the Turkish Republic in its place. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_8

As the president of the newly formed Turkish Republic, Atatürk initiated a rigorous program of political, economic, and cultural reforms with the ultimate aim of building a modern, progressive and secular nation-state. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_9

He made primary education free and compulsory, opening thousands of new schools all over the country. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_10

He also introduced the Latin-based Turkish alphabet, replacing the old Ottoman Turkish alphabet. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_11

Turkish women received equal civil and political rights during Atatürk's presidency. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_12

In particular, women were given voting rights in local elections by Act no. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_13

1580 on 3 April 1930 and a few years later, in 1934, full universal suffrage. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_14

His government carried out a policy of Turkification, trying to create a homogeneous and unified nation. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_15

Under Atatürk, non-Turkish minorities were pressured to speak Turkish in public; non-Turkish toponyms and last names of minorities had to be changed to Turkish renditions. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_16

The Turkish Parliament granted him the surname Atatürk in 1934, which means "Father of the Turks", in recognition of the role he played in building the modern Turkish Republic. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_17

He died on 10 November 1938 at Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul, at the age of 57; he was succeeded as President by his long-time Prime Minister İsmet İnönü and was honored with a state funeral. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_18

His iconic mausoleum in Ankara, built and opened in 1953, is surrounded by a park called the Peace Park in honor of his famous expression "Peace at Home, Peace in the World". Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_19

In 1981, the centennial of Atatürk's birth, his memory was honoured by the United Nations and UNESCO, which declared it The Atatürk Year in the World and adopted the Resolution on the Atatürk Centennial, describing him as "the leader of the first struggle given against colonialism and imperialism" and a "remarkable promoter of the sense of understanding between peoples and durable peace between the nations of the world and that he worked all his life for the development of harmony and cooperation between peoples without distinction". Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_20

Atatürk is commemorated by many memorials and places named in his honor in Turkey and throughout the world. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_21

Early life Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_0

Further information: Personal life of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_22

Kemal Atatürk was born (under the name Ali Rıza oğlu Mustafa which means "Mustafa son of Ali Rıza") in the early months of 1881, either in the Ahmet Subaşı neighbourhood or at a house (preserved as a museum) in Islahhane Street (now Apostolou Pavlou Street) in the Koca Kasım Pasha neighbourhood in Salonica (Selanik), Ottoman Empire (Thessaloniki in present-day Greece), to Ali Rıza Efendi, a militia officer, title deed clerk and lumber trader, and Zübeyde Hanım. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_23

Only one of Mustafa's siblings, a sister named Makbule (Atadan) survived childhood; she died in 1956. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_24

According to Andrew Mango, his family was Muslim, Turkish-speaking and precariously middle-class. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_25

His father Ali Rıza is thought to have been of Albanian origin by some authors; however, according to Falih Rıfkı Atay, Vamık D. Volkan, Norman Itzkowitz, Müjgân Cunbur, Numan Kartal and Hasan İzzettin Dinamo, Ali Rıza's ancestors were Turks, ultimately descending from Söke in the Aydın Province of Anatolia. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_26

His mother Zübeyde is thought to have been of Turkish origin, and according to Şevket Süreyya Aydemir, she was of Yörük ancestry. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_27

According to other sources, he was Jewish (Scholem, 2007) or Bulgarian (Tončeva, 2009). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_28

Due to the large Jewish community of Salonica in the Ottoman period, many of the Islamist opponents who were disturbed by his reforms claimed that Atatürk had Dönmeh ancestors, that is Jews who converted to Islam publicly, but still secretly retained their belief in Judaism. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_29

He was born Mustafa, and his second name Kemal (meaning Perfection or Maturity) was given to him by his mathematics teacher, Captain Üsküplü Mustafa Efendi, "in admiration of his capability and maturity" according to Afet İnan, and, according to Ali Fuat Cebesoy, because his teacher wanted to distinguish his student who had the same name as him, although biographer Andrew Mango suggests that he may have chosen the name himself as a tribute to the nationalist poet Namık Kemal. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_30

In his early years, his mother encouraged Atatürk to attend a religious school, something he did reluctantly and only briefly. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_31

Later, he attended the Şemsi Efendi School (a private school with a more secular curriculum) at the direction of his father. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_32

His parents wanted him to learn a trade, but without consulting them, Atatürk took the entrance exam for the Salonica Military School (Selanik Askeri Rüştiyesi) in 1893. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_33

In 1896, he enrolled in the Monastir Military High School (in modern Bitola, North Macedonia). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_34

On 14 March 1899, he enrolled at the Ottoman Military Academy in the neighbourhood of Pangaltı within the Şişli district of the Ottoman capital city Constantinople (modern Istanbul) and graduated in 1902. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_35

He later graduated from the Ottoman Military College in Constantinople on 11 January 1905. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_36

Military career Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_1

Main article: Military career of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_37

Early years Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_2

See also: Vatan ve Hürriyet, Committee of Union and Progress, and Young Turk Revolution Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_38

Shortly after graduation, he was arrested by the police for his anti-monarchist activities. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_39

Following confinement for several months he was released only with the support of Rıza Pasha, his former school director. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_40

After his release, Atatürk was assigned to the Fifth Army based in Damascus as a Staff Captain in the company of Ali Fuat (Cebesoy) and Lütfi Müfit (Özdeş). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_41

He joined a small secret revolutionary society of reformist officers led by a merchant Mustafa Elvan (Cantekin) called Vatan ve Hürriyet ("Motherland and Liberty"). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_42

On 20 June 1907, he was promoted to the rank of Senior Captain (Kolağası) and on 13 October 1907, was assigned to the headquarters of the Third Army in Manastır. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_43

He joined the Committee of Union and Progress, with membership number 322, although in later years he became known for his opposition to, and frequent criticism of, the policies pursued by the CUP leadership. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_44

On 22 June 1908, he was appointed the Inspector of the Ottoman Railways in Eastern Rumelia (Doğu Rumeli Bölgesi Demiryolları Müfettişi). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_45

In July 1908, he played a role in the Young Turk Revolution which seized power from Sultan Abdülhamid II and restored the constitutional monarchy. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_46

He was proposing depoliticization in the army, a proposal which was disliked by the leaders of the CUP. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_47

As a result, he was sent away to Tripolitania Vilayet (present Libya, then an Ottoman territory) under the pretext of suppressing a tribal rebellion towards the end of 1908. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_48

According to Mikush however, he volunteered for this mission. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_49

He suppressed the revolt and returned to Constantinople in January 1909. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_50

In April 1909 in Constantinople, a group of soldiers began a counter-revolution (see 31 March Incident). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_51

Atatürk was instrumental in suppressing the revolt. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_52

In 1910, he was called to the Ottoman provinces in Albania. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_53

At that time Isa Boletini was leading Albanian uprisings in Kosovo, and there were revolts in Albania as well. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_54

In 1910, Atatürk met with Eqerem Vlora, the Albanian lord, politician, writer, and one of the delegates of the Albanian Declaration of Independence. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_55

Later, in the autumn of 1910, he was among the Ottoman military observers who attended the Picardie army manoeuvres in France, and in 1911, served at the Ministry of War (Harbiye Nezareti) in Constantinople for a short time. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_56

Italo-Turkish War (1911–12) Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_3

Main article: Italo-Turkish War Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_57

See also: Battle of Tobruk (1911) Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_58

In 1911, he volunteered to fight in the Italo-Turkish War in the Ottoman Tripolitania Vilayet (present-day Libya). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_59

He served mainly in the areas near Derna and Tobruk. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_60

The invading Italian army had a strength of 150,000 men; it was opposed by 20,000 Bedouins and 8,000 Turks. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_61

A short time before Italy declared war, many of the Ottoman troops in Libya were sent to the Ottoman province of Yemen Vilayet to put down the rebellion there, so the Ottoman government was caught with inadequate resources to counter the Italians in Libya. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_62

Britain, which controlled the Ottoman provinces of Egypt and Sudan, did not allow additional Ottoman troops to reach Libya through Egypt. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_63

Ottoman soldiers like Atatürk went to Libya either dressed as Arabs (risking imprisonment if noticed by the British authorities in Egypt) or by the very few available ferries (the Italians, who had superior naval forces, effectively controlled the sea routes to Tripoli). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_64

However, despite all the hardships, Atatürk's forces in Libya managed to repel the Italians on a number of occasions, such as at the Battle of Tobruk on 22 December 1911. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_65

During the Battle of Derna on 16–17 January 1912, while Atatürk was assaulting the Italian-controlled fortress of Kasr-ı Harun, two Italian planes dropped bombs on the Ottoman forces; a limestone splinter from a damaged building's rubble struck Atatürk's left eye, causing permanent tissue damage, but not total loss of sight. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_66

He received medical treatment for nearly a month; he attempted to leave the Red Crescent's health facilities after only two weeks, but when his eye's situation worsened, he had to return and resume treatment. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_67

On 6 March 1912, Atatürk became the Commander of the Ottoman forces in Derna. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_68

He managed to defend and retain the city and its surrounding region until the end of the Italo-Turkish War on 18 October 1912. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_69

Atatürk, Enver Bey, Fethi Bey, and the other Ottoman military commanders in Libya had to return to Ottoman Europe following the outbreak of the Balkan Wars on 8 October 1912. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_70

Having lost the war, the Ottoman government had to surrender Tripolitania, Fezzan, and Cyrenaica (three provinces forming present-day Libya) to the Kingdom of Italy in the Treaty of Lausanne (1912) signed ten days later, on 18 October 1912 (since 1923, historians have preferred to name this treaty as the "Treaty of Ouchy", after the Château d'Ouchy in Lausanne where it was signed, to distinguish it from the later Treaty of Lausanne (1923) signed between the Allies of World War I and the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in Ankara (at that time known as Angora). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_71

Balkan Wars (1912–13) Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_4

Main article: Balkan Wars Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_72

See also: First Balkan War and Second Balkan War Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_73

On 1 December 1912, Atatürk arrived at his new headquarters on the Gallipoli peninsula and, during the First Balkan War, he took part in the amphibious landing at Bulair on the coast of Thrace under Binbaşı Fethi Bey, but this offensive was repulsed during the Battle of Bulair by Georgi Todorov's 7th Rila Infantry Division under the command of Stiliyan Kovachev's Bulgarian Fourth Army. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_74

In June 1913, during the Second Balkan War, he took part in the Ottoman Army forces commanded by Kaymakam Enver Bey that recovered Dimetoka and Edirne (Adrianople, the capital city of the Ottoman Empire between 1365 and 1453, thus of utmost historic importance for the Turks) together with most of eastern Thrace from the Bulgarians. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_75

In 1913, he was appointed the Ottoman military attaché to all Balkan states (his office was in Sofia, Bulgaria) and promoted to the rank of Kaymakam (Lieutenant Colonel / Colonel) on 1 March 1914. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_76

While in Bulgaria, he met with Dimitrina Kovacheva, the daughter of Bulgarian general Stiliyan Kovachev (against whose forces he had fought during the Balkan Wars), who had recently completed her education in Switzerland, during a New Year's Eve ball in Sofia and fell in love with her. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_77

The two danced at the ball and started to secretly date in the following days. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_78

Atatürk twice asked Dimitrina's parents for their permission to marry her (the second time was in 1915, during World War I) and was twice refused, which left him with a lifelong sadness. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_79

First World War (1914–18) Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_5

Main article: World War I Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_80

See also: Gallipoli Campaign and Middle Eastern theatre of World War I Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_81

In 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the European and Middle Eastern theatres of World War I allied with the Central Powers. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_82

Atatürk was given the task of organizing and commanding the 19th Division attached to the Fifth Army during the Battle of Gallipoli. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_83

He became the front-line commander after correctly anticipating where the Allies would attack, and held his position until they retreated. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_84

Following the Battle of Gallipoli, Atatürk served in Edirne until 14 January 1916. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_85

He was then assigned to the command of the XVI Corps of the Second Army and sent to the Caucasus Campaign after the massive Russian offensive had reached key Anatolian cities. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_86

On 7 August, he rallied his troops and mounted a counteroffensive. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_87

Two of his divisions captured Bitlis and Muş, upsetting the calculations of the Russian Command. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_88

Following this victory, the CUP government in Constantinople proposed to establish a new army in Hejaz (Hicaz Kuvve-i Seferiyesi) and appoint Atatürk to its command, but he refused the proposal and this army was never established. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_89

Instead, on 7 March 1917, Atatürk was promoted from the command of the XVI Corps to the overall command of the Second Army, although the Czar's armies were soon withdrawn when the Russian Revolution erupted. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_90

In July 1917, he was appointed to the command of the Seventh Army, replacing Fevzi Pasha on 7 August 1917, who was under the command of the German general Erich von Falkenhayn's Yildirim Army Group (after the British forces of General Edmund Allenby captured Jerusalem in December 1917, Erich von Falkenhayn was replaced by Otto Liman von Sanders who became the new commander of the Yıldırım Army Group in early 1918.) Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_91

Atatürk did not get along well with General von Falkenhayn and, together with Miralay İsmet Bey, wrote a report to Grand Vizier Talaat Pasha regarding the grim situation and lack of adequate resources in the Palestinian front. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_92

However, Talaat Pasha ignored their observations and refused their suggestion to form a stronger defensive line to the north, in Ottoman Syria (in parts of the Beirut Vilayet, Damascus Vilayet, and Aleppo Vilayet), with Turks instead of Germans in command. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_93

Following the rejection of his report, Atatürk resigned from the Seventh Army and returned to Constantinople. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_94

There, he was assigned with the task of accompanying the crown prince (and future sultan) Mehmed Vahideddin during his train trip to Austria-Hungary and Germany. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_95

While in Germany, Atatürk visited the German lines on the Western Front and concluded that the Central Powers would soon lose the war. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_96

He did not hesitate to openly express this opinion to Kaiser Wilhelm II and his high-ranking generals in person. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_97

During the return trip, he briefly stayed in Karlsbad and Vienna for medical treatment. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_98

When Mehmed VI became the new Sultan of the Ottoman Empire in July 1918, he called Atatürk to Constantinople, and in August 1918, assigned him to the command of the Seventh Army in Palestine. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_99

Atatürk arrived in Aleppo on 26 August 1918, then continued south to his headquarters in Nablus. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_100

The Seventh Army was holding the central sector of the front lines. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_101

On 19 September, at the beginning of the Battle of Megiddo, the Eighth Army was holding the coastal flank but fell apart and Liman Pasha ordered the Seventh Army to withdraw to the north in order to prevent the British from conducting a short envelopment to the Jordan River. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_102

The Seventh Army retired towards the Jordan River but was destroyed by British aerial bombardment during its retreat from Nablus on 21 September 1918. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_103

Nevertheless, Atatürk managed to form a defence line to the north of Aleppo. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_104

According to Lord Kinross, Atatürk was the only Turkish general in the war who never suffered a defeat. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_105

The war ended with the Armistice of Mudros which was signed on 30 October 1918, and all German and Austro-Hungarian troops in the Ottoman Empire were granted ample time to withdraw. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_106

On 31 October, Atatürk was appointed to the command of the Yıldırım Army Group, replacing Liman von Sanders. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_107

Atatürk organized the distribution of weapons to the civilians in Antep in case of a defensive conflict against the invading Allies. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_108

Atatürk's last active service in the Ottoman Army was organizing the return of the Ottoman troops left behind to the south of the defensive line. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_109

In early November 1918, the Yıldırım Army Group was officially dissolved, and Atatürk returned to an occupied Constantinople, the Ottoman capital, on 13 November 1918. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_110

For a period of time, he worked at the headquarters of the Ministry of War (Harbiye Nezareti) in Constantinople and continued his activities in this city until 16 May 1919. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_111

Along the established lines of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, the Allies (British, Italian, French and Greek forces) occupied Anatolia. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_112

The occupation of Constantinople, followed by the occupation of İzmir (the two largest Ottoman cities at the time) sparked the establishment of the Turkish National Movement and the Turkish War of Independence. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_113

Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923) Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_6

Main article: Turkish War of Independence Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_114

See also: Military career of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk § War of Independence Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_115

On 30 April 1919, Fahri Yaver-i Hazret-i Şehriyari ("Honorary Aide-de-camp to His Majesty Sultan") Mirliva Atatürk was assigned as the inspector of the Ninth Army Troops Inspectorate to reorganize what remained of the Ottoman military units and to improve internal security. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_116

On 19 May 1919, he reached Samsun. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_117

His first goal was the establishment of an organized national movement against the occupying forces. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_118

In June 1919, he issued the Amasya Circular, declaring the independence of the country was in danger. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_119

He resigned from the Ottoman Army on 8 July, and the Ottoman government issued a warrant for his arrest. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_120

But Kâzım Karabekir and other military commanders active in Eastern Anatolia followed Atatürk's lead and acknowledged him as their leader. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_121

Later, he was condemned to death. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_122

On 4 September 1919, he assembled a congress in Sivas. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_123

Those who opposed the Allies in various provinces in Turkey issued a declaration named Misak-ı Millî ("National Pact"). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_124

Atatürk was appointed as the head of the executive committee of the Congress. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_125

This gave him the legitimacy he needed for his future politics. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_126

(see Sivas Congress) Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_127

The last election to the Ottoman parliament held in December 1919 gave a sweeping majority to candidates of the "Association for Defence of Rights for Anatolia and Roumelia" (Anadolu ve Rumeli Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti), headed by Atatürk, who himself remained in Angora, now known as Ankara. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_128

The fourth (and last) term of the parliament opened in Constantinople on 12 January 1920. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_129

It was dissolved by British forces on 18 March 1920, shortly after it adopted the Misak-ı Millî ("National Pact"). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_130

Atatürk called for a national election to establish a new Turkish Parliament seated in Angora. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_131

– the "Grand National Assembly" (GNA). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_132

On 23 April 1920, the GNA opened with Atatürk as the speaker; this act effectively created the situation of diarchy in the country. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_133

In May 1920 the power struggle between the two governments led to a death sentence in absentia for Mustafa Kemal by the Turkish courts-martial. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_134

On 10 August 1920, the Ottoman Grand Vizier Damat Ferid Pasha signed the Treaty of Sèvres, finalizing plans for the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, including the regions that Turkish nationals viewed as their heartland. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_135

Atatürk insisted on the country's complete independence and the safeguarding of interests of the Turkish majority on "Turkish soil". Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_136

He persuaded the GNA to gather a National Army. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_137

The GNA army faced the Caliphate army propped up by the Allied occupation forces and had the immediate task of fighting the Armenian forces in the Eastern Front and the Greek forces advancing eastward from Smyrna (today known as İzmir) that they had occupied in May 1919, on the Western Front. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_138

In January 1920, Atatürk advanced his troops into Maraş (modern-day Kahramanmaraş) where the Battle of Marash ensued against the French Armenian Legion. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_139

The battle resulted in a Turkish victory. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_140

The GNA military successes against the Democratic Republic of Armenia in the autumn of 1920 and later against the Greeks were made possible by a steady supply of gold and armaments to the Kemalists from the Russian Bolshevik government from the autumn of 1920 onwards. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_141

After a series of battles during the Greco-Turkish War, the Greek army advanced as far as the Sakarya River, just eighty kilometers west of the GNA. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_142

On 5 August 1921, Atatürk was promoted to commander in chief of the forces by the GNA. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_143

The ensuing Battle of Sakarya was fought from 23 August–13 September 1921 and ended with the defeat of the Greeks. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_144

After this victory, Atatürk was given the rank of Mareşal and the title of Gazi by the Grand National Assembly on 19 September 1921. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_145

The Allies, ignoring the extent of Atatürk's successes, hoped to impose a modified version of the Treaty of Sèvres as a peace settlement on Angora, but the proposal was rejected. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_146

In August 1922, Atatürk launched an all-out attack on the Greek lines at Afyonkarahisar in the Battle of Dumlupınar, and Turkish forces regained control of İzmir on 9 September 1922. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_147

On 10 September 1922, Atatürk sent a telegram to the League of Nations stating that the Turkish population was so worked up that the Ankara Government would not be responsible for the ensuing massacres. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_148

Establishment of the Republic of Turkey Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_7

See also: Treaty of Lausanne (1923) Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_149

The Conference of Lausanne began on 21 November 1922. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_150

Turkey, represented by İsmet İnönü of the GNA, refused any proposal that would compromise Turkish sovereignty, such as the control of Turkish finances, the Capitulations, the Straits and other issues. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_151

Although the conference paused on 4 February, it continued after 23 April mainly focusing on the economic issues. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_152

On 24 July 1923, the Treaty of Lausanne was signed by the Powers with the GNA, thus recognising the latter as the government of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_153

On 29 October 1923, the Republic of Turkey was proclaimed. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_154

Since then, Republic Day has been celebrated as a national holiday on that date. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_155

Presidency Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_8

For conceptual analysis, see Kemalism and Atatürk's Reforms. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_156

With the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, efforts to modernise the country started. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_157

The new government analyzed the institutions and constitutions of Western states such as France, Sweden, Italy, and Switzerland and adapted them to the needs and characteristics of the Turkish nation. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_158

Highlighting the public's lack of knowledge regarding Atatürk's intentions, the public cheered: "We are returning to the days of the first caliphs." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_159

Atatürk placed Fevzi Çakmak, Kâzım Özalp, and İsmet İnönü in political positions where they could institute his reforms. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_160

He capitalized on his reputation as an efficient military leader and spent the following years, up until his death in 1938, instituting political, economic, and social reforms. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_161

In doing so, he transformed Turkish society from perceiving itself as a Muslim part of a vast Empire into a modern, democratic, and secular nation-state. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_162

This had a positive influence on human capital because from then on, what mattered at school was science and education; Islam was concentrated in mosques and religious places. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_163

Domestic policies Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_9

Atatürk's basic tenet was the complete independence of the country. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_164

He clarified his position: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_165

He led wide-ranging reforms in social, cultural, and economic aspects, establishing the new Republic's backbone of legislative, judicial, and economic structures. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_166

Though he was later idealized by some as an originator of sweeping reforms, many of his reformist ideas were already common in Ottoman intellectual circles at the turn of the 20th century and were expressed more openly after the Young Turk Revolution. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_167

Atatürk created a banner to mark the changes between the old Ottoman and the new republican rule. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_168

Each change was symbolized as an arrow in this banner. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_169

This defining ideology of the Republic of Turkey is referred to as the "Six Arrows", or Kemalism. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_170

Kemalism is based on Atatürk's conception of realism and pragmatism. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_171

The fundamentals of nationalism, populism, and etatism were all defined under the Six Arrows. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_172

These fundamentals were not new in world politics or, indeed, among the elite of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_173

What made them unique was that these interrelated fundamentals were explicitly formulated for Turkey's needs. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_174

A good example is the definition and application of secularism; the Kemalist secular state significantly differed from predominantly Christian states. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_175

Emergence of the state, 1923–1924 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_10

Atatürk's private journal entries dated before the establishment of the republic in 1923 show that he believed in the importance of the sovereignty of the people. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_176

In forging the new republic, the Turkish revolutionaries turned their back on the perceived corruption and decadence of cosmopolitan Constantinople and its Ottoman heritage. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_177

For instance, they made Ankara (as Angora has been known in English since 1930), the country's new capital and reformed the Turkish postal service. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_178

Once a provincial town deep in Anatolia, the city was thus turned into the center of the independence movement. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_179

Atatürk wanted a "direct government by the Assembly" and visualized a representative democracy, parliamentary sovereignty, where the National Parliament would be the ultimate source of power. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_180

In the following years, he altered his stance somewhat; the country needed an immense amount of reconstruction, and "direct government by the Assembly" could not survive in such an environment. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_181

The revolutionaries faced challenges from the supporters of the old Ottoman regime, and also from the supporters of newer ideologies such as communism and fascism. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_182

Atatürk saw the consequences of fascist and communist doctrines in the 1920s and 1930s and rejected both. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_183

He prevented the spread into Turkey of the totalitarian party rule which held sway in the Soviet Union, Germany, and Italy. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_184

Some perceived his opposition and silencing of these ideologies as a means of eliminating competition; others believed it was necessary to protect the young Turkish state from succumbing to the instability of new ideologies and competing factions. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_185

Under Atatürk, the arrest process known as the Arrests of 1927 (1927 Tevkifatı) was launched, and a widespread arrest policy was put in place against the Communist Party of Turkey members. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_186

Communist political figures such as Hikmet Kıvılcımlı, Nâzım Hikmet, and Şefik Hüsnü were tried and sentenced to prison terms. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_187

Then, in 1937, a delegation headed by Atatürk decided to censor the writings of Kıvılcımlı as harmful communist propaganda. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_188

The heart of the new republic was the GNA, established during the Turkish War of Independence by Atatürk. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_189

The elections were free and used an egalitarian electoral system that was based on a general ballot. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_190

Deputies at the GNA served as the voice of Turkish society by expressing its political views and preferences. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_191

It had the right to select and control both the government and the Prime Minister. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_192

Initially, it also acted as a legislative power, controlling the executive branch and, if necessary, served as an organ of scrutiny under the Turkish Constitution of 1921. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_193

The Turkish Constitution of 1924 set a loose separation of powers between the legislative and the executive organs of the state, whereas the separation of these two within the judiciary system was a strict one. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_194

Atatürk, then the President, occupied a dominant position in this political system. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_195

The one-party regime was established de facto in 1925 after the adoption of the 1924 constitution. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_196

The only political party of the GNA was the "People's Party", founded by Atatürk on 9 September 1923. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_197

(But according to the party culture the foundation date was the opening day of Sivas Congress on 4 September 1919). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_198

On 10 November 1924, it was renamed Cumhuriyet Halk Fırkası or Republican People's Party (the word fırka was replaced by the word parti in 1935). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_199

Civic independence and the Caliphate, 1924–1925 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_11

Abolition of the Caliphate was an important dimension in Atatürk's drive to reform the political system and to promote national sovereignty. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_200

By the consensus of the Muslim majority in early centuries, the caliphate was the core political concept of Sunni Islam. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_201

Abolishing the sultanate was easier because the survival of the Caliphate at the time satisfied the partisans of the sultanate. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_202

This produced a split system with the new republic on one side and an Islamic form of government with the Caliph on the other side, and Atatürk and İnönü worried that "it nourished the expectations that the sovereign would return under the guise of Caliph." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_203

Caliph Abdülmecid II was elected after the abolition of the sultanate (1922). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_204

The caliph had his own personal treasury and also had a personal service that included military personnel; Atatürk said that there was no "religious" or "political" justification for this. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_205

He believed that Caliph Abdülmecid II was following in the steps of the sultans in domestic and foreign affairs: accepting of and responding to foreign representatives and reserve officers, and participating in official ceremonies and celebrations. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_206

He wanted to integrate the powers of the caliphate into the powers of the GNA. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_207

His initial activities began on 1 January 1924, when İnönü, Çakmak, and Özalp consented to the abolition of the caliphate. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_208

The caliph made a statement to the effect that he would not interfere with political affairs. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_209

On 1 March 1924, at the Assembly, Atatürk said: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_210

On 3 March 1924, the caliphate was officially abolished and its powers within Turkey were transferred to the GNA. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_211

Other Muslim nations debated the validity of Turkey's unilateral abolition of the caliphate as they decided whether they should confirm the Turkish action or appoint a new caliph. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_212

A "Caliphate Conference" was held in Cairo in May 1926 and a resolution was passed declaring the caliphate "a necessity in Islam", but failed to implement this decision. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_213

Two other Islamic conferences were held in Mecca (1926) and Jerusalem (1931), but failed to reach a consensus. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_214

Turkey did not accept the re-establishment of the caliphate and perceived it as an attack to its basic existence. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_215

Meanwhile, Atatürk and the reformists continued their own way. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_216

On 8 April 1924, sharia courts were abolished with the law "Mehakim-i Şer'iyenin İlgasına ve Mehakim Teşkilatına Ait Ahkamı Muaddil Kanun". Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_217

The removal of the caliphate was followed by an extensive effort to establish the separation of governmental and religious affairs. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_218

Education was the cornerstone in this effort. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_219

In 1923, there were three main educational groups of institutions. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_220

The most common institutions were medreses based on Arabic, the Qur'an, and memorization. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_221

The second type of institution was idadî and sultanî, the reformist schools of the Tanzimat era. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_222

The last group included colleges and minority schools in foreign languages that used the latest teaching models in educating pupils. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_223

The old medrese education was modernized. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_224

Atatürk changed the classical Islamic education for a vigorously promoted reconstruction of educational institutions. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_225

He linked educational reform to the liberation of the nation from dogma, which he believed was more important than the Turkish War of Independence. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_226

He declared: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_227

In the summer of 1924, Atatürk invited American educational reformer John Dewey to Ankara to advise him on how to reform Turkish education. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_228

His public education reforms aimed to prepare citizens for roles in public life through increasing public literacy. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_229

He wanted to institute compulsory primary education for both girls and boys; since then this effort has been an ongoing task for the republic. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_230

He pointed out that one of the main targets of education in Turkey had to be raising a generation nourished with what he called the "public culture". Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_231

The state schools established a common curriculum which became known as the "unification of education." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_232

Unification of education was put into force on 3 March 1924 by the Law on Unification of Education (No. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_233

430). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_234

With the new law, education became inclusive, organized on a model of the civil community. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_235

In this new design, all schools submitted their curriculum to the "Ministry of National Education", a government agency modelled after other countries' ministries of education. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_236

Concurrently, the republic abolished the two ministries and made clergy subordinate to the department of religious affairs, one of the foundations of secularism in Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_237

The unification of education under one curriculum ended "clerics or clergy of the Ottoman Empire", but was not the end of religious schools in Turkey; they were moved to higher education until later governments restored them to their former position in secondary after Atatürk's death. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_238

Beginning in the fall of 1925, Atatürk encouraged the Turks to wear modern European attire. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_239

He was determined to force the abandonment of the sartorial traditions of the Middle East and finalize a series of dress reforms, which were originally started by Mahmud II. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_240

The fez was established by Sultan Mahmud II in 1826 as part of the Ottoman Empire's modernization effort. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_241

The introduced the use of Western-style hats instead of the fez. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_242

Atatürk first made the hat compulsory for civil servants. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_243

The guidelines for the proper dressing of students and state employees were passed during his lifetime; many civil servants adopted the hat willingly. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_244

In 1925, Atatürk wore a Panama hat during a public appearance in Kastamonu, one of the most conservative towns in Anatolia, to explain that the hat was the headgear of civilized nations. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_245

The last part of reform on dress emphasized the need to wear modern Western suits with neckties as well as Fedora and Derby-style hats instead of antiquated religion-based clothing such as the veil and turban in the . Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_246

Even though he personally promoted modern dress for women, Atatürk never made specific reference to women's clothing in the law, as he believed that women would adapt to the new clothing styles of their own free will. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_247

He was frequently photographed on public business with his wife Lâtife Uşaklıgil, who covered her head in accordance with Islamic tradition. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_248

He was also frequently photographed on public business with women wearing modern Western clothes. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_249

But it was Atatürk's adopted daughters, Sabiha Gökçen and Afet İnan, who provided the real role model for the Turkish women of the future. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_250

He wrote: "The religious covering of women will not cause difficulty ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_251

This simple style [of headcovering] is not in conflict with the morals and manners of our society." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_252

On 30 August 1925, Atatürk's view on religious insignia used outside places of worship was introduced in his . Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_253

This speech also had another position. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_254

He said: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_255

On 2 September, the government issued a decree closing down all Sufi orders and the tekkes. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_256

Atatürk ordered their dervish lodges to be converted to museums, such as Mevlana Museum in Konya. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_257

The institutional expression of Sufism became illegal in Turkey; a politically neutral form of Sufism, functioning as social associations, was permitted to exist. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_258

The abolition of the caliphate and other cultural reforms were met with fierce opposition. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_259

The conservative elements were not appreciative, and they launched attacks on the Kemalist reformists. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_260

Opposition to Atatürk in 1924–1927 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_12

In 1924, while the "Issue of Mosul" was on the table, Sheikh Said began to organize the Sheikh Said Rebellion. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_261

Sheikh Said was a wealthy Kurdish tribal chief of a local Naqshbandi order in Diyarbakır. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_262

He emphasized the issue of religion; he not only opposed the abolition of the Caliphate, but also the adoption of civil codes based on Western models, the closure of religious orders, the ban on polygamy, and the new obligatory civil marriage. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_263

Sheikh stirred up his followers against the policies of the government, which he considered anti-Islamic. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_264

In an effort to restore Islamic law, Sheik's forces moved through the countryside, seized government offices and marched on the important cities of Elazığ and Diyarbakır. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_265

Members of the government saw the Sheikh Said Rebellion as an attempt at a counter-revolution. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_266

They urged immediate military action to prevent its spread. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_267

With the support of Mustafa Kemal, the acting prime minister Ali Fethi (Okyar) replaced with Ismet Inönü who on the 3 March 1925 ordered the invocation of the "Law for the Maintenance of Order" in order to deal with the rebellion. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_268

It gave the government exceptional powers and included the authority to shut down subversive groups. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_269

The law was repealed in March 1927. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_270

There were also parliamentarians in the GNA who were not happy with these changes. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_271

So many members were denounced as opposition sympathizers at a private meeting of the Republican People's Party (CHP) that Atatürk expressed his fear of being among the minority in his own party. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_272

He decided not to purge this group. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_273

After a censure motion gave the chance to have a breakaway group, Kâzım Karabekir, along with his friends, established such a group on 17 October 1924. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_274

The censure became a confidence vote at the CHP for Atatürk. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_275

On 8 November, the motion was rejected by 148 votes to 18, and 41 votes were absent. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_276

The CHP held all but one seat in the parliament. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_277

After the majority of the CHP chose him, Atatürk said, "the Turkish nation is firmly determined to advance fearlessly on the path of the republic, civilization and progress". Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_278

On 17 November 1924, the breakaway group established the Progressive Republican Party (PRP) with 29 deputies and the first multi-party system began. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_279

Some of Atatürk's closest associates who had supported him in the early days of the War of Independence such as Rauf Bey (later Rauf Orbay), Refet Pasha, and Ali Fuat Pasha (later Ali Fuat Cebesoy) were among the members of the new party. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_280

The PRP's economic program suggested liberalism, in contrast to the state socialism of the CHP, and its social program was based on conservatism in contrast to the modernism of the CHP. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_281

Leaders of the party strongly supported the Kemalist revolution in principle, but had different opinions on the cultural revolution and the principle of secularism. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_282

The PRP was not against Atatürk's main positions as declared in its program; they supported establishing secularism in the country and the civil law, or as stated, "the needs of the age" (article 3) and the uniform system of education (article 49). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_283

These principles were set by the leaders at the onset. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_284

The only legal opposition became a home for all kinds of differing views. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_285

During 1926, a plot to assassinate Atatürk was uncovered in Smyrna (İzmir). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_286

It originated with a former deputy who had opposed the abolition of the Caliphate. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_287

What originally was an inquiry into the planners shifted to a sweeping investigation. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_288

Ostensibly, its aims were to uncover subversive activities, but in truth, the investigation was used to undermine those disagreeing with Atatürk's cultural revolution. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_289

The investigation brought a number of political activists before the tribunal, including Karabekir, the leader of the PRP. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_290

A number of surviving leaders of the Committee of Union and Progress, including Mehmet Cavid, Ahmed Şükrü, and İsmail Canbulat, were found guilty of treason and hanged. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_291

Because the investigation found a link between the members of the PRP and the Sheikh Said Rebellion, the PRP was dissolved following the outcomes of the trial. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_292

The pattern of organized opposition was broken; this action was to be the only broad political purge during Atatürk's presidency. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_293

Atatürk's statement, "My mortal body will turn into dust, but the Republic of Turkey will last forever," was regarded as a will after the assassination attempt. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_294

Modernization efforts, 1926–1930 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_13

In the years following 1926, Atatürk introduced a radical departure from previous reformations established by the Ottoman Empire. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_295

For the first time in history, Islamic law was separated from secular law and restricted to matters of religion. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_296

He stated: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_297

On 1 March 1926, the Turkish penal code, modelled after the Italian penal code, was passed. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_298

On 4 October 1926, Islamic courts were closed. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_299

Establishing the civic law needed time, so Atatürk delayed the inclusion of the principle of laïcité (the constitutional principle of secularism in France) until 5 February 1937. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_300

In keeping with the Islamic practice of sex segregation, Ottoman practice discouraged social interaction between men and women. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_301

Atatürk began developing social reforms to address this issue very early, as was evident in his personal journal. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_302

He and his staff discussed issues such as abolishing the veiling of women and integrating women into the outside world. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_303

His plans to surmount the task were written in his journal in November 1915: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_304

Atatürk needed a new civil code to establish his second major step of giving freedom to women. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_305

The first part was the education of girls, a feat established with the unification of education. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_306

On 4 October 1926, the new Turkish civil code, modelled after the Swiss Civil Code, was passed. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_307

Under the new code, women gained equality with men in such matters as inheritance and divorce, since Atatürk did not consider gender a factor in social organization. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_308

According to his view, society marched towards its goal with men and women united. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_309

He believed that it was scientifically impossible for Turkey to achieve progress and become civilized if Ottoman gender separation persisted. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_310

During a meeting he declaimed: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_311

In 1927, the State Art and Sculpture Museum (Ankara Resim ve Heykel Müzesi) opened its doors. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_312

The museum highlighted sculpture, which was rarely practised in Turkey due to the Islamic tradition of avoiding idolatry. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_313

Atatürk believed that "culture is the foundation of the Turkish Republic," and described modern Turkey's ideological thrust as "a creation of patriotism blended with a lofty humanist ideal." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_314

He included both his own nation's creative legacy and what he saw as the admirable values of global civilization. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_315

The pre-Islamic culture of the Turks became the subject of extensive research, and particular emphasis was placed on the widespread Turkish culture before the Seljuk and Ottoman civilizations. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_316

He instigated study of Anatolian civilizations - Phrygians, Lydians, Sumerians, and Hittites. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_317

To attract public attention to past cultures, he personally named the banks "Sümerbank" (1932) after the Sumerians and "Etibank" (1935) after the Hittites. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_318

He also stressed the folk arts of the countryside as a wellspring of Turkish creativity. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_319

At the time, the republic used the Ottoman Turkish language written in the Arabic script with Arabic and Persian loan vocabulary. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_320

However, as little as 10% of the population was literate. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_321

Furthermore, the American reformer John Dewey, invited by Atatürk to assist in educational reform, found that learning how to read and write Turkish in the traditional Arabic script took roughly three years. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_322

In the spring of 1928, Atatürk met in Ankara with several linguists and professors from all over Turkey to unveil his plan to implement a new alphabet for the written Turkish language, based on a modified Latin alphabet. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_323

The new Turkish alphabet would serve as a replacement for the old Arabic script and a solution to the literacy problem, since the new alphabet did not retain the complexities of the Arabic script and could be learned within a few months. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_324

When Atatürk asked the language experts how long it would take to implement the new alphabet into the Turkish language, most of the professors and linguists said between three and five years. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_325

Atatürk was said to have scoffed and openly stated, "We shall do it in three to five months". Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_326

Over the next several months, Atatürk pressed for the introduction of the new Turkish alphabet and made public announcements of the upcoming overhaul. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_327

The creation of the alphabet was undertaken by the Language Commission (Dil Encümeni) with the initiative of Atatürk. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_328

On 1 November 1928, he introduced the new Turkish alphabet and abolished the use of the Arabic script. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_329

The first Turkish newspaper using the new alphabet was published on 15 December 1928. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_330

Atatürk himself travelled the countryside in order to teach citizens the new alphabet. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_331

After vigorous campaigns, the literacy rate more than doubled from 10.6% in 1927 to 22.4% in 1940. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_332

To supplement the literacy reform, a number of congresses were organized on scientific issues, education, history, economics, arts and language. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_333

Libraries were systematically developed, and mobile libraries and book transport systems were set up to serve remote districts. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_334

Literacy reform was also supported by strengthening the private publishing sector with a new law on copyrights. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_335

Atatürk promoted modern teaching methods at the primary education level, and Dewey proved integral to the effort. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_336

Dewey presented a paradigmatic set of recommendations designed for developing societies moving towards modernity in his "Report and Recommendation for the Turkish educational system". Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_337

He was interested in adult education with the goal of forming a skill base in the country. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_338

Turkish women were taught not only child care, dress-making, and household management but also skills necessary for joining the economy outside the home. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_339

Atatürk's unified education program became a state-supervised system, which was designed to create a skill base for the social and economic progress of the country by educating responsible citizens as well as useful and appreciated members of society. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_340

In addition, Turkish education became an integrative system, aimed to alleviate poverty and used female education to establish gender equality. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_341

Atatürk himself put special emphasis on the education of girls and supported coeducation, introducing it at university level in 1923–24 and establishing it as the norm throughout the educational system by 1927. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_342

Atatürk's reforms on education made it significantly more accessible: between 1923 and 1938, the number of students attending primary schools increased by 224% (from 342,000 to 765,000), the number of students attending middle schools increased by 12.5 times (from around 6,000 to 74,000), and the number of students attending high schools increased by almost 17 time (from 1,200 to 21,000). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_343

Atatürk generated media attention to propagate modern education during this period. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_344

He instigated official education meetings called "Science Boards" and "Education Summits" to discuss the quality of education, training issues, and certain basic educational principles. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_345

He said, "our [schools' curriculum] should aim to provide opportunities for all pupils to learn and to achieve." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_346

He was personally engaged with the development of two textbooks. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_347

The first one, Vatandaş İçin Medeni Bilgiler (Civic knowledge for the citizens, 1930), introduced the science of comparative government and explained the means of administering public trust by explaining the rules of governance as applied to the new state institutions. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_348

The second, Geometri (Geometry, 1937), was a text for high schools and introduced many of the terms currently used in Turkey to describe geometry. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_349

Opposition to Atatürk in 1930–1931 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_14

On 11 August 1930, Atatürk decided to try a multiparty movement once again and asked Fethi Okyar to establish a new party. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_350

Atatürk insisted on the protection of secular reforms. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_351

The brand-new Liberal Republican Party succeeded all around the country. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_352

However, without the establishment of a real political spectrum, the party became the center to opposition of Atatürk's reforms, particularly in regard to the role of religion in public life. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_353

On 23 December 1930, a chain of violent incidents occurred, instigated by the rebellion of Islamic fundamentalists in Menemen, a small town in the Aegean Region. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_354

The Menemen Incident came to be considered a serious threat against secular reforms. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_355

In November 1930, Ali Fethi Okyar dissolved his own party. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_356

A more lasting multi-party period of the Republic of Turkey began in 1945. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_357

In 1950, the CHP ceded the majority position to the Democratic Party. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_358

This came amidst arguments that Atatürk's single-party rule did not promote direct democracy. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_359

The reason experiments with pluralism failed during this period was that not all groups in the country had agreed to a minimal consensus regarding shared values (mainly secularism) and shared rules for conflict resolution. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_360

In response to such criticisms, Atatürk's biographer Andrew Mango writes: "between the two wars, democracy could not be sustained in many relatively richer and better-educated societies. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_361

Atatürk's enlightened authoritarianism left a reasonable space for free private lives. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_362

More could not have been expected in his lifetime." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_363

Even though, at times, he did not appear to be a democrat in his actions, Atatürk always supported the idea of building a civil society: a system of voluntary civic and social organizations and institutions as opposed to the force-backed structures of the state. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_364

In one of his many speeches about the importance of democracy, Atatürk said in 1933: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_365

Modernization efforts, 1931–1938 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_15

In 1931, Atatürk established the Turkish Language Association (Türk Dil Kurumu) for conducting research works in the Turkish language. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_366

The Turkish Historical Society (Türk Tarih Kurumu) was established in 1931, and began maintaining archives in 1932 for conducting research works on the history of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_367

On 1 January 1928, he established the Turkish Education Association, which supported intelligent and hard-working children in financial need, as well as material and scientific contributions to the educational life. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_368

In 1933, Atatürk ordered the reorganization of Istanbul University into a modern institution and later established Ankara University in the capital city. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_369

Atatürk dealt with the translation of scientific terminology into Turkish. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_370

He wanted the Turkish language reform to be methodologically based. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_371

Any attempt to "cleanse" the Turkish language of foreign influence without modelling the integral structure of the language was inherently wrong to him. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_372

He personally oversaw the development of the Sun Language Theory (Güneş Dil Teorisi), which was a linguistic theory which proposed that all human languages were descendants of one Central Asian primal language. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_373

His ideas could be traced to the work by the French scientist Hilaire de Barenton titled L'Origine des Langues, des Religions et des Peuples, which postulates that all languages originated from hieroglyphs and cuneiform used by Sumerians, and the paper by Austrian linguist Dr. Hermann F. Kvergić of Vienna titled "La psychologie de quelques elements des langues Turques" ("the psychology of some elements of the Turkic Languages"). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_374

Atatürk formally introduced the Sun Language Theory into Turkish political and educational circles in 1935, although he did later correct the more extremist practices. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_375

Saffet Arıkan, a politician who was the head of the Turkish Language Association, said "Ulu Önderimiz Ata Türk Mustafa Kemal" ("Our Great Leader Ata Türk Mustafa Kemal") in the opening speech of the 2nd Language Day on 26 September 1934. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_376

Later, the surname "Atatürk" ("father of the Turks") was accepted as the surname of Mustafa Kemal after the adoption of the Surname Law in 1934. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_377

Beginning in 1932, several hundred "People's Houses" (Halkevleri) and "People's Rooms" (Halkodaları) across the country allowed greater access to a wide variety of artistic activities, sports, and other cultural events. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_378

Atatürk supported and encouraged the visual and the plastic arts, which had been suppressed by Ottoman leaders, who regarded depiction of the human form as idolatry. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_379

Many museums opened, architecture began to follow modern trends, and classical Western music, opera, ballet, and theatre took greater hold in the country. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_380

Book and magazine publications increased as well, and the film industry began to grow. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_381

Almost all Qur'ans in Turkey before the 1930s were printed in Old Arabic. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_382

However, in 1924, three Turkish translations of the Qur'an were published in Istanbul, and several renderings of the Qur'an in the Turkish language were read in front of the public, creating significant controversy. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_383

These Turkish Qur'ans were fiercely opposed by members of the religious community, and the incident impelled many leading Muslim modernists to call upon the Turkish Parliament to sponsor a Qur'an translation of suitable quality. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_384

With the support of Atatürk, the Parliament approved the project and the Directorate of Religious Affairs appointed Mehmet Akif (Ersoy) to compose a Qur'an translation, and the Islamic scholar to author a Turkish language Qur'anic commentary (tafsir) titled Hak Dini Kur'an Dili (The Qur'an: the Tongue of the Religion of Truth). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_385

However, it was only in 1935 that the version of Yazır's work read in public found its way to print. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_386

In 1932, Atatürk justified the translation of the Qur'an by stating how he wanted to "teach religion in Turkish to Turkish people who had been practising Islam without understanding it for centuries." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_387

Atatürk believed that the understanding of religion and its texts was too important to be left to a small group of people. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_388

Thus, his objective was to make the Qur'an accessible to a broader demographic by translating it into modern languages. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_389

In 1934, Atatürk commissioned the first Turkish operatic work, Özsoy. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_390

The opera, staged at the People's House in Ankara, was composed by Adnan Saygun and performed by soprano Semiha Berksoy. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_391

On 5 December 1934, Turkey moved to grant full political rights to women. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_392

The equal rights of women in marriage had already been established in the earlier Turkish civil code. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_393

The role of women in Atatürk's cultural reforms was expressed in the civic book prepared under his supervision. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_394

In it, he stated: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_395

The 1935 general elections yielded 18 female MPs out of a total of 395 representatives, compared to nine out of 615 members in the British House of Commons and six out of 435 in the US House of Representatives inaugurated that year. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_396

Unification and nationalisation efforts Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_16

When the modern Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, nationalism and secularism were two of the founding principles. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_397

Atatürk aimed to create a nation state (ulus devlet) from the Turkish remnants of the Ottoman Empire. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_398

Kemalism defines the "Turkish People" as "those who protect and promote the moral, spiritual, cultural and humanistic values of the Turkish Nation." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_399

One of the goals of the establishment of the new Turkish state was to ensure "the domination of Turkish ethnic identity in every aspect of social life from the language that people speak in the streets to the language to be taught at schools, from the education to the industrial life, from the trade to the cadres of state officials, from the civil law to the settlement of citizens to particular regions." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_400

The process of unification through Turkification continued and was fostered under Atatürk's government with such policies as Citizen speak Turkish! Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_401

(Vatandaş Türkçe konuş! Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_402

), an initiative created in the 1930s by law students but sponsored by the government. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_403

This campaign aimed to put pressure on non-Turkish speakers to speak Turkish in public. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_404

However, the campaign went beyond the measures of a mere policy of speaking Turkish to an outright prevention of any other language. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_405

Another example of nationalisation was the Surname Law, which obligated the Turkish people to adopt fixed, hereditary surnames and forbade names that contained connotations of foreign cultures, nations, tribes, and religions. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_406

As a result, many ethnic Armenians, Greeks, and Kurds were forced to adopt last names of Turkish rendition. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_407

Names ending with "yan, of, ef, viç, is, dis, poulos, aki, zade, shvili, madumu, veled, bin" (names that denote non-Turkish origins) could not be registered and were replaced by "-oğlu." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_408

Furthermore, the geographical name changes initiative by the Turkish government replaced non-Turkish geographical and topographic names within the Turkish Republic with Turkish names. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_409

The main proponent of the initiative had been a Turkish homogenization social-engineering campaign which aimed to assimilate geographical or topographical names that were deemed foreign and divisive against Turkish unity. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_410

The names that were considered foreign were usually of Armenian, Greek, Laz, Bulgarian, Kurdish, Assyrian, or Arabic origin. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_411

The 1934 Resettlement Law was a policy adopted by the Turkish government which set forth the basic principles of immigration. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_412

The law, however, is regarded by some as a policy of assimilation of non-Turkish minorities through a forced and collective resettlement. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_413

Foreign policies Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_17

Atatürk's foreign policy followed his motto "Peace at home, peace in the world", a perception of peace linked to his project of civilization and modernization. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_414

The outcomes of Atatürk's policies depended on the power of the parliamentary sovereignty established by the Republic. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_415

The Turkish War of Independence was the last time Atatürk used his military might in dealing with other countries. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_416

Foreign issues were resolved by peaceful methods during his presidency. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_417

Issue of Mosul Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_18

The Issue of Mosul, a dispute with the United Kingdom over control of Mosul Province, was one of the first foreign affairs-related controversies of the new Republic. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_418

During the Mesopotamian campaign, Lieutenant General William Marshall followed the British War Office's instruction that "every effort was to be made to score as heavily as possible on the Tigris before the whistle blew", capturing Mosul three days after the signature of the Armistice of Mudros (30 October 1918). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_419

In 1920, the Misak-ı Milli, which consolidated the "Turkish lands", declared that Mosul Province was a part of the historic Turkish heartland. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_420

The British were in a precarious situation with the Issue of Mosul and were adopting almost equally desperate measures to protect their interests. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_421

For example, the Iraqi revolt against the British was suppressed by the RAF Iraq Command during the summer of 1920. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_422

From the British perspective, if Atatürk stabilized Turkey, he would then turn his attention to Mosul and penetrate Mesopotamia, where the native population would likely join his cause. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_423

Such an event would result in an insurgent and hostile Muslim nation in close proximity to British territory in India. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_424

In 1923, Atatürk tried to persuade the GNA that accepting the arbitration of the League of Nations at the Treaty of Lausanne did not signify relinquishing Mosul, but rather waiting for a time when Turkey might be stronger. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_425

Nevertheless, the artificially drawn border had an unsettling effect on the population on both sides. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_426

Later, it was claimed that Turkey began where the oil ends, as the border was drawn by the British geophysicists based on locations of oil reserves. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_427

Atatürk did not want this separation. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_428

To address Atatürk's concerns, the British Foreign Secretary George Curzon attempted to disclaim the existence of oil in the Mosul area. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_429

On 23 January 1923, Curzon argued that the existence of oil was no more than hypothetical. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_430

However, according to the biographer Armstrong, "England wanted oil. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_431

Mosul and Kurds were the key." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_432

While three inspectors from the League of Nations Committee were sent to the region to oversee the situation in 1924, the Sheikh Said rebellion (1924–1927) set out to establish a new government positioned to cut Turkey's link to Mesopotamia. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_433

The relationship between the rebels and Britain was investigated. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_434

In fact, British assistance was sought after the rebels decided that the rebellion could not stand by itself. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_435

In 1925, the League of Nations formed a three-member committee to study the case while the Sheikh Said Rebellion was on the rise. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_436

Partly because of the continuing uncertainties along the northern frontier (present-day northern Iraq), the committee recommended that the region should be connected to Iraq with the condition that the UK would hold the British Mandate of Mesopotamia. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_437

By the end of March 1925, the necessary troop movements were completed, and the whole area of the Sheikh Said rebellion was encircled. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_438

As a result of these manoeuvres, the revolt was put down. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_439

Britain, Iraq, and Atatürk made a treaty on 5 June 1926, which mostly followed the decisions of the League Council. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_440

The agreement left a large section of the Kurdish population and the Iraqi Turkmen on the non-Turkish side of the border. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_441

Relations with the Russian SFSR/Soviet Union Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_19

See also: Russia–Turkey relations § Turkey and the Soviet Union Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_442

In his 26 April 1920 message to Vladimir Lenin, the Bolshevik leader and head of the Russian SFSR's government Atatürk promised to coordinate his military operations with the Bolsheviks' "fight against imperialist governments" and requested 5 million lira in gold as well as armaments "as first aid" to his forces. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_443

In 1920 alone, the Lenin government supplied the Kemalists with 6,000 rifles, over 5 million rifle cartridges, 17,600 projectiles as well as 200.6 kg of gold bullion. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_444

In the subsequent 2 years, the amount of aid increased. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_445

In March 1921, the GNA representatives in Moscow signed the Treaty of Moscow ("Friendship and Brotherhood" Treaty) with Soviet Russia, which was a major diplomatic breakthrough for the Kemalists. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_446

The Treaty of Moscow, followed by the identical Treaty of Kars in October the same year, gave Turkey a favourable settlement of its north-eastern frontier at the expense of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, then nominally an independent state. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_447

Relations between the two countries were friendly but were based on the fact that they were against a common enemy: Britain and the West. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_448

In 1920, Atatürk toyed with the idea of using a state-controlled Turkish Communist Party to forestall the perceived spread of communist ideas in the country and gain access to the Comintern's financing. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_449

Despite his relations with the Soviet Union, Atatürk was not willing to commit Turkey to communism. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_450

"Friendship with Russia," he said, "is not to adopt their ideology of communism for Turkey." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_451

Moreover, Atatürk declared, "Communism is a social issue. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_452

Social conditions, religion, and national traditions of our country confirm the opinion that Russian Communism is not applicable in Turkey." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_453

And in a speech on 1 November 1924, he said, "Our amicable relations with our old friend the Soviet Russian Republic are developing and progressing every day. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_454

As in past our Republican Government regards genuine and extensive good relations with Soviet Russia as the keystone of our foreign policy." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_455

After the Turks withdrew their delegation from Geneva on 16 December 1925, they left the League of Nations Council to grant a mandate for the Mosul region to Britain without their consent. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_456

Atatürk countered by concluding a non-aggression pact with the USSR on 17 December. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_457

In 1935, the pact was prolonged for another 10 years. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_458

In 1933, the Soviet Defence Minister Kliment Voroshilov visited Turkey and attended the tenth year celebrations of the Republic. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_459

Atatürk explained his position regarding the realization of his plan for a Balkan Federation economically uniting Turkey, Greece, Romania, Yugoslavia and Bulgaria. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_460

During the second half of the 1930s, Atatürk tried to establish a closer relationship with Britain and other major Western powers, which caused displeasure on the part of the Soviets. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_461

The second edition of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Volume 20, 1953) was unequivocally critical of Atatürk's policies in the last years of his rule, calling his domestic policies "anti-popular" and his foreign course as aimed at rapprochement with the "imperialist powers." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_462

Turkish-Greek alliance Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_20

The post-war leader of Greece, Eleftherios Venizelos, was also determined to establish normal relations between his country and Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_463

The war had devastated Western Anatolia, and the financial burden of Ottoman Muslim refugees from Greece blocked rapprochement. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_464

Venizelos moved forward with an agreement with Turkey, despite accusations of conceding too much on the issues of naval armaments and the properties of Ottoman Greeks from Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_465

In spite of Turkish animosity against the Greeks, Atatürk resisted the pressures of historic enmities and was sensitive towards past tensions; at one point, he ordered the removal of a painting showing a Turkish soldier plunging his bayonet into a Greek soldier by stating, "What a revolting scene!" Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_466

Greece renounced all its claims over Turkish territory, and the two sides concluded an agreement on 30 April 1930. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_467

On 25 October, Venizelos visited Turkey and signed a treaty of friendship. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_468

Venizelos even forwarded Atatürk's name for the 1934 Nobel Peace Prize. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_469

Even after Venizolos' fall from power, Greco-Turkish relations remained cordial. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_470

Indeed, Venizelos' successor Panagis Tsaldaris came to visit Atatürk in September 1933 and signed a more comprehensive agreement called the Entente Cordiale between Greece and Turkey, which was a stepping stone for the Balkan Pact. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_471

Greek Premier Ioannis Metaxas once stated, with regard to Atatürk, that "...Greece, which has the highest estimation of the renowned leader, heroic soldier, and enlightened creator of Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_472

We will never forget that President Atatürk was the true founder of the Turkish-Greek alliance based on a framework of common ideals and peaceful cooperation. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_473

He developed ties of friendship between the two nations which it would be unthinkable to dissolve. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_474

Greece will guard its fervent memories of this great man, who determined an unalterable future path for the noble Turkish nation." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_475

Neighbours to the east Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_21

From 1919, Afghanistan was in the midst of a reformation period under Amanullah Khan. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_476

Afghan Foreign Minister Mahmud Tarzi was a follower of Atatürk's domestic policy. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_477

Tarzi encouraged Amanullah Khan in social and political reform but urged that reforms should built on a strong government. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_478

During the late 1920s, Anglo-Afghan relations soured over British fears of an Afghan-Soviet friendship. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_479

On 20 May 1928, Anglo-Afghan politics gained a positive perspective, when Amanullah Khan and his wife, Queen Soraya Tarzi, were received by Atatürk in Istanbul. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_480

This meeting was followed by a Turkey-Afghanistan Friendship and Cooperation pact on 22 May 1928. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_481

Atatürk supported Afghanistan's integration into international organizations. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_482

In 1934, Afghanistan's relations with the international community improved significantly when it joined the League of Nations. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_483

Mahmud Tarzi received Atatürk's personal support until he died on 22 November 1933 in Istanbul. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_484

Atatürk and Reza Shah, leader of Iran, had a common approach regarding British imperialism and its influence in their countries, resulting in a slow but continuous rapprochement between Ankara and Tehran. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_485

Both governments sent diplomatic missions and messages of friendship to each other during the Turkish War of Independence. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_486

The policy of the Ankara government in this period was to give moral support in order to reassure Iranian independence and territorial integrity. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_487

The relations between the two countries were strained after the abolishment of the Caliphate. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_488

Iran's Shi'a clergy did not accept Atatürk's stance, and Iranian religious power centres perceived the real motive behind Atatürk's reforms was to undermine the power of the clergy. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_489

By the mid-1930s, Reza Shah's efforts had upset the clergy throughout Iran, thus widening the gap between religion and government. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_490

As Russia and Great Britain strengthened their holds in the Middle East, Atatürk feared the occupation and dismemberment of Iran as a multi-ethnic society by these European powers. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_491

Like Atatürk, Reza Shah wanted to secure Iran's borders, and in 1934, the Shah visited Atatürk. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_492

In 1935, the draft of what would become the Treaty of Saadabad was paragraphed in Geneva, but its signing was delayed due to the border dispute between Iran and Iraq. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_493

On 8 July 1937, Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan signed the Saadabad Pact at Tehran. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_494

The signatories agreed to preserve their common frontiers, to consult together in all matters of common interest, and to commit no aggression against one another's territory. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_495

The treaty united the Afghan King Zahir Shah's call for greater Oriental-Middle Eastern cooperation, Reza Shah's goal in securing relations with Turkey that would help free Iran from Soviet and British influence, and Atatürk's foreign policy of ensuring stability in the region. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_496

The treaty's immediate outcome, however, was deterring Italian leader Mussolini from interfering in the Middle East. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_497

Turkish Straits Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_22

On 24 July 1923, the Treaty of Lausanne included the Lausanne Straits Agreement. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_498

The Lausanne Straits Agreement stated that the Dardanelles should remain open to all commercial vessels: seizure of foreign military vessels was subject to certain limitations during peacetime, and, even as a neutral state, Turkey could not limit any military passage during wartime. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_499

The Lausanne Straits Agreement stated that the waterway was to be demilitarised and its management left to the Straits Commission. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_500

The demilitarised zone heavily restricted Turkey's domination and sovereignty over the Straits, and the defence of Istanbul was impossible without sovereignty over the water that passed through it. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_501

In March 1936, Hitler's reoccupation of the Rhineland gave Atatürk the opportunity to resume full control over the Straits. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_502

"The situation in Europe", Atatürk declared "is highly appropriate for such a move. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_503

We shall certainly achieve it". Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_504

Tevfik Rüştü Aras, Turkey's foreign minister, initiated a move to revise the Straits' regime. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_505

Aras claimed that he was directed by Atatürk, rather than the Prime Minister, İsmet İnönü. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_506

İnönü was worried about harming relations with Britain, France, and Balkan neighbors over the Straits. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_507

However, the signatories of the Treaty of Lausanne agreed to join the conference, since unlimited military passage had become unfavourable to Turkey with the changes in world politics. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_508

Atatürk demanded that the members of the Turkish Foreign Office devise a solution that would transfer full control of the waterway to Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_509

On 20 July 1936, the Montreux Convention was signed by Bulgaria, Great Britain, Australia, France, Japan, Romania, the Soviet Union, Turkey, Yugoslavia and Greece. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_510

It became the primary instrument governing the passage of commercial and war vessels through the Dardanelles Strait. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_511

The agreement was ratified by the GNAT on 31 July 1936 and went into effect on 9 November 1936. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_512

Balkan Pact Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_23

Issue of Hatay Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_24

Turkish Prime-Minister İsmet İnönü was very conscious of foreign policy issues. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_513

During the second half of the 1930s, Atatürk tried to form a closer relationship with Britain. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_514

The risks of this policy change put the two men at odds. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_515

The Hatay issue and the Lyon agreement were two important developments in foreign policy that played a significant role in severing relations between Atatürk and İnönü. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_516

In 1936, Atatürk raised the "Issue of Hatay" at the League of Nations. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_517

Hatay was based on the old administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire called the Sanjak of Alexandretta. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_518

On behalf of the League of Nations, the representatives of France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Turkey prepared a constitution for Hatay, which established it as an autonomous sanjak within Syria. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_519

Despite some inter-ethnic violence, an election was conducted in 1938 by the local legislative assembly. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_520

The cities of Antakya (Antioch) and İskenderun (Alexandretta) joined Turkey in 1939. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_521

Economic policies Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_25

For conceptual analysis, see Atatürk's Reforms § Economic reforms. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_522

Atatürk instigated economic policies to develop small and large scale businesses, but also to create social strata (i.e. industrial bourgeoisie coexisting with the peasantry of Anatolia) that were virtually non-existent during the Ottoman Empire. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_523

The primary problem faced by the politics of his period was the lag in the development of political institutions and social classes which would steer such social and economic changes. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_524

Atatürk's vision regarding early Turkish economic policy was apparent during the İzmir Economic Congress of 1923. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_525

The initial choices of Atatürk's economic policies reflected the realities of his time. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_526

After World War I, due to the lack of any real potential investors to fund private sector industry, Atatürk established many state-owned factories for agriculture, machinery, and textile industries. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_527

State intervention, 1923–1929 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_26

Atatürk and İsmet İnönü's pursuit of state-controlled economic policies was guided by a national vision; their goal was to knit the country together, eliminate foreign control of the economy, and improve communications within Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_528

Resources were channeled away from Istanbul, a trading port with international foreign enterprises, in favor of other, less developed cities in order to achieve a more balanced economic development throughout the country. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_529

For Atatürk and his supporters, tobacco remained wedded to his pursuit of economic independence. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_530

Turkish tobacco was an important industrial crop, but its cultivation and manufacture had been under French monopolies granted by capitulations of the Ottoman Empire. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_531

The tobacco and cigarette trade was controlled by two French companies: the Regie Company and Narquileh Tobacco. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_532

The Ottoman Empire had given the tobacco monopoly to the Ottoman Bank as a limited company under the Council of the Public Debt. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_533

Regie, as part of the Council, had control over tobacco production, storage, and distribution (including export) with unchallenged price control. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_534

Consequently, Turkish farmers were dependent on the company for their livelihoods. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_535

In 1925, Regie was taken over by the state and named Tekel. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_536

Government control of tobacco was the one of the greatest achievements of the Kemalist political machinery's "nationalization" of the economy for a country that did not produce oil. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_537

Kemalists accompanied this achievement with the development of the country's cotton industry, which peaked during the early 1930s. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_538

Cotton was the second most important industrial crop in Turkey at the time. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_539

In 1924, with the initiative of Atatürk, the first Turkish bank İş Bankası was established, with Atatürk as the bank's first member. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_540

The bank's creation was a response to the growing need for a truly national establishment and a banking system which was capable of backing up economic activities, managing funds accumulated through policies of savings incentives, and offering resources where necessary to trigger industrial impetus. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_541

In 1927, Turkish State Railways was established. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_542

Because Atatürk considered the development of a national rail network as another important step in industrialisation, railways were given high priority. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_543

The Turkish State Railway developed an extensive railway network in a very short time. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_544

In 1927, Atatürk also ordered the integration of road construction goals into development plans. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_545

Prior to this, the road network had consisted of 13,885 km of ruined surface roads, 4,450 km of stabilized roads, and 94 bridges. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_546

In 1935, a new entity was established under the government called Şose ve Köprüler Reisliği (Headship of Roads and Bridges) which would drive the development of new roads after World War II. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_547

By 1937, the Turkish road network reached 22,000 km in length. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_548

The Turkish government under Atatürk developed many economic and infrastructure projects within the first decade of the republic. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_549

However, the Turkish economy was still largely agrarian, with primitive tools and methods. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_550

Roads and transportation facilities were still far from sufficient, and management of the economy was inefficient. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_551

The Great Depression brought many changes to this picture. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_552

Great Depression, 1929–1931 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_27

The young republic, like the rest of the world, found itself in a deep economic crisis during the Great Depression. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_553

Atatürk reacted to conditions of this period by moving toward integrated economic policies and establishing a central bank to control exchange rates. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_554

However, Turkey could not finance essential imports; its currency was shunned, and zealous revenue officials seized the meagre possessions of peasants who could not pay their taxes. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_555

In 1929, Atatürk signed a treaty that resulted in the restructuring of Turkey's debt with the Ottoman Public Debt Administration. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_556

At the time, Atatürk not only had to deal with the payment of the Ottoman public debt but also the turbulent economic issues of the Great Depression. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_557

For example, until the early 1930s, Turkish private business could not acquire exchange credits. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_558

It was impossible to integrate the Turkish economy without a solution to these problems. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_559

In 1931, the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey was established. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_560

The bank's primary purpose was to control the exchange rate and Ottoman Bank's role during its initial years as a central bank was phased out. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_561

Later specialized banks such as the Sümerbank (1932) and the Etibank (1935) were founded. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_562

From the political economy perspective, Atatürk faced the problem of political upheaval. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_563

The establishment of a new party with a different economic perspective was necessary; he asked Ali Fethi Okyar to meet this end. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_564

The Liberal Republican Party (August 1930) was founded with a liberal program and proposed that state monopolies should be ended, foreign capital should be attracted, and state investment should be curtailed. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_565

Nevertheless, Atatürk maintained the view that "it is impossible to attract foreign capital for essential development," and state capitalism became the dominant agenda during the depression era. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_566

In 1931, Atatürk proclaimed: "In the economic area ...the programme of the party is statism." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_567

However, the effect of free republicans was felt strongly and state intervention became more moderate and more akin to a form of state capitalism. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_568

One of Atatürk's radical left-wing supporters, Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu from the Kadro (The Cadre) movement, claimed that Atatürk found a third way between capitalism and socialism. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_569

Liberalization and planned growth, 1931–1939 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_28

The first (1929–1933) and second five-year economic plans were enacted under the supervision of Atatürk. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_570

The first five-year economic plan promoted consumer substitution industries. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_571

However, these economic plans changed drastically with the death of Atatürk and the rise of World War II. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_572

Subsequent governments took measures that harmed the economic productivity of Turkey in various ways. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_573

The achievements of the 1930s were credited to early 1920s implementations of the economic system based on Atatürk's national policies. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_574

In 1931, Atatürk watched the development of the first national aircraft, MMV-1. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_575

He realised the important role of aviation and stated, "the future lies in the skies". Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_576

The Turkish Aeronautical Association was founded on 16 February 1925 by his directive. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_577

He also ordered the establishment of the Turkish Aircraft Association Lottery. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_578

Instead of the traditional raffle prizes, this new lottery paid money prizes. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_579

Most of the lottery income was used to establish a new factory and fund aviation projects. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_580

However, Atatürk did not live to see the flight of the first Turkish military aircraft built at that factory. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_581

Operational American Curtiss Hawk fighters were being produced in Turkey soon after his death and before the onset of World War II. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_582

In 1932, liberal economist Celâl Bayar became the Minister of Economy at Atatürk's request and served until 1937. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_583

During this period, the country moved toward a mixed economy with its first private initiatives. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_584

Textile, sugar, paper, and steel factories (financed by a loan from Britain) were the private sectors of the period. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_585

Besides these businesses, government-owned power plants, banks, and insurance companies were established. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_586

In 1935, the first Turkish cotton print factory "Nazilli Calico print factory" opened. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_587

As part of the industrialization process, cotton planting was promoted to furnish raw material for future factory settlements. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_588

By 1935, Nazilli became a major industrial center beginning with the establishment of cotton mills followed by a calico print factory. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_589

In 1936, Turkish industrialist Nuri Demirağ established the first Turkish aircraft factory in the Beşiktaş district of Istanbul. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_590

The first Turkish airplanes, Nu D.36 and Nu D.38, were produced in this factory. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_591

On 25 October 1937, Atatürk appointed Celâl Bayar as the prime minister of the 9th government. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_592

Integrated economic policies reached their peak with the signing of the 1939 Treaty with Britain and France. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_593

The treaty signaled a turning point in Turkish history since it was the first step towards an alliance with the West. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_594

After İsmet İnönü became president in 1938, the differences between İnönü (who promoted state control) and Bayar (who was liberal) came to the forefront. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_595

On 25 January 1939, Prime Minister Bayar resigned. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_596

Atatürk also supported the establishment of the automobile industry. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_597

The Turkish Automobile Association was founded in 1923, and its motto was: "The Turkish driver is a man of the most exquisite sensitivities." Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_598

In 1935, Turkey was becoming an industrial society based on the Western European model set by Atatürk. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_599

However, the gap between Atatürk's goals and the achievements of the socio-political structure of the country had not yet been closed. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_600

Personal life Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_29

Main article: Personal life of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_601

Kemal Atatürk's name is associated with four women: Eleni Karinte, Fikriye Hanım, Dimitrina Kovacheva and Latife Uşaklıgil. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_602

Little is known of his relationship with Eleni, who fell in love with him while he was a student in Bitola, Macedonia but the relationship inspired a play by the Macedonian writer Dejan Dukovski, later filmed by Aleksandar Popovski. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_603

Fikriye was a nominal cousin of Atatürk, though not related by blood (she was Atatürk's stepfather Ragıp Bey's sister's daughter). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_604

Fikriye grew passionately attached to Atatürk; the full extent of his feelings for her is unclear but it is certain that they became very close after Fikriye divorced her Egyptian husband and returned to Istanbul. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_605

During the War of Independence, she lived with him in Çankaya, Ankara as his personal assistant. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_606

However, after the Turkish army entered İzmir in 1922, Atatürk met Latife while staying at the house of her father, the shipping magnate Muammer Uşakizade (later Uşaklı). Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_607

Latife fell in love with Atatürk; again the extent to which this was reciprocated is unknown, but he was certainly impressed by Latife's intellect: she was a graduate of the Sorbonne and was studying English in London when the war broke out. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_608

On 29 January 1923, they were married. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_609

Latife was jealous of Fikriye and demanded that she leave the house in Çankaya; Fikriye was devastated and immediately left in a carriage. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_610

According to official accounts, she shot herself with a pistol Atatürk had given her as a present. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_611

However, it was rumoured that she was instead murdered. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_612

The triangle of Atatürk, Fikriye, and Latife became the subject of a manuscript by Atatürk's close friend, Salih Bozok, though the work remained unpublished until 2005. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_613

Latife was briefly and literally the face of the new Turkish woman, appearing in public in Western clothing with her husband. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_614

However, their marriage was not happy; after frequent arguments, the two were divorced on 5 August 1925. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_615

During his lifetime, Atatürk adopted thirteen children: a boy and twelve girls. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_616

Of these, the most famous is Sabiha Gökçen, Turkey's first female pilot and the world's first female fighter pilot. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_617

Illness and death Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_30

See also: Death and state funeral of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_618

Throughout most of his life, Atatürk was a moderate-to-heavy drinker, often consuming half a litre of rakı a day; he also smoked tobacco, predominantly in the form of cigarettes. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_619

During 1937, indications that Atatürk's health was worsening started to appear. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_620

In early 1938, while on a trip to Yalova, he suffered from a serious illness. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_621

He went to Istanbul for treatment, where he was diagnosed with cirrhosis. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_622

During his stay in Istanbul, he made an effort to keep up with his regular lifestyle, but eventually succumbed to his illness. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_623

He died on 10 November 1938, at the age of 57, in the Dolmabahçe Palace. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_624

He was the first president of Turkey to die in office. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_625

The clock in the bedroom where he died is still set to the time of his death, 9:05 in the morning. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_626

Atatürk's funeral called forth both sorrow and pride in Turkey, and 17 countries sent special representatives, while nine contributed armed detachments to the cortège. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_627

Atatürk's remains were originally laid to rest in the Ethnography Museum of Ankara, but they were transferred on 10 November 1953 (15 years after his death) in a 42-ton sarcophagus to a mausoleum overlooking Ankara, Anıtkabir. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_628

In his will, Atatürk donated all of his possessions to the Republican People's Party, provided that the yearly interest of his funds would be used to look after his sister Makbule and his adopted children, and fund the higher education of İsmet İnönü's children. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_629

The remainder of this yearly interest was willed to the Turkish Language Association and the Turkish Historical Society. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_630

Legacy Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_31

Turkey Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_32

Kemal Atatürk is commemorated by many memorials throughout Turkey, such as the Atatürk International Airport in Istanbul, the Atatürk Bridge over the Golden Horn (Haliç), the Atatürk Dam, and Atatürk Stadium. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_631

Atatürk statues have been erected in all Turkish cities by the Turkish Government, and most towns have their own memorial to him. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_632

His face and name are seen and heard everywhere in Turkey; his portrait can be seen in public buildings, in schools, on all Turkish lira banknotes, and in the homes of many Turkish families. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_633

At 9:05 am on every 10 November, at the exact time of Atatürk's death, most vehicles and people in the country's streets pause for one minute in remembrance. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_634

In 1951, the Democrat Party-controlled Turkish parliament led by Prime Minister Adnan Menderes (despite being the conservative opposition to Atatürk's own Republican People's Party) issued outlawing (hatırasına alenen hakaret) and representing him. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_635

The demarcation between a criticism and an insult was defined as a political argument, and the Minister of Justice (a political position) was to execute the law rather than the public prosecutor. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_636

A government website was created to denounce websites that violate this law. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_637

In 2010, the French-based NGO Reporters Without Borders objected to the Turkish laws protecting the memory of Atatürk, arguing that they contradict the current European Union standards of freedom of speech in news media. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_638

Worldwide Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_33

In 1981, the centennial of Atatürk's birth, his memory was honoured by the United Nations and UNESCO, which declared it The Atatürk Year in the World and adopted the Resolution on the Atatürk Centennial. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_639

The Atatürk Monument in Mexico City on Paseo de la Reforma; the Atatürk Monument in Baku, Azerbaijan; the Atatürk Memorial in Wellington, New Zealand (which also serves as a memorial to the ANZAC troops who died at Gallipoli); the Atatürk Memorial in the place of honour on Anzac Parade in Canberra, Australia; and the Atatürk Square in Rome, Italy, are a few examples of Atatürk memorials outside Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_640

He has roads named after him in several countries, such as the Kemal Atatürk Marg in New Delhi, India; the Kemal Atatürk Avenues in Dhaka and Chittagong in Bangladesh; the Atatürk Avenue in the heart of Islamabad, Pakistan; Mustafa Kemal Atatürk street in Tunis, Tunisia; the Atatürk Road in the southern city of Larkana in Sindh, Pakistan (which Atatürk visited in 1923); Mustafá Kemal Atatürk street in the Naco district of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; and the street and memorial Atatürk in the Amsterdam-Noord borough of Amsterdam, Netherlands. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_641

In addition, the entrance to Princess Royal Harbour in Albany, Western Australia is named Atatürk Channel. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_642

There are many statues and streets named after Atatürk in Northern Cyprus. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_643

Despite his radical secular reforms, Atatürk remained broadly popular in the Muslim world. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_644

He is remembered for being the creator of a new, fully independent Muslim country at a time of encroachment by Christian powers, and for having prevailed in a struggle against Western imperialism. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_645

When he died, the All-India Muslim League eulogised him as a "truly great personality in the Islamic world, a great general, and a great statesman", declaring that his memory would "inspire Muslims all over the world with courage, perseverance, and manliness". Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_646

The range of Atatürk's admirers extends from the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, his opponent in World War I, to the German Nazi leader and dictator Adolf Hitler, who also sought an alliance with Turkey, to the presidents of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy, who paid tribute to Atatürk in 1963 on the 25th anniversary of his death. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_647

As a role model that encouraged national sovereignty, Atatürk was especially revered in countries of the so-called Third World, which saw him as the pioneer of independence from colonial powers. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_648

The leaders of such countries included Atatürk's Iranian contemporary Reza Shah Pahlavi, the Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, the Tunisian President Habib Bourguiba, and the Egyptian President Anwar Sadat. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_649

The Pakistani poet and philosopher Muhammad Iqbal and the Bangladeshi national poet Kazi Nazrul Islam wrote poems in his honor. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_650

The Twelfth International Women Conference was held in Istanbul, Turkey on 18 April 1935, and Egyptian nationalist-feminist Huda Sha'arawi was elected by the conference as the vice-president of the International Women’s Union. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_651

Huda considered Atatürk as a role model for her actions and wrote in her memoirs: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_652

However, Atatürk's acclaim is not universal. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_653

As the leader of the national movement of 1919–1923, Atatürk was described by the Allies and Istanbul journalist Ali Kemal (who believed the liberation efforts would fail and cause a more severe punishment by the Allies) as a "bandit chief". Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_654

Lord Balfour in this context called him the "most terrible of all the terrible Turks". Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_655

Awards and decorations Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_34

Main article: List of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk's awards Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_656

He received awards and decorations before, during, and after World War I. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_sentence_657

Ottoman Empire and Republic of Turkey Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_35

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_unordered_list_0

Foreign honours Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_36

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_unordered_list_1

See also Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_section_37

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.