Nagorno-Karabakh

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For the de facto independent state formerly named Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, see Republic of Artsakh. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_0

Nagorno-Karabakh_table_infobox_0

Nagorno-Karabakh

(Upper Karabakh),Nagorno-Karabakh_header_cell_0_0_0

Area Nagorno-Karabakh_header_cell_0_1_0
TotalNagorno-Karabakh_header_cell_0_2_0 4,400 km (1,700 sq mi)Nagorno-Karabakh_cell_0_2_1
Water (%)Nagorno-Karabakh_header_cell_0_3_0 negligibleNagorno-Karabakh_cell_0_3_1
PopulationNagorno-Karabakh_header_cell_0_4_0
2013 estimateNagorno-Karabakh_header_cell_0_5_0 146,573Nagorno-Karabakh_cell_0_5_1
2010 censusNagorno-Karabakh_header_cell_0_6_0 141,400Nagorno-Karabakh_cell_0_6_1
DensityNagorno-Karabakh_header_cell_0_7_0 29/km (75.1/sq mi)Nagorno-Karabakh_cell_0_7_1
Time zoneNagorno-Karabakh_header_cell_0_8_0 UTC+4Nagorno-Karabakh_cell_0_8_1
Summer (DST)Nagorno-Karabakh_header_cell_0_9_0 +5Nagorno-Karabakh_cell_0_9_1

Nagorno-Karabakh (/nəˈɡɔːrnoʊ kɑːrəˈbɑːk/ nə-GOR-noh kar-ə-BAHK; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, lit. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_1

'mountainous Karabakh'; Armenian: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ; Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ) is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, within the mountainous range of Karabakh, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur, and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_2

The region is mostly mountainous and forested. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_3

Nagorno-Karabakh is a disputed territory, internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan, but mostly governed by the unrecognised Republic of Artsakh (formerly named Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (NKR)) since the first Nagorno-Karabakh War. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_4

Since the end of the war in 1994, representatives of the governments of Armenia and Azerbaijan have been holding peace talks mediated by the OSCE Minsk Group on the region's disputed status. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_5

On the morning of 27 September 2020, clashes in the unresolved Nagorno-Karabakh conflict resumed along the Nagorno-Karabakh Line of Contact. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_6

Both the armed forces of Azerbaijan and Armenia reported military and civilian casualties. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_7

The United Nations strongly condemned the conflict and called on both sides to deescalate tensions and resume meaningful negotiations without delay. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_8

The region is usually equated with the administrative borders of the former Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, comprising 4,400 square kilometres (1,700 sq mi). Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_9

The historical area of the region, however, encompasses approximately 8,223 square kilometres (3,175 sq mi). Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_10

Etymology Nagorno-Karabakh_section_0

For the etymology of Karabakh, see Karabakh § Etymology. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_11

The prefix Nagorno- derives from the Russian attributive adjective nagorny (), which means "highland". Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_12

The Azerbaijani names of the region include the similar adjectives dağlıq (mountainous) or yuxarı (upper). Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_13

Such words are not used in the Armenian name, but appeared in the region's official name during the Soviet era as Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_14

Other languages apply their own wording for mountainous, upper, or highland; for example, the official name used by the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic in French is Haut-Karabakh, meaning "Upper Karabakh". Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_15

The names for the region in the various local languages all translate to "mountainous Karabakh", or "mountainous black garden": Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_16

Nagorno-Karabakh_unordered_list_0

  • Armenian: , transliterated Leṙnayin Ġarabaġ (IPA: /lɛrnɑˈjin ʁɑɾɑˈbɑʁ/)Nagorno-Karabakh_item_0_0
  • Azerbaijani: , Дағлыг Гарабағ (mountainous Karabakh; IPA: /dɑɣˈlɯɣ ɡɑˈɾɑbɑɣ/) or Yuxarı Qarabağ, Јухары Гарабағ (upper Karabakh; IPA: /juxɑˈɾɯ ɡɑˈɾɑbɑɣ/)Nagorno-Karabakh_item_0_1
  • Russian: , transliterated Nagornyy Karabakh or Nagornyi Karabah (IPA: /nɐˈɡornɨj kərɐˈbax/)Nagorno-Karabakh_item_0_2

Armenians living in the area often call Nagorno-Karabakh Artsakh (Armenian: Արցախ), the name of the 10th province of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_17

Urartian inscriptions (9th–7th centuries BC) use the name Urtekhini for the region. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_18

Ancient Greek sources called the area Orkhistene. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_19

History Nagorno-Karabakh_section_1

Antiquity and Early Middle Ages Nagorno-Karabakh_section_2

Main article: History of Artsakh Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_20

Nagorno-Karabakh falls within the lands occupied by peoples known to modern archaeologists as the Kura-Araxes culture, who lived between the two rivers Kura and Araxes. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_21

The ancient population of the region consisted of various autochthonous local and migrant tribes who were mostly non-Indo-Europeans. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_22

According to the prevailing western theory, these natives intermarried with Armenians who came to the region after its inclusion into Armenia in the 2nd or, possibly earlier, in 4th century BC. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_23

Other scholars suggest that the Armenians settled in the region as early as in the 7th century BC. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_24

In around 180 BC, Artsakh became one of the 15 provinces of the Armenian Kingdom and remained so until the 4th century. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_25

While formally having the status of a province (nahang), Artsakh possibly formed a principality on its own — like Armenia's province of Syunik. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_26

Other theories suggest that Artsakh was a royal land, belonging to the King of Armenia directly. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_27

Tigran the Great, King of Armenia, (ruled from 95–55 BC), founded in Artsakh one of four cities named "Tigranakert" after himself. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_28

The ruins of the ancient Tigranakert, located 50 km (30 mi) north-east of Stepanakert, are being studied by a group of international scholars. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_29

In 387 AD, after the partition of Armenia between the Roman Empire and Sassanid Persia, two Armenian provinces Artsakh and Utik became part of the Sassanid satrapy of Caucasian Albania, which, in turn, came under strong Armenian religious and cultural influence. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_30

At the time the population of Artsakh and Utik consisted of Armenians and several Armenized tribes. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_31

Armenian culture and civilization flourished in the early medieval Nagorno-Karabakh. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_32

In the 5th century, the first-ever Armenian school was opened on the territory of modern Nagorno-Karabakh—at the Amaras Monastery—by the efforts of St. Mesrop Mashtots, the inventor of the Armenian alphabet. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_33

St. Mesrop was very active in preaching the Gospel in Artsakh and Utik. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_34

Overall, Mesrop Mashtots made three trips to Artsakh and Utik, ultimately reaching pagan territories at the foothills of the Greater Caucasus. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_35

The 7th-century Armenian linguist and grammarian Stephanos Syunetsi stated in his work that Armenians of Artsakh had their own dialect, and encouraged his readers to learn it. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_36

In the same 7th century, Armenian poet Davtak Kertogh writes his Elegy on the Death of Grand Prince Juansher, where each passage begins with a letter of Armenian script in alphabetical order. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_37

The only comprehensive history of Caucasian Albania was written in Armenian, by the 10th-century historian Movses Kaghankatvatsi. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_38

High Middle Ages Nagorno-Karabakh_section_3

Main article: Principality of Khachen Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_39

Around the mid 7th century, the region was conquered by the invading Muslim Arabs through the Muslim conquest of Persia. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_40

Subsequently, it was ruled by local governors endorsed by the Caliphate. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_41

According to some sources, in 821, the Armenian prince Sahl Smbatian revolted in Artsakh and established the House of Khachen, which ruled Artsakh as a principality until the early 19th century. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_42

According to other sources, Sahl i Smbatean "was of the Zamirhakan family of kings," and in the year 837–838, he acquired sovereignty over Armenia, Georgia, and Albania. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_43

The name "Khachen" originated from Armenian word "khach," which means "cross". Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_44

By 1000 the House of Khachen proclaimed the Kingdom of Artsakh with John Senecherib as its first ruler. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_45

Initially Dizak, in southern Artsakh, formed also a kingdom ruled by the ancient House of Aranshahik, descended of the earliest Kings of Caucasian Albania. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_46

In 1261, after the daughter of the last king of Dizak married the king of Artsakh, Armenian prince Hasan Jalal Dola, the two states merged into one Armenian Principality of Khachen. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_47

Subsequently, Artsakh continued to exist as a de facto independent principality. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_48

Late Middle Ages Nagorno-Karabakh_section_4

Main article: Melikdoms of Karabakh Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_49

In the 15th century, the territory of Karabakh was part of the states ruled subsequently by the Kara Koyunlu and Ak Koyunlu Turkic tribal confederations. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_50

According to , during the period of Jahan Shah (1438–1468), the ruler of Kara Koyunlu, Piri bey Karamanli held the governorship of Karabakh. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_51

However, according to Robert H. Hewsen, the Turkoman lord Jahan Shah (1437–67) assigned the governorship of upper Karabakh to local Armenian princes, allowing a native Armenian leadership to emerge consisting of five noble families led by princes who held the titles of meliks. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_52

These dynasties represented the branches of the earlier House of Khachen and were the descendants of the medieval kings of Artsakh. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_53

Their lands were often referred to as the Country of Khamsa (five in Arabic). Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_54

In a Charter (2 June 1799) of the Emperor Paul I titled "About their admission to Russian suzerainty, land allocation, rights and privileges", it was noted that the Christian heritage of the Karabakh region and all their people were admitted to the Russian suzerainty. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_55

However, according to Robert Hewsen, the Russian Empire recognized the sovereign status of the five princes in their domains by the charter of Emperor Paul I dated 2 June 1799. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_56

The Armenian meliks were granted supreme command over neighbouring Armenian principalities and Muslim khans in the Caucasus by the Iranian king Nader Shah, in return for the meliks' victories over the invading Ottoman Turks in the 1720s. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_57

These five principalities in Karabakh were ruled by Armenian families who had received the title Melik (prince) and were the following: Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_58

Nagorno-Karabakh_unordered_list_1

  • Principality of Gulistan – under the leadership of the Melik-Beglarian familyNagorno-Karabakh_item_1_3
  • Principality of Jraberd – under the leadership of the Melik-Israelian familyNagorno-Karabakh_item_1_4
  • Principality of Khachen – under the leadership of the Hasan-Jalalian familyNagorno-Karabakh_item_1_5
  • Principality of Varanda – under the leadership of the Melik-Shahnazarian familyNagorno-Karabakh_item_1_6
  • Principality of Dizak – under the leadership of the Melik-Avanian familyNagorno-Karabakh_item_1_7

From 1501 to 1736, during the existence of the Safavid Empire, the province of Karabakh was governed by Ziyadoglu Gajar's dynasty. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_59

Ziyadoglu Gajar's dynasty ruled the province of Karabakh until Nader Shah took over Karabakh from their rule. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_60

The Armenian meliks maintained full control over the region until the mid-18th century. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_61

In the early 18th century, Iran's Nader Shah took Karabakh out of control of the Ganja khans in punishment for their support of the Safavids, and placed it under his own control In the mid-18th century, as internal conflicts between the meliks led to their weakening, the Karabakh Khanate was formed. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_62

The Karabakh khanate, one of the largest khanates under Iranian suzerainty, was headed by Panah-Ali khan Javanshir. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_63

For the reinforcement of the power of Karabakh khanate, Khan of Karabakh, Panah-Ali khan Javanshir, built up “the fortress of Panahabad (today Shusha)” in 1751. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_64

During that time, Otuziki, Javanshir, Kebirli, and other Turkic tribes constituted the majority of the overall population. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_65

Modern era Nagorno-Karabakh_section_5

Karabakh (including modern-day Nagorno-Karabakh), became a protectorate of the Russian Empire by the Kurekchay Treaty, signed between Ibrahim Khalil Khan of Karabakh and general Pavel Tsitsianov on behalf of Tsar Alexander I in 1805, according to which the Russian monarch recognized Ibrahim Khalil Khan and his descendants as the sole hereditary rulers of the region. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_66

However, its new status was only confirmed following the outcome of the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813), when through the loss in the war, Persia formally ceded Karabakh to the Russian Empire per the Treaty of Gulistan (1813), before the rest of Transcaucasia was incorporated into the Empire in 1828 by the Treaty of Turkmenchay, which came as an outcome of the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828). Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_67

In 1822, 9 years after passing from Iranian to Russian control, the Karabakh Khanate was dissolved, and the area became part of the Elisabethpol Governorate within the Russian Empire. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_68

In 1823 the five districts corresponding roughly to modern-day Nagorno-Karabakh was 90.8% Armenian. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_69

Soviet era Nagorno-Karabakh_section_6

Main article: Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_70

The present-day conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh has its roots in the decisions made by Joseph Stalin and the Caucasian Bureau (Kavburo) during the Sovietization of Transcaucasia. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_71

Stalin was the acting Commissar of Nationalities for the Soviet Union during the early 1920s, the branch of the government under which the Kavburo was created. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_72

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Karabakh became part of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, but this soon dissolved into separate Armenian, Azerbaijani, and Georgian states. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_73

Over the next two years (1918–1920), there were a series of short wars between Armenia and Azerbaijan over several regions, including Karabakh. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_74

In July 1918, the First Armenian Assembly of Nagorno-Karabakh declared the region self-governing and created a National Council and government. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_75

Later, Ottoman troops entered Karabakh, meeting armed resistance by Armenians. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_76

After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I, British troops occupied Karabakh. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_77

The British command provisionally affirmed Khosrov bey Sultanov (appointed by the Azerbaijani government) as the governor-general of Karabakh and Zangezur, pending a final decision by the Paris Peace Conference. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_78

The decision was opposed by Karabakh Armenians. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_79

In February 1920, the Karabakh National Council preliminarily agreed to Azerbaijani jurisdiction, while Armenians elsewhere in Karabakh continued guerrilla fighting, never accepting the agreement. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_80

The agreement itself was soon annulled by the Ninth Karabagh Assembly, which declared union with Armenia in April. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_81

In April 1920, while the Azerbaijani army was locked in Karabakh fighting local Armenian forces, Azerbaijan was taken over by Bolsheviks. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_82

On 10 August 1920, Armenia signed a preliminary agreement with the Bolsheviks, agreeing to a temporary Bolshevik occupation of these areas until final settlement would be reached. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_83

In 1921, Armenia and Georgia were also taken over by the Bolsheviks. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_84

After the Sovietization of Armenia and Azerbaijan, Kavbiuro decided that Karabakh would remain within Azerbaijan SSR with broad regional autonomy, with the administrative centre in the city of Shusha. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_85

The oblast's borders were drawn to include Armenian villages and to exclude as much as possible Azerbaijani villages. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_86

The resulting district ensured an Armenian majority. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_87

With the Soviet Union firmly in control of the region, the conflict over the region died down for several decades until the beginning of the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when the question of Nagorno-Karabakh re-emerged. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_88

Accusing the Azerbaijani SSR government of conducting forced Azerification of the region, the majority Armenian population, with ideological and material support from the Armenian SSR, started a movement to have the autonomous oblast transferred to the Armenian SSR. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_89

In August 1987, Karabakh Armenians sent a petition for union with Armenia with tens of thousands of signatures to Moscow. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_90

War and secession Nagorno-Karabakh_section_7

Main article: First Nagorno-Karabakh War Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_91

On 13 February 1988, Karabakh Armenians began demonstrating in Stepanakert, in favour of unification with the Armenian republic. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_92

Six days later they were joined by mass marches in Yerevan. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_93

On 20 February, the Soviet of People's Deputies in Karabakh voted 110 to 17 to request the transfer of the region to Armenia. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_94

This unprecedented action by a regional Soviet brought out tens of thousands of demonstrations both in Stepanakert and Yerevan, but Moscow rejected the Armenians' demands. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_95

On 20 February 1988, 2 Azeri girls had been raped in Stepanakert, this caused wide outrage in the Azeri town of Agdam, where the first direct confrontation of the conflict occurred as a large group of Azeris marched from Agdam to the Armenian populated town of Askeran. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_96

The confrontation between the Azeris and the police near Askeran degenerated into the Askeran clash, which left two Azeris dead, one of them allegedly killed by an Azeri police officer, as well as 50 Armenian villagers and an unknown number of Azeris and police injured. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_97

Large numbers of refugees left Armenia and Azerbaijan as violence began against the minority populations of the respective countries. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_98

On 29 November 1989, direct rule in Nagorno-Karabakh was ended and the region was returned to Azerbaijani administration. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_99

The Soviet policy backfired, however, when a joint session of the Armenian Supreme Soviet and the National Council, the legislative body of Nagorno-Karabakh, proclaimed the unification of Nagorno-Karabakh with Armenia. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_100

On 26 November 1991 Azerbaijan abolished the status of Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, rearranging the administrative division and bringing the territory under direct control of Azerbaijan. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_101

On 10 December 1991, in a referendum boycotted by local Azerbaijanis, Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh approved the creation of an independent state. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_102

A Soviet proposal for enhanced autonomy for Nagorno-Karabakh within Azerbaijan satisfied neither side and a full-scale war subsequently erupted between Azerbaijan and Nagorno-Karabakh, with the latter receiving support from Armenia. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_103

According to Armenia's former president, Levon Ter-Petrossian, the Karabakh leadership approach was maximalist and "they thought they could get more." Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_104

The struggle over Nagorno-Karabakh escalated after both Armenia and Azerbaijan attained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_105

In the post-Soviet power vacuum, military action between Azerbaijan and Armenia was heavily influenced by the Russian military. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_106

Furthermore, both the Armenian and Azerbaijani military employed a large number of mercenaries from Ukraine and Russia. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_107

Fifteen and twenty-five hundred Afghan mujahideen participated in the fighting on Azerbaijan's side, as well heavy artillery and tanks provided to Armenia by Russia. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_108

Many survivors from the Azerbaijani side found shelter in 12 emergency camps set up in other parts of Azerbaijan to cope with the growing number of internally displaced people due to the first Nagorno-Karabakh war. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_109

By the end of 1993, the conflict had caused thousands of casualties and created hundreds of thousands of refugees on both sides. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_110

By May 1994, the Armenians were in control of 14% of the territory of Azerbaijan. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_111

At that stage, for the first time during the conflict, the Azerbaijani government recognized Nagorno-Karabakh as a third party in the war and started direct negotiations with the Karabakh authorities. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_112

As a result, a cease-fire was reached on 12 May 1994 through Russian negotiation. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_113

Post-1994 ceasefire Nagorno-Karabakh_section_8

Further information: Madrid Principles, Prague Process (Armenian–Azerbaijani negotiations), Nagorno-Karabakh Declaration, Astrakhan Declaration, Land mine situation in Nagorno-Karabakh, 2016 Nagorno-Karabakh clashes, and 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_114

Despite the ceasefire, fatalities due to armed conflicts between Armenian and Azerbaijani soldiers continued. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_115

On 25 January 2005, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) adopted PACE Resolution 1416, which condemned ethnic cleansing against Azerbaijanis. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_116

On 15–17 May 2007 the 34th session of the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Organization of Islamic Conference adopted resolution No. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_117

7/34-P, considering the occupation of Azerbaijani territory as the aggression of Armenia against Azerbaijan and recognizing the actions against Azerbaijani civilians as a crime against humanity, and condemning the destruction of archaeological, cultural and religious monuments in the occupied territories. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_118

The 11th session of the summit of the Organization of the Islamic Conference held on 13–14 March 2008 in Dakar adopted resolution No. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_119

10/11-P (IS). Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_120

In the resolution, OIC member states condemned the occupation of Azerbaijani lands by Armenian forces and Armenian aggression against Azerbaijan, ethnic cleansing against the Azeri population, and charged Armenia with the "destruction of cultural monuments in the occupied Azerbaijani territories". Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_121

On 14 March of the same year the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution No. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_122 62/243 which "demands the immediate, complete and unconditional withdrawal of all Armenian forces from all occupied territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan". Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_123

On 18–20 May 2010, the 37th session of the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Organization of Islamic Conference in Dushanbe adopted another resolution condemning the aggression of Armenia against Azerbaijan, recognizing the actions against Azerbaijani civilians as a crime against humanity and condemning the destruction of archaeological, cultural, and religious monuments in occupied territories. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_124

On 20 May of the same year, the European Parliament in Strasbourg adopted the resolution on "The need for an EU Strategy for the South Caucasus" on the basis of the report by Evgeni Kirilov, the Bulgarian member of the Parliament. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_125

The resolution states in particular that "the occupied Azerbaijani regions around Nagorno-Karabakh must be cleared as soon as possible". Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_126

On 26 January 2016, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) adopted Resolution 2085, which deplored the fact that the occupation by Armenia of Nagorno-Karabakh and other adjacent areas of Azerbaijan creates humanitarian and environmental problems for the citizens of Azerbaijan, condemned ethnic cleansing against Azerbaijanis and Assembly requested immediate withdrawal of Armenian armed forces from the region concerned. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_127

Several world leaders have met with the presidents of Armenia and Azerbaijan over the years, but efforts to maintain the ceasefire have failed. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_128

On 2 April 2016 Azerbaijani and Armenian forces again clashed in the region. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_129

The Armenian Defense Ministry alleged that Azerbaijan launched an offensive to seize territory in the region. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_130

At least 30 soldiers were killed during the fighting and a Mil Mi-24 helicopter and tank were also destroyed, with 12 of the fallen soldiers belonging to the Azerbaijani forces and the other 18 belonging to the Armenian forces, as well as an additional 35 Armenian soldiers reportedly wounded. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_131

2020 war and ceasefire agreement Nagorno-Karabakh_section_9

Main articles: 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war and 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh ceasefire agreement Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_132

On the morning of 27 September 2020, new clashes in the unresolved Nagorno-Karabakh conflict resumed along the Nagorno-Karabakh Line of Contact which led to a war. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_133

Both the armed forces of Azerbaijan and Armenia reported military and civilian casualties. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_134

The United Nations strongly condemned the conflict and called on both sides to deescalate tensions and resume meaningful negotiations without delay. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_135

On November 10, 2020, Russia announced that Azerbaijan and Armenia have struck a deal to end the current conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh, and that Russian peacekeepers will be deployed along the line of contact. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_136

Geography Nagorno-Karabakh_section_10

Nagorno-Karabakh has a total area of 4,400 square kilometres (1,699 sq mi). Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_137

Approximately half of Nagorno-Karabakh terrain is over 950 metres (3,120 ft) above sea level. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_138

The borders of Nagorno-Karabakh resemble a kidney bean with the indentation on the east side. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_139

It has tall mountain ridges along the northern edge and along the west and mountainous south. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_140

The part near the indentation of the kidney bean itself is a relatively flat valley, with the two edges of the bean, the provinces of Martakert and Martuni, having flatlands as well. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_141

Other flatter valleys exist around the Sarsang reservoir, Hadrut, and the south. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_142

The entire region lies, on average, 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) above sea level. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_143

Notable peaks include the border mountain Murovdag and the Great Kirs mountain chain in the junction of Shusha Rayon and Hadrut. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_144

The territory of modern Nagorno-Karabakh forms a portion of the historic region of Karabakh, which lies between the rivers Kura and Araxes, and the modern Armenia-Azerbaijan border. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_145

Nagorno-Karabakh in its modern borders is part of the larger region of Upper Karabakh. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_146

Nagorno-Karabakh does not border Armenia but the unrecognised republic controls the Lachin corridor, a mountain pass connecting it to Armenia. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_147

Nagorno-Karabakh's environment vary from steppe on the Kura lowland through dense forests of oak, hornbeam, and beech on the lower mountain slopes to birchwood and alpine meadows higher up. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_148

The region possesses numerous mineral springs and deposits of zinc, coal, lead, gold, marble, and limestone. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_149

The major cities of the region are Stepanakert, which serves as the capital of the unrecognised Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, and Shusha, which lies partially in ruins. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_150

Vineyards, orchards, and mulberry groves for silkworms are developed in the valleys. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_151

Demographics Nagorno-Karabakh_section_11

Main article: Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast § Demography Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_152

The earliest concrete numbers about the population of the whole of Karabakh is from the census of 1823 concerning the abolition of the Karabakh Khanate. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_153

In the territory of the former Armenian principalities, 90.8% of villages were recorded as being Armenian, while 9.2% were recorded as Tatar or Kurd. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_154

The population of the former Armenian principalities accounted for approximately 8.4% of the population of the whole of Karabakh. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_155

In 1989, Nagorno-Karabakh had a population of 192,000, of which 76% was Armenian and 23% Azerbaijani, with Russian and Kurdish minorities. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_156

Transport Nagorno-Karabakh_section_12

Nagorno-Karabakh_table_general_1

LocationNagorno-Karabakh_cell_1_0_0 ICAONagorno-Karabakh_cell_1_0_1 DAFIFNagorno-Karabakh_cell_1_0_2 IATANagorno-Karabakh_cell_1_0_3 Airport nameNagorno-Karabakh_cell_1_0_4 CoordinatesNagorno-Karabakh_cell_1_0_5
StepanakertNagorno-Karabakh_cell_1_1_0 UBBSNagorno-Karabakh_cell_1_1_1 UB13Nagorno-Karabakh_cell_1_1_2 Nagorno-Karabakh_cell_1_1_3 Stepanakert AirportNagorno-Karabakh_cell_1_1_4 Nagorno-Karabakh_cell_1_1_5

During rule of the Soviet Union, the YevlaxAğdamStepanakert line connected the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Region with the main part of Azerbaijan. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_157

After the Nagorno-Karabakh war and the abandonment of Ağdam, the line's service was cut back to service only between Yevlax and Kətəlparaq, without any present section at the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_158

The former railway line between Kətəlparaq and Stepanakert has been almost completely destroyed. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_159

The (TbilisiGyumri–)YerevanNakhchivanHoradizŞirvan(–Baku) main railway was also dismantled from the NKR between Ordubad and Horadiz, and a by-line from Mincivan to the Armenian city of Kapan. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_160

Currently, the Azerbaijani trains only travel to Horadiz. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_161

The Ordubad–Horadiz section has been demolished, leaving the NKR with no intact, active railway line in their territory. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_162

The railway at the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic still operates, but it is separated from the main Azerbaijani lines, and only has a connection to Iran. Nagorno-Karabakh_sentence_163

See also Nagorno-Karabakh_section_13

Nagorno-Karabakh_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nagorno-Karabakh.