Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic

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Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_table_infobox_0

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic

Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası  (Azerbaijani)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_0_0


and largest cityNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_1_0

NakhchivanNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_1_1
Official languagesNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_2_0 AzerbaijaniNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_2_1
Demonym(s)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_3_0 NakhchivaniNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_3_1
GovernmentNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_4_0 Parliamentary republicNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_4_1
Parliamentary chairmanNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_5_0 Vasif TalibovNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_5_1
Prime MinisterNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_6_0 Alovsat BakhshiyevNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_6_1
LegislatureNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_7_0 Supreme AssemblyNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_7_1
AutonomyNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_8_0
Establishment of the Nakhchivan ASSRNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_9_0 February 9, 1924Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_9_1

Autonomous RepublicNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_10_0

November 17, 1990Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_10_1
Area Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_11_0
TotalNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_12_0 5,502.75 km (2,124.62 sq mi)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_12_1
Water (%)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_13_0 negligibleNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_13_1
PopulationNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_14_0
2019 estimateNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_15_0 456,100Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_15_1
DensityNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_16_0 82/km (212.4/sq mi)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_16_1
HDI (2014)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_17_0 0.772

highNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_17_1

CurrencyNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_18_0 Azerbaijan manat (AZN)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_18_1
Time zoneNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_19_0 UTC+4 (AZT)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_19_1
Calling codeNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_0_20_0 +994 36Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_0_20_1

The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Azerbaijani: Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası, pronounced [nɑxt͡ʃɯˈvɑn muxˈtɑɾ resˈpublikɑsɯ) is a landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_0

The region covers 5,502.75 km (2,124.62 sq mi) with a population of 414,900, bordering Armenia (border 221 km [137 mi]) to the east and north, Iran (border 179 km [111 mi]) to the south and west, and Turkey (border 8 km [5.0 mi]) to the northwest. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_1

The area that is now Nakhchivan became part of Safavid Iran in the 16th century. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_2

In 1828, after the last Russo-Persian War and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the Nakhchivan Khanate passed from Iranian into Imperial Russian possession. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_3

After the 1917 February Revolution, Nakhchivan and its surrounding region were under the authority of the Special Transcaucasian Committee of the Russian Provisional Government and subsequently of the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_4

When the TDFR was dissolved in May 1918, Nakhchivan, Nagorno-Karabakh, Zangezur (today the Armenian province of Syunik), and Qazakh were heavily contested between the newly formed and short-lived states of the First Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_5

In June 1918, the region came under Ottoman occupation. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_6

Under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros, the Ottomans agreed to pull their troops out of the Transcaucasus to make way for British occupation at the close of the First World War. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_7

In July 1920, the Bolsheviks occupied the region and on July 28, declared the Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic with "close ties" to the Azerbaijan SSR, beginning seventy years of Soviet rule. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_8

In January 1990 Nakhchivan declared independence from the USSR to protest against the suppression of the national movement in Azerbaijan, and became the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic within the newly independent Republic of Azerbaijan a year later. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_9

The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is an autonomous area of Azerbaijan, governed by its own elected legislature. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_10

The region continues to suffer from the effects of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, and its Karki exclave has been under Armenian occupation ever since. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_11

The administrative capital city is Nakhchivan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_12

Vasif Talibov has been the leader since 1995. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_13

Etymology Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_0

Variations of the name Nakhchivan include Nakhichevan, Naxcivan, Naxçivan, Nachidsheuan, Nakhijevan, Nuhișvân,Nakhchawan, Nakhitchevan, Nakhjavan, and Nakhdjevan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_14

Nakhchivan is mentioned in Ptolemy's Geography and by other classical writers as "Naxuana". Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_15

The 19th-century language scholar Johann Heinrich Hübschmann wrote that the name "Nakhichavan" in Armenian literally means "the place of descent", a Biblical reference to the descent of Noah's Ark on the adjacent Mount Ararat. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_16

Armenian tradition says that Nakhchivan was founded by Noah. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_17

First century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus also wrote about Nakhichevan, saying that its original name "Αποβατηριον, or Place of Descent, is the proper rendering of the Armenian name of this very city". Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_18

Hübschmann noted, however, that it was not known by that name in antiquity, and that the present-day name evolved to "Nakhchivan" from "Naxčawan". Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_19

The prefix "Naxč" derives from Naxič or Naxuč (probably a personal name) and "awan" (the modern transcription of Hübschmann's "avan") is Armenian for "place, town". Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_20

History Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_1

Early history Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_2

The oldest material culture artifacts found in the region date back to the Neolithic Age. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_21

On the other hand, Azerbaijani archaeologists have found that the history of Nakhchivan dates back to the Stone Age (Paleolithic). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_22

As a result of archaeological diggings, archaeologists discovered a great number of Stone-Age materials in different regions of Nakhchivan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_23

These materials were useful to study the Paleolithic age in Azerbaijan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_24

Pollen analysis conducted in Gazma Cave (Sharur District) suggests that humans in the Middle Palaeolithic (Mousterian) lived not only in the mountain forests but also in the dry woodlands found in Nakhchivan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_25

Several archeological sites from the dating from the Neolithic have also been found in Nakhchivan, including the ancient town of Ovchular Tepesi, which also includes some of the oldest salt mines in the world. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_26

The region was part of the states of Urartu and later Media. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_27

It became part of the Satrapy of Armenia under Achaemenid Persia c. 521 BC. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_28

After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC several generals of the Macedonian army, including Neoptolemus, attempted but failed to take control of the region, and it was ruled by the native Armenian dynasty of Orontids until Armenia was conquered by Antiochus III the Great (ruled 222–187 BC). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_29

In 189 BC, Nakhchivan became part of the new Kingdom of Armenia established by Artaxias I. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_30

Within the kingdom, the region of present-day Nakhchivan was part of the Ayrarat, Vaspurakan and Syunik provinces. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_31

According to the early medieval Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi, from the 3rd to 2nd centuries, the region belonged to the Muratsyan nakharar family but after disputes with central power, King Artavazd I massacred the family and seized the lands and formally attached it to the kingdom. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_32

The area's status as a major trade center allowed it to prosper; as a result, many foreign powers coveted it. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_33

According to the Armenian historian Faustus of Byzantium (5th century), when the Sassanid Persians invaded Armenia, Sassanid King Shapur II (310–380) removed 2,000 Armenian and 16,000 Jewish families in 360–370. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_34

In 428, the Armenian Arshakuni monarchy was abolished and Nakhchivan was annexed by Sassanid Persia. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_35

In 623, possession of the region passed to the Byzantine Empire but was soon left to its own rule. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_36

Sebeos referred to the area as Tachkastan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_37

Nakhchivan is said by his pupil, Koriun Vardapet, to be the place where the Armenian scholar and theologian Mesrob Mashtots finished the creation of the Armenian Alphabet and opened the first Armenian schools. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_38

It happened in the province of Gokhtan, which corresponds to Nakhchivan's modern Ordubad district. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_39

From 640 on, the Arabs invaded Nakhchivan and undertook many campaigns in the area, crushing all resistance and attacking Armenian nobles who remained in contact with the Byzantines or who refused to pay tribute. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_40

In 705, after suppressing an Armenian revolt, Arab viceroy Muhammad ibn Marwan decided to eliminate the Armenian nobility. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_41

In Nakhchivan, several hundred Armenian nobles were locked up in churches and burnt, while others were crucified. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_42

The violence caused many Armenian princes to flee to the neighboring Kingdom of Georgia or the Byzantine Empire. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_43

Meanwhile, Nakhchivan itself became part of the autonomous Principality of Armenia under Arab control. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_44

In the 8th century, Nakhchivan was one of the scenes of an uprising against the Arabs led by Persian revolutionary Babak Khorramdin of the Iranian Khorram-Dinān ("those of the joyous religion" in Persian). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_45

Nakhchivan was finally released from Arab rule in the 10th century by Bagratuni King Smbat I and handed over to the princes of Syunik. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_46

This region also was taken by Sajids in 895 and between 909 and 929, Sallarid between 942 and 971 and Shaddadid between 971 and 1045. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_47

About 1055, the Seljuk Turks took over the region. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_48

In the 12th century, the city of Nakhchivan became the capital of the state of Atabegs of Azerbaijan, also known as Ildegizid state, which included most of Iranian Azerbaijan and a significant part of the South Caucasus. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_49

The magnificent 12th-century mausoleum of Momine Khatun, the wife of Ildegizid ruler, Great Atabeg Jahan Pehlevan, is the main attraction of modern Nakhchivan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_50

At its heyday, the Ildegizid authority in Nakhchivan and some other areas of South Caucasus was contested by Georgia. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_51

The Armeno-Georgian princely house of Zacharids frequently raided the region when the Atabeg state was in decline in the early years of the 13th century. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_52

It was then plundered by invading Mongols in 1220 and Khwarezmians in 1225 and became part of Mongol Empire in 1236 when the Caucasus was invaded by Chormaqan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_53

In the 13th century during the reign of the Mongol horde ruler Güyük Khan Christians were allowed to build churches in the strongly Muslim town of Nakhchivan, however the conversion to Islam of Gazan khan brought about a reversal of this favor. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_54

The 14th century saw the rise of Armenian Catholicism in Nakhchivan, though by the 15th century the territory became part of the states of Kara Koyunlu and Ak Koyunlu. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_55

Iranian rule Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_3

In the 16th century, control of Nakhchivan passed to the Safavid dynasty. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_56

Until the demise of the Safavids, it remained as an administrative jurisdiction of the Erivan Province (also known as Chokhur-e Sa'd). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_57

Because of its geographic position, it frequently suffered during the wars between the Safavids and the Ottoman Empire, from the 16th to 18th centuries. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_58

Turkish historian İbrahim Peçevi described the passing of the Ottoman army from the Ararat plain to Nakhchivan: Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_59

In 1604, Shah Abbas I of Iran, concerned that the skilled peoples of Nakhichevan, its natural resources, and the surrounding areas could get in danger due to its relatively close proximity to the Ottoman-Persian frontline, decided to institute a scorched earth policy. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_60

He forced the entire hundreds of thousands of local population—Muslims, Jews and Armenians alike—to leave their homes and move to the provinces south of the Aras River. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_61

Many of the deportees were settled in the neighborhood of Isfahan that was named New Julfa since most of the residents were from the original Julfa. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_62

The Turkic Kangerli tribe was later permitted to move back under Shah Abbas II (1642–1666) to repopulate the frontier region of his realm. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_63

In the 17th century, Nakhchivan was the scene of a peasant movement led by Köroğlu against foreign invaders and "native exploiters". Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_64

In 1747, the Nakhchivan Khanate emerged in the region after the death of Nader Shah Afshar. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_65

Passing to Imperial Russian rule Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_4

After the last Russo-Persian War and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the Nakhchivan Khanate passed into Russian possession in 1828 due to Iran's forced ceding as a result of the outcome of the war and treaty. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_66

With the onset of Russian rule, the Tsarist authorities encouraged resettlement of Armenians to Nakhchivan and other areas of the Caucasus from the Persian and Ottoman Empires. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_67

Special clauses of the Turkmenchay and Adrianople treaties allowed for this. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_68

Alexandr Griboyedov, the Russian envoy to Persia, stated that by the time Nakhchivan came under Russian rule, there had been 290 native Armenians families in the province excluding the city of Nakhchivan, the number of Muslim families was 1,632, and the number of the Armenian immigrant families was 943. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_69

The same numbers in the city of Nakhchivan were 114, 392 and 285 respectively. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_70

With such a dramatic influx of Armenian immigrants, Griboyedov noted friction arising between the Armenian and Muslim populations. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_71

He requested Russian army commander Count Ivan Paskevich to give orders on resettlement of some of the arriving people further to the region of Daralayaz to quiet the tensions. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_72

The Nakhchivan Khanate was dissolved in 1828 the same year it came into Russian possession, and its territory was merged with the territory of the Erivan khanate and the area became the Nakhchivan uyezd of the new Armenian oblast, which later became the Erivan Governorate in 1849. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_73

According to official statistics of the Russian Empire, by the turn of the 20th century Azerbaijanis made up 57% of the uyezd's population, while Armenians constituted 42%. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_74

At the same time in the Sharur-Daralagyoz uyezd, the territory of which would form the northern part of modern-day Nakhchivan, Azeris constituted 70.5% of the population, while Armenians made up 27.5%. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_75

During the Russian Revolution of 1905, conflict erupted between the Armenians and the Azeris, culminating in the Armenian-Tatar massacres which saw violence in Nakhchivan in May of that year. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_76

War and revolution Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_5

In the final year of World War I, Nakhchivan was the scene of more bloodshed between Armenians and Azerbaijanis, who both laid claim to the area. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_77

By 1914, the Armenian population had decreased slightly to 40% while the Azeri population increased to roughly 60%. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_78

After the February Revolution, the region was under the authority of the Special Transcaucasian Committee of the Russian Provisional Government and subsequently of the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_79

When the TDFR was dissolved in May 1918, Nakhchivan, Nagorno-Karabakh, Zangezur (today the Armenian province of Syunik), and Qazakh were heavily contested between the newly formed and short-lived states of the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_80

In June 1918, the region came under Ottoman occupation. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_81

The Ottomans proceeded to massacre 10,000 Armenians and razed 45 of their villages. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_82

Under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros, the Ottomans agreed to pull their troops out of the Transcaucasus to make way for the forthcoming British military presence. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_83

Under British occupation, Sir Oliver Wardrop, British Chief Commissioner in the South Caucasus, made a border proposal to solve the conflict. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_84

According to Wardrop, Armenian claims against Azerbaijan should not go beyond the administrative borders of the former Erivan Governorate (which under prior Imperial Russian rule encompassed Nakhchivan), while Azerbaijan was to be limited to the governorates of Baku and Elisabethpol. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_85

This proposal was rejected by both Armenians (who did not wish to give up their claims to Qazakh, Zangezur and Karabakh) and Azeris (who found it unacceptable to give up their claims to Nakhchivan). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_86

As disputes between both countries continued, it soon became apparent that the fragile peace under British occupation would not last. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_87

In December 1918, with the support of Azerbaijan's Musavat Party, Jafargulu Khan Nakhchivanski declared the Republic of Aras in the Nakhchivan uyezd of the former Erivan Governorate assigned to Armenia by Wardrop. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_88

The Armenian government did not recognize the new state and sent its troops into the region to take control of it. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_89

The conflict soon erupted into the violent Aras War. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_90

British journalist C. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_91 E. Bechhofer Roberts described the situation in April 1920: Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_92

By mid-June 1919, however, Armenia succeeded in establishing control over Nakhchivan and the whole territory of the self-proclaimed republic. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_93

The fall of the Aras republic triggered an invasion by the regular Azerbaijani army and by the end of July, Armenian troops were forced to leave Nakhchivan City to the Azeris. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_94

Again, more violence erupted leaving some ten thousand Armenians dead and forty-five Armenian villages destroyed. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_95

Meanwhile, feeling the situation to be hopeless and unable to maintain any control over the area, the British decided to withdraw from the region in mid-1919. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_96

Still, fighting between Armenians and Azeris continued and after a series of skirmishes that took place throughout the Nakhchivan district, a cease-fire agreement was concluded. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_97

However, the cease-fire lasted only briefly, and by early March 1920, more fighting broke out, primarily in Karabakh between Karabakh Armenians and Azerbaijan's regular army. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_98

This triggered conflicts in other areas with mixed populations, including Nakhchivan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_99

Sovietization Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_6

In July 1920, the 11th Soviet Red Army invaded and occupied the region and on July 28, declared the Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic with "close ties" to the Azerbaijan SSR. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_100

In November, on the verge of taking over Armenia, the Bolsheviks, to attract public support, promised they would allot Nakhchivan to Armenia, along with Karabakh and Zangezur. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_101

This was fulfilled when Nariman Narimanov, leader of Bolshevik Azerbaijan issued a declaration celebrating the "victory of Soviet power in Armenia", proclaimed that both Nakhchivan and Zangezur should be awarded to the Armenian people as a sign of the Azerbaijani people's support for Armenia's fight against the former DRA government: Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_102

Vladimir Lenin, while welcoming this act of "great Soviet fraternity" where "boundaries had no meaning among the family of Soviet peoples", did not agree with the motion and instead called for the people of Nakhchivan to be consulted in a referendum. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_103

According to the formal figures of this referendum, held at the beginning of 1921, 90% of Nakhchivan's population wanted to be included in the Azerbaijan SSR "with the rights of an autonomous republic". Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_104

The decision to make Nakhchivan a part of modern-day Azerbaijan was cemented on March 16, 1921 in the Treaty of Moscow between Soviet Russia and the newly founded Republic of Turkey. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_105

The agreement between Soviet Russia and Turkey also called for attachment of the former Sharur-Daralagezsky Uyezd (which had a solid Azeri majority) to Nakhchivan, thus allowing Turkey to share a border with the Azerbaijan SSR. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_106

This deal was reaffirmed on October 13, in the Treaty of Kars. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_107

Article V of the treaty stated the following: Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_108

So, on February 9, 1924, the Soviet Union officially established the Nakhchivan ASSR. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_109

Its constitution was adopted on April 18, 1926. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_110

Nakhchivan in the Soviet Union Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_7

Main article: Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_111

As a constituent part of the Soviet Union, tensions lessened over the ethnic composition of Nakhchivan or any territorial claims regarding it. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_112

Instead, it became an important point of industrial production with particular emphasis on the mining of minerals such as salt. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_113

Under Soviet rule, it was once a major junction on the Moscow-Tehran railway line as well as the Baku-Yerevan railway. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_114

It also served as an important strategic area during the Cold War, sharing borders with both Turkey (a NATO member state) and Iran (a close ally of the West until the Iranian Revolution of 1979). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_115

Facilities improved during Soviet times. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_116

Education and public health especially began to see some major changes. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_117

In 1913, Nakhchivan only had two hospitals with a total of 20 beds. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_118

The region was plagued by widespread diseases including trachoma and typhus. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_119

Malaria, which mostly came from the adjoining Aras River, brought serious harm to the region. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_120

At any one time, between 70% and 85% of Nakhchivan's population was infected with malaria, and in the region of Norashen (present-day Sharur) almost 100% were struck with the disease. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_121

This situation improved dramatically under Soviet rule. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_122

Malaria was sharply reduced and trachoma, typhus, and relapsing fever were completely eliminated. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_123

During the Soviet era, Nakhchivan saw great demographic shift. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_124

In 1926, 15% of region's population was Armenian, but by 1979, this number had shrunk to 1.4%. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_125

Azeris made up 85% in 1926, but 96% in 1979 (leaving the small remainder mixed or other). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_126

Three factors were involved: Armenians emigrated to the Armenian SSR; a higher than Armenian Azeri birth rate existed; and immigration of Azeris took place from Armenia. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_127

Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh noted similar though slower demographic trends and feared an eventual "de-Armenianization" of the area. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_128

When tensions between Armenians and Azeris were reignited in the late-1980s by the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, Azerbaijan's Popular Front managed to pressure the Azerbaijan SSR to instigate a partial railway and air blockade against Armenia, while another reason for disruption of rail service to Armenia were attacks of Armenian forces on the trains entering the Armenian territory from Azerbaijan, which resulted in railroad personnel refusing to enter Armenia. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_129

This effectively crippled Armenia's economy, as 85% of the cargo and goods arrived through rail traffic. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_130

In response, Armenia closed the railway to Nakhchivan, thereby strangling the exclave's only link to the rest of the Soviet Union. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_131

December 1989 saw unrest in Nakhchivan as its Azeri inhabitants moved to physically dismantle the Soviet border with Iran to flee the area and meet their ethnic Azeri cousins in northern Iran. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_132

This action was angrily denounced by the Soviet leadership and the Soviet media accused the Azeris of "embracing Islamic fundamentalism". Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_133

In January 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Nakhchivan ASSR issued a declaration stating the intention for Nakhchivan to secede from the USSR to protest the Soviet Union's actions during Black January (January 19–20, 1990). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_134

It was the first part of the Soviet Union to declare independence, preceding Lithuania's declaration by only a few weeks. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_135

Subsequently, Nakhchivan was independent from Moscow and Baku but was then brought under control by the clan of Heydar Aliyev. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_136

Nakhchivan in the post-Soviet era Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_8

Heydar Aliyev, the future president of Azerbaijan, returned to his birthplace of Nakhchivan in 1990, after being ousted from his position in the Politburo by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_137

Soon after returning to Nakhchivan, Aliyev was elected to the Supreme Soviet by an overwhelming majority. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_138

Aliyev subsequently resigned from the CPSU and after the failed August 1991 coup against Gorbachev, he called for complete independence for Azerbaijan and denounced Ayaz Mütallibov for supporting the coup. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_139

In late 1991, Aliyev consolidated his power base as chairman of the Nakhchivan Supreme Soviet and asserted Nakhchivan's near-total independence from Baku. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_140

Nakhchivan became a scene of conflict during the First Nagorno-Karabakh War. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_141

On May 4, 1992, Armenian forces shelled the raion of Sadarak. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_142

The Armenians claimed that the attack was in response to cross-border shelling of Armenian villages by Azeri forces from Nakhchivan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_143

David Zadoyan, a 42-year-old Armenian physicist and mayor of the region, said that the Armenians lost patience after months of firing by the Azeris. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_144

"If they were sitting on our hilltops and harassing us with gunfire, what do you think our response should be?" Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_145

he asked. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_146

The government of Nakhchivan denied these charges and instead asserted that the Armenian assault was unprovoked and specifically targeted the site of a bridge between Turkey and Nakhchivan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_147

"The Armenians do not react to diplomatic pressure," Nakhchivan foreign minister Rza Ibadov told the ITAR-Tass news agency, "It's vital to speak to them in a language they understand." Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_148

Speaking to the agency from the Turkish capital Ankara, Ibadov said that Armenia's aim in the region was to seize control of Nakhchivan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_149

According to Human Rights Watch, hostilities broke out after three people were killed when Armenian forces began shelling the region. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_150

The heaviest fighting took place on 18 May, when the Armenians captured Nakhchivan's exclave of Karki, a tiny territory through which Armenia's main north–south highway passes. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_151

The exclave presently remains under Armenian control. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_152

After the fall of Shusha, the Mütallibov government of Azerbaijan accused Armenia of moving to take the whole of Nakhchivan (a claim that was denied by Armenian government officials). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_153

However, Heydar Aliyev declared a unilateral ceasefire on 23 May and sought to conclude a separate peace with Armenia. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_154

Armenian President Levon Ter-Petrossian expressed his willingness to sign a cooperation treaty with Nakhchivan to end the fighting and subsequently a cease-fire was agreed upon. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_155

The conflict in the area caused a harsh reaction from Turkey. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_156

Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Çiller announced that any Armenian advance on the main territory of Nakhchivan would result in a declaration of war against Armenia. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_157

Russian military leaders declared that "third party intervention into the dispute could trigger a Third World War". Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_158

Thousands of Turkish troops were sent to the border between Turkey and Armenia in early September. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_159

Russian military forces in Armenia countered their movements by increasing troop levels along the Armenian-Turkish frontier and bolstering defenses in a tense period where war between the two seemed inevitable. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_160

The tension reached its peak, when Turkish heavy artillery shelled the Nakhchivan side of the Nakhchivan-Armenian border, from the Turkish border for two hours. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_161

Iran also reacted to Armenia's attacks by conducting military maneuvers along its border with Nakhchivan in a move widely interpreted as a warning to Armenia. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_162

However, Armenia did not launch any further attacks on Nakhchivan and the presence of Russia's military warded off any possibility that Turkey might play a military role in the conflict. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_163

After a period of political instability, the Parliament of Azerbaijan turned to Heydar Aliyev and invited him to return from exile in Nakhchivan to lead the country in 1993. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_164

Recent times Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_9

Today, Nakhchivan retains its autonomy as the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic and is internationally recognized as a constituent part of Azerbaijan governed by its own elected legislative assembly. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_165

A new constitution for Nakhchivan was approved in a referendum on November 12, 1995. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_166

The constitution was adopted by the republic's assembly on April 28, 1998 and has been in force since January 8, 1999. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_167

However, the republic remains isolated, not only from the rest of Azerbaijan, but practically from the entire South Caucasus region. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_168

Vasif Talibov, who is related by marriage to Azerbaijan's ruling family, the Aliyevs, serves as the current parliamentary chairman of the republic. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_169

He is known for his authoritarian and largely corrupt rule of the region. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_170

Most residents prefer to watch Turkish television as opposed to Nakhchivan television, which one Azerbaijani journalist criticised as "a propaganda vehicle for Talibov and the Aliyevs." Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_171

Economic hardships and energy shortages (due to Armenia's continued blockade of the region in response to the Azeri and Turkish blockade of Armenia) plague the area. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_172

There have been many cases of migrant workers seeking jobs in neighboring Turkey. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_173

"Emigration rates to Turkey," one analyst said, "are so high that most of the residents of the Besler district in Istanbul are Nakhchivanis." Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_174

When speaking to British writer Thomas de Waal the mayor of Nakhchivan City, Veli Shakhverdiev, spoke warmly of a peaceful solution to the Karabakh conflict and of Armenian-Azeri relations during Soviet times. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_175

"I can tell you that our relations with the Armenians were very close, they were excellent," he said. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_176

"I went to university in Moscow and I didn't travel to Moscow once via Baku. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_177

I took a bus, it was one hour to Yerevan, then went by plane to Moscow and the same thing on the way back." Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_178

Recently Nakhchivan made deals to obtain more gas exports from Iran, and a new bridge on the Aras River between the two countries was inaugurated in October 2007; the Azerbaijani President, Ilham Aliyev and the First Vice-President of Iran, Parviz Davoodi also attended the opening ceremony. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_179

In 2008, the National Bank of Azerbaijan minted a pair of gold and silver commemorative coins for the 85th anniversary of the creation of the Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_180

As part of the ceasefire agreement which ended the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war, Armenia conceded a corridor of land which will allow Azerbaijan to have direct access to the exclave. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_181

Administrative divisions Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_10

Main article: Administrative divisions of Azerbaijan Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_182

Nakhchivan is subdivided into eight administrative divisions. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_183

Seven of these are raions. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_184

The capital city (şəhər) of Nakhchivan City is treated separately. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_185

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_table_general_1

Map ref.Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_1_0_0 Administrative divisionNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_1_0_1 CapitalNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_1_0_2 TypeNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_1_0_3 Area (km)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_1_0_4 Population (August 1, 2011 estimate)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_1_0_5 NotesNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_1_0_6
1Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_1_0 Babek (Babək)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_1_1 BabekNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_1_2 RayonNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_1_3 749,81Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_1_4 66,200Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_1_5 Formerly known as Nakhchivan; renamed after Babak Khorramdin in 1991Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_1_6
2Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_2_0 Julfa (Culfa)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_2_1 JulfaNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_2_2 RayonNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_2_3 1012,75Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_2_4 43,000Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_2_5 Also spelled Jugha or Dzhulfa.Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_2_6
3Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_3_0 Kangarli (Kəngərli)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_3_1 GivraqNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_3_2 RayonNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_3_3 711,86Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_3_4 28,900Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_3_5 Split from Babek in March 2004Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_3_6
4Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_4_0 Nakhchivan City (Naxçıvan Şəhər)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_4_1 n/aNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_4_2 MunicipalityNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_4_3 191,82Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_4_4 85,700Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_4_5 Split from Nakhchivan (Babek) in 1991Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_4_6
5Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_5_0 OrdubadNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_5_1 OrdubadNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_5_2 RayonNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_5_3 994,88Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_5_4 46,500Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_5_5 Split from Julfa during SovietizationNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_5_6
6Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_6_0 Sadarak (Sədərək)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_6_1 HeydarabadNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_6_2 RayonNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_6_3 153,49Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_6_4 14,500Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_6_5 Split from Sharur in 1990; de jure includes the Karki exclave in Armenia, which is de facto under Armenian controlNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_6_6
7Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_7_0 Shahbuz (Şahbuz)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_7_1 ShahbuzNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_7_2 RayonNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_7_3 838,04Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_7_4 23,400Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_7_5 Split from Nakhchivan (Babek) during Sovietization Territory roughly corresponds to the Čahuk (Չահւք) district of the historic Syunik region within the Kingdom of ArmeniaNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_7_6
8Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_8_0 Sharur (Şərur)Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_8_1 SharurNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_8_2 RayonNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_8_3 847,35Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_8_4 106,600Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_8_5 Formerly known as Bash-Norashen during its incorporation into the Soviet Union and Ilyich (after Vladimir Ilyich Lenin) from the post-Sovietization period to 1990Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_8_6
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_9_0 TotalNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_9_1 Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_9_2 Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_9_3 5,500Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_9_4 414,900Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_9_5 Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_1_9_6

Demographics Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_11

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_table_infobox_2

YearNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_0_0 AzerbaijanisNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_0_1 %Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_0_2 ArmeniansNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_0_3 %Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_0_4 OthersNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_0_5 %Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_0_6 TOTALNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_0_7
1828Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_1_0 2,024Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_1_1 55.3Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_1_2 1,632Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_1_3 44.7Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_1_4 Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_1_5 Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_1_6 3,656Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_1_7
1831Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_2_0 17,138Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_2_1 56.1Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_2_2 13,342Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_2_3 43.7Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_2_4 27Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_2_5 1.2Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_2_6 30,507Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_2_7
1896Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_3_0 49,425Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_3_1 56.9Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_3_2 36,671Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_3_3 42.2Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_3_4 583Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_3_5 0.7Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_3_6 86,878Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_3_7
1897Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_4_0 64,151Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_4_1 63.7Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_4_2 34,672Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_4_3 34.4Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_4_4 1,948Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_4_5 1.9Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_4_6 100,771Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_4_7
1917Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_5_0 81,100Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_5_1 60Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_5_2 53,900Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_5_3 40Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_5_4 Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_5_5 Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_5_6 135,000Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_5_7
1926Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_6_0 88,433Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_6_1 84.3Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_6_2 11,276Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_6_3 10.8Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_6_4 4,947Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_6_5 4.7Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_6_6 104,656Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_6_7
1939Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_7_0 108,529Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_7_1 85.7Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_7_2 13,350Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_7_3 10.5Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_7_4 4,817Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_7_5 Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_7_6 126,696Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_7_7
1959Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_8_0 127,508Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_8_1 90.2Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_8_2 9,519Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_8_3 6.7Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_8_4 4,334Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_8_5 3.1Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_8_6 141,361Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_8_7
1970Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_9_0 189,679Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_9_1 93.8Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_9_2 5,828Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_9_3 2.9Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_9_4 6,680Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_9_5 3.3Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_9_6 202,187Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_9_7
1979Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_10_0 229,968Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_10_1 95.6Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_10_2 3,406Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_10_3 1.4Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_10_4 7,085Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_10_5 2.9Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_10_6 240,459Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_10_7
1989Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_11_0 281,807Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_11_1 95.9Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_11_2 1,858Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_11_3 0.6Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_11_4 10,210Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_11_5 3.5Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_11_6 293,875Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_11_7
1999Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_12_0 350,806Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_12_1 99.1Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_12_2 17Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_12_3 0Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_12_4 3,249Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_12_5 0.9Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_12_6 354,072Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_12_7
2009Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_13_0 396,709Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_13_1 99.6Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_13_2 6Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_13_3 0Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_13_4 1,608Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_13_5 0.4Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_2_13_6 398,323Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_2_13_7

As of January 1, 2018, Nakhchivan's population was estimated to be 452,831. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_186

Most of the population are Azerbaijanis, who constituted 99% of the population in 1999, while ethnic Russians (0.15%) and a minority of Kurds (0.6%) constituted the remainder of the population. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_187

The Kurds of Nakhchivan are mainly found in the districts of Sadarak and Teyvaz. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_188

The remaining Armenians were expelled by Azerbaijani forces during the conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh as part of the forceful exchange of population between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_189

According to a 1932 Soviet estimate, 85% of the area was rural, while only 15% was urban. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_190

This urban percentage increased to 18% by 1939 and 27% by 1959. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_191

As of 2011, 127,200 people of Nakhchivan's total population of 435,400 live in urban areas, making the urban percentage 29.2% in 2014. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_192

Nakhchivan enjoys a high Human Development Index; its socio-economic prowess far exceeds that of the neighbouring countries except Turkey, as well as Azerbaijan itself. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_193

According to the report of Nakhchivan AR Committee of Statistics on June 30, 2014 for the end of 2013, some socio-economical data, including the following, are unveiled: Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_194

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_table_general_3

VariableNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_3_0_0 ValueNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_3_0_1
PopulationNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_3_1_0 452,831Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_3_1_1
GNI (PPP) per CapitaNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_3_2_0 $15,300Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_3_2_1
Life Expectancy at BirthNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_3_3_0 76.1 yearsNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_3_3_1
Mean Years of SchoolingNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_3_4_0 11.2 yearsNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_3_4_1
Expected Years of SchoolingNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_3_5_0 11.8 yearsNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_3_5_1

Making use of the Human Development Index calculation method according to the new UNHD 2014 method, the above values change into these: Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_195

Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_table_general_4

VariableNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_4_0_0 ValueNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_header_cell_4_0_1
Income IndexNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_4_1_0 0.7599Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_4_1_1
Life Expectancy IndexNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_4_2_0 0.8630Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_4_2_1
Education IndexNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_4_3_0 0.7011Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_cell_4_3_1

Further, the value of the HDI becomes to Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_196

Were it a country, Nakhchivan would be ranked between Malaysia (62nd) and Mauritius (63rd) for its HDI. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_197

Also, compare it to Iran with HDI 0.749 (75th), Turkey with 0.759 (69th), or Azerbaijan with 0.747 (76th). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_198

Geography Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_12

Main article: Geography of Azerbaijan Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_199

Nakhchivan is a semi-desert region that is separated from the main portion of Azerbaijan by Armenia. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_200

The Zangezur Mountains make up its border with Armenia while the Aras River defines its border with Iran. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_201

The Araz reservoir located on that river supplies water for agricultural needs and the hydroelectric dam generates power for both Azerbaijan and Iran. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_202

Nakhchivan is extremely arid and mountainous. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_203

Its highest peak is Mount Kapudzhukh 3,904 m (12,808 ft) and its most distinctive is Ilandag [] (Snake Mountain) 2,415 m (7,923 ft), which is visible from Nakhchivan City. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_204

According to legend, the cleft in its summit was formed by the keel of Noah's Ark as the floodwaters abated. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_205

Qazangödağ 3,829 m (12,562 ft) is another major peak. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_206

Economy Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_13

Industry Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_14

Nakhchivan's major industries include the mining of minerals such as salt, molybdenum, and lead. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_207

Dryland farming, developed during the Soviet years, has allowed the region to expand into the growing of wheat (mostly cultivated on the plains of the Aras River), barley, cotton, tobacco, orchard fruits, mulberries, and grapes for producing wine. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_208

Other industries include cotton ginning/cleaning, silk spinning, fruit canning, meat packing, and, in the drier regions, sheep farming. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_209

Processing of minerals, salt, radio engineering, farm ginning, preserving, silk products, meat and dairy, bottling of mineral waters, clothing, and furniture are the principal branches of Nakhchivan's industry. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_210

Nakhchivan Automobile Plant(Azerbaijani: Naxçıvan Avtomobil Zavodu), better known as NAZ, is an automobile manufacturer in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_211

The economy suffered a severe blow in 1988 with the loss of access to both raw materials and markets, due to the First Nagorno-Karabakh War. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_212

Although new markets are emerging in Iran and Turkey, this isolation still persists to this day, impairing development. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_213

The economy of Nakhchivan is based on agriculture, mining, and food processing, however 75% of the republic's budget is supplied by the central government in Baku. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_214

The Republic is rich in minerals. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_215

Nakhchivan possesses deposits of marble, lime, and gypsum. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_216

The deposits of the rock salt are exhausted in Nehram, Nakhchivan, and Sustin. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_217

The important molybdenum mines are currently closed as a consequence of the exclave's isolation. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_218

There are a lot of mineral springs such as Badamli, Sirab, Nagajir, Kiziljir where water contains arsenic. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_219

About 90% of the agricultural land is now in private hands. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_220

However agriculture has become a poorly capitalized, backyard activity. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_221

Production has dropped sharply and large-scale commercial agriculture has declined. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_222

Over two-thirds of the land are rocky slopes and deserts, therefore the area of arable lands is quite limited. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_223

The main crops – cotton and tobacco – are cultivated in the PriAraz plain, near Sharur and Nakhchivan City. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_224

Three-quarters of the grain production, especially winter wheat is concentrated on the irrigated lands of the Sharur plain and in the basin of the Nakhchivan river. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_225

Vine growing in Nakhchivan has an ancient tradition, in the Araz valley and foothills. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_226

Very hot summers and long warm autumns make it possible to grow such highly saccharine grapes as bayan-shiraz, tebrizi, shirazi. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_227

Wines such as "Nakhchivan" "Shahbuz", "Abrakunis", at "Aznaburk" are of reasonable quality and very popular. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_228

Fruit production is quite important, mainly of quince, pear, peach, apricot, fig, almonds, and pomegranate. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_229

Cattle ranching is another traditional branch of Nakhchivan farming. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_230

Due to the dry climate, pastures in Nakhchivan are unproductive, therefore sheep breeding prevails over other livestock production. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_231

Winter pastures stretch on the PriAraz plain, on the foothills and mountain sides to the altitude of 1,200 metres (3,900 ft). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_232

But the summer pastures go up on the high-mountain area to an altitude of 2,300–3,200 metres (7,500–10,500 ft). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_233

The most widespread sheep variety is "balbas". Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_234

These sheep are distinguished by their productivity and snow-white silky wool which is widely used in the manufacture of carpets. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_235

Horned and small cattle are bred everywhere, especially in environs of Sharur and Nakhchivan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_236

Buffaloes are also bred here. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_237

Although intentions to facilitate tourism have been declared by the government, it is still at best incipient. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_238

Until 1997 tourists needed special permission to visit, which has now been abolished, making travel easier. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_239

Facilities are very basic and heating fuel is hard to find in the winter, but the arid mountains bordering Armenia and Iran are magnificent. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_240

In terms of services, Nakhchivan offers very basic facilities and lacks heating fuel during the winter. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_241

In 2007 the Poldasht-Shah Takhti Bridge, which connects Poldasht, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, and Shah Takhti in Nakhchivan, was completed, allowing residents of the republic to access Azerbaijan proper via Iran without having to cross Armenian territory. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_242

International issues Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_15

Status of Armenian cultural monuments Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_16

Main article: Khachkar destruction in Nakhchivan Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_243

In November 2020, the British The Guardian wrote about Azerbaijan's campaign of comprehensive “cultural cleansing” in Nakhichevan: Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_244

The number of named Armenian churches known to have existed in the Nakhichevan region is over 280. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_245

In as early as 1648 French traveller Alexandre de Rhodes reported seeing more than ten thousand Armenian tombstones made of marble in Julfa. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_246

The number of ecclesiastical monuments still standing in Nakhchivan in the 1980s is estimated to be between 59 and 100. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_247

The author and journalist Sylvain Besson believes them to have all been subsequently destroyed as part of a campaign by the Government of Azerbaijan to erase all traces of Armenian culture on its soil. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_248

When the 14th-century church of St. Stephanos at Abrakunis was visited in 2005, it was found to have been recently destroyed, with its site reduced to a few bricks sticking out of loose, bare earth. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_249

A similar complete destruction had happened to the 16th century St. Hakop-Hayrapet church in Shurut. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_250

The Armenian churches in Norashen, Kırna and Gah that were standing in the 1980s had also vanished. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_251

The most publicised case of mass destruction concerns gravestones at a medieval cemetery in Julfa, with photographic, video and satellite evidence supporting the charges. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_252

In April 2006 British The Times wrote about the destruction of the cemetery in the following way: Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_253

The Armenians have long been sounding the alarm that the Azerbaijanis intend to eliminate all evidence of Armenian presence in Nakhichevan and to this end have been carrying out massive and irreversible destruction of Armenian cultural traces. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_254

"The irony is that this destruction has taken place not during a time of war but at a time of peace," Armenian Foreign Minister Vartan Oskanian told The Times. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_255

Azerbaijan has consistently denied these accusations. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_256

For example, according to the Azerbaijani ambassador to the US, Hafiz Pashayev, the videos and photographs "show some unknown people destroying mid-size stones", and "it is not clear of what nationality those people are", and the reports are Armenian propaganda designed to divert attention from what he claimed was a "state policy (by Armenia) to destroy the historical and cultural monuments in the occupied Azeri territories". Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_257

A number of international organizations have confirmed the complete destruction of the cemetery. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_258

The Institute for War and Peace Reporting reported on April 19, 2006 that "there is nothing left of the celebrated stone crosses of Jugha." Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_259

According to the International Council on Monuments and Sites (Icomos), the Azerbaijan government removed 800 khachkars in 1998. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_260

Though the destruction was halted following protests from UNESCO, it resumed four years later. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_261

By January 2003 "the 1,500-year-old cemetery had completely been flattened" according to Icomos. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_262

On December 8, 2010, the American Association for the Advancement of Science released a report entitled "Satellite Images Show Disappearance of Armenian Artifacts in Azerbaijan". Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_263

The report contained the analysis of high resolution satellite images of the Julfa cemetery, which verified the destruction of the khatckars. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_264

The European Parliament has formally called on Azerbaijan to stop the demolition as a breach of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_265

According to its resolution regarding cultural monuments in the South Caucasus, the European Parliament "condemns strongly the destruction of the Julfa cemetery as well as the destruction of all sites of historical importance that has taken place on Armenian or Azerbaijani territory, and condemns any such action that seeks to destroy cultural heritage." Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_266

In 2006, Azerbaijan barred a Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) mission from inspecting and examining the ancient burial site, stating that it would only accept a delegation if it also visited Armenian-occupied territory. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_267

"We think that if a comprehensive approach is taken to the problems that have been raised," said Azerbaijani foreign ministry spokesman Tahir Tagizade, "it will be possible to study Christian monuments on the territory of Azerbaijan, including in the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic." Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_268

A renewed attempt was planned by PACE inspectors for August 29 – September 6, 2007, led by British MP Edward O'Hara. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_269

As well as Nakhchivan, the delegation would visit Baku, Yerevan, Tbilisi, and Nagorno Karabakh. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_270

The inspectors planned to visit Nagorno Karabakh via Armenia; however, on August 28, the head of the Azerbaijani delegation to PACE released a demand that the inspectors must enter Nagorno Karabakh via Azerbaijan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_271

On August 29, PACE Secretary General Mateo Sorinas announced that the visit had to be cancelled because of the difficulty in accessing Nagorno Karabakh using the route required by Azerbaijan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_272

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Armenia issued a statement saying that Azerbaijan had stopped the visit "due solely to their intent to veil the demolition of Armenian monuments in Nakhijevan". Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_273

Recognition of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_17

In the late 1990s the Supreme Assembly issued a non-binding declaration recognising the sovereignty of the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) and calling upon Azerbaijan to do so. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_274

While sympathetic to the TRNC, Azerbaijan has not followed suit because doing so could prompt the Republic of Cyprus to recognise the self-proclaimed Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_275

Close relations between Nakhchivan and Turkey probably initiated this recognition. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_276

Culture Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_18

Main article: Culture of Azerbaijan Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_277

Nakhchivan is one of the cultural centers of Azerbaijan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_278

In 1923, a musical subgroup was organized at the State Drama Theater (renamed the Nakhchivan Music and Drama Theater in 1965). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_279

The Aras Song and Dance Ensemble (established in 1959) is another famous group. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_280

Dramatic performances staged by an amateur dance troupe were held in Nakhchivan in the late 19th century. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_281

Theatrical art also greatly contributed to Nakhchivan's culture. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_282

The creative work of Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, Huseyn Javid, M.S. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_283 Gulubekov, and Huseyn Arablinski (the first Azerbaijani theatre director) are just a few of the names that have enriched Nakhchivan's cultural heritage. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_284

The region has also produced noteworthy Armenian artists too such as Soviet actress Hasmik Agopyan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_285

Nakhchivan has also at times been mentioned in works of literature. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_286

Nizami, the Persian poet, once wrote: Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_287

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    • که تا جایگه یافتی نخچوانNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_item_0_1
    • Oh Nakhchivan, respect you've attained,Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_item_0_2
    • بدین شاه شد بخت پیرت جوانNakhchivan Autonomous Republic_item_0_3
    • With this King in luck you'll remain.Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_item_0_4

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Archaeology Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_19

The very early Kura-Araxes culture flourished in Nakhchivan before spreading to many other areas, as far as Israel. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_288

This region reveals the genesis and chronology of this Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age culture. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_289

Kültəpə is an important early Chalcolithic site in Nakhchivan. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_290

Another such site is Makhta Kultepe. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_291

Recent excavations at Ovcular Tepesi allow the dating of the initial stage of formation of Kura-Araxes culture to 4200–3400 BC. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_292

The Naxçivan Archaeological Project is the first ever joint American-Azerbaijani program of surveys and excavations, that was active since 2006. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_293

In 2010–11, they have excavated the large Iron Age fortress of Oğlanqala. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_294

In Nakhchivan, there are also numerous archaeological monuments of the early Iron Age, and they shed a lot of light on the cultural, archaeological and agricultural developments of that era. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_295

There are important sites such as Ilikligaya, Irinchoy, and the Sanctuary of Iydali Piri in Kangarli region. Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_sentence_296

People from Nakhchivan Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_20

Political leaders Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_21

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Religious leaders Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_22

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Military leaders Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_23

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Writers and poets Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_24

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Scientists Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_25

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  • Alec (Alirza) Rasizade, American professor of history and political science, the author of the Rasizade's algorithm.Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_item_6_49
  • Ruben Orbeli, Soviet archeologist, historian and jurist, who was renowned as the founder of Soviet underwater archeology.Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_item_6_50

Others Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_26

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Photographs of Nakhchivan Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_27

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See also Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic_section_28

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Autonomous Republic.