Names of God in Judaism

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Rabbinic Judaism considers seven names of God in Judaism so holy that, once written, they should not be erased: YHWH, El ("God"), Eloah ("God"), Elohim ("God"), Shaddai (“Almighty"), Ehyeh ("I Am"), and Tzevaot ("[of] Hosts"). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_0

Other names are considered mere epithets or titles reflecting different aspects of God, but Khumra sometimes dictates special care such as the writing of "G-d" instead of "God" in English or saying Ṭēt-Vav (, lit. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_1

"9-6") instead of Yōd- (, lit. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_2

"10-5" but also "Jah") for the number fifteen in Hebrew. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_3

The documentary hypothesis proposes that the Torah was compiled from various original sources, two of which (the Jahwist and the Elohist) are named for their usual names for God (Yahweh and Elohim respectively). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_4

Seven names of God Names of God in Judaism_section_0

The seven names of God that, once written, cannot be erased because of their holiness are the Tetragrammaton, El, Elohim, Eloah, Elohai, El Shaddai, and Tzevaot. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_5

In addition, the name Jah—because it forms part of the Tetragrammaton—is similarly protected. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_6

Rabbi Jose considered "Tzevaot" a common name and Rabbi Ishmael that "Elohim" was. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_7

All other names, such as "Merciful", "Gracious" and "Faithful", merely represent attributes that are also common to human beings. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_8

YHWH Names of God in Judaism_section_1

Main articles: Tetragrammaton, Yahweh, and Lord § Religion Names of God in Judaism_sentence_9

The name of God used most often in the Hebrew Bible is (‎), (generally transcribed as YHWH) and is called the Tetragrammaton (Greek for "something written with four letters"). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_10

Hebrew script is an abjad, so that the letters Yōd, , Vav, in this name are normally consonants, usually expanded in English as "Yahweh". Names of God in Judaism_sentence_11

Modern Jewish culture judges it forbidden to pronounce this name. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_12

In prayers it is replaced by the word Adonai ("The Lord"), and in discussion by HaShem ("The Name"). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_13

Nothing in the Torah explicitly prohibits speaking the name and the Book of Ruth shows it was being pronounced as late as the 5th century BC. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_14

It had ceased to be spoken aloud by at least the 3rd century BC, during Second Temple Judaism. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_15

The Talmud relates, perhaps anecdotally, this began with the death of Simeon the Just. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_16

Vowel points began to be added to the Hebrew text only in the early medieval period. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_17

The Masoretic Text adds to the Tetragrammaton the vowel points of Adonai or Elohim (depending on the context), indicating that these are the words to be pronounced in place of the Tetragrammaton (see Qere and Ketiv), as shown also by the subtle pronunciation changes when combined with a preposition or a conjunction. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_18

The Tetragrammaton appears in Genesis and occurs 6,828 times in total in the Stuttgart edition of the Masoretic Text. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_19

It is thought to be an archaic third-person singular of the imperfective aspect of the verb "to be" (i.e., "[He] is/was/will be"). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_20

This agrees with the passage in Exodus where God names himself as "I Will Be What I Will Be" using the first-person singular imperfective aspect, open to interpretation as present tense ("I am what I am"), future ("I shall be what I shall be"), imperfect ("I used to be what I used to be"). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_21

Rabbinical Judaism teaches that the name is forbidden to all except the High Priest, who should only speak it in the Holy of Holies of the Temple in Jerusalem on Yom Kippur. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_22

He then pronounces the name "just as it is written". Names of God in Judaism_sentence_23

As each blessing was made, the people in the courtyard were to prostrate themselves completely as they heard it spoken aloud. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_24

As the Temple has not been rebuilt since its destruction in 70 AD, most modern Jews never pronounce YHWH but instead read Adonai ("My Lord") during prayer and while reading the Torah and as HaShem ("The Name") at other times. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_25

Similarly, the Vulgate used Dominus ("The Lord") and most English translations of the Bible write "the Lord" for YHWH and "the Lord God", "the Lord God" or "the Sovereign Lord" for Adonai YHWH instead of transcribing the name. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_26

The Septuagint may have originally used the Hebrew letters themselves amid its Greek text but there is no scholarly consensus on this point. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_27

All surviving Christian-era manuscripts use Kyrios [Κυριος, "Lord") or very occasionally Theos [Θεος, "God"] to translate the many thousand occurrences of the Name. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_28

(However, given the great preponderance of the anarthrous Kyrios solution for translating YHWH in the Septuagint and some disambiguation efforts by Christian-era copyists involving Kyrios (see especially scribal activity in Acts), Theos should probably not be considered historically as a serious early contender substitute for the divine Name.) Names of God in Judaism_sentence_29

El Names of God in Judaism_section_2

See also: El (deity) § Hebrew Bible Names of God in Judaism_sentence_30

El appears in Ugaritic, Phoenician and other 2nd and 1st millennium BC texts both as generic "god" and as the head of the divine pantheon. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_31

In the Hebrew Bible El (Hebrew: אל‎) appears very occasionally alone (e.g. Genesis 33:20, el elohe yisrael, "Mighty God of Israel", and Genesis 46:3, ha'el elohe abika, "El the God of thy father"), but usually with some epithet or attribute attached (e.g. El Elyon, "Most High El", El Shaddai, "El of Shaddai", El `Olam "Everlasting El", El Hai, "Living El", El Ro'i "El my Shepherd", and El Gibbor "El of Strength"), in which cases it can be understood as the generic "god". Names of God in Judaism_sentence_32

In theophoric names such as Gabriel ("Strength of God"), Michael ("Who is like God? Names of God in Judaism_sentence_33

"), Raphael ("God's medicine"), Ariel ("God's lion"), Daniel ("God's Judgment"), Israel ("one who has struggled with God"), Immanuel ("God is with us"), and Ishmael ("God Hears"/"God Listens") it is usually interpreted and translated as "God", but it is not clear whether these "el"s refer to the deity in general or to the god El in particular. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_34

Eloah Names of God in Judaism_section_3

Further information: Elohim § Etymology Names of God in Judaism_sentence_35

Elohim Names of God in Judaism_section_4

Main article: Elohim Names of God in Judaism_sentence_36

A common name of God in the Hebrew Bible is Elohim (Hebrew: אלהים‎ (help·)‎). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_37

Despite the -im ending common to many plural nouns in Hebrew, the word Elohim when referring to God is grammatically singular, and takes a singular verb in the Hebrew Bible. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_38

The word is identical to the usual plural of el meaning gods or magistrates, and is cognate to the 'lhm found in Ugaritic, where it is used for the pantheon of Canaanite gods, the children of El and conventionally vocalized as "Elohim" although the original Ugaritic vowels are unknown. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_39

When the Hebrew Bible uses elohim not in reference to God, it is plural (for example, Exodus 20:2). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_40

There are a few other such uses in Hebrew, for example Behemoth. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_41

In Modern Hebrew, the singular word ba'alim ("owner") looks plural, but likewise takes a singular verb. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_42

A number of scholars have traced the etymology to the Semitic root *yl, "to be first, powerful", despite some difficulties with this view. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_43

Elohim is thus the plural construct "powers". Names of God in Judaism_sentence_44

Hebrew grammar allows for this form to mean "He is the Power (singular) over powers (plural)", just as the word Ba'alim means "owner" (see above). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_45

"He is lord (singular) even over any of those things that he owns that are lordly (plural)." Names of God in Judaism_sentence_46

Theologians who dispute this claim cite the hypothesis that plurals of majesty came about in more modern times. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_47

Richard Toporoski, a classics scholar, asserts that plurals of majesty first appeared in the reign of Diocletian (CE 284–305). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_48

Indeed, Gesenius states in his book Hebrew Grammar the following: Names of God in Judaism_sentence_49

Mark S. Smith has cited the use of plural as possible evidence to suggest an evolution in the formation of early Jewish conceptions of monotheism, wherein references to "the gods" (plural) in earlier accounts of verbal tradition became either interpreted as multiple aspects of a single monotheistic God at the time of writing, or subsumed under a form of monolatry, wherein the god(s) of a certain city would be accepted after the fact as a reference to the God of Israel and the plural deliberately dropped. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_50

The plural form ending in -im can also be understood as denoting abstraction, as in the Hebrew words chayyim ("life") or betulim ("virginity"). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_51

If understood this way, Elohim means "divinity" or "deity". Names of God in Judaism_sentence_52

The word chayyim is similarly syntactically singular when used as a name but syntactically plural otherwise. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_53

In many of the passages in which elohim occurs in the Bible it refers to non-Israelite deities, or in some instances to powerful men or judges, and even angels (Exodus 21:6, Psalms 8:5) as a simple plural in those instances. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_54

Elohai Names of God in Judaism_section_5

Elohai or Elohei ("My God") is a form of Elohim along with the first-person singular pronoun enclitic. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_55

It appears in the names "God of Abraham" (Elohai Avraham); "God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob" (Elohai Avraham, Elohai Yitzchak ve Elohai Yaʿaqov); and "God of Sarah, Rebecca, Leah, and Rachel" (Elohai Sara, Elohai Rivka, Elohai Leah ve Elohai Rakhel). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_56

El Shaddai Names of God in Judaism_section_6

Main article: El Shaddai Names of God in Judaism_sentence_57

El Shaddai (Hebrew: אל שדי‎ (help·)‎, pronounced [ʃaˈdaj) is one of the names of God in Judaism, with its etymology coming from the influence of the Ugaritic religion on modern Judaism. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_58

El Shaddai is conventionally translated as "God Almighty". Names of God in Judaism_sentence_59

While the translation of El as "god" in Ugarit/Canaanite language is straightforward, the literal meaning of Shaddai is the subject of debate. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_60

Tzevaot Names of God in Judaism_section_7

Tzevaot, Tsebaoth or Sabaoth (‎, [tsvaot (listen), lit. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_61

"Armies") appears in reference to armies or armed hosts of men in Exodus and Isaiah but is not used as a divine epithet in the Torah, Joshua, or Judges. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_62

In the First Book of Samuel, David uses the name YHWH Tzavaot and immediately glosses it as "the God of the armies of Israel". Names of God in Judaism_sentence_63

The same name appears in the prophets along with YHWH Elohe Tzevaot, Elohey Tzevaot, and Adonai YHWH Tzevaot. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_64

These are usually translated in the King James Version as the "Lord of Hosts" or "Lord God of Hosts". Names of God in Judaism_sentence_65

In its later uses, however, it often denotes God in his role as leader of the heavenly hosts. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_66

The Hebrew word Sabaoth was also absorbed in Ancient Greek (σαβαωθ, sabaōth) and Latin (Sabaoth, with no declension). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_67

Tertullian and other patristics used it with the meaning of Army of angels of God. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_68

Jah Names of God in Judaism_section_8

Main articles: Jah and Theophory in the Bible Names of God in Judaism_sentence_69

The abbreviated form Jah (/dʒɑː/) or Yah (/jɑː/ (listen); , Yah) appears in the Psalms and Isaiah. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_70

It is a common element in Hebrew theophoric names such as Elijah and also appears in the forms yahu ("Jeremiah"), yeho ("Joshua"), and yo ("John", ultimately from the biblical "Yohanan" and Jonathan, "God gives". Names of God in Judaism_sentence_71

It also appears 24 times in the Psalms as a part of Hallelujah ("Praise Jah"). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_72

Other names and titles Names of God in Judaism_section_9

Adonai Names of God in Judaism_section_10

Adonai (אֲדֹנָי‎, lit. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_73

"My Lords") is the plural form of adon ("Lord") along with the first-person singular pronoun enclitic. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_74

As with Elohim, Adonai's grammatical form is usually explained as a plural of majesty. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_75

In the Hebrew Bible, it is nearly always used to refer to God (approximately 450 occurrences). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_76

As pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton came to be avoided in the Hellenistic period, Jews may have begun to drop the Tetragrammaton when presented alongside Adonai and subsequently expand it to cover for the Tetragrammaton in the forms of spoken prayer and written scripture. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_77

Owing to the expansion of chumra (the idea of "building a fence around the Torah"), the word 'Adonai' itself has come to be too holy to say for Orthodox Jews, leading to its replacement by HaShem ("The Name"). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_78

The singular forms adon and adoni ("my lord") are used in the Hebrew Bible as royal titles, as in the First Book of Samuel, and for distinguished persons. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_79

The Phoenicians used it as a title of Tammuz, the origin of the Greek Adonis. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_80

It is also used very occasionally in Hebrew texts to refer to God (e.g. Ps 136:3.) Names of God in Judaism_sentence_81

Deuteronomy 10:17 has the proper name Yahweh alongside the superlative constructions "God of gods" elōhê ha-elōhîm and "Lord of lords" adōnê ha-adōnîm (כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם הוּא אֱלֹהֵי הָאֱלֹהִים וַאֲדֹנֵי הָאֲדֹנִים‎; KJV: "For the LORD your God is God of gods, and Lord of lords"). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_82

The final syllable of Adonai uses the vowel kamatz, rather than patach which would be expected from the Hebrew for "my lord(s)". Names of God in Judaism_sentence_83

Prof. Yoel Elitzur explains this as a normal transformation when a Hebrew word becomes a name, giving as other examples Nathan, Yitzchak, and Yigal. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_84

As Adonai became the most common reverent substitute for the Tetragrammaton, it too became considered unerasable due to its holiness. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_85

As such, most prayer books avoid spelling the word Adonai out, and instead write two yodhs (יְיָ‎) in its place. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_86

Adoshem Names of God in Judaism_section_11

Baal Names of God in Judaism_section_12

Main article: Baal Names of God in Judaism_sentence_87

Baal (/ˈbeɪəl/), properly Baʿal, meant "owner" and, by extension, "lord", "master", and "husband" in Hebrew and the other Northwest Semitic languages. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_88

In some early contexts and theophoric names, it and Baali (/ˈbeɪəlaɪ/; "My Lord") were treated as synonyms of Adon and Adonai. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_89

After the time of Solomon and particularly after Jezebel's attempt to promote the worship of the Lord of Tyre Melqart, however, the name became particularly associated with the Canaanite storm god Baʿal Haddu and was gradually avoided as a title for Yahweh. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_90

Several names that included it were rewritten as bosheth ("shame"). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_91

The prophet Hosea in particular reproached the Israelites for continuing to use the term: Names of God in Judaism_sentence_92

Ehyeh asher ehyeh Names of God in Judaism_section_13

Main article: I Am that I Am Names of God in Judaism_sentence_93

Ehyeh asher ehyeh (Hebrew: אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה) is the first of three responses given to Moses when he asks for God's name in the Book of Exodus. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_94

The King James Version of the Bible translates the Hebrew as "I Am that I Am" and uses it as a proper name for God. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_95

The word ehyeh is the first-person singular imperfect form of hayah, "to be". Names of God in Judaism_sentence_96

Biblical Hebrew does not distinguish between grammatical tenses. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_97

It has instead an aspectual system in which the imperfect denotes any actions that are not yet completed, Accordingly, Ehyeh asher ehyeh can be rendered in English not only as "I am that I am" but also as "I will be what I will be" or "I will be who I will be", or "I shall prove to be whatsoever I shall prove to be" or even "I will be because I will be". Names of God in Judaism_sentence_98

Other renderings include: Leeser, "I Will Be that I Will Be"; Rotherham, "I Will Become whatsoever I please", Greek, Ego eimi ho on (ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ὤν), "I am The Being" in the Septuagint, and Philo, and Revelation or, "I am The Existing One"; Lat., ego sum qui sum, "I am Who I am." Names of God in Judaism_sentence_99

The word asher is a relative pronoun whose meaning depends on the immediate context, so that "that", "who", "which", or "where" are all possible translations of that word. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_100

Elah Names of God in Judaism_section_14

Elah (Aramaic: אֱלָה; Syriac: ܐܠܗ; pl. "elim") is the Aramaic word for God. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_101

The origin of the word is uncertain and it may be related to a root word, meaning "reverence". Names of God in Judaism_sentence_102

Elah is found in the Tanakh in the books of Ezra, Jeremiah (Jer 10:11, the only verse in the entire book written in Aramaic), and Daniel. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_103

Elah is used to describe both pagan gods and the Jews' God. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_104

The word 'Elah - إله' is also an Arabic word which means god. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_105

The name is etymologically related to Allah الله used by Muslims. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_106

Names of God in Judaism_unordered_list_0

  • Elah Yisrael, God of Israel (Ezra 5:1)Names of God in Judaism_item_0_0
  • Elah Yerushelem, God of Jerusalem (Ezra 7:19)Names of God in Judaism_item_0_1
  • Elah Shemaya, God of Heaven (Ezra 7:23)Names of God in Judaism_item_0_2
  • Elah-avahati, God of my fathers, (Daniel 2:23)Names of God in Judaism_item_0_3
  • Elah Elahin, God of gods (Daniel 2:47)Names of God in Judaism_item_0_4

El Roi Names of God in Judaism_section_15

Main article: El Roi Names of God in Judaism_sentence_107

In the Book of Genesis, Hagar uses this name for the God who spoke to her through his angel. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_108

In Hebrew, her phrase "El Roi", literally, "God of Seeing Me", is translated in the King James Version as "Thou God seest me." Names of God in Judaism_sentence_109

Elyon Names of God in Judaism_section_16

Main article: Elyon Names of God in Judaism_sentence_110

The name Elyon (Hebrew: עליון) occurs in combination with El, YHWH, Elohim and alone. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_111

It appears chiefly in poetic and later Biblical passages. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_112

The modern Hebrew adjective "`Elyon" means "supreme" (as in "Supreme Court") or "Most High". Names of God in Judaism_sentence_113

El Elyon has been traditionally translated into English as 'God Most High'. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_114

The Phoenicians used what appears to be a similar name for God, one that the Greeks wrote as Έλιον. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_115

It is cognate to the Arabic `Aliyy. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_116

Eternal One Names of God in Judaism_section_17

"The Eternal One" is increasingly used, particularly in Reform and Reconstructionist communities seeking to use gender-neutral language. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_117

In the Torah, Hashem El Olam ("the Everlasting God") is used at Genesis 21:33 to refer to God. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_118

Hashem Names of God in Judaism_section_18

"HaShem" redirects here. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_119

For other people with similar names, see Hashem. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_120

It is common Jewish practice to restrict the use of the names of God to a liturgical context. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_121

In casual conversation some Jews, even when not speaking Hebrew, will call God Hashem (השם‎), which is Hebrew for "the Name" (cf. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_122

Leviticus 24:11 and Deuteronomy 28:58). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_123

Likewise, when quoting from the Tanakh or prayers, some pious Jews will replace Adonai with HaShem. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_124

For example, when making audio recordings of prayer services, HaShem will generally be substituted for Adonai. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_125

A popular expression containing this phrase is Baruch HaShem, meaning "Thank God" (literally, "Blessed be the Name"). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_126

Shalom Names of God in Judaism_section_19

Main article: Shalom Names of God in Judaism_sentence_127

Talmudic authors, ruling on the basis of Gideon's name for an altar ("YHVH-Shalom", according to Judges 6:24), write that "the name of God is 'Peace'" (Pereq ha-Shalom, Shab. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_128

10b); consequently, a Talmudic opinion (Shabbat, 10b) asserts that one would greet another with the word shalom (help·) in order for the word not to be forgotten in the exile. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_129

But one is not permitted to greet another with the word shalom (help·) in unholy places such as a bathroom, because of the holiness of the name. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_130

Shekhinah Names of God in Judaism_section_20

Main article: Shekhinah Names of God in Judaism_sentence_131

Shekhinah (שכינה (help·)‎) is the presence or manifestation of God which has descended to "dwell" among humanity. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_132

The term never appears in the Hebrew Bible; later rabbis used the word when speaking of God dwelling either in the Tabernacle or amongst the people of Israel. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_133

The root of the word means "dwelling". Names of God in Judaism_sentence_134

Of the principal names of God, it is the only one that is of the feminine gender in Hebrew grammar. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_135

Some believe that this was the name of a female counterpart of God, but this is unlikely as the name is always mentioned in conjunction with an article (e.g.: "the Shekhina descended and dwelt among them" or "He removed Himself and His Shekhina from their midst"). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_136

This kind of usage does not occur in Semitic languages in conjunction with proper names. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_137

The Arabic form of the word "Sakīnah سكينة" is also mentioned in the Quran. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_138

This mention is in the middle of the narrative of the choice of Saul to be king and is mentioned as descending with the Ark of the Covenant, here the word is used to mean "security" and is derived from the root sa-ka-na which means dwell: Names of God in Judaism_sentence_139

Uncommon or esoteric names Names of God in Judaism_section_21

Names of God in Judaism_unordered_list_1

  • Abir – "Strong One"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_5
  • Adir – "Great One"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_6
  • Adon Olam – "Master of the World"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_7
  • Aibishter – "The One Above" (Yiddish)Names of God in Judaism_item_1_8
  • Aleim – sometimes seen as an alternative transliteration of Elohim, A'lim "عليم" in Arabic means "who intensively knows", A'alim "عالم" means "who knows", the verb is A'lima علم means "knows", while Allahumma "اللهم" in Arabic equals to "O'God" and used to supplicate him for something.Names of God in Judaism_item_1_9
  • Aravat (or Avarat) – "Father of Creation"; mentioned once in 2 Enoch, "On the tenth heaven is God, in the Hebrew tongue he is called Aravat".Names of God in Judaism_item_1_10
  • Avinu Malkeinu (help·) – "Our Father, Our King"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_11
  • Bore (help·) – "The Creator"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_12
  • Dibbura or Dibbera – "The Word (The Law)" – used primarily in the Palestinian Targums of the Pentateuch (Aramaic); e.g. Num 7:89, The Word spoke to Moses from between the cherubim in the holy of holies.Names of God in Judaism_item_1_13
  • Ehiyeh sh'Ehiyeh – "I Am That I Am": a modern Hebrew version of "Ehyeh asher Ehyeh"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_14
  • Ein Sof – "Endless, Infinite", Kabbalistic name of GodNames of God in Judaism_item_1_15
  • El ha-Gibbor – "God the Hero" or "God the Strong" or "God the Warrior". Allah jabbar "الله جبار" in Arabic means "the God is formidable and invincible"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_16
  • Emet – "Truth" (the "Seal of God." [Cf. ] The word is composed of the first, middle, and last letters of the Hebrew alphabet. See also Alpha_and_Omega#Judaism)Names of God in Judaism_item_1_17
  • HaKadosh, Barukh Hu (Hebrew); Kudsha, Brikh Hu (Aramaic); تبارك القدوس (Arabic) – "The Holy One, Blessed Be He"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_18
  • HaRachaman – "The Merciful One"; Rahman – رحمن" (Arabic)Names of God in Judaism_item_1_19
  • Kadosh Israel – "Holy One of Israel"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_20
  • Magen Avraham – "Shield of Abraham"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_21
  • Makom or HaMakom – literally "The Place", perhaps meaning "The Omnipresent" (see Tzimtzum)Names of God in Judaism_item_1_22
  • Malbish Arumim – "Clother of the Naked"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_23
  • Matir Asurim – "Freer of the Captives"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_24
  • Mechayeh HaKol In Arabic al-Muhyi al-Kull محيي الكل – "Life giver to All" (Reform version of Mechayeh Metim)Names of God in Judaism_item_1_25
  • Mechayeh Metim – "Life giver to the Dead"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_26
  • Melech HaMelachim – "The King of Kings" or Melech Malchei HaMelachim "The King, King of Kings", to express superiority to the earthly ruler's title. Arabic version of it is مالك الملك (Malik al-Mulk).Names of God in Judaism_item_1_27
  • Melech HaOlam – "The King of the World"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_28
  • Memra d'Adonai – "The Word of the LORD" (plus variations such as "My Word") – restricted to the Aramaic Targums (the written Tetragrammaton is represented in various ways such as YYY, YWY, YY, but pronounced as the Hebrew "Adonai")Names of God in Judaism_item_1_29
  • Mi She'amar V'haya Ha`olam – "He who spoke, and the world came into being."Names of God in Judaism_item_1_30
  • Netzakh Yisrael – "The Glory of Israel" (1 Samuel 15:29)Names of God in Judaism_item_1_31
  • Oseh Shalom – "Maker of Peace"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_32
  • Pokeach Ivrim – "Opener of Blind Eyes"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_33
  • Ribono shel'Olam – "Master of the World". Arabic version of it is رب العلمينNames of God in Judaism_item_1_34
  • Rabb al-‘AlaminNames of God in Judaism_item_1_35
  • Ro'eh Yisra'el – "Shepherd of Israel"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_36
  • Rofeh Cholim – "Healer of the Sick"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_37
  • Shomer Yisrael – "Guardian of Israel" ()Names of God in Judaism_item_1_38
  • Somech Noflim – "Supporter of the Fallen"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_39
  • Tzur Israel – "Rock of Israel"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_40
  • YHWH-Niss'i (Adonai-Nissi) – "The LORD Our Banner" ()Names of God in Judaism_item_1_41
  • YHWH-Rapha – "The LORD that Healeth" ()Names of God in Judaism_item_1_42
  • YHWH-Ro'i – "The LORD My Shepherd" ()Names of God in Judaism_item_1_43
  • YHWH-Shalom – "The LORD Our Peace" ()Names of God in Judaism_item_1_44
  • YHWH-Shammah (Adonai-shammah) – "The LORD Is Present" ()Names of God in Judaism_item_1_45
  • YHWH-Tsidkenu – "The LORD Our Righteousness" ()Names of God in Judaism_item_1_46
  • YHWH-Yireh (Adonai-jireh) – "The LORD Will Provide" ()Names of God in Judaism_item_1_47
  • Yotsehr 'Or – "Fashioner of Light"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_48
  • Zokef kefufim – "Straightener of the Bent"Names of God in Judaism_item_1_49

Writing divine names Names of God in Judaism_section_22

In Jewish tradition the sacredness of the divine name or titles must be recognized by the professional sofer (scribe) who writes Torah scrolls, or tefillin and mezuzah. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_140

Before transcribing any of the divine titles or name he prepares mentally to sanctify them. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_141

Once he begins a name he does not stop until it is finished, and he must not be interrupted while writing it, even to greet a king. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_142

If an error is made in writing it may not be erased, but a line must be drawn round it to show that it is canceled, and the whole page must be put in a genizah (burial place for scripture) and a new page begun. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_143

Kabbalistic use Names of God in Judaism_section_23

One of the most important names is that of the Ein Sof (אין סוף "Endless"), which first came into use after CE 1300. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_144

Another name is derived from the names אהיה יהוה אדוני הויה. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_145

By spelling these four names out with the names of the Hebrew letters (אלף, הא, ואו, יוד, דלת and נון) this new forty-five letter long name is produced. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_146

Spelling the letters in יהוה (YHWH) by itself gives יוד הא ואו הא. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_147

Each letter in Hebrew is given a value, according to gematria, and the value of יוד הא ואו הא is also 45. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_148

The seventy-two-fold name is derived from three verses in Exodus 14:19–21. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_149

Each of the verses contains 72 letters. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_150

When the verses are read boustrophedonically 72 names, three letter each, are produced (the niqqud of the source verses is disregarded in respect to pronunciation). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_151

Some regard this name as the Shemhamphorasch. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_152

The Proto-Kabbalistic book Sefer Yetzirah describe how the creation of the world was achieved by manipulation of these 216 sacred letters that form the names of God. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_153

Erasing the name of God Names of God in Judaism_section_24

From this it is understood that one should not erase or blot out the name of God. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_154

The general halachic opinion is that this only applies to the sacred Hebrew names of God, not to other euphemistic references; there is a dispute as to whether the word "God" in English or other languages may be erased or whether Jewish law and/or Jewish custom forbids doing so, directly or as a precautionary "fence" about the law. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_155

The words "God" and "Lord" are written by some Jews as "G-d" and "L-rd" as a way of avoiding writing any name of God in full out. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_156

The hyphenated version of the English name ("G-d") can be destroyed, so by writing that form, religious Jews prevent documents in their possession with the unhyphenated form from being destroyed later. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_157

Alternatively, a euphemistic English reference such as Hashem (literally, "the Name") may be substituted, or an abbreviation thereof, such as BH (B'ezrat Hashem "by the blessing of the Name"). Names of God in Judaism_sentence_158

This issue is most controversial in the context of the motto of the United States, "In God We Trust", which has been minted or printed without hyphenation since its first appearance in 1864. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_159

While many Jews write the name "God" in English, others will not or will only under special circumstances. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_160

By comparison, the nation of Israel struck down efforts to enshrine an allusive reference to God (בה BH) on its currency in 2002, 2003, and 2009 because the frequency of currency destruction was considered too high. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_161

According to Talmudic Tractate Rosh Hashana (18B4), Jews in the times of the Hasmonean Kingdom were "weaned off" the practice of writing the name of Heaven by the Sages, an event that was commemorated as a holiday on the third of Tishrei, a date now dedicated to the Fast of Gedaliah. Names of God in Judaism_sentence_162

See also Names of God in Judaism_section_25

Names of God in Judaism_unordered_list_2

Explanatory notes Names of God in Judaism_section_26

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: of God in Judaism.