Namibia

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"Namibian" redirects here. Namibia_sentence_0

For other uses, see Namibian (disambiguation). Namibia_sentence_1

Namibia (/nəˈmɪbiə/ (listen), /næˈ-/), officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa. Namibia_sentence_2

Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean; it shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and east. Namibia_sentence_3

Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres (660 feet) of the Zambezi River separates the two countries. Namibia_sentence_4

Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence. Namibia_sentence_5

Its capital and largest city is Windhoek. Namibia_sentence_6

Namibia is a member state of the United Nations (UN), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU) and the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia_sentence_7

The driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia has been inhabited since early times by the San, Damara and Nama people. Namibia_sentence_8

Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Namibia_sentence_9

Since then, the Bantu groups, the largest being the Ovambo, have dominated the population of the country; since the late 19th century, they have constituted a majority. Namibia_sentence_10

In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope, then a British colony, annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands; these became an integral part of the new Union of South Africa at its creation in 1910. Namibia_sentence_11

In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory, forming a colony known as German South West Africa. Namibia_sentence_12

It developed farming and infrastructure. Namibia_sentence_13

Between 1904 and 1908 it perpetrated a genocide against the Herero and Nama people. Namibia_sentence_14

German rule ended in 1915 with a defeat by South African forces. Namibia_sentence_15

In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations mandated administration of the colony to South Africa. Namibia_sentence_16

As Mandatory power, South Africa imposed its laws, including racial classifications and rules. Namibia_sentence_17

From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, this included South Africa applying apartheid to what was then known as South West Africa. Namibia_sentence_18

In the later 20th century, uprisings and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa maintained de facto rule. Namibia_sentence_19

In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) as the official representative of the Namibian people; the party is dominated by the Ovambo, who are a large plurality in the territory. Namibia_sentence_20

Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia_sentence_21

Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. Namibia_sentence_22

However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994. Namibia_sentence_23

Namibia has a population of 2.6 million people and a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Namibia_sentence_24

Agriculture, tourism and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, uranium, gold, silver and base metals – form the basis of its economy, while the manufacturing sector is comparatively small. Namibia_sentence_25

The large, arid Namib Desert from which the country derived its name has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world. Namibia_sentence_26

Etymology Namibia_section_0

The name of the country is derived from the Namib Desert, the oldest desert in the world. Namibia_sentence_27

The name Namib itself is of Nama origin and means "vast place". Namibia_sentence_28

Before its independence in 1990, the area was known first as German South-West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika), then as South-West Africa, reflecting the colonial occupation by the Germans and the South Africans. Namibia_sentence_29

History Namibia_section_1

Main article: History of Namibia Namibia_sentence_30

Pre-colonial period Namibia_section_2

The dry lands of Namibia have been inhabited since early times by San, Damara, and Nama. Namibia_sentence_31

Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu people began to arrive during the Bantu expansion from central Africa. Namibia_sentence_32

From the late 18th century onward, Oorlam people from Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and moved into the area that today is southern Namibia. Namibia_sentence_33

Their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were largely peaceful. Namibia_sentence_34

They received the missionaries accompanying the Oorlam very well, granting them the right to use waterholes and grazing against an annual payment. Namibia_sentence_35

On their way further north, however, the Oorlam encountered clans of the OvaHerero at Windhoek, Gobabis, and Okahandja, who resisted their encroachment. Namibia_sentence_36

The Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only after the German Empire deployed troops to the contested places and cemented the status quo among the Nama, Oorlam, and Herero. Namibia_sentence_37

The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the Portuguese navigators Diogo Cão in 1485 and Bartolomeu Dias in 1486, but the Portuguese did not try to claim the area. Namibia_sentence_38

Like most of interior Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century. Namibia_sentence_39

At that time traders and settlers came principally from Germany and Sweden. Namibia_sentence_40

In the late 19th century, Dorsland Trekkers crossed the area on their way from the Transvaal to Angola. Namibia_sentence_41

Some of them settled in Namibia instead of continuing their journey. Namibia_sentence_42

German rule Namibia_section_3

See also: German South West Africa and Herero and Namaqua genocide Namibia_sentence_43

Namibia became a German colony in 1884 under Otto von Bismarck to forestall perceived British encroachment and was known as German South West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika). Namibia_sentence_44

The Palgrave Commission by the British governor in Cape Town determined that only the natural deep-water harbour of Walvis Bay was worth occupying and thus annexed it to the Cape province of British South Africa. Namibia_sentence_45

From 1904 to 1907, the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against brutal German colonialism. Namibia_sentence_46

In a calculated punitive action by the German occupiers, government officials ordered extinction of the natives in the OvaHerero and Namaqua genocide. Namibia_sentence_47

In what has been called the "first genocide of the 20th century", the Germans systematically killed 10,000 Nama (half the population) and approximately 65,000 Herero (about 80% of the population). Namibia_sentence_48

The survivors, when finally released from detention, were subjected to a policy of dispossession, deportation, forced labour, racial segregation, and discrimination in a system that in many ways anticipated the apartheid established by South Africa in 1948. Namibia_sentence_49

Most Africans were confined to so-called native territories, which under South African rule after 1949 were turned into "homelands" (Bantustans). Namibia_sentence_50

Some historians have speculated that the German genocide in Namibia was a model for the Nazis in the Holocaust. Namibia_sentence_51

The memory of genocide remains relevant to ethnic identity in independent Namibia and to relations with Germany. Namibia_sentence_52

The German government formally apologised for the Namibian genocide in 2004. Namibia_sentence_53

South African mandate Namibia_section_4

See also: South West Africa Namibia_sentence_54

During World War I, South African troops under General Louis Botha occupied the territory and deposed the German colonial administration. Namibia_sentence_55

The end of the war and the Treaty of Versailles resulted in South West Africa remaining a possession of South Africa as a League of Nations mandate until 1990. Namibia_sentence_56

The mandate system was formed as a compromise between those who advocated for an Allied annexation of former German and Turkish territories and a proposition put forward by those who wished to grant them to an international trusteeship until they could govern themselves. Namibia_sentence_57

It permitted the South African government to administer South West Africa until that territory's inhabitants were prepared for political self-determination. Namibia_sentence_58

South Africa interpreted the mandate as a veiled annexation and made no attempt to prepare South West Africa for future autonomy. Namibia_sentence_59

As a result of the Conference on International Organization in 1945, the League of Nations was formally superseded by the United Nations (UN) and former League mandates by a trusteeship system. Namibia_sentence_60

Article 77 of the United Nations Charter stated that UN trusteeship "shall apply...to territories now held under mandate"; furthermore, it would "be a matter of subsequent agreement as to which territories in the foregoing territories will be brought under the trusteeship system and under what terms". Namibia_sentence_61

The UN requested all former League of Nations mandates be surrendered to its Trusteeship Council in anticipation of their independence. Namibia_sentence_62

South Africa declined to do so and instead requested permission from the UN to formally annexe South West Africa, for which it received considerable criticism. Namibia_sentence_63

When the UN General Assembly rejected this proposal, South Africa dismissed its opinion and began solidifying control of the territory. Namibia_sentence_64

The UN Generally Assembly and Security Council responded by referring the issue to the International Court of Justice (ICJ), which held a number of discussions on the legality of South African rule between 1949 and 1966. Namibia_sentence_65

South Africa began imposing apartheid, its codified system of racial segregation and discrimination, on South West Africa during the late 1940s. Namibia_sentence_66

Black South West Africans were subject to pass laws, curfews, and a host of draconian residential regulations that heavily restricted their movement. Namibia_sentence_67

Development was concentrated in the region of the country immediately adjacent to South Africa, formally called the "Police Zone", where most of the German colonial era settlements and mines were. Namibia_sentence_68

Outside the Police Zone, indigenous peoples were restricted to theoretically self-governing tribal homelands. Namibia_sentence_69

During the late 1950s and early 1960s, pressure for global decolonisation and national self-determination began mounting on the African continent; these factors had a radical impact on South West African nationalism. Namibia_sentence_70

Early nationalist organisations such as the South West African National Union (SWANU) and South West African People's Organisation (SWAPO) made determined attempts to establish indigenous political structures for an independent South West Africa. Namibia_sentence_71

In 1966, following the ICJ's controversial ruling that it had no legal standing to consider the question of South African rule, SWAPO launched an armed insurgency that escalated into part of a wider regional conflict known as the South African Border War. Namibia_sentence_72

Independence Namibia_section_5

As SWAPO's insurgency intensified, South Africa's case for annexation in the international community continued to decline. Namibia_sentence_73

The UN declared that South Africa had failed in its obligations to ensure the moral and material well-being of South West Africa's indigenous inhabitants and had thus disavowed its own mandate. Namibia_sentence_74

On 12 June 1968, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution proclaiming that, in accordance with the desires of its people, South West Africa be renamed Namibia. Namibia_sentence_75

United Nations Security Council Resolution 269, adopted in August 1969, declared South Africa's continued occupation of Namibia illegal. Namibia_sentence_76

In recognition of this landmark decision, SWAPO's armed wing was renamed the People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN). Namibia_sentence_77

Namibia became one of several flashpoints for Cold War proxy conflicts in southern Africa during the latter years of the PLAN insurgency. Namibia_sentence_78

The insurgents sought out weapons and sent recruits to the Soviet Union for military training. Namibia_sentence_79

SWAPO's political leadership, dependent on military aid from the Soviets, Cuba, and Angola, positioned the movement within the socialist bloc by 1975. Namibia_sentence_80

This practical alliance reinforced the prevailing perspective of SWAPO as a Soviet proxy, which dominated Cold War ideology in South Africa and the United States. Namibia_sentence_81

For its part, the Soviet Union supported SWAPO partly because it viewed South Africa as a regional Western ally. Namibia_sentence_82

Growing war weariness and the reduction of tensions between the superpowers compelled South Africa, Angola, and Cuba to accede to the Tripartite Accord, under pressure from both the Soviet Union and the United States. Namibia_sentence_83

South Africa accepted Namibian independence in exchange for Cuban military withdrawal from the region and an Angolan commitment to cease all aid to PLAN. Namibia_sentence_84

PLAN and South Africa adopted an informal ceasefire in August 1988, and a United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) was formed to monitor the Namibian peace process and supervise the return of refugees. Namibia_sentence_85

The ceasefire was broken after PLAN made a final incursion into the territory, possibly as a result of misunderstanding UNTAG's directives, in March 1989. Namibia_sentence_86

A new ceasefire was later imposed with the condition that the insurgents were to be confined to their external bases in Angola until they could be disarmed and demobilised by UNTAG. Namibia_sentence_87

By the end of the 11-month transition period, the last South African troops had been withdrawn from Namibia, all political prisoners granted amnesty, racially discriminatory legislation repealed, and 42,000 Namibian refugees returned to their homes. Namibia_sentence_88

Just over 97% of eligible voters participated in the country's first parliamentary elections held under a universal franchise. Namibia_sentence_89

The United Nations plan included oversight by foreign election observers in an effort to ensure a free and fair election. Namibia_sentence_90

SWAPO won a plurality of seats in the Constituent Assembly with 57% of the popular vote. Namibia_sentence_91

This gave the party 41 seats, but not a two-thirds majority, which would have enabled it to draft the constitution on its own. Namibia_sentence_92

The Namibian Constitution was adopted in February 1990. Namibia_sentence_93

It incorporated protection for human rights and compensation for state expropriations of private property, and established an independent judiciary, legislature, and an executive presidency (the constituent assembly became the national assembly). Namibia_sentence_94

The country officially became independent on 21 March 1990. Namibia_sentence_95

Sam Nujoma was sworn in as the first President of Namibia at a ceremony attended by Nelson Mandela of South Africa (who had been released from prison the previous month) and representatives from 147 countries, including 20 heads of state. Namibia_sentence_96

In 1994, following the first multiracial elections in South Africa, that country ceded Walvis Bay to Namibia. Namibia_sentence_97

After independence Namibia_section_6

Since independence Namibia has completed the transition from white minority apartheid rule to parliamentary democracy. Namibia_sentence_98

Multiparty democracy was introduced and has been maintained, with local, regional and national elections held regularly. Namibia_sentence_99

Several registered political parties are active and represented in the National Assembly, although the SWAPO has won every election since independence. Namibia_sentence_100

The transition from the 15-year rule of President Nujoma to his successor Hifikepunye Pohamba in 2005 went smoothly. Namibia_sentence_101

Since independence, the Namibian government has promoted a policy of national reconciliation. Namibia_sentence_102

It issued an amnesty for those who fought on either side during the liberation war. Namibia_sentence_103

The civil war in Angola spilled over and adversely affected Namibians living in the north of the country. Namibia_sentence_104

In 1998, Namibia Defence Force (NDF) troops were sent to the Democratic Republic of the Congo as part of a Southern African Development Community (SADC) contingent. Namibia_sentence_105

In 1999, the national government quashed a secessionist attempt in the northeastern Caprivi Strip. Namibia_sentence_106

The Caprivi conflict was initiated by the Caprivi Liberation Army (CLA), a rebel group led by Mishake Muyongo. Namibia_sentence_107

It wanted the Caprivi Strip to secede and form its own society. Namibia_sentence_108

Geography Namibia_section_7

Main article: Geography of Namibia Namibia_sentence_109

At 825,615 km (318,772 sq mi), Namibia is the world's thirty-fourth largest country (after Venezuela). Namibia_sentence_110

It lies mostly between latitudes 17° and 29°S (a small area is north of 17°), and longitudes 11° and 26°E. Namibia_sentence_111

Being situated between the Namib and the Kalahari deserts, Namibia has the least rainfall of any country in sub-Saharan Africa. Namibia_sentence_112

The Namibian landscape consists generally of five geographical areas, each with characteristic abiotic conditions and vegetation, with some variation within and overlap between them: the Central Plateau, the Namib, the Great Escarpment, the Bushveld, and the Kalahari Desert. Namibia_sentence_113

The Central Plateau runs from north to south, bordered by the Skeleton Coast to the northwest, the Namib Desert and its coastal plains to the southwest, the Orange River to the south, and the Kalahari Desert to the east. Namibia_sentence_114

The Central Plateau is home to the highest point in Namibia at Königstein elevation 2,606 metres (8,550 ft). Namibia_sentence_115

The Namib is a broad expanse of hyper-arid gravel plains and dunes that stretches along Namibia's entire coastline. Namibia_sentence_116

It varies between 100 km (60 miles) and 200 km (120 miles) in width. Namibia_sentence_117

Areas within the Namib include the Skeleton Coast and the Kaokoveld in the north and the extensive Namib Sand Sea along the central coast. Namibia_sentence_118

The Great Escarpment swiftly rises to over 2,000 metres (7,000 ft). Namibia_sentence_119

Average temperatures and temperature ranges increase further inland from the cold Atlantic waters, while the lingering coastal fogs slowly diminish. Namibia_sentence_120

Although the area is rocky with poorly developed soils, it is significantly more productive than the Namib Desert. Namibia_sentence_121

As summer winds are forced over the Escarpment, moisture is extracted as precipitation. Namibia_sentence_122

The Bushveld is found in north-eastern Namibia along the Angolan border and in the Caprivi Strip. Namibia_sentence_123

The area receives a significantly greater amount of precipitation than the rest of the country, averaging around 400 mm (16 in) per year. Namibia_sentence_124

The area is generally flat and the soils sandy, limiting their ability to retain water and support agriculture. Namibia_sentence_125

The Kalahari Desert, an arid region that extends into South Africa and Botswana, is one of Namibia's well-known geographical features. Namibia_sentence_126

The Kalahari, while popularly known as a desert, has a variety of localised environments, including some verdant and technically non-desert areas. Namibia_sentence_127

The Succulent Karoo is home to over 5,000 species of plants, nearly half of them endemic; approximately 10 percent of the world's succulents are found in the Karoo. Namibia_sentence_128

The reason behind this high productivity and endemism may be the relatively stable nature of precipitation. Namibia_sentence_129

Namibia's Coastal Desert is one of the oldest deserts in the world. Namibia_sentence_130

Its sand dunes, created by the strong onshore winds, are the highest in the world. Namibia_sentence_131

Because of the location of the shoreline, at the point where the Atlantic's cold water reaches Africa's hot climate, often extremely dense fog forms along the coast. Namibia_sentence_132

Near the coast there are areas where the dune-hummocks are vegetated. Namibia_sentence_133

Namibia has rich coastal and marine resources that remain largely unexplored. Namibia_sentence_134

Climate Namibia_section_8

Namibia extends from 17°S to 25°S latitude: climatically the range of the sub-Tropical High Pressure Belt. Namibia_sentence_135

Its overall climate description is arid, descending from the Sub-Humid [mean rain above 500 mm (20 in)] through Semi-Arid [between 300 and 500 mm (12 and 20 in)] (embracing most of the waterless Kalahari) and Arid [from 150 to 300 mm (6 to 12 in)] (these three regions are inland from the western escarpment) to the Hyper-Arid coastal plain [less than 100 mm (4 in)]. Namibia_sentence_136

Temperature maxima are limited by the overall elevation of the entire region: only in the far south, Warmbad for instance, are maxima above 40 °C (100 °F) recorded. Namibia_sentence_137

Typically the sub-Tropical High Pressure Belt, with frequent clear skies, provides more than 300 days of sunshine per year. Namibia_sentence_138

It is situated at the southern edge of the tropics; the Tropic of Capricorn cuts the country about in half. Namibia_sentence_139

The winter (June – August) is generally dry. Namibia_sentence_140

Both rainy seasons occur in summer: the small rainy season between September and November, the big one between February and April. Namibia_sentence_141

Humidity is low, and average rainfall varies from almost zero in the coastal desert to more than 600 mm (24 in) in the Caprivi Strip. Namibia_sentence_142

Rainfall is highly variable, and droughts are common. Namibia_sentence_143

In the summer of 2006/07 the rainfall was recorded far below the annual average. Namibia_sentence_144

In May 2019, Namibia declared a state of emergency in response to the drought, and extended it by additional 6 months in October 2019. Namibia_sentence_145

Weather and climate in the coastal area are dominated by the cold, north-flowing Benguela Current of the Atlantic Ocean, which accounts for very low precipitation (50 mm (2 in) per year or less), frequent dense fog, and overall lower temperatures than in the rest of the country. Namibia_sentence_146

In Winter, occasionally a condition known as Bergwind (German for "mountain breeze") or Oosweer (Afrikaans for "east weather") occurs, a hot dry wind blowing from the inland to the coast. Namibia_sentence_147

As the area behind the coast is a desert, these winds can develop into sand storms, leaving sand deposits in the Atlantic Ocean that are visible on satellite images. Namibia_sentence_148

The Central Plateau and Kalahari areas have wide diurnal temperature ranges of up to 30 °C (86 °F). Namibia_sentence_149

Efundja, the annual seasonal flooding of the northern parts of the country, often causes not only damage to infrastructure but loss of life. Namibia_sentence_150

The rains that cause these floods originate in Angola, flow into Namibia's Cuvelai-Etosha Basin, and fill the oshanas (Oshiwambo: flood plains) there. Namibia_sentence_151

The worst floods so far occurred in March 2011 and displaced 21,000 people. Namibia_sentence_152

Water sources Namibia_section_9

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Namibia Namibia_sentence_153

Namibia is the driest country in sub-Saharan Africa and depends largely on groundwater. Namibia_sentence_154

With an average rainfall of about 350 mm (14 in) per annum, the highest rainfall occurs in the Caprivi in the northeast (about 600 mm (24 in) per annum) and decreases in a westerly and southwesterly direction to as little as 50 mm (2 in) and less per annum at the coast. Namibia_sentence_155

The only perennial rivers are found on the national borders with South Africa, Angola, Zambia, and the short border with Botswana in the Caprivi. Namibia_sentence_156

In the interior of the country, surface water is available only in the summer months when rivers are in flood after exceptional rainfalls. Namibia_sentence_157

Otherwise, surface water is restricted to a few large storage dams retaining and damming up these seasonal floods and their run-off. Namibia_sentence_158

Where people do not live near perennial rivers or make use of the storage dams, they are dependent on groundwater. Namibia_sentence_159

Even isolated communities and those economic activities located far from good surface water sources, such as mining, agriculture, and tourism, can be supplied from groundwater over nearly 80% of the country. Namibia_sentence_160

More than 100,000 boreholes have been drilled in Namibia over the past century. Namibia_sentence_161

One third of these boreholes have been drilled dry. Namibia_sentence_162

An aquifer called Ohangwena II, on both sides of the Angola-Namibia border, was discovered in 2012. Namibia_sentence_163

It has been estimated to be capable of supplying the 800,000 people in the North for 400 years, at the current (2018) rate of consumption. Namibia_sentence_164

Experts estimate that Namibia has 7,720 km (1,850 cu mi) of underground water. Namibia_sentence_165

Communal Wildlife Conservancies Namibia_section_10

Main article: Communal Wildlife Conservancies in Namibia Namibia_sentence_166

Namibia is one of few countries in the world to specifically address conservation and protection of natural resources in its constitution. Namibia_sentence_167

Article 95 states, "The State shall actively promote and maintain the welfare of the people by adopting international policies aimed at the following: maintenance of ecosystems, essential ecological processes, and biological diversity of Namibia, and utilisation of living natural resources on a sustainable basis for the benefit of all Namibians, both present and future." Namibia_sentence_168

In 1993, Namibia's newly formed government received funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) through its Living in a Finite Environment (LIFE) Project. Namibia_sentence_169

The Ministry of Environment and Tourism, with financial support from organisations such as USAID, Endangered Wildlife Trust, WWF, and Canadian Ambassador's Fund, together form a Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) support structure. Namibia_sentence_170

The project's main goal is to promote sustainable natural resource management by giving local communities rights to wildlife management and tourism. Namibia_sentence_171

Government Namibia_section_11

Main articles: Politics of Namibia and Elections in Namibia Namibia_sentence_172

Namibia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. Namibia_sentence_173

The President of Namibia is elected to a five-year term and is both the head of state and the head of government. Namibia_sentence_174

All members of the government are individually and collectively responsible to the legislature. Namibia_sentence_175

The Constitution of Namibia outlines the following as the organs of the country's government: Namibia_sentence_176

Namibia_unordered_list_0

While the constitution envisaged a multi-party system for Namibia's government, the SWAPO party has been dominant since independence in 1990. Namibia_sentence_177

Foreign relations Namibia_section_12

Main article: Foreign relations of Namibia Namibia_sentence_178

Namibia has a largely independent foreign policy, with persisting affiliations with states that aided the independence struggle, including Cuba. Namibia_sentence_179

With a small army and a fragile economy, the Namibian government's principal foreign policy concern is developing strengthened ties within the Southern African region. Namibia_sentence_180

A dynamic member of the Southern African Development Community, Namibia is a vocal advocate for greater regional integration. Namibia_sentence_181

It became the 160th member of the UN on 23 April 1990. Namibia_sentence_182

On its independence it became the 50th member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia_sentence_183

Military Namibia_section_13

Main article: Namibian Defence Force Namibia_sentence_184

In early 2020, The Global Firepower Index (GFP) reported that Namibia's military is ranked as one of the weakest in the world, at 126th out of 137 countries. Namibia_sentence_185

Among 34 African countries, Namibia is also poorly ranked at the 28th position. Namibia_sentence_186

Despite this, government spending for the Ministry of Defence stood at N$5,885 million (a 1.2% decrease from the previous financial year). Namibia_sentence_187

With close to 6 million Namibian dollars, the Ministry of Defence receives the fourth highest amount of money from Government per ministry. Namibia_sentence_188

Namibia does not have any enemies in the region, though it has been involved in various disputes regarding borders and construction plans. Namibia_sentence_189

The Namibian constitution defines the role of the military as "defending the territory and national interests." Namibia_sentence_190

Namibia formed the Namibian Defence Force (NDF), comprising former enemies in a 23-year bush war: the People's Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN) and South West African Territorial Force (SWATF). Namibia_sentence_191

The British formulated the plan for integrating these forces and began training the NDF, which consists of a small headquarters and five battalions. Namibia_sentence_192

The United Nations Transitional Assistance Group (UNTAG)'s Kenyan infantry battalion remained in Namibia for three months after independence to help train the NDF and to stabilise the north. Namibia_sentence_193

According to the Namibian Defence Ministry, enlistments of both men and women will number no more than 7,500. Namibia_sentence_194

The chief of the Namibian Defence Force is Air Vice Marshal Martin Kambulu Pinehas (with effect from 1 April 2020). Namibia_sentence_195

In 2017, Namibia signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Namibia_sentence_196

Administrative divisions Namibia_section_14

Main article: Administrative divisions of Namibia Namibia_sentence_197

Namibia is divided into 14 regions and subdivided into 121 constituencies. Namibia_sentence_198

The administrative division of Namibia is tabled by Delimitation Commissions and accepted or declined by the National Assembly. Namibia_sentence_199

Since state foundation four Delimitation Commissions have delivered their work, the last one in 2013 under the chairmanship of Judge Alfred Siboleka. Namibia_sentence_200

Regional councillors are directly elected through secret ballots (regional elections) by the inhabitants of their constituencies. Namibia_sentence_201

Local authorities in Namibia can be in the form of municipalities (either Part 1 or Part 2 municipalities), town councils or villages. Namibia_sentence_202

Human rights Namibia_section_15

Main article: Human rights in Namibia Namibia_sentence_203

Homosexual acts are illegal in Namibia and discrimination, as well as intolerance, against LGBT people is still widespread. Namibia_sentence_204

However, LGBT Namibians face virtually no violence or harassment from the Namibian police, military or government and no LGBT Namibians have ever been arrested or charged with sodomy in the last 20–25 years. Namibia_sentence_205

Some Namibian government officials and high-profile figures, such as Namibia's Ombudsman John Walters and First Lady Monica Geingos, have called for sodomy and homosexuality to be decriminalised and are in favour of LGBT rights. Namibia_sentence_206

In November 2018, it was reported that 32% of women aged 15–49 have experienced violence and domestic abuse from their spouses/partners and 29.5% of men believe that physical abuse towards their wife/partner is acceptable. Namibia_sentence_207

On the other hand, the Namibian constitution guarantees the rights, freedoms and equal treatment of women in Namibia and SWAPO, the ruling party in Namibia, has adopted a “zebra system”, which ensures a fair balance of both genders in government and equal representation of women in the Namibian government. Namibia_sentence_208

Namibia is considered one of the most free and democratic countries in Africa, with a government that maintains and protects basic human rights and freedoms. Namibia_sentence_209

Economy Namibia_section_16

Main article: Economy of Namibia Namibia_sentence_210

Namibia's economy is tied closely to South Africa’s due to their shared history. Namibia_sentence_211

The largest economic sectors are mining (10.4% of the gross domestic product in 2009), agriculture (5.0%), manufacturing (13.5%), and tourism. Namibia_sentence_212

Namibia has a highly developed banking sector with modern infrastructure, such as online banking and cellphone banking. Namibia_sentence_213

The Bank of Namibia (BoN) is the central bank of Namibia responsible for performing all other functions ordinarily performed by a central bank. Namibia_sentence_214

There are 5 BoN authorised commercial banks in Namibia: Bank Windhoek, First National Bank, Nedbank, Standard Bank and Small and Medium Enterprises Bank. Namibia_sentence_215

According to the Namibia Labour Force Survey Report 2012, conducted by the , the country's unemployment rate is 27.4%. Namibia_sentence_216

"Strict unemployment" (people actively seeking a full-time job) stood at 20.2% in 2000, 21.9% in 2004 and spiralled to 29.4% in 2008. Namibia_sentence_217

Under a broader definition (including people that have given up searching for employment) unemployment rose to 36.7% in 2004. Namibia_sentence_218

This estimate considers people in the informal economy as employed. Namibia_sentence_219

Labour and Social Welfare Minister Immanuel Ngatjizeko praised the 2008 study as "by far superior in scope and quality to any that has been available previously", but its methodology has also received criticism. Namibia_sentence_220

In 2004 a labour act was passed to protect people from job discrimination stemming from pregnancy and HIV/AIDS status. Namibia_sentence_221

In early 2010 the Government tender board announced that "henceforth 100 per cent of all unskilled and semi-skilled labour must be sourced, without exception, from within Namibia". Namibia_sentence_222

In 2013, global business and financial news provider, Bloomberg, named Namibia the top emerging market economy in Africa and the 13th best in the world. Namibia_sentence_223

Only four African countries made the Top 20 Emerging Markets list in the March 2013 issue of Bloomberg Markets magazine, and Namibia was rated ahead of Morocco (19th), South Africa (15th) and Zambia (14th). Namibia_sentence_224

Worldwide, Namibia also fared better than Hungary, Brazil and Mexico. Namibia_sentence_225

Bloomberg Markets magazine ranked the top 20 based on more than a dozen criteria. Namibia_sentence_226

The data came from Bloomberg's own financial-market statistics, IMF forecasts and the World Bank. Namibia_sentence_227

The countries were also rated on areas of particular interest to foreign investors: the ease of doing business, the perceived level of corruption and economic freedom. Namibia_sentence_228

To attract foreign investment, the government has made improvement in reducing red tape resulted from excessive government regulations, making Namibia one of the least bureaucratic places to do business in the region. Namibia_sentence_229

Facilitation payments are occasionally demanded by customs due to cumbersome and costly customs procedures. Namibia_sentence_230

Namibia is also classified as an Upper Middle Income country by the World Bank, and ranks 87th out of 185 economies in terms of ease of doing business. Namibia_sentence_231

The cost of living in Namibia is relatively high because most goods, including cereals, need to be imported. Namibia_sentence_232

Its capital city, Windhoek, is the 150th most expensive place in the world for expatriates to live. Namibia_sentence_233

Taxation in Namibia includes personal income tax, which is applicable to total taxable income of an individual. Namibia_sentence_234

All individuals are taxed at progressive marginal rates over a series of income brackets. Namibia_sentence_235

The value added tax (VAT) is applicable to most of the commodities and services. Namibia_sentence_236

Despite the remote nature of much of the country, Namibia has seaports, airports, highways, and railways (narrow-gauge). Namibia_sentence_237

It seeks to become a regional transportation hub; it has an important seaport and several landlocked neighbours. Namibia_sentence_238

The Central Plateau already serves as a transportation corridor from the more densely populated north to South Africa, the source of four-fifths of Namibia's imports. Namibia_sentence_239

Income disparity Namibia_section_17

Namibia is a country with a substantial income disparity. Namibia_sentence_240

The data indicates that the current income share held by the highest 10% is approximately 51.8%. Namibia_sentence_241

This disparity illustrates the large gap between the rich and the poor. Namibia_sentence_242

An additional figure describes the poverty gap: people living on US$2 or less in the country are approximately 17.72% of the population. Namibia_sentence_243

Agriculture Namibia_section_18

Main article: Agriculture in Namibia Namibia_sentence_244

About half of the population depends on agriculture (largely subsistence agriculture) for its livelihood, but Namibia must still import some of its food. Namibia_sentence_245

Although per capita GDP is five times the per capita GDP of Africa's poorest countries, the majority of Namibia's people live in rural areas and have a subsistence way of life. Namibia_sentence_246

Namibia has one of the highest rates of income inequality in the world, due in part to the fact that there is an urban economy and a more rural cashless economy. Namibia_sentence_247

The inequality figures thus take into account people who do not actually rely on the formal economy for their survival. Namibia_sentence_248

Although arable land accounts for only 1% of Namibia, nearly half of the population is employed in agriculture. Namibia_sentence_249

About 4,000, mostly white, commercial farmers own almost half of Namibia's arable land. Namibia_sentence_250

The governments of Germany and the United Kingdom will finance Namibia's land reform process, as Namibia plans to start expropriating land from white farmers to resettle landless black Namibians. Namibia_sentence_251

Agreement has been reached on the privatisation of several more enterprises in coming years, with hopes that this will stimulate much needed foreign investment, but reinvestment of environmentally derived capital has hobbled Namibian per capita income. Namibia_sentence_252

One of the fastest growing areas of economic development in Namibia is the growth of wildlife conservancies. Namibia_sentence_253

These are particularly important to the rural, generally unemployed, population. Namibia_sentence_254

Mining and electricity Namibia_section_19

Main article: Mining in Namibia Namibia_sentence_255

Providing 25% of Namibia's revenue, mining is the single most important contributor to the economy. Namibia_sentence_256

Namibia is the fourth largest exporter of non-fuel minerals in Africa and the world's fourth largest producer of uranium. Namibia_sentence_257

There has been significant investment in uranium mining and Namibia is set to become the largest exporter of uranium by 2015. Namibia_sentence_258

Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Namibia_sentence_259

While Namibia is known predominantly for its gem diamond and uranium deposits, a number of other minerals are extracted industrially such as lead, tungsten, gold, tin, fluorspar, manganese, marble, copper and zinc. Namibia_sentence_260

There are offshore gas deposits in the Atlantic Ocean that are planned to be extracted in the future. Namibia_sentence_261

According to "The Diamond Investigation", a book about the global diamond market, from 1978, De Beers, the largest diamond company, bought most of the Namibian diamonds, and would continue to do so, because "whatever government eventually comes to power they will need this revenue to survive". Namibia_sentence_262

Domestic supply voltage is 220 V AC. Namibia_sentence_263

Electricity is generated mainly by thermal and hydroelectric power plants. Namibia_sentence_264

Non-conventional methods of electricity generation also play some role. Namibia_sentence_265

Encouraged by the rich uranium deposits the Namibian government plans to erect its first nuclear power station by 2018, also uranium enrichment is envisaged to happen locally. Namibia_sentence_266

Diamonds Namibia_section_20

Although much of the world's diamond supply comes from what have been called African blood diamonds, Namibia has managed to develop a diamond mining industry largely free of the kinds of conflict, extortion, and murder that have plagued many other African nations with diamond mines. Namibia_sentence_267

This has been attributed to political dynamics, economic institutions, grievances, political geography, and the effects of neighbourhoods, and is the result of a joint agreement between the government and De Beers that has led to a taxable base, strengthening state institutions. Namibia_sentence_268

Tourism Namibia_section_21

Main article: Tourism in Namibia Namibia_sentence_269

Tourism is a major contributor (14.5%) to Namibia's GDP, creating tens of thousands of jobs (18.2% of all employment) directly or indirectly and servicing over a million tourists per year. Namibia_sentence_270

The country is a prime destination in Africa and is known for ecotourism, which features Namibia's extensive wildlife. Namibia_sentence_271

There are many lodges and reserves to accommodate ecotourists. Namibia_sentence_272

Sport and trophy hunting is also a large and growing component of the Namibian economy, accounting for 14% of total tourism in the year 2000, or 19.6 million U.S. dollars, with Namibia boasting numerous species sought after by international sport hunters. Namibia_sentence_273

In addition, extreme sports such as sandboarding, skydiving and 4x4ing have become popular, and many cities have companies that provide tours. Namibia_sentence_274

The most visited places include the capital city of Windhoek, Caprivi Strip, Fish River Canyon, Sossusvlei, the Skeleton Coast Park, Sesriem, Etosha Pan and the coastal towns of Swakopmund, Walvis Bay and Lüderitz. Namibia_sentence_275

Windhoek plays a very important role in Namibia's tourism due to its central location and close proximity to Hosea Kutako International Airport. Namibia_sentence_276

According to The Namibia Tourism Exit Survey, which was produced by the Millennium Challenge Corporation for the Namibian Directorate of Tourism, 56% of all tourists visiting Namibia in 2012–13 visited Windhoek. Namibia_sentence_277

Many of Namibia's tourism-related parastatals and governing bodies such as Namibia Wildlife Resorts, Air Namibia and the Namibia Tourism Board as well as Namibia's tourism-related trade associations such as the Hospitality Association of Namibia are headquartered in Windhoek. Namibia_sentence_278

There are also a number of notable hotels in Windhoek, such as Windhoek Country Club Resort, and some international hotel chains, such as Hilton Hotels and Resorts. Namibia_sentence_279

Namibia's primary tourism-related governing body, the Namibia Tourism Board (NTB), was established by an Act of Parliament: the Namibia Tourism Board Act, 2000 (Act 21 of 2000). Namibia_sentence_280

Its primary objectives are to regulate the tourism industry and to market Namibia as a tourist destination. Namibia_sentence_281

There are also a number of trade associations that represent the tourism sector in Namibia, such as the Federation of Namibia Tourism Associations (the umbrella body for all tourism associations in Namibia), the Hospitality Association of Namibia, the Association of Namibian Travel Agents, Car Rental Association of Namibia and the Tour and Safari Association of Namibia. Namibia_sentence_282

Water supply and sanitation Namibia_section_22

Main article: Water supply and sanitation in Namibia Namibia_sentence_283

Namibia is the only country in Sub-Saharan Africa to provide water through municipal departments. Namibia_sentence_284

The only bulk water supplier in Namibia is NamWater, which sells it to the respective municipalities which in turn deliver it through their reticulation networks. Namibia_sentence_285

In rural areas, the Directorate of Rural Water Supply in the Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Forestry is in charge of drinking water supply. Namibia_sentence_286

The UN evaluated in 2011 that Namibia has improved its water access network significantly since independence in 1990. Namibia_sentence_287

A large part of the population can not, however, make use of these resources due to the prohibitively high consumption cost and the long distance between residences and water points in rural areas. Namibia_sentence_288

As a result, many Namibians prefer the traditional wells over the available water points far away. Namibia_sentence_289

Compared to the efforts made to improve access to safe water, Namibia is lagging behind in the provision of adequate sanitation. Namibia_sentence_290

This includes 298 schools that have no toilet facilities. Namibia_sentence_291

Over 50% of child deaths are related to lack of water, sanitation, or hygiene; 23% are due to diarrhoea alone. Namibia_sentence_292

The UN has identified a "sanitation crisis" in the country. Namibia_sentence_293

Apart from residences for upper and middle class households, sanitation is insufficient in most residential areas. Namibia_sentence_294

Private flush toilets are too expensive for virtually all residents in townships due to their water consumption and installation cost. Namibia_sentence_295

As a result, access to improved sanitation has not increased much since independence: in Namibia's rural areas 13% of the population had more than basic sanitation, up from 8% in 1990. Namibia_sentence_296

Many of Namibia's inhabitants have to resort to "flying toilets", plastic bags to defecate into, which after use are flung into the bush. Namibia_sentence_297

The use of open areas close to residential land for urination and defecation is very common and has been identified as a major health hazard. Namibia_sentence_298

Demographics Namibia_section_23

Main article: Demographics of Namibia Namibia_sentence_299

Namibia has the second-lowest population density of any sovereign country, after Mongolia. Namibia_sentence_300

In 2017 there were on average 3.08 people per km. Namibia_sentence_301

The total fertility rate in 2015 was 3.47 children per woman according to the UN. Namibia_sentence_302

Ethnic groups Namibia_section_24

The majority of the Namibian population is of Bantu-speaking origin—mostly of the Ovambo ethnicity, which forms about half of the population—residing mainly in the north of the country, although many are now resident in towns throughout Namibia. Namibia_sentence_303

Other ethnic groups are the Herero and Himba people, who speak a similar language, and the Damara, who speak the same "click" language as the Nama. Namibia_sentence_304

In addition to the Bantu majority, there are large groups of Khoisan (such as Nama and San), who are descendants of the original inhabitants of Southern Africa. Namibia_sentence_305

The country also contains some descendants of refugees from Angola. Namibia_sentence_306

There are also two smaller groups of people with mixed racial origins, called "Coloureds" and "Basters", who together make up 8.0% (with the Coloureds outnumbering the Basters two to one). Namibia_sentence_307

There is a substantial Chinese minority in Namibia; it stood at 40,000 in 2006. Namibia_sentence_308

Whites (mainly of Afrikaner, German, British and Portuguese origin) make up between 4.0 and 7.0% of the population. Namibia_sentence_309

Although their proportion of the population decreased after independence due to emigration and lower birth rates, they still form the second-largest population of European ancestry, both in terms of percentage and actual numbers, in Sub-Saharan Africa (after South Africa). Namibia_sentence_310

The majority of Namibian whites and nearly all those who are of mixed race, speak Afrikaans and share similar origins, culture, and religion as the white and coloured populations of South Africa. Namibia_sentence_311

A large minority of whites (around 30,000) trace their family origins back to the German settlers who colonised Namibia prior to the British confiscation of German lands after World War I, and they maintain German cultural and educational institutions. Namibia_sentence_312

Nearly all Portuguese settlers came to the country from the former Portuguese colony of Angola. Namibia_sentence_313

The 1960 census reported 526,004 persons in what was then South West Africa, including 73,464 whites (14%). Namibia_sentence_314

Censuses Namibia_section_25

Namibia conducts a census every ten years. Namibia_sentence_315

After independence the first Population and Housing Census was carried out in 1991; further rounds followed in 2001 and 2011. Namibia_sentence_316

The data collection method is to count every person resident in Namibia on the census reference night, wherever they happen to be. Namibia_sentence_317

This is called the de facto method. Namibia_sentence_318

For enumeration purposes the country is demarcated into 4,042 enumeration areas. Namibia_sentence_319

These areas do not overlap with constituency boundaries to get reliable data for election purposes as well. Namibia_sentence_320

The 2011 Population and Housing Census counted 2,113,077 inhabitants. Namibia_sentence_321

Between 2001 and 2011 the annual population growth was 1.4%, down from 2.6% in the previous ten-year period. Namibia_sentence_322

Urban settlements Namibia_section_26

Main article: List of cities and towns in Namibia Namibia_sentence_323

Namibia has 13 cities, governed by municipalities and 26 towns, governed by town councils. Namibia_sentence_324

The capital Windhoek is by far the largest urban settlement in Namibia. Namibia_sentence_325

Namibia_table_general_0

Cities in NamibiaNamibia_header_cell_0_0_0
CityNamibia_header_cell_0_1_0 RegionNamibia_header_cell_0_1_1 Census 1991Namibia_header_cell_0_1_2 Census 2001Namibia_header_cell_0_1_3 Census 2011Namibia_header_cell_0_1_4
WindhoekNamibia_cell_0_2_0 KhomasNamibia_cell_0_2_1 147,056Namibia_cell_0_2_2 233,529Namibia_cell_0_2_3 325,858Namibia_cell_0_2_4
Walvis BayNamibia_cell_0_3_0 ErongoNamibia_cell_0_3_1 22,999Namibia_cell_0_3_2 43,611Namibia_cell_0_3_3 62,096Namibia_cell_0_3_4
SwakopmundNamibia_cell_0_4_0 ErongoNamibia_cell_0_4_1 17,681Namibia_cell_0_4_2 23,808Namibia_cell_0_4_3 44,725Namibia_cell_0_4_4
Henties BayNamibia_cell_0_5_0 ErongoNamibia_cell_0_5_1 Namibia_cell_0_5_2 3,285Namibia_cell_0_5_3 4,720Namibia_cell_0_5_4
OmaruruNamibia_cell_0_6_0 ErongoNamibia_cell_0_6_1 Namibia_cell_0_6_2 4,761Namibia_cell_0_6_3 6,300Namibia_cell_0_6_4
OtjiwarongoNamibia_cell_0_7_0 OtjozondjupaNamibia_cell_0_7_1 15,921Namibia_cell_0_7_2 19,614Namibia_cell_0_7_3 28,249Namibia_cell_0_7_4
OkahandjaNamibia_cell_0_8_0 OtjozondjupaNamibia_cell_0_8_1 11,040Namibia_cell_0_8_2 14,039Namibia_cell_0_8_3 22,639Namibia_cell_0_8_4
GrootfonteinNamibia_cell_0_9_0 OtjozondjupaNamibia_cell_0_9_1 Namibia_cell_0_9_2 14,249Namibia_cell_0_9_3 16,632Namibia_cell_0_9_4
MarientalNamibia_cell_0_10_0 HardapNamibia_cell_0_10_1 Namibia_cell_0_10_2 9,836Namibia_cell_0_10_3 12,478Namibia_cell_0_10_4
OutjoNamibia_cell_0_11_0 KuneneNamibia_cell_0_11_1 Namibia_cell_0_11_2 6,013Namibia_cell_0_11_3 8,445Namibia_cell_0_11_4
GobabisNamibia_cell_0_12_0 OmahekeNamibia_cell_0_12_1 Namibia_cell_0_12_2 13,856Namibia_cell_0_12_3 19,101Namibia_cell_0_12_4
TsumebNamibia_cell_0_13_0 OshikotoNamibia_cell_0_13_1 Namibia_cell_0_13_2 14,929Namibia_cell_0_13_3 19,275Namibia_cell_0_13_4
KeetmanshoopNamibia_cell_0_14_0 ǁKarasNamibia_cell_0_14_1 15,032Namibia_cell_0_14_2 15,778Namibia_cell_0_14_3 20,977Namibia_cell_0_14_4

Religion Namibia_section_27

Main article: Religion in Namibia Namibia_sentence_326

The Christian community makes up 80%–90% of the population of Namibia, with at least 75% being Protestant, of which at least 50% are Lutheran. Namibia_sentence_327

Lutherans are the largest religious group, a legacy of the German and Finnish missionary work during the country's colonial times. Namibia_sentence_328

10%–20% of the population hold indigenous beliefs. Namibia_sentence_329

Missionary activities during the second half of the 19th century resulted in many Namibians converting to Christianity. Namibia_sentence_330

Today most Christians are Lutheran, but there also are Roman Catholic, Methodist, Anglican, African Methodist Episcopal, Dutch Reformed and Latter-day Saints. Namibia_sentence_331

Islam in Namibia is subscribed to by about 9,000 people, many of them Nama. Namibia_sentence_332

Namibia is home to a small Jewish community of about 100 people. Namibia_sentence_333

Languages Namibia_section_28

Main article: Languages of Namibia Namibia_sentence_334

Up to 1990, English, German, and Afrikaans were official languages. Namibia_sentence_335

Long before Namibia's independence from South Africa, SWAPO was of the opinion that the country should become officially monolingual, choosing this approach in contrast to that of its neighbour South Africa (which granted all 11 of its major languages official status), which it saw as "a deliberate policy of ethnolinguistic fragmentation." Namibia_sentence_336

Consequently, SWAPO instituted English as Namibia's sole official language, though only about 3% of the population speaks it as a home language. Namibia_sentence_337

Its implementation is focused on the civil service, education and the broadcasting system, especially the state broadcaster NBC. Namibia_sentence_338

Some other languages have received semi-official recognition by being allowed as medium of instruction in primary schools. Namibia_sentence_339

Private schools are expected to follow the same policy as state schools, and "English language" is a compulsory subject. Namibia_sentence_340

Some critics argue that, as in other postcolonial African societies, the push for monolingual instruction and policy has resulted in a high rate of school drop-outs and of individuals whose academic competence in any language is low. Namibia_sentence_341

According to the 2011 census, the most common languages are Oshiwambo (the most spoken language for 49% of households), Khoekhoegowab (11.3%), Afrikaans (10.4%), RuKwangali (9%), and Otjiherero (9%). Namibia_sentence_342

The most widely understood national language is Afrikaans, the country's lingua franca. Namibia_sentence_343

Both Afrikaans and English are used primarily as a second language reserved for public communication. Namibia_sentence_344

A complete list of languages according to the 2011 census is 48.9% Oshiwambo, 11.3% Khoekhoegowab, 10.4% Afrikaans, 8.6% Otjiherero, 8.5% RuKwangali, 4.8% siLozi, 3.4% English, 1.2% Other African Languages, 0.9% German, 0.8% San, 0.7% Other European Languages, 0.3% Setswana, and 0.1% Asian Languages. Namibia_sentence_345

Most of the white population speaks either German or Afrikaans. Namibia_sentence_346

Even today, 105 years after the end of the German colonial era, German plays a role as a commercial language. Namibia_sentence_347

Afrikaans is spoken by 60% of the white community, German by 32%, English by 7% and Portuguese by 4–5%. Namibia_sentence_348

Geographical proximity to Portuguese-speaking Angola explains the relatively high number of Portuguese speakers; in 2011 these were estimated to be 100,000, or 4–5% of the total population. Namibia_sentence_349

Largest cities Namibia_section_29

See also: List of cities and towns in Namibia Namibia_sentence_350

Culture Namibia_section_30

Sport Namibia_section_31

Main articles: Sport in Namibia and Rugby union in Namibia Namibia_sentence_351

The most popular sport in Namibia is association football. Namibia_sentence_352

The Namibia national football team qualified for the 1998, 2008 and 2019 editions of the Africa Cup of Nations, but has yet to qualify for the World Cup. Namibia_sentence_353

The most successful national team is the Namibian rugby team, having competed in six separate World Cups. Namibia_sentence_354

Namibia were participants in the 1999, 2003, 2007, 2011, 2015 and 2019 Rugby World Cups. Namibia_sentence_355

Cricket is also popular, with the national side having qualified both for 2003 Cricket World Cup and 2020 ICC T20 World Cup. Namibia_sentence_356

In December 2017, Namibia Cricket reached the final of the Cricket South Africa (CSA) Provincial One Day Challenge for the first time. Namibia_sentence_357

In February 2018 Namibia hosted the ICC World Cricket League Division 2 with Namibia, Kenya, UAE, Nepal, Canada and Oman to compete for the final two ICC Cricket World Cup Qualifier positions in Zimbabwe. Namibia_sentence_358

The most famous athlete from Namibia is Frankie Fredericks, sprinter in the 100 and 200 m events. Namibia_sentence_359

He won four Olympic silver medals (1992, 1996) and also has medals from several World Athletics Championships. Namibia_sentence_360

Golfer Trevor Dodds won the Greater Greensboro Open in 1998, one of 15 tournaments in his career. Namibia_sentence_361

He achieved a career high world ranking of 78th in 1998. Namibia_sentence_362

Professional cyclist and Namibian Road Race champion Dan Craven represented Namibia at the 2016 Summer Olympics in both the road race and individual time trial. Namibia_sentence_363

Boxer Julius Indongo is the unified WBA, IBF, and IBO world champion in the Light welterweight division. Namibia_sentence_364

Another famous athlete from Namibia is ex-professional rugby player Jacques Burger. Namibia_sentence_365

Burger played for Saracens and Aurillac in Europe, as well as gaining 41 caps for the national team. Namibia_sentence_366

Media Namibia_section_32

See also: Media of Namibia Namibia_sentence_367

Although Namibia's population is fairly small, the country has a diverse choice of media; two TV stations, 19 radio stations (without counting community stations), 5 daily newspapers, several weeklies and special publications compete for the attention of the audience. Namibia_sentence_368

Additionally, a mentionable amount of foreign media, especially South African, is available. Namibia_sentence_369

Online media are mostly based on print publication contents. Namibia_sentence_370

Namibia has a state-owned Press Agency, called NAMPA. Namibia_sentence_371

Overall c. 300 journalists work in the country. Namibia_sentence_372

The first newspaper in Namibia was the German-language Windhoeker Anzeiger, founded 1898. Namibia_sentence_373

During German rule, the newspapers mainly reflected the living reality and the view of the white German-speaking minority. Namibia_sentence_374

The black majority was ignored or depicted as a threat. Namibia_sentence_375

During South African rule, the white bias continued, with mentionable influence of the Pretoria government on the South West African media system. Namibia_sentence_376

Independent newspapers were seen as a menace to the existing order, and critical journalists were often threatened. Namibia_sentence_377

Current daily newspapers are the private publications The Namibian (English and other languages), Die Republikein (Afrikaans), Allgemeine Zeitung (German) and Namibian Sun (English) as well as the state-owned New Era (predominantly English). Namibia_sentence_378

Except for the largest newspaper, The Namibian, which is owned by a trust, the other mentioned private newspapers are part of Democratic Media Holdings. Namibia_sentence_379

Other mentionable newspapers are the tabloid Informanté owned by TrustCo, the weekly Windhoek Observer, the weekly Namibia Economist, as well as the regional Namib Times. Namibia_sentence_380

Current affairs magazines include Insight Namibia, Vision2030 Focus magazine and Prime FOCUS. Namibia_sentence_381

The Sister Namibia magazine stands out as the longest running NGO magazine in Namibia, while Namibia Sport is the only national sport magazine. Namibia_sentence_382

Furthermore, the print market is complemented with party publications, student newspapers and PR publications. Namibia_sentence_383

Radio was introduced in 1969, TV in 1981. Namibia_sentence_384

The broadcasting sector today is dominated by the state-run Namibian Broadcasting Corporation (NBC). Namibia_sentence_385

The public broadcaster offers a TV station as well as a "National Radio" in English and nine language services in locally spoken languages. Namibia_sentence_386

The nine private radio stations in the country are mainly English-language channels, except for Radio Omulunga (Oshiwambo) and Kosmos 94.1 (Afrikaans). Namibia_sentence_387

Privately held One Africa TV has competed with NBC since the 2000s. Namibia_sentence_388

Compared to neighbouring countries, Namibia has a large degree of media freedom. Namibia_sentence_389

Over the past years, the country usually ranked in the upper quarter of the Press Freedom Index of Reporters without Borders, reaching position 21 in 2010, being on par with Canada and the best-positioned African country. Namibia_sentence_390

The African Media Barometer shows similarly positive results. Namibia_sentence_391

However, as in other countries, there is still mentionable influence of representatives of state and economy on media in Namibia. Namibia_sentence_392

In 2009, Namibia dropped to position 36 on the Press Freedom Index. Namibia_sentence_393

In 2013, it was 19th, 22nd in 2014 and 23rd in 2019, meaning that it is currently the highest ranked African country in terms of press freedom. Namibia_sentence_394

Media and journalists in Namibia are represented by the Namibian chapter of the Media Institute of Southern Africa and the Editors' Forum of Namibia. Namibia_sentence_395

An independent media ombudsman was appointed in 2009 to prevent a state-controlled media council. Namibia_sentence_396

Education Namibia_section_33

Main article: Education in Namibia Namibia_sentence_397

See also: List of schools in Namibia Namibia_sentence_398

Namibia has free education for both primary and secondary education levels. Namibia_sentence_399

Grades 1–7 are primary level, grades 8–12 are secondary. Namibia_sentence_400

In 1998, there were 400,325 Namibian students in primary school and 115,237 students in secondary schools. Namibia_sentence_401

The pupil–teacher ratio in 1999 was estimated at 32:1, with about 8% of the GDP being spent on education. Namibia_sentence_402

Curriculum development, educational research, and professional development of teachers is centrally organised by the National Institute for Educational Development (NIED) in Okahandja. Namibia_sentence_403

Most schools in Namibia are state-run, but there are some private schools, which are also part of the country's education system. Namibia_sentence_404

There are four teacher training universities, three colleges of agriculture, a police training college, and three universities: University of Namibia (UNAM), International University of Management (IUM) and Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST). Namibia_sentence_405

Health Namibia_section_34

Main article: Health in Namibia Namibia_sentence_406

See also: HIV/AIDS in Namibia Namibia_sentence_407

Life expectancy at birth is estimated to be 64 years in 2017 – among the lowest in the world. Namibia_sentence_408

Namibia launched a National Health Extension Programme in 2012 deployment 1,800 (2015) of a total ceiling of 4,800 health extension workers trained for six months in community health activities including first aid, health promotion for disease prevention, nutritional assessment and counseling, water sanitation and hygiene practices, HIV testing and community-based antiretroviral treatment. Namibia_sentence_409

Namibia faces non-communicable disease burden. Namibia_sentence_410

The Demographic and Health Survey (2013) summarises findings on elevated blood pressure, hypertension, diabetes and obesity: Namibia_sentence_411

Namibia_unordered_list_1

  • Among eligible respondents age 35–64, more than 4 in 10 women (44 percent) and men (45 percent) have elevated blood pressure or are currently taking medicine to lower their blood pressure.Namibia_item_1_3
  • Forty-nine percent of women and 61 percent of men are not aware that they have elevated blood pressure.Namibia_item_1_4
  • Forty-three percent of women and 34 percent of men with hypertension are taking medication for their condition.Namibia_item_1_5
  • Only 29 percent of women and 20 percent of men with hypertension are taking medication and have their blood pressure under control.Namibia_item_1_6
  • Six percent of women and 7 percent of men are diabetic; that is, they have elevated fasting plasma glucose values or report that they are taking diabetes medication. An additional 7 percent of women and 6 percent of men are prediabetic.Namibia_item_1_7
  • Sixty-seven percent of women and 74 percent of men with diabetes are taking medication to lower their blood glucose.Namibia_item_1_8
  • Women and men with a higher-than-normal body mass index (25.0 or higher) are more likely to have elevated blood pressure and elevated fasting blood glucose.Namibia_item_1_9

The HIV epidemic remains a public health issue in Namibia despite significant achievements made by the Ministry of Health and Social Services to expand HIV treatment services. Namibia_sentence_412

In 2001, there were an estimated 210,000 people living with HIV/AIDS, and the estimated death toll in 2003 was 16,000. Namibia_sentence_413

According to the 2011 UNAIDS Report, the epidemic in Namibia "appears to be leveling off." Namibia_sentence_414

As the HIV/AIDS epidemic has reduced the working-aged population, the number of orphans has increased. Namibia_sentence_415

It falls to the government to provide education, food, shelter and clothing for these orphans. Namibia_sentence_416

A Demographic and Health Survey with an HIV biomarker was completed in and served as the fourth comprehensive, national-level population and health survey conducted in Namibia as part of the global Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programme. Namibia_sentence_417

The DHS observed important characteristics associated to the HIV epidemic: Namibia_sentence_418

Namibia_unordered_list_2

  • Overall, 26 percent of men age 15–49 and 32 percent of those age 50–64 have been circumcised. HIV prevalence for men age 15–49 is lower among circumcised (8.0 percent) than among uncircumcised men (11.9 percent). The pattern of lower HIV prevalence among circumcised than uncircumcised men is observed across most background characteristics. For each age group, circumcised men have lower HIV prevalence than those who are not circumcised; the difference is especially pronounced for men age 35–39 and 45–49 (11.7 percentage points each). The difference in HIV prevalence between uncircumcised and circumcised men is larger among urban than rural men (5.2 percentage points versus 2.1 percentage points).Namibia_item_2_10
  • HIV prevalence among respondents age 15–49 is 16.9 percent for women and 10.9 percent for men. HIV prevalence rates among women and men age 50–64 are similar (16.7 percent and 16.0 percent, respectively).Namibia_item_2_11
  • HIV prevalence peaks in the 35–39 age group for both women and men (30.9 percent and 22.6 percent, respectively). It is lowest among respondents age 15–24 (2.5–6.4 percent for women and 2.0–3.4 percent for men).Namibia_item_2_12
  • Among respondents age 15–49, HIV prevalence is highest for women and men in Zambezi (30.9 percent and 15.9 percent, respectively) and lowest for women in Omaheke (6.9 percent) and men in Ohangwena (6.6 percent).Namibia_item_2_13
  • In 76.4 percent of the 1,007 cohabiting couples who were tested for HIV in the 2013 NDHS, both partners were HIV negative; in 10.1 percent of the couples, both partners were HIV positive; and 13.5 percent of the couples were discordant (that is, one partner was infected with HIV and the other was not).Namibia_item_2_14

As of 2015, the Ministry of Health and Social Services and UNAIDS produced a Progress in which UNAIDS projected HIV prevalence among 15–49-year-olds at 13.3% [12.2–14.5%] and an estimated 210,000 [200,000–230,000] living with HIV. Namibia_sentence_419

The malaria problem seems to be compounded by the AIDS epidemic. Namibia_sentence_420

Research has shown that in Namibia the risk of contracting malaria is 14.5% greater if a person is also infected with HIV. Namibia_sentence_421

The risk of death from malaria is also raised by approximately 50% with a concurrent HIV infection. Namibia_sentence_422

The country had only 598 physicians in 2002. Namibia_sentence_423

See also Namibia_section_35

Namibia_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Namibia.