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This article is about Napoleon I. Napoleon_sentence_0

For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation) and Napoleon Bonaparte (disambiguation). Napoleon_sentence_1


Emperor of the FrenchNapoleon_header_cell_0_1_0
1st reignNapoleon_header_cell_0_2_0 18 May 1804 – 6 April 1814Napoleon_cell_0_2_1
CoronationNapoleon_header_cell_0_3_0 2 December 1804

Notre-Dame CathedralNapoleon_cell_0_3_1

SuccessorNapoleon_header_cell_0_4_0 Louis XVIII as king of FranceNapoleon_cell_0_4_1
2nd reignNapoleon_header_cell_0_5_0 20 March 1815 – 22 June 1815Napoleon_cell_0_5_1
SuccessorNapoleon_header_cell_0_6_0 Napoleon II (disputed)Napoleon_cell_0_6_1
King of ItalyNapoleon_header_cell_0_7_0
ReignNapoleon_header_cell_0_8_0 17 March 1805 – 11 April 1814Napoleon_cell_0_8_1
CoronationNapoleon_header_cell_0_9_0 26 May 1805

Milan CathedralNapoleon_cell_0_9_1

Protector of the Confederation of the RhineNapoleon_header_cell_0_10_0
In officeNapoleon_header_cell_0_11_0 12 July 1806 – 19 October 1813Napoleon_cell_0_11_1
President of the Italian RepublicNapoleon_header_cell_0_12_0
In officeNapoleon_header_cell_0_13_0 26 January 1802 – 17 March 1805Napoleon_cell_0_13_1
First Consul of FranceNapoleon_header_cell_0_14_0
In officeNapoleon_header_cell_0_15_0 10 November 1799 – 18 May 1804Napoleon_cell_0_15_1
Co-ConsulsNapoleon_header_cell_0_16_0 Jean Jacques Régis

Charles-François LebrunNapoleon_cell_0_16_1

BornNapoleon_header_cell_0_18_0 Napoleone di Buonaparte

(1769-08-15)15 August 1769 Ajaccio, Corsica, Kingdom of FranceNapoleon_cell_0_18_1

DiedNapoleon_header_cell_0_19_0 5 May 1821(1821-05-05) (aged 51)

Longwood, Saint HelenaNapoleon_cell_0_19_1

BurialNapoleon_header_cell_0_20_0 15 December 1840

Les Invalides, Paris, FranceNapoleon_cell_0_20_1

SpouseNapoleon_header_cell_0_21_0 Joséphine de Beauharnais

​ ​(m. 1796; div. 1810)​

Marie Louise of Austria ​ ​(m. 1810)​Napoleon_cell_0_21_1



Napoleon IINapoleon_cell_0_22_1
Full nameNapoléon BonaparteNapoleon_cell_0_23_0
Full nameNapoleon_header_cell_0_24_0
HouseNapoleon_header_cell_0_25_0 BonaparteNapoleon_cell_0_25_1
FatherNapoleon_header_cell_0_26_0 Carlo BuonaparteNapoleon_cell_0_26_1
MotherNapoleon_header_cell_0_27_0 Letizia RamolinoNapoleon_cell_0_27_1
ReligionNapoleon_header_cell_0_28_0 Roman Catholicism

See detailsNapoleon_cell_0_28_1


Coat of armsNapoleon_header_cell_0_29_0


Napoleon Bonaparte (/nəˈpoʊliən ˈboʊnəpɑːrt/; French: Napoléon [napɔleɔ̃ bɔnapaʁt; Corsican: Nabulione; Italian: Napoleone; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who led many successful campaigns during the French Revolution and the French Revolutionary Wars, and was Emperor of the French (as Napoleon I) from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon_sentence_2

Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions during the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon_sentence_3

He won many of these wars and a vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. Napoleon_sentence_4

Napoleon is regarded as one of the greatest military commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon_sentence_5

His political and cultural legacy has made him one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history. Napoleon_sentence_6

Born Napoleone di Buonaparte (Italian: [napoleˈoːne di ˌbwɔnaˈparte) in Corsica a few months after the young independent republic was annexed by the Kingdom of France, Napoleon's modest family descended from minor Italian nobility. Napoleon_sentence_7

He was serving as an artillery officer in the French Royal Army when the French Revolution erupted in 1789. Napoleon_sentence_8

He rapidly rose through the ranks of the military, seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution and becoming a general at age 24. Napoleon_sentence_9

The French Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed the 13 Vendémiaire revolt against the government by royalist insurgents. Napoleon_sentence_10

At age 26, he began his first military campaign against the Austrians and the Italian monarchs aligned with the Habsburgs in the War of the First Coalition—winning virtually every battle, conquering the Italian Peninsula in a year while establishing "sister republics" with local support, and becoming a war hero in France. Napoleon_sentence_11

In 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power. Napoleon_sentence_12

He orchestrated a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic. Napoleon_sentence_13

After the Peace of Amiens in 1802, Napoleon turned his attention to France's colonies. Napoleon_sentence_14

He sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States, and he attempted to restore slavery to the French Caribbean colonies. Napoleon_sentence_15

However, while he was successful in restoring slavery in the eastern Caribbean, Napoleon failed in his attempts to subdue Saint-Domingue, and the colony that France once proudly boasted of as the "Pearl of the Antilles" became independent as Haiti in 1804. Napoleon_sentence_16

Napoleon's ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and he became the first Emperor of the French in 1804. Napoleon_sentence_17

The balance of power in Europe shattered, intractable differences with the British meant that the French were soon facing a Third Coalition by 1805. Napoleon_sentence_18

Napoleon emerged triumphant over this coalition with decisive victories in the Ulm Campaign and a historic success over the Russian Empire and Austrian Empire at the Battle of Austerlitz which led to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. Napoleon_sentence_19

Napoleon formed the Franco-Persian alliance and wanted to re-establish the Franco-Indian alliances with the Muslim Indian emperor Tipu Sultan by providing a French-trained army during the Anglo-Mysore Wars, with the continuous aim of having an eventual open way to attack the British in India. Napoleon_sentence_20

In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about French continental expansion. Napoleon_sentence_21

Napoleon quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, then marched his Grande Armée deep into Eastern Europe and annihilated the Russians in June 1807 at the Battle of Friedland. Napoleon_sentence_22

France then forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Napoleon_sentence_23

Tilsit signified the high-water mark of the French Empire. Napoleon_sentence_24

In 1809, the Austrians and the British challenged the French again during the War of the Fifth Coalition, but Napoleon solidified his grip over Europe after triumphing at the Battle of Wagram in July. Napoleon_sentence_25

Napoleon then occupied the Iberian Peninsula, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, and declared his brother Joseph Bonaparte the King of Spain in 1808. Napoleon_sentence_26

The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support. Napoleon_sentence_27

The Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, and ended in victory for the Allies in 1814. Napoleon_sentence_28

The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia. Napoleon_sentence_29

The Russians were unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade and routinely violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon into another war. Napoleon_sentence_30

The French launched a major invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. Napoleon_sentence_31

The campaign destroyed Russian cities, but did not yield the decisive victory Napoleon wanted. Napoleon_sentence_32

It resulted in the collapse of the Grande Armée and inspired a renewed push against Napoleon by his enemies. Napoleon_sentence_33

In 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in the War of the Sixth Coalition against France. Napoleon_sentence_34

A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, but his tactical victory at the minor Battle of Hanau allowed retreat onto French soil. Napoleon_sentence_35

The Allies then invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. Napoleon_sentence_36

He was exiled to the island of Elba off the coast of Tuscany, and the Bourbon dynasty was restored to power. Napoleon_sentence_37

Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again. Napoleon_sentence_38

The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition which defeated him at the Battle of Waterloo in June. Napoleon_sentence_39

He was exiled to the remote British island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years later at the age of 51. Napoleon_sentence_40

Napoleon's influence on the modern world brought liberal reforms to the numerous territories that he conquered and controlled, such as the Low Countries, Switzerland, and large parts of modern Italy and Germany. Napoleon_sentence_41

He implemented fundamental liberal policies in France and throughout Western Europe. Napoleon_sentence_42

His Napoleonic Code has influenced the legal systems of more than 70 nations around the world. Napoleon_sentence_43

British historian Andrew Roberts states: "The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, and so on—were championed, consolidated, codified and geographically extended by Napoleon. Napoleon_sentence_44

To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire". Napoleon_sentence_45

Early life Napoleon_section_0

Napoleon's family was of Italian origin: his paternal ancestors, the Buonapartes, descended from a minor Tuscan noble family that emigrated to Corsica in the 16th century; while his maternal ancestors, the Ramolinos, descended from a minor Genoese noble family. Napoleon_sentence_46

"I am more of an Italian, or Tuscan, than a Corsican" Napoleon was to say and many descendants of the Italian colonists in Corsica considered themselves as such, but nothing in fact connected them to the villages they considered the "homeland", the land their ancestors had left to take up residence in Corsican cities. Napoleon_sentence_47

They may have presented themselves as continental out of a desire for honor and distinction, but this does not prove they really were as foreign as they themselves often imagined. Napoleon_sentence_48

We might say that they grew all the more attached to their Italian origins as they moved further and further away from them, becoming ever more deeply integrated into Corsican society through marriages. Napoleon_sentence_49

This was as true of the Buonapartes as of anyone else related to the Genoese and Tuscan nobilities by virtue of titles that were, to tell the truth, suspect. Napoleon_sentence_50

The Buonapartes were also the relatives, by marriage and by birth, of the Pietrasentas, Costas, Paraviccinis, and Bonellis, all Corsican families of the interior. Napoleon_sentence_51

His parents Carlo Maria di Buonaparte and Maria Letizia Ramolino maintained an ancestral home called "Casa Buonaparte" in Ajaccio. Napoleon_sentence_52

Napoleon was born there on 15 August 1769, their fourth child and third son. Napoleon_sentence_53

A boy and girl were born first but died in infancy. Napoleon_sentence_54

He had an elder brother, Joseph, and younger siblings Lucien, Elisa, Louis, Pauline, Caroline, and Jérôme. Napoleon_sentence_55

Napoleon was baptised as a Catholic. Napoleon_sentence_56

In his youth, his name was also spelled as Nabulione, Nabulio, Napolionne, and Napulione. Napoleon_sentence_57

Napoleon was born the same year the Republic of Genoa ceded Corsica to France. Napoleon_sentence_58

The state sold sovereign rights a year before his birth in 1768, and the island was conquered by France during the year of his birth and formally incorporated as a province in 1770, after 500 years under Genoese rule and 14 years of independence. Napoleon_sentence_59

Napoleon's parents joined the Corsican resistance and fought against the French to maintain independence, even when Maria was pregnant with him. Napoleon_sentence_60

His father was an attorney who went on to be named Corsica's representative to the court of Louis XVI in 1777. Napoleon_sentence_61

The dominant influence of Napoleon's childhood was his mother, whose firm discipline restrained a rambunctious child. Napoleon_sentence_62

Later in life Napoleon stated, "The future destiny of the child is always the work of the mother." Napoleon_sentence_63

Napoleon's maternal grandmother had married into the Swiss Fesch family in her second marriage, and Napoleon's uncle, the cardinal Joseph Fesch, would fulfill a role as protector of the Bonaparte family for some years. Napoleon_sentence_64

Napoleon's noble, moderately affluent background afforded him greater opportunities to study than were available to a typical Corsican of the time. Napoleon_sentence_65

When he turned 9 years old, he moved to the French mainland and enrolled at a religious school in Autun in January 1779. Napoleon_sentence_66

In May, he transferred with a scholarship to a military academy at Brienne-le-Château. Napoleon_sentence_67

In his youth he was an outspoken Corsican nationalist and supported the state's independence from France. Napoleon_sentence_68

Like many Corsicans, Napoleon spoke and read Corsican (as his mother tongue) and Italian (as the official language of Corsica). Napoleon_sentence_69

He began learning French in school at around age 10. Napoleon_sentence_70

Although he became fluent in French, he spoke with a distinctive Corsican accent and never learned how to spell French correctly. Napoleon_sentence_71

He was, however, not an isolated case, as it was estimated in 1790 that fewer than 3 million people, out of France's population of 28 million, were able to speak standard French, and those who could write it were even fewer. Napoleon_sentence_72

Napoleon was routinely bullied by his peers for his accent, birthplace, short stature, mannerisms and inability to speak French quickly. Napoleon_sentence_73

Bonaparte became reserved and melancholy applying himself to reading. Napoleon_sentence_74

An examiner observed that Napoleon "has always been distinguished for his application in mathematics. Napoleon_sentence_75

He is fairly well acquainted with history and geography ... Napoleon_sentence_76

This boy would make an excellent sailor". Napoleon_sentence_77

In early adulthood, he briefly intended to become a writer; he authored a history of Corsica and a romantic novella. Napoleon_sentence_78

On completion of his studies at Brienne in 1784, Napoleon was admitted to the École Militaire in Paris. Napoleon_sentence_79

He trained to become an artillery officer and, when his father's death reduced his income, was forced to complete the two-year course in one year. Napoleon_sentence_80

He was the first Corsican to graduate from the École Militaire. Napoleon_sentence_81

He was examined by the famed scientist Pierre-Simon Laplace. Napoleon_sentence_82

Early career Napoleon_section_1

Upon graduating in September 1785, Bonaparte was commissioned a second lieutenant in La Fère artillery regiment. Napoleon_sentence_83

He served in Valence and Auxonne until after the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789. Napoleon_sentence_84

The young man still was a fervent Corsican nationalist during this period and asked for leave to join his mentor Pasquale Paoli, when the latter was allowed to return to Corsica by the National Assembly. Napoleon_sentence_85

Paoli had no sympathy for Napoleon however as he deemed his father a traitor for having deserted his cause for Corsican Independence. Napoleon_sentence_86

He spent the early years of the Revolution in Corsica, fighting in a complex three-way struggle among royalists, revolutionaries, and Corsican nationalists. Napoleon_sentence_87

Napoleon, however, came to embrace the ideals of the Revolution, becoming a supporter of the Jacobins and joining the pro-French Corsican Republicans who opposed Paoli's policy and his aspirations of secession. Napoleon_sentence_88

He was given command over a battalion of volunteers and was promoted to captain in the regular army in July 1792, despite exceeding his leave of absence and leading a riot against French troops. Napoleon_sentence_89

Napoleon and his commitment to the French Revolution thus came into conflict with Paoli, who had decided to sabotage the Corsican contribution to the Expédition de Sardaigne, by preventing a French assault on the Sardinian island of La Maddalena. Napoleon_sentence_90

Bonaparte and his family were compelled to flee to the French mainland in June 1793 because of the split with Paoli. Napoleon_sentence_91

Although he was born "Napoleone di Buonaparte", it was after this that Napoleon began styling himself "Napoléon Bonaparte" but his family did not drop the name Buonaparte until 1796. Napoleon_sentence_92

The first known record of him signing his name as Bonaparte was at the age of 27 (in 1796). Napoleon_sentence_93

Siege of Toulon Napoleon_section_2

Main article: Siege of Toulon Napoleon_sentence_94

In July 1793, Bonaparte published a pro-republican pamphlet entitled Le souper de Beaucaire (Supper at Beaucaire) which gained him the support of Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre. Napoleon_sentence_95

With the help of his fellow Corsican Antoine Christophe Saliceti, Bonaparte was appointed artillery commander of the republican forces at the Siege of Toulon. Napoleon_sentence_96

He adopted a plan to capture a hill where republican guns could dominate the city's harbour and force the British to evacuate. Napoleon_sentence_97

The assault on the position led to the capture of the city, but during it Bonaparte was wounded in the thigh. Napoleon_sentence_98

He was promoted to brigadier general at the age of 24. Napoleon_sentence_99

Catching the attention of the Committee of Public Safety, he was put in charge of the artillery of France's Army of Italy. Napoleon_sentence_100

Napoleon spent time as inspector of coastal fortifications on the Mediterranean coast near Marseille while he was waiting for confirmation of the Army of Italy post. Napoleon_sentence_101

He devised plans for attacking the Kingdom of Sardinia as part of France's campaign against the First Coalition. Napoleon_sentence_102

Augustin Robespierre and Saliceti were ready to listen to the freshly promoted artillery general. Napoleon_sentence_103

The French army carried out Bonaparte's plan in the Battle of Saorgio in April 1794, and then advanced to seize Ormea in the mountains. Napoleon_sentence_104

From Ormea, they headed west to outflank the Austro-Sardinian positions around Saorge. Napoleon_sentence_105

After this campaign, Augustin Robespierre sent Bonaparte on a mission to the Republic of Genoa to determine that country's intentions towards France. Napoleon_sentence_106

13 Vendémiaire Napoleon_section_3

Main article: 13 Vendémiaire Napoleon_sentence_107

Some contemporaries alleged that Bonaparte was put under house arrest at Nice for his association with the Robespierres following their fall in the Thermidorian Reaction in July 1794, but Napoleon's secretary Bourrienne disputed the allegation in his memoirs. Napoleon_sentence_108

According to Bourrienne, jealousy was responsible, between the Army of the Alps and the Army of Italy (with whom Napoleon was seconded at the time). Napoleon_sentence_109

Bonaparte dispatched an impassioned defence in a letter to the commissar Saliceti, and he was subsequently acquitted of any wrongdoing. Napoleon_sentence_110

He was released within two weeks and, due to his technical skills, was asked to draw up plans to attack Italian positions in the context of France's war with Austria. Napoleon_sentence_111

He also took part in an expedition to take back Corsica from the British, but the French were repulsed by the British Royal Navy. Napoleon_sentence_112

By 1795, Bonaparte had become engaged to Désirée Clary, daughter of François Clary. Napoleon_sentence_113

Désirée's sister Julie Clary had married Bonaparte's elder brother Joseph. Napoleon_sentence_114

In April 1795, he was assigned to the Army of the West, which was engaged in the War in the Vendée—a civil war and royalist counter-revolution in Vendée, a region in west central France on the Atlantic Ocean. Napoleon_sentence_115

As an infantry command, it was a demotion from artillery general—for which the army already had a full quota—and he pleaded poor health to avoid the posting. Napoleon_sentence_116

He was moved to the Bureau of Topography of the Committee of Public Safety and sought unsuccessfully to be transferred to Constantinople in order to offer his services to the Sultan. Napoleon_sentence_117

During this period, he wrote the romantic novella Clisson et Eugénie, about a soldier and his lover, in a clear parallel to Bonaparte's own relationship with Désirée. Napoleon_sentence_118

On 15 September, Bonaparte was removed from the list of generals in regular service for his refusal to serve in the Vendée campaign. Napoleon_sentence_119

He faced a difficult financial situation and reduced career prospects. Napoleon_sentence_120

On 3 October, royalists in Paris declared a rebellion against the National Convention. Napoleon_sentence_121

Paul Barras, a leader of the Thermidorian Reaction, knew of Bonaparte's military exploits at Toulon and gave him command of the improvised forces in defence of the convention in the Tuileries Palace. Napoleon_sentence_122

Napoleon had seen the massacre of the King's Swiss Guard there three years earlier and realized that artillery would be the key to its defence. Napoleon_sentence_123

He ordered a young cavalry officer named Joachim Murat to seize large cannons and used them to repel the attackers on 5 October 1795—13 Vendémiaire An IV in the French Republican Calendar; 1,400 royalists died and the rest fled. Napoleon_sentence_124

He had cleared the streets with "a whiff of grapeshot", according to 19th-century historian Thomas Carlyle in The French Revolution: A History. Napoleon_sentence_125

The defeat of the royalist insurrection extinguished the threat to the Convention and earned Bonaparte sudden fame, wealth, and the patronage of the new government, the Directory. Napoleon_sentence_126

Murat married one of Napoleon's sisters, becoming his brother-in-law; he also served under Napoleon as one of his generals. Napoleon_sentence_127

Bonaparte was promoted to Commander of the Interior and given command of the Army of Italy. Napoleon_sentence_128

Within weeks, he was romantically involved with Joséphine de Beauharnais, the former mistress of Barras. Napoleon_sentence_129

The couple married on 9 March 1796 in a civil ceremony. Napoleon_sentence_130

First Italian campaign Napoleon_section_4

Main article: Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars Napoleon_sentence_131

Two days after the marriage, Bonaparte left Paris to take command of the Army of Italy. Napoleon_sentence_132

He immediately went on the offensive, hoping to defeat the forces of Piedmont before their Austrian allies could intervene. Napoleon_sentence_133

In a series of rapid victories during the Montenotte Campaign, he knocked Piedmont out of the war in two weeks. Napoleon_sentence_134

The French then focused on the Austrians for the remainder of the war, the highlight of which became the protracted struggle for Mantua. Napoleon_sentence_135

The Austrians launched a series of offensives against the French to break the siege, but Napoleon defeated every relief effort, scoring victories at the battles of Castiglione, Bassano, Arcole, and Rivoli. Napoleon_sentence_136

The decisive French triumph at Rivoli in January 1797 led to the collapse of the Austrian position in Italy. Napoleon_sentence_137

At Rivoli, the Austrians lost up to 14,000 men while the French lost about 5,000. Napoleon_sentence_138

The next phase of the campaign featured the French invasion of the Habsburg heartlands. Napoleon_sentence_139

French forces in Southern Germany had been defeated by the Archduke Charles in 1796, but the Archduke withdrew his forces to protect Vienna after learning about Napoleon's assault. Napoleon_sentence_140

In the first encounter between the two commanders, Napoleon pushed back his opponent and advanced deep into Austrian territory after winning at the Battle of Tarvis in March 1797. Napoleon_sentence_141

The Austrians were alarmed by the French thrust that reached all the way to Leoben, about 100 km from Vienna, and finally decided to sue for peace. Napoleon_sentence_142

The Treaty of Leoben, followed by the more comprehensive Treaty of Campo Formio, gave France control of most of northern Italy and the Low Countries, and a secret clause promised the Republic of Venice to Austria. Napoleon_sentence_143

Bonaparte marched on Venice and forced its surrender, ending 1,100 years of independence. Napoleon_sentence_144

He also authorized the French to loot treasures such as the Horses of Saint Mark. Napoleon_sentence_145

His application of conventional military ideas to real-world situations enabled his military triumphs, such as creative use of artillery as a mobile force to support his infantry. Napoleon_sentence_146

He stated later in life: "I have fought sixty battles and I have learned nothing which I did not know at the beginning. Napoleon_sentence_147

Look at Caesar; he fought the first like the last". Napoleon_sentence_148

Bonaparte could win battles by concealment of troop deployments and concentration of his forces on the "hinge" of an enemy's weakened front. Napoleon_sentence_149

If he could not use his favourite envelopment strategy, he would take up the central position and attack two co-operating forces at their hinge, swing round to fight one until it fled, then turn to face the other. Napoleon_sentence_150

In this Italian campaign, Bonaparte's army captured 150,000 prisoners, 540 cannons, and 170 standards. Napoleon_sentence_151

The French army fought 67 actions and won 18 pitched battles through superior artillery technology and Bonaparte's tactics. Napoleon_sentence_152

During the campaign, Bonaparte became increasingly influential in French politics. Napoleon_sentence_153

He founded two newspapers: one for the troops in his army and another for circulation in France. Napoleon_sentence_154

The royalists attacked Bonaparte for looting Italy and warned that he might become a dictator. Napoleon_sentence_155

Napoleon's forces extracted an estimated $45 million in funds from Italy during their campaign there, another $12 million in precious metals and jewels. Napoleon_sentence_156

His forces also confiscated more than three-hundred priceless paintings and sculptures. Napoleon_sentence_157

Bonaparte sent General Pierre Augereau to Paris to lead a coup d'état and purge the royalists on 4 September—Coup of 18 Fructidor. Napoleon_sentence_158

This left Barras and his Republican allies in control again but dependent on Bonaparte, who proceeded to peace negotiations with Austria. Napoleon_sentence_159

These negotiations resulted in the Treaty of Campo Formio, and Bonaparte returned to Paris in December as a hero. Napoleon_sentence_160

He met Talleyrand, France's new Foreign Minister—who served in the same capacity for Emperor Napoleon—and they began to prepare for an invasion of Britain. Napoleon_sentence_161

Egyptian expedition Napoleon_section_5

Main article: French campaign in Egypt and Syria Napoleon_sentence_162

After two months of planning, Bonaparte decided that France's naval power was not yet strong enough to confront the British Royal Navy. Napoleon_sentence_163

He decided on a military expedition to seize Egypt and thereby undermine Britain's access to its trade interests in India. Napoleon_sentence_164

Bonaparte wished to establish a French presence in the Middle East, linking with Tipu Sultan, the Sultan of Mysore that fought the long four Anglo-Mysore Wars during the British invasion of India. Napoleon_sentence_165

Napoleon assured the Directory that "as soon as he had conquered Egypt, he will establish relations with the Indian princes and, together with them, attack the English in their possessions". Napoleon_sentence_166

The Directory agreed in order to secure a trade route to India. Napoleon_sentence_167

In May 1798, Bonaparte was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences. Napoleon_sentence_168

His Egyptian expedition included a group of 167 scientists, with mathematicians, naturalists, chemists, and geodesists among them. Napoleon_sentence_169

Their discoveries included the Rosetta Stone, and their work was published in the Description de l'Égypte in 1809. Napoleon_sentence_170

En route to Egypt, Bonaparte reached Malta on 9 June 1798, then controlled by the Knights Hospitaller. Napoleon_sentence_171

Grand Master Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim surrendered after token resistance, and Bonaparte captured an important naval base with the loss of only three men. Napoleon_sentence_172

General Bonaparte and his expedition eluded pursuit by the Royal Navy and landed at Alexandria on 1 July. Napoleon_sentence_173

He fought the Battle of Shubra Khit against the Mamluks, Egypt's ruling military caste. Napoleon_sentence_174

This helped the French practise their defensive tactic for the Battle of the Pyramids, fought on 21 July, about 24 km (15 mi) from the pyramids. Napoleon_sentence_175

General Bonaparte's forces of 25,000 roughly equalled those of the Mamluks' Egyptian cavalry. Napoleon_sentence_176

Twenty-nine French and approximately 2,000 Egyptians were killed. Napoleon_sentence_177

The victory boosted the morale of the French army. Napoleon_sentence_178

On 1 August 1798, the British fleet under Sir Horatio Nelson captured or destroyed all but two French vessels in the Battle of the Nile, defeating Bonaparte's goal to strengthen the French position in the Mediterranean. Napoleon_sentence_179

His army had succeeded in a temporary increase of French power in Egypt, though it faced repeated uprisings. Napoleon_sentence_180

In early 1799, he moved an army into the Ottoman province of Damascus (Syria and Galilee). Napoleon_sentence_181

Bonaparte led these 13,000 French soldiers in the conquest of the coastal towns of Arish, Gaza, Jaffa, and Haifa. Napoleon_sentence_182

The attack on Jaffa was particularly brutal. Napoleon_sentence_183

Bonaparte discovered that many of the defenders were former prisoners of war, ostensibly on parole, so he ordered the garrison and 1,400 prisoners to be executed by bayonet or drowning to save bullets. Napoleon_sentence_184

Men, women, and children were robbed and murdered for three days. Napoleon_sentence_185

Bonaparte began with an army of 13,000 men; 1,500 were reported missing, 1,200 died in combat, and thousands perished from disease—mostly bubonic plague. Napoleon_sentence_186

He failed to reduce the fortress of Acre, so he marched his army back to Egypt in May. Napoleon_sentence_187

To speed up the retreat, Bonaparte ordered plague-stricken men to be poisoned with opium; the number who died remains disputed, ranging from a low of 30 to a high of 580. Napoleon_sentence_188

He also brought out 1,000 wounded men. Napoleon_sentence_189

Back in Egypt on 25 July, Bonaparte defeated an Ottoman amphibious invasion at Abukir. Napoleon_sentence_190

Ruler of France Napoleon_section_6

Main articles: 18 Brumaire and Napoleonic era Napoleon_sentence_191

While in Egypt, Bonaparte stayed informed of European affairs. Napoleon_sentence_192

He learned that France had suffered a series of defeats in the War of the Second Coalition. Napoleon_sentence_193

On 24 August 1799, he took advantage of the temporary departure of British ships from French coastal ports and set sail for France, despite the fact that he had received no explicit orders from Paris. Napoleon_sentence_194

The army was left in the charge of Jean-Baptiste Kléber. Napoleon_sentence_195

Unknown to Bonaparte, the Directory had sent him orders to return to ward off possible invasions of French soil, but poor lines of communication prevented the delivery of these messages. Napoleon_sentence_196

By the time that he reached Paris in October, France's situation had been improved by a series of victories. Napoleon_sentence_197

The Republic, however, was bankrupt and the ineffective Directory was unpopular with the French population. Napoleon_sentence_198

The Directory discussed Bonaparte's "desertion" but was too weak to punish him. Napoleon_sentence_199

Despite the failures in Egypt, Napoleon returned to a hero's welcome. Napoleon_sentence_200

He drew together an alliance with director Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, his brother Lucien, speaker of the Council of Five Hundred Roger Ducos, director Joseph Fouché, and Talleyrand, and they overthrew the Directory by a coup d'état on 9 November 1799 ("the 18th Brumaire" according to the revolutionary calendar), closing down the Council of Five Hundred. Napoleon_sentence_201

Napoleon became "first consul" for ten years, with two consuls appointed by him who had consultative voices only. Napoleon_sentence_202

His power was confirmed by the new "Constitution of the Year VIII", originally devised by Sieyès to give Napoleon a minor role, but rewritten by Napoleon, and accepted by direct popular vote (3,000,000 in favour, 1,567 opposed). Napoleon_sentence_203

The constitution preserved the appearance of a republic but in reality established a dictatorship. Napoleon_sentence_204

French Consulate Napoleon_section_7

Main articles: French Consulate and War of the Second Coalition Napoleon_sentence_205

Napoleon established a political system that historian Martyn Lyons called "dictatorship by plebiscite". Napoleon_sentence_206

Worried by the democratic forces unleashed by the Revolution, but unwilling to ignore them entirely, Napoleon resorted to regular electoral consultations with the French people on his road to imperial power. Napoleon_sentence_207

He drafted the Constitution of the Year VIII and secured his own election as First Consul, taking up residence at the Tuileries. Napoleon_sentence_208

The constitution was approved in a rigged plebiscite held the following January, with 99.94 percent officially listed as voting "yes". Napoleon_sentence_209

Napoleon's brother, Lucien, had falsified the returns to show that 3 million people had participated in the plebiscite. Napoleon_sentence_210

The real number was 1.5 million. Napoleon_sentence_211

Political observers at the time assumed the eligible French voting public numbered about 5 million people, so the regime artificially doubled the participation rate to indicate popular enthusiasm for the consulate. Napoleon_sentence_212

In the first few months of the consulate, with war in Europe still raging and internal instability still plaguing the country, Napoleon's grip on power remained very tenuous. Napoleon_sentence_213

In the spring of 1800, Napoleon and his troops crossed the Swiss Alps into Italy, aiming to surprise the Austrian armies that had reoccupied the peninsula when Napoleon was still in Egypt. Napoleon_sentence_214

After a difficult crossing over the Alps, the French army entered the plains of Northern Italy virtually unopposed. Napoleon_sentence_215

While one French army approached from the north, the Austrians were busy with another stationed in Genoa, which was besieged by a substantial force. Napoleon_sentence_216

The fierce resistance of this French army, under André Masséna, gave the northern force some time to carry out their operations with little interference. Napoleon_sentence_217

After spending several days looking for each other, the two armies collided at the Battle of Marengo on 14 June. Napoleon_sentence_218

General Melas had a numerical advantage, fielding about 30,000 Austrian soldiers while Napoleon commanded 24,000 French troops. Napoleon_sentence_219

The battle began favourably for the Austrians as their initial attack surprised the French and gradually drove them back. Napoleon_sentence_220

Melas stated that he had won the battle and retired to his headquarters around 3 pm, leaving his subordinates in charge of pursuing the French. Napoleon_sentence_221

The French lines never broke during their tactical retreat. Napoleon_sentence_222

Napoleon constantly rode out among the troops urging them to stand and fight. Napoleon_sentence_223

Late in the afternoon, a full division under Desaix arrived on the field and reversed the tide of the battle. Napoleon_sentence_224

A series of artillery barrages and cavalry charges decimated the Austrian army, which fled over the Bormida River back to Alessandria, leaving behind 14,000 casualties. Napoleon_sentence_225

The following day, the Austrian army agreed to abandon Northern Italy once more with the Convention of Alessandria, which granted them safe passage to friendly soil in exchange for their fortresses throughout the region. Napoleon_sentence_226

Although critics have blamed Napoleon for several tactical mistakes preceding the battle, they have also praised his audacity for selecting a risky campaign strategy, choosing to invade the Italian peninsula from the north when the vast majority of French invasions came from the west, near or along the coastline. Napoleon_sentence_227

As Chandler points out, Napoleon spent almost a year getting the Austrians out of Italy in his first campaign. Napoleon_sentence_228

In 1800, it took him only a month to achieve the same goal. Napoleon_sentence_229

German strategist and field marshal Alfred von Schlieffen concluded that "Bonaparte did not annihilate his enemy but eliminated him and rendered him harmless" while "[attaining] the object of the campaign: the conquest of North Italy". Napoleon_sentence_230

Napoleon's triumph at Marengo secured his political authority and boosted his popularity back home, but it did not lead to an immediate peace. Napoleon_sentence_231

Bonaparte's brother, Joseph, led the complex negotiations in Lunéville and reported that Austria, emboldened by British support, would not acknowledge the new territory that France had acquired. Napoleon_sentence_232

As negotiations became increasingly fractious, Bonaparte gave orders to his general Moreau to strike Austria once more. Napoleon_sentence_233

Moreau and the French swept through Bavaria and scored an overwhelming victory at Hohenlinden in December 1800. Napoleon_sentence_234

As a result, the Austrians capitulated and signed the Treaty of Lunéville in February 1801. Napoleon_sentence_235

The treaty reaffirmed and expanded earlier French gains at Campo Formio. Napoleon_sentence_236

Temporary peace in Europe Napoleon_section_8

See also: Haitian Revolution Napoleon_sentence_237

After a decade of constant warfare, France and Britain signed the Treaty of Amiens in March 1802, bringing the Revolutionary Wars to an end. Napoleon_sentence_238

Amiens called for the withdrawal of British troops from recently conquered colonial territories as well as for assurances to curtail the expansionary goals of the French Republic. Napoleon_sentence_239

With Europe at peace and the economy recovering, Napoleon's popularity soared to its highest levels under the consulate, both domestically and abroad. Napoleon_sentence_240

In a new plebiscite during the spring of 1802, the French public came out in huge numbers to approve a constitution that made the Consulate permanent, essentially elevating Napoleon to dictator for life. Napoleon_sentence_241

Whereas the plebiscite two years earlier had brought out 1.5 million people to the polls, the new referendum enticed 3.6 million to go and vote (72 percent of all eligible voters). Napoleon_sentence_242

There was no secret ballot in 1802 and few people wanted to openly defy the regime. Napoleon_sentence_243

The constitution gained approval with over 99% of the vote. Napoleon_sentence_244

His broad powers were spelled out in the new constitution: Article 1. Napoleon_sentence_245

The French people name, and the Senate proclaims Napoleon-Bonaparte First Consul for Life. Napoleon_sentence_246

After 1802, he was generally referred to as Napoleon rather than Bonaparte. Napoleon_sentence_247

The brief peace in Europe allowed Napoleon to focus on the French colonies abroad. Napoleon_sentence_248

Saint-Domingue had managed to acquire a high level of political autonomy during the Revolutionary Wars, with Toussaint Louverture installing himself as de facto dictator by 1801. Napoleon_sentence_249

Napoleon saw his chance to recuperate the formerly wealthy colony when he signed the Treaty of Amiens. Napoleon_sentence_250

In the 1780s, Saint-Domingue had been France's wealthiest colony, producing more sugar than all the British West Indies colonies put together. Napoleon_sentence_251

However, during the Revolution, the National Convention voted to abolish slavery in February 1794. Napoleon_sentence_252

Under the terms of Amiens, Napoleon agreed to appease British demands by not abolishing slavery in any colonies where the 1794 decree had never been implemented. Napoleon_sentence_253

However, the 1794 decree was only implemented in Saint-Domingue, Guadeloupe and Guyane, and was a dead letter in Senegal, Mauritius, Reunion and Martinique, the last of which had been conquered by the British, who maintained the institution of slavery on that Caribbean island. Napoleon_sentence_254

In Guadeloupe, the 1794 law abolished slavery, and it was violently enforced by Victor Hugues against opposition from slaveholders. Napoleon_sentence_255

However, when slavery was reinstated in 1802, there was a slave revolt by Louis Delgres. Napoleon_sentence_256

The resulting Law of 20 May had the express purpose of reinstating slavery in Saint-Domingue, Guadeloupe and French Guiana, and restored slavery throughout the French Empire and its Caribbean colonies for another half a century, while the French trans-Atlantic slave trade continued for another twenty years. Napoleon_sentence_257

Napoleon sent an expedition under his brother-in-law General Leclerc to reassert control over Saint-Domingue. Napoleon_sentence_258

Although the French managed to capture Toussaint Louverture, the expedition failed when high rates of disease crippled the French army, and Jean-Jacques Dessalines won a string of victories, first against Leclerc, and when he died from yellow fever, then against Donatien-Marie-Joseph de Vimeur, vicomte de Rochambeau, whom Napoleon sent to relieve Leclerc with another 20,000 men. Napoleon_sentence_259

In May 1803, Napoleon acknowledged defeat, and the last 8,000 French troops left the island and the slaves proclaimed an independent republic that they called Haiti in 1804. Napoleon_sentence_260

In the process, Dessalines became arguably the most successful military commander in the struggle against Napoleonic France. Napoleon_sentence_261

Seeing the failure of his colonial efforts, Napoleon decided in 1803 to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States, instantly doubling the size of the U.S. Napoleon_sentence_262

The selling price in the Louisiana Purchase was less than three cents per acre, a total of $15 million. Napoleon_sentence_263

The peace with Britain proved to be uneasy and controversial. Napoleon_sentence_264

Britain did not evacuate Malta as promised and protested against Bonaparte's annexation of Piedmont and his Act of Mediation, which established a new Swiss Confederation. Napoleon_sentence_265

Neither of these territories were covered by Amiens, but they inflamed tensions significantly. Napoleon_sentence_266

The dispute culminated in a declaration of war by Britain in May 1803; Napoleon responded by reassembling the invasion camp at Boulogne. Napoleon_sentence_267

French Empire Napoleon_section_9

Main article: First French Empire Napoleon_sentence_268

See also: Coronation of Napoleon I and Napoleonic Wars Napoleon_sentence_269

During the consulate, Napoleon faced several royalist and Jacobin assassination plots, including the Conspiration des poignards (Dagger plot) in October 1800 and the Plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise (also known as the Infernal Machine) two months later. Napoleon_sentence_270

In January 1804, his police uncovered an assassination plot against him that involved Moreau and which was ostensibly sponsored by the Bourbon family, the former rulers of France. Napoleon_sentence_271

On the advice of Talleyrand, Napoleon ordered the kidnapping of the Duke of Enghien, violating the sovereignty of Baden. Napoleon_sentence_272

The Duke was quickly executed after a secret military trial, even though he had not been involved in the plot. Napoleon_sentence_273

Enghien's execution infuriated royal courts throughout Europe, becoming one of the contributing political factors for the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon_sentence_274

To expand his power, Napoleon used these assassination plots to justify the creation of an imperial system based on the Roman model. Napoleon_sentence_275

He believed that a Bourbon restoration would be more difficult if his family's succession was entrenched in the constitution. Napoleon_sentence_276

Launching yet another referendum, Napoleon was elected as Emperor of the French by a tally exceeding 99%. Napoleon_sentence_277

As with the Life Consulate two years earlier, this referendum produced heavy participation, bringing out almost 3.6 million voters to the polls. Napoleon_sentence_278

A keen observer of Bonaparte's rise to absolute power, Madame de Rémusat, explains that "men worn out by the turmoil of the Revolution […] looked for the domination of an able ruler" and that "people believed quite sincerely that Bonaparte, whether as consul or emperor, would exert his authority and save [them] from the perils of anarchy." Napoleon_sentence_279

Napoleon's coronation, at which Pope Pius VII officiated, took place at Notre Dame de Paris, on 2 December 1804. Napoleon_sentence_280

Two separate crowns were brought for the ceremony: a golden laurel wreath recalling the Roman Empire and a replica of Charlemagne's crown. Napoleon_sentence_281

Napoleon entered the ceremony wearing the laurel wreath and kept it on his head throughout the proceedings. Napoleon_sentence_282

For the official coronation, he raised the Charlemagne crown over his own head in a symbolic gesture, but never placed it on top because he was already wearing the golden wreath. Napoleon_sentence_283

Instead he placed the crown on Josephine's head, the event commemorated in the officially sanctioned painting by Jacques-Louis David. Napoleon_sentence_284

Napoleon was also crowned King of Italy, with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, at the Cathedral of Milan on 26 May 1805. Napoleon_sentence_285

He created eighteen Marshals of the Empire from among his top generals to secure the allegiance of the army on 18 May 1804, the official start of the Empire. Napoleon_sentence_286

War of the Third Coalition Napoleon_section_10

Main article: War of the Third Coalition Napoleon_sentence_287

Great Britain had broken the Peace of Amiens by declaring war on France in May 1803. Napoleon_sentence_288

In December 1804, an Anglo-Swedish agreement became the first step towards the creation of the Third Coalition. Napoleon_sentence_289

By April 1805, Britain had also signed an alliance with Russia. Napoleon_sentence_290

Austria had been defeated by France twice in recent memory and wanted revenge, so it joined the coalition a few months later. Napoleon_sentence_291

Before the formation of the Third Coalition, Napoleon had assembled an invasion force, the Armée d'Angleterre, around six camps at Boulogne in Northern France. Napoleon_sentence_292

He intended to use this invasion force to strike at England. Napoleon_sentence_293

They never invaded, but Napoleon's troops received careful and invaluable training for future military operations. Napoleon_sentence_294

The men at Boulogne formed the core for what Napoleon later called La Grande Armée. Napoleon_sentence_295

At the start, this French army had about 200,000 men organized into seven corps, which were large field units that contained 36–40 cannons each and were capable of independent action until other corps could come to the rescue. Napoleon_sentence_296

A single corps properly situated in a strong defensive position could survive at least a day without support, giving the Grande Armée countless strategic and tactical options on every campaign. Napoleon_sentence_297

On top of these forces, Napoleon created a cavalry reserve of 22,000 organized into two cuirassier divisions, four mounted dragoon divisions, one division of dismounted dragoons, and one of light cavalry, all supported by 24 artillery pieces. Napoleon_sentence_298

By 1805, the Grande Armée had grown to a force of 350,000 men, who were well equipped, well trained, and led by competent officers. Napoleon_sentence_299

Napoleon knew that the French fleet could not defeat the Royal Navy in a head-to-head battle, so he planned to lure it away from the English Channel through diversionary tactics. Napoleon_sentence_300

The main strategic idea involved the French Navy escaping from the British blockades of Toulon and Brest and threatening to attack the West Indies. Napoleon_sentence_301

In the face of this attack, it was hoped, the British would weaken their defence of the Western Approaches by sending ships to the Caribbean, allowing a combined Franco-Spanish fleet to take control of the channel long enough for French armies to cross and invade. Napoleon_sentence_302

However, the plan unravelled after the British victory at the Battle of Cape Finisterre in July 1805. Napoleon_sentence_303

French Admiral Villeneuve then retreated to Cádiz instead of linking up with French naval forces at Brest for an attack on the English Channel. Napoleon_sentence_304

By August 1805, Napoleon had realized that the strategic situation had changed fundamentally. Napoleon_sentence_305

Facing a potential invasion from his continental enemies, he decided to strike first and turned his army's sights from the English Channel to the Rhine. Napoleon_sentence_306

His basic objective was to destroy the isolated Austrian armies in Southern Germany before their Russian allies could arrive. Napoleon_sentence_307

On 25 September, after great secrecy and feverish marching, 200,000 French troops began to cross the Rhine on a front of 260 km (160 mi). Napoleon_sentence_308

Austrian commander Karl Mack had gathered the greater part of the Austrian army at the fortress of Ulm in Swabia. Napoleon_sentence_309

Napoleon swung his forces to the southeast and the Grande Armée performed an elaborate wheeling movement that outflanked the Austrian positions. Napoleon_sentence_310

The Ulm Maneuver completely surprised General Mack, who belatedly understood that his army had been cut off. Napoleon_sentence_311

After some minor engagements that culminated in the Battle of Ulm, Mack finally surrendered after realizing that there was no way to break out of the French encirclement. Napoleon_sentence_312

For just 2,000 French casualties, Napoleon had managed to capture a total of 60,000 Austrian soldiers through his army's rapid marching. Napoleon_sentence_313

The Ulm Campaign is generally regarded as a strategic masterpiece and was influential in the development of the Schlieffen Plan in the late 19th century. Napoleon_sentence_314

For the French, this spectacular victory on land was soured by the decisive victory that the Royal Navy attained at the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October. Napoleon_sentence_315

After Trafalgar, Britain had total domination of the seas for the duration of the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon_sentence_316

Following the Ulm Campaign, French forces managed to capture Vienna in November. Napoleon_sentence_317

The fall of Vienna provided the French a huge bounty as they captured 100,000 muskets, 500 cannons, and the intact bridges across the Danube. Napoleon_sentence_318

At this critical juncture, both Tsar Alexander I and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II decided to engage Napoleon in battle, despite reservations from some of their subordinates. Napoleon_sentence_319

Napoleon sent his army north in pursuit of the Allies, but then ordered his forces to retreat so that he could feign a grave weakness. Napoleon_sentence_320

Desperate to lure the Allies into battle, Napoleon gave every indication in the days preceding the engagement that the French army was in a pitiful state, even abandoning the dominant Pratzen Heights near the village of Austerlitz. Napoleon_sentence_321

At the Battle of Austerlitz, in Moravia on 2 December, he deployed the French army below the Pratzen Heights and deliberately weakened his right flank, enticing the Allies to launch a major assault there in the hopes of rolling up the whole French line. Napoleon_sentence_322

A forced march from Vienna by Marshal Davout and his III Corps plugged the gap left by Napoleon just in time. Napoleon_sentence_323

Meanwhile, the heavy Allied deployment against the French right flank weakened their center on the Pratzen Heights, which was viciously attacked by the IV Corps of Marshal Soult. Napoleon_sentence_324

With the Allied center demolished, the French swept through both enemy flanks and sent the Allies fleeing chaotically, capturing thousands of prisoners in the process. Napoleon_sentence_325

The battle is often seen as a tactical masterpiece because of the near-perfect execution of a calibrated but dangerous plan—of the same stature as Cannae, the celebrated triumph by Hannibal some 2,000 years before. Napoleon_sentence_326

The Allied disaster at Austerlitz significantly shook the faith of Emperor Francis in the British-led war effort. Napoleon_sentence_327

France and Austria agreed to an armistice immediately and the Treaty of Pressburg followed shortly after on 26 December. Napoleon_sentence_328

Pressburg took Austria out of both the war and the Coalition while reinforcing the earlier treaties of Campo Formio and of Lunéville between the two powers. Napoleon_sentence_329

The treaty confirmed the Austrian loss of lands to France in Italy and Bavaria, and lands in Germany to Napoleon's German allies. Napoleon_sentence_330

It also imposed an indemnity of 40 million francs on the defeated Habsburgs and allowed the fleeing Russian troops free passage through hostile territories and back to their home soil. Napoleon_sentence_331

Napoleon went on to say, "The battle of Austerlitz is the finest of all I have fought". Napoleon_sentence_332

Frank McLynn suggests that Napoleon was so successful at Austerlitz that he lost touch with reality, and what used to be French foreign policy became a "personal Napoleonic one". Napoleon_sentence_333

Vincent Cronin disagrees, stating that Napoleon was not overly ambitious for himself, "he embodied the ambitions of thirty million Frenchmen". Napoleon_sentence_334

Middle-Eastern alliances Napoleon_section_11

Main articles: Franco-Ottoman alliance and Franco-Persian alliance Napoleon_sentence_335

Napoleon continued to entertain a grand scheme to establish a French presence in the Middle East in order to put pressure on Britain and Russia, and perhaps form an alliance with the Ottoman Empire. Napoleon_sentence_336

In February 1806, Ottoman Emperor Selim III recognised Napoleon as Emperor. Napoleon_sentence_337

He also opted for an alliance with France, calling France "our sincere and natural ally". Napoleon_sentence_338

That decision brought the Ottoman Empire into a losing war against Russia and Britain. Napoleon_sentence_339

A Franco-Persian alliance was also formed between Napoleon and the Persian Empire of Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar. Napoleon_sentence_340

It collapsed in 1807, when France and Russia themselves formed an unexpected alliance. Napoleon_sentence_341

In the end, Napoleon had made no effective alliances in the Middle East. Napoleon_sentence_342

War of the Fourth Coalition and Tilsit Napoleon_section_12

Main article: War of the Fourth Coalition Napoleon_sentence_343

After Austerlitz, Napoleon established the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806. Napoleon_sentence_344

A collection of German states intended to serve as a buffer zone between France and Central Europe, the creation of the Confederation spelled the end of the Holy Roman Empire and significantly alarmed the Prussians. Napoleon_sentence_345

The brazen reorganization of German territory by the French risked threatening Prussian influence in the region, if not eliminating it outright. Napoleon_sentence_346

War fever in Berlin rose steadily throughout the summer of 1806. Napoleon_sentence_347

At the insistence of his court, especially his wife Queen Louise, Frederick William III decided to challenge the French domination of Central Europe by going to war. Napoleon_sentence_348

The initial military manoeuvres began in September 1806. Napoleon_sentence_349

In a letter to Marshal Soult detailing the plan for the campaign, Napoleon described the essential features of Napoleonic warfare and introduced the phrase le bataillon-carré ("square battalion"). Napoleon_sentence_350

In the bataillon-carré system, the various corps of the Grande Armée would march uniformly together in close supporting distance. Napoleon_sentence_351

If any single corps was attacked, the others could quickly spring into action and arrive to help. Napoleon_sentence_352

Napoleon invaded Prussia with 180,000 troops, rapidly marching on the right bank of the River Saale. Napoleon_sentence_353

As in previous campaigns, his fundamental objective was to destroy one opponent before reinforcements from another could tip the balance of the war. Napoleon_sentence_354

Upon learning the whereabouts of the Prussian army, the French swung westwards and crossed the Saale with overwhelming force. Napoleon_sentence_355

At the twin battles of Jena and Auerstedt, fought on 14 October, the French convincingly defeated the Prussians and inflicted heavy casualties. Napoleon_sentence_356

With several major commanders dead or incapacitated, the Prussian king proved incapable of effectively commanding the army, which began to quickly disintegrate. Napoleon_sentence_357

In a vaunted pursuit that epitomized the "peak of Napoleonic warfare", according to historian Richard Brooks, the French managed to capture 140,000 soldiers, over 2,000 cannons and hundreds of ammunition wagons, all in a single month. Napoleon_sentence_358

Historian David Chandler wrote of the Prussian forces: "Never has the morale of any army been more completely shattered". Napoleon_sentence_359

Despite their overwhelming defeat, the Prussians refused to negotiate with the French until the Russians had an opportunity to enter the fight. Napoleon_sentence_360

Following his triumph, Napoleon imposed the first elements of the Continental System through the Berlin Decree issued in November 1806. Napoleon_sentence_361

The Continental System, which prohibited European nations from trading with Britain, was widely violated throughout his reign. Napoleon_sentence_362

In the next few months, Napoleon marched against the advancing Russian armies through Poland and was involved in the bloody stalemate at the Battle of Eylau in February 1807. Napoleon_sentence_363

After a period of rest and consolidation on both sides, the war restarted in June with an initial struggle at Heilsberg that proved indecisive. Napoleon_sentence_364

On 14 June Napoleon obtained an overwhelming victory over the Russians at the Battle of Friedland, wiping out the majority of the Russian army in a very bloody struggle. Napoleon_sentence_365

The scale of their defeat convinced the Russians to make peace with the French. Napoleon_sentence_366

On 19 June, Tsar Alexander sent an envoy to seek an armistice with Napoleon. Napoleon_sentence_367

The latter assured the envoy that the Vistula River represented the natural borders between French and Russian influence in Europe. Napoleon_sentence_368

On that basis, the two emperors began peace negotiations at the town of Tilsit after meeting on an iconic raft on the River Niemen. Napoleon_sentence_369

The very first thing Alexander said to Napoleon was probably well-calibrated: "I hate the English as much as you do". Napoleon_sentence_370

Alexander faced pressure from his brother, Duke Constantine, to make peace with Napoleon. Napoleon_sentence_371

Given the victory he had just achieved, the French emperor offered the Russians relatively lenient terms—demanding that Russia join the Continental System, withdraw its forces from Wallachia and Moldavia, and hand over the Ionian Islands to France. Napoleon_sentence_372

By contrast, Napoleon dictated very harsh peace terms for Prussia, despite the ceaseless exhortations of Queen Louise. Napoleon_sentence_373

Wiping out half of Prussian territories from the map, Napoleon created a new kingdom of 2,800 square kilometres (1,100 sq mi) called Westphalia and appointed his young brother Jérôme as its monarch. Napoleon_sentence_374

Prussia's humiliating treatment at Tilsit caused a deep and bitter antagonism which festered as the Napoleonic era progressed. Napoleon_sentence_375

Moreover, Alexander's pretensions at friendship with Napoleon led the latter to seriously misjudge the true intentions of his Russian counterpart, who would violate numerous provisions of the treaty in the next few years. Napoleon_sentence_376

Despite these problems, the Treaties of Tilsit at last gave Napoleon a respite from war and allowed him to return to France, which he had not seen in over 300 days. Napoleon_sentence_377

Peninsular War and Erfurt Napoleon_section_13

Main article: Peninsular War Napoleon_sentence_378

The settlements at Tilsit gave Napoleon time to organize his empire. Napoleon_sentence_379

One of his major objectives became enforcing the Continental System against the British forces. Napoleon_sentence_380

He decided to focus his attention on the Kingdom of Portugal, which consistently violated his trade prohibitions. Napoleon_sentence_381

After defeat in the War of the Oranges in 1801, Portugal adopted a double-sided policy. Napoleon_sentence_382

At first, John VI agreed to close his ports to British trade. Napoleon_sentence_383

The situation changed dramatically after the Franco-Spanish defeat at Trafalgar; John grew bolder and officially resumed diplomatic and trade relations with Britain. Napoleon_sentence_384

Unhappy with this change of policy by the Portuguese government, Napoleon negotiated a secret treaty with Charles IV of Spain and sent an army to invade Portugal. Napoleon_sentence_385

On 17 October 1807, 24,000 French troops under General Junot crossed the Pyrenees with Spanish cooperation and headed towards Portugal to enforce Napoleon's orders. Napoleon_sentence_386

This attack was the first step in what would eventually become the Peninsular War, a six-year struggle that significantly sapped French strength. Napoleon_sentence_387

Throughout the winter of 1808, French agents became increasingly involved in Spanish internal affairs, attempting to incite discord between members of the Spanish royal family. Napoleon_sentence_388

On 16 February 1808, secret French machinations finally materialized when Napoleon announced that he would intervene to mediate between the rival political factions in the country. Napoleon_sentence_389

Marshal Murat led 120,000 troops into Spain. Napoleon_sentence_390

The French arrived in Madrid on 24 March, where wild riots against the occupation erupted just a few weeks later. Napoleon_sentence_391

Napoleon appointed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as the new King of Spain in the summer of 1808. Napoleon_sentence_392

The appointment enraged a heavily religious and conservative Spanish population. Napoleon_sentence_393

Resistance to French aggression soon spread throughout Spain. Napoleon_sentence_394

The shocking French defeat at the Battle of Bailén in July gave hope to Napoleon's enemies and partly persuaded the French emperor to intervene in person. Napoleon_sentence_395

Before going to Iberia, Napoleon decided to address several lingering issues with the Russians. Napoleon_sentence_396

At the Congress of Erfurt in October 1808, Napoleon hoped to keep Russia on his side during the upcoming struggle in Spain and during any potential conflict against Austria. Napoleon_sentence_397

The two sides reached an agreement, the Erfurt Convention, that called upon Britain to cease its war against France, that recognized the Russian conquest of Finland from Sweden and made it an autonomous Grand Duchy, and that affirmed Russian support for France in a possible war against Austria "to the best of its ability". Napoleon_sentence_398

Napoleon then returned to France and prepared for war. Napoleon_sentence_399

The Grande Armée, under the Emperor's personal command, rapidly crossed the Ebro River in November 1808 and inflicted a series of crushing defeats against the Spanish forces. Napoleon_sentence_400

After clearing the last Spanish force guarding the capital at Somosierra, Napoleon entered Madrid on 4 December with 80,000 troops. Napoleon_sentence_401

He then unleashed his soldiers against Moore and the British forces. Napoleon_sentence_402

The British were swiftly driven to the coast, and they withdrew from Spain entirely after a last stand at the Battle of Corunna in January 1809. Napoleon_sentence_403

Napoleon would end up leaving Iberia in order to deal with the Austrians in Central Europe, but the Peninsular War continued on long after his absence. Napoleon_sentence_404

He never returned to Spain after the 1808 campaign. Napoleon_sentence_405

Several months after Corunna, the British sent another army to the peninsula under the future Duke of Wellington. Napoleon_sentence_406

The war then settled into a complex and asymmetric strategic deadlock where all sides struggled to gain the upper hand. Napoleon_sentence_407

The highlight of the conflict became the brutal guerrilla warfare that engulfed much of the Spanish countryside. Napoleon_sentence_408

Both sides committed the worst atrocities of the Napoleonic Wars during this phase of the conflict. Napoleon_sentence_409

The vicious guerrilla fighting in Spain, largely absent from the French campaigns in Central Europe, severely disrupted the French lines of supply and communication. Napoleon_sentence_410

Although France maintained roughly 300,000 troops in Iberia during the Peninsular War, the vast majority were tied down to garrison duty and to intelligence operations. Napoleon_sentence_411

The French were never able to concentrate all of their forces effectively, prolonging the war until events elsewhere in Europe finally turned the tide in favour of the Allies. Napoleon_sentence_412

After the invasion of Russia in 1812, the number of French troops in Spain vastly declined as Napoleon needed reinforcements to conserve his strategic position in Europe. Napoleon_sentence_413

By 1814, after scores of battles and sieges throughout Iberia, the Allies had managed to push the French out of the peninsula. Napoleon_sentence_414

The impact of the Napoleonic invasion of Spain and ousting of the Spanish Bourbon monarchy in favour of his brother Joseph had an enormous impact on the Spanish empire. Napoleon_sentence_415

In Spanish America many local elites formed juntas and set up mechanisms to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII of Spain, whom they considered the legitimate Spanish monarch. Napoleon_sentence_416

The outbreak of the Spanish American wars of independence in most of the empire was a result of Napoleon's destabilizing actions in Spain and led to the rise of strongmen in the wake of these wars. Napoleon_sentence_417

War of the Fifth Coalition and Marie Louise Napoleon_section_14

Main article: War of the Fifth Coalition Napoleon_sentence_418

After four years on the sidelines, Austria sought another war with France to avenge its recent defeats. Napoleon_sentence_419

Austria could not count on Russian support because the latter was at war with Britain, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire in 1809. Napoleon_sentence_420

Frederick William of Prussia initially promised to help the Austrians, but reneged before conflict began. Napoleon_sentence_421

A report from the Austrian finance minister suggested that the treasury would run out of money by the middle of 1809 if the large army that the Austrians had formed since the Third Coalition remained mobilized. Napoleon_sentence_422

Although Archduke Charles warned that the Austrians were not ready for another showdown with Napoleon, a stance that landed him in the so-called "peace party", he did not want to see the army demobilized either. Napoleon_sentence_423

On 8 February 1809, the advocates for war finally succeeded when the Imperial Government secretly decided on another confrontation against the French. Napoleon_sentence_424

In the early morning of 10 April, leading elements of the Austrian army crossed the Inn River and invaded Bavaria. Napoleon_sentence_425

The early Austrian attack surprised the French; Napoleon himself was still in Paris when he heard about the invasion. Napoleon_sentence_426

He arrived at Donauwörth on the 17th to find the Grande Armée in a dangerous position, with its two wings separated by 120 km (75 mi) and joined together by a thin cordon of Bavarian troops. Napoleon_sentence_427

Charles pressed the left wing of the French army and hurled his men towards the III Corps of Marshal Davout. Napoleon_sentence_428

In response, Napoleon came up with a plan to cut off the Austrians in the celebrated Landshut Maneuver. Napoleon_sentence_429

He realigned the axis of his army and marched his soldiers towards the town of Eckmühl. Napoleon_sentence_430

The French scored a convincing win in the resulting Battle of Eckmühl, forcing Charles to withdraw his forces over the Danube and into Bohemia. Napoleon_sentence_431

On 13 May, Vienna fell for the second time in four years, although the war continued since most of the Austrian army had survived the initial engagements in Southern Germany. Napoleon_sentence_432

By 17 May, the main Austrian army under Charles had arrived on the Marchfeld. Napoleon_sentence_433

Charles kept the bulk of his troops several kilometres away from the river bank in hopes of concentrating them at the point where Napoleon decided to cross. Napoleon_sentence_434

On 21 May, the French made their first major effort to cross the Danube, precipitating the Battle of Aspern-Essling. Napoleon_sentence_435

The Austrians enjoyed a comfortable numerical superiority over the French throughout the battle. Napoleon_sentence_436

On the first day, Charles disposed of 110,000 soldiers against only 31,000 commanded by Napoleon. Napoleon_sentence_437

By the second day, reinforcements had boosted French numbers up to 70,000. Napoleon_sentence_438

The battle was characterized by a vicious back-and-forth struggle for the two villages of Aspern and Essling, the focal points of the French bridgehead. Napoleon_sentence_439

By the end of the fighting, the French had lost Aspern but still controlled Essling. Napoleon_sentence_440

A sustained Austrian artillery bombardment eventually convinced Napoleon to withdraw his forces back onto Lobau Island. Napoleon_sentence_441

Both sides inflicted about 23,000 casualties on each other. Napoleon_sentence_442

It was the first defeat Napoleon suffered in a major set-piece battle, and it caused excitement throughout many parts of Europe because it proved that he could be beaten on the battlefield. Napoleon_sentence_443

After the setback at Aspern-Essling, Napoleon took more than six weeks in planning and preparing for contingencies before he made another attempt at crossing the Danube. Napoleon_sentence_444

From 30 June to the early days of July, the French recrossed the Danube in strength, with more than 180,000 troops marching across the Marchfeld towards the Austrians. Napoleon_sentence_445

Charles received the French with 150,000 of his own men. Napoleon_sentence_446

In the ensuing Battle of Wagram, which also lasted two days, Napoleon commanded his forces in what was the largest battle of his career up until then. Napoleon_sentence_447

Napoleon finished off the battle with a concentrated central thrust that punctured a hole in the Austrian army and forced Charles to retreat. Napoleon_sentence_448

Austrian losses were very heavy, reaching well over 40,000 casualties. Napoleon_sentence_449

The French were too exhausted to pursue the Austrians immediately, but Napoleon eventually caught up with Charles at Znaim and the latter signed an armistice on 12 July. Napoleon_sentence_450

In the Kingdom of Holland, the British launched the Walcheren Campaign to open up a second front in the war and to relieve the pressure on the Austrians. Napoleon_sentence_451

The British army only landed at Walcheren on 30 July, by which point the Austrians had already been defeated. Napoleon_sentence_452

The Walcheren Campaign was characterized by little fighting but heavy casualties thanks to the popularly dubbed "Walcheren Fever". Napoleon_sentence_453

Over 4000 British troops were lost in a bungled campaign, and the rest withdrew in December 1809. Napoleon_sentence_454

The main strategic result from the campaign became the delayed political settlement between the French and the Austrians. Napoleon_sentence_455

Emperor Francis wanted to wait and see how the British performed in their theatre before entering into negotiations with Napoleon. Napoleon_sentence_456

Once it became apparent that the British were going nowhere, the Austrians agreed to peace talks. Napoleon_sentence_457

The resulting Treaty of Schönbrunn in October 1809 was the harshest that France had imposed on Austria in recent memory. Napoleon_sentence_458

Metternich and Archduke Charles had the preservation of the Habsburg Empire as their fundamental goal, and to this end they succeeded by making Napoleon seek more modest goals in return for promises of friendship between the two powers. Napoleon_sentence_459

Nevertheless, while most of the hereditary lands remained a part of the Habsburg realm, France received Carinthia, Carniola, and the Adriatic ports, while Galicia was given to the Poles and the Salzburg area of the Tyrol went to the Bavarians. Napoleon_sentence_460

Austria lost over three million subjects, about one-fifth of her total population, as a result of these territorial changes. Napoleon_sentence_461

Although fighting in Iberia continued, the War of the Fifth Coalition would be the last major conflict on the European continent for the next three years. Napoleon_sentence_462

Napoleon turned his focus to domestic affairs after the war. Napoleon_sentence_463

Empress Joséphine had still not given birth to a child from Napoleon, who became worried about the future of his empire following his death. Napoleon_sentence_464

Desperate for a legitimate heir, Napoleon divorced Joséphine on 10 January 1810 and started looking for a new wife. Napoleon_sentence_465

Hoping to cement the recent alliance with Austria through a family connection, Napoleon married the Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, daughter of Francis II, who was 18 years old at the time. Napoleon_sentence_466

On 20 March 1811, Marie Louise gave birth to a baby boy, whom Napoleon made heir apparent and bestowed the title of King of Rome. Napoleon_sentence_467

His son never actually ruled the empire, but given his brief titular rule and cousin Louis-Napoléon's subsequent naming himself Napoléon III, historians often refer to him as Napoleon II. Napoleon_sentence_468

Invasion of Russia Napoleon_section_15

Main article: French invasion of Russia Napoleon_sentence_469

In 1808, Napoleon and Tsar Alexander met at the Congress of Erfurt to preserve the Russo-French alliance. Napoleon_sentence_470

The leaders had a friendly personal relationship after their first meeting at Tilsit in 1807. Napoleon_sentence_471

By 1811, however, tensions had increased and Alexander was under pressure from the Russian nobility to break off the alliance. Napoleon_sentence_472

A major strain on the relationship between the two nations became the regular violations of the Continental System by the Russians, which led Napoleon to threaten Alexander with serious consequences if he formed an alliance with Britain. Napoleon_sentence_473

By 1812, advisers to Alexander suggested the possibility of an invasion of the French Empire and the recapture of Poland. Napoleon_sentence_474

On receipt of intelligence reports on Russia's war preparations, Napoleon expanded his Grande Armée to more than 450,000 men. Napoleon_sentence_475

He ignored repeated advice against an invasion of the Russian heartland and prepared for an offensive campaign; on 24 June 1812 the invasion commenced. Napoleon_sentence_476

In an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and patriots, Napoleon termed the war the Second Polish War—the First Polish War had been the Bar Confederation uprising by Polish nobles against Russia in 1768. Napoleon_sentence_477

Polish patriots wanted the Russian part of Poland to be joined with the Duchy of Warsaw and an independent Poland created. Napoleon_sentence_478

This was rejected by Napoleon, who stated he had promised his ally Austria this would not happen. Napoleon_sentence_479

Napoleon refused to manumit the Russian serfs because of concerns this might provoke a reaction in his army's rear. Napoleon_sentence_480

The serfs later committed atrocities against French soldiers during France's retreat. Napoleon_sentence_481

The Russians avoided Napoleon's objective of a decisive engagement and instead retreated deeper into Russia. Napoleon_sentence_482

A brief attempt at resistance was made at Smolensk in August; the Russians were defeated in a series of battles, and Napoleon resumed his advance. Napoleon_sentence_483

The Russians again avoided battle, although in a few cases this was only achieved because Napoleon uncharacteristically hesitated to attack when the opportunity arose. Napoleon_sentence_484

Owing to the Russian army's scorched earth tactics, the French found it increasingly difficult to forage food for themselves and their horses. Napoleon_sentence_485

The Russians eventually offered battle outside Moscow on 7 September: the Battle of Borodino resulted in approximately 44,000 Russian and 35,000 French dead, wounded or captured, and may have been the bloodiest day of battle in history up to that point in time. Napoleon_sentence_486

Although the French had won, the Russian army had accepted, and withstood, the major battle Napoleon had hoped would be decisive. Napoleon_sentence_487

Napoleon's own account was: "The most terrible of all my battles was the one before Moscow. Napoleon_sentence_488

The French showed themselves to be worthy of victory, but the Russians showed themselves worthy of being invincible". Napoleon_sentence_489

The Russian army withdrew and retreated past Moscow. Napoleon_sentence_490

Napoleon entered the city, assuming its fall would end the war and Alexander would negotiate peace. Napoleon_sentence_491

However, on orders of the city's governor Feodor Rostopchin, rather than capitulation, Moscow was burned. Napoleon_sentence_492

After five weeks, Napoleon and his army left. Napoleon_sentence_493

In early November Napoleon got concerned about loss of control back in France after the Malet coup of 1812. Napoleon_sentence_494

His army walked through snow up to their knees, and nearly 10,000 men and horses froze to death on the night of 8/9 November alone. Napoleon_sentence_495

After the Battle of Berezina Napoleon managed to escape but had to abandon much of the remaining artillery and baggage train. Napoleon_sentence_496

On 5 December, shortly before arriving in Vilnius, Napoleon left the army in a sledge. Napoleon_sentence_497

The French suffered in the course of a ruinous retreat, including from the harshness of the Russian Winter. Napoleon_sentence_498

The Armée had begun as over 400,000 frontline troops, with fewer than 40,000 crossing the Berezina River in November 1812. Napoleon_sentence_499

The Russians had lost 150,000 soldiers in battle and hundreds of thousands of civilians. Napoleon_sentence_500

War of the Sixth Coalition Napoleon_section_16

Main article: War of the Sixth Coalition Napoleon_sentence_501

There was a lull in fighting over the winter of 1812–13 while both the Russians and the French rebuilt their forces; Napoleon was able to field 350,000 troops. Napoleon_sentence_502

Heartened by France's loss in Russia, Prussia joined with Austria, Sweden, Russia, Great Britain, Spain, and Portugal in a new coalition. Napoleon_sentence_503

Napoleon assumed command in Germany and inflicted a series of defeats on the Coalition culminating in the Battle of Dresden in August 1813. Napoleon_sentence_504

Despite these successes, the numbers continued to mount against Napoleon, and the French army was pinned down by a force twice its size and lost at the Battle of Leipzig. Napoleon_sentence_505

This was by far the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars and cost more than 90,000 casualties in total. Napoleon_sentence_506

The Allies offered peace terms in the Frankfurt proposals in November 1813. Napoleon_sentence_507

Napoleon would remain as Emperor of the French, but it would be reduced to its "natural frontiers". Napoleon_sentence_508

That meant that France could retain control of Belgium, Savoy and the Rhineland (the west bank of the Rhine River), while giving up control of all the rest, including all of Spain and the Netherlands, and most of Italy and Germany. Napoleon_sentence_509

Metternich told Napoleon these were the best terms the Allies were likely to offer; after further victories, the terms would be harsher and harsher. Napoleon_sentence_510

Metternich's motivation was to maintain France as a balance against Russian threats, while ending the highly destabilizing series of wars. Napoleon_sentence_511

Napoleon, expecting to win the war, delayed too long and lost this opportunity; by December the Allies had withdrawn the offer. Napoleon_sentence_512

When his back was to the wall in 1814 he tried to reopen peace negotiations on the basis of accepting the Frankfurt proposals. Napoleon_sentence_513

The Allies now had new, harsher terms that included the retreat of France to its 1791 boundaries, which meant the loss of Belgium. Napoleon_sentence_514

Napoleon would remain Emperor, however he rejected the term. Napoleon_sentence_515

The British wanted Napoleon permanently removed, and they prevailed, but Napoleon adamantly refused. Napoleon_sentence_516

Napoleon withdrew back into France, his army reduced to 70,000 soldiers and little cavalry; he faced more than three times as many Allied troops. Napoleon_sentence_517

The French were surrounded: British armies pressed from the south, and other Coalition forces positioned to attack from the German states. Napoleon_sentence_518

Napoleon won a series of victories in the Six Days' Campaign, though these were not significant enough to turn the tide. Napoleon_sentence_519

The leaders of Paris surrendered to the Coalition in March 1814. Napoleon_sentence_520

On 1 April, Alexander addressed the Sénat conservateur. Napoleon_sentence_521

Long docile to Napoleon, under Talleyrand's prodding it had turned against him. Napoleon_sentence_522

Alexander told the Sénat that the Allies were fighting against Napoleon, not France, and they were prepared to offer honourable peace terms if Napoleon were removed from power. Napoleon_sentence_523

The next day, the Sénat passed the Acte de déchéance de l'Empereur ("Emperor's Demise Act"), which declared Napoleon deposed. Napoleon_sentence_524

Napoleon had advanced as far as Fontainebleau when he learned that Paris was lost. Napoleon_sentence_525

When Napoleon proposed the army march on the capital, his senior officers and marshals mutinied. Napoleon_sentence_526

On 4 April, led by Ney, the senior officers confronted Napoleon. Napoleon_sentence_527

When Napoleon asserted the army would follow him, Ney replied the army would follow its generals. Napoleon_sentence_528

While the ordinary soldiers and regimental officers wanted to fight on, the senior commanders were unwilling to continue. Napoleon_sentence_529

Without any senior officers or marshals any prospective invasion of Paris would have been impossible. Napoleon_sentence_530

Bowing to the inevitable, on 4 April Napoleon abdicated in favour of his son, with Marie Louise as regent. Napoleon_sentence_531

However, the Allies refused to accept this under prodding from Alexander, who feared that Napoleon might find an excuse to retake the throne. Napoleon_sentence_532

Napoleon was then forced to announce his unconditional abdication only two days later. Napoleon_sentence_533

Exile to Elba Napoleon_section_17

In the Treaty of Fontainebleau, the Allies exiled Napoleon to Elba, an island of 12,000 inhabitants in the Mediterranean, 20 km (12 mi) off the Tuscan coast. Napoleon_sentence_534

They gave him sovereignty over the island and allowed him to retain the title of Emperor. Napoleon_sentence_535

Napoleon attempted suicide with a pill he had carried after nearly being captured by the Russians during the retreat from Moscow. Napoleon_sentence_536

Its potency had weakened with age, however, and he survived to be exiled, while his wife and son took refuge in Austria. Napoleon_sentence_537

He was conveyed to the island on HMS Undaunted by Captain Thomas Ussher, and he arrived at Portoferraio on 30 May 1814. Napoleon_sentence_538

In the first few months on Elba he created a small navy and army, developed the iron mines, oversaw the construction of new roads, issued decrees on modern agricultural methods, and overhauled the island's legal and educational system. Napoleon_sentence_539

A few months into his exile, Napoleon learned that his ex-wife Josephine had died in France. Napoleon_sentence_540

He was devastated by the news, locking himself in his room and refusing to leave for two days. Napoleon_sentence_541

Hundred Days Napoleon_section_18

Main article: Hundred Days Napoleon_sentence_542

Separated from his wife and son, who had returned to Austria, cut off from the allowance guaranteed to him by the Treaty of Fontainebleau, and aware of rumours he was about to be banished to a remote island in the Atlantic Ocean, Napoleon escaped from Elba in the brig Inconstant on 26 February 1815 with 700 men. Napoleon_sentence_543

Two days later, he landed on the French mainland at Golfe-Juan and started heading north. Napoleon_sentence_544

The 5th Regiment was sent to intercept him and made contact just south of Grenoble on 7 March 1815. Napoleon_sentence_545

Napoleon approached the regiment alone, dismounted his horse and, when he was within gunshot range, shouted to the soldiers, "Here I am. Napoleon_sentence_546

Kill your Emperor, if you wish." Napoleon_sentence_547

The soldiers quickly responded with, "Vive L'Empereur!" Napoleon_sentence_548

Ney, who had boasted to the restored Bourbon king, Louis XVIII, that he would bring Napoleon to Paris in an iron cage, affectionately kissed his former emperor and forgot his oath of allegiance to the Bourbon monarch. Napoleon_sentence_549

The two then marched together toward Paris with a growing army. Napoleon_sentence_550

The unpopular Louis XVIII fled to Belgium after realizing that he had little political support. Napoleon_sentence_551

On 13 March, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared Napoleon an outlaw. Napoleon_sentence_552

Four days later, Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia each pledged to put 150,000 men into the field to end his rule. Napoleon_sentence_553

Napoleon arrived in Paris on 20 March and governed for a period now called the Hundred Days. Napoleon_sentence_554

By the start of June the armed forces available to him had reached 200,000, and he decided to go on the offensive to attempt to drive a wedge between the oncoming British and Prussian armies. Napoleon_sentence_555

The French Army of the North crossed the frontier into the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, in modern-day Belgium. Napoleon_sentence_556

Napoleon's forces fought two Coalition armies, commanded by the British Duke of Wellington and the Prussian Prince Blücher, at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815. Napoleon_sentence_557

Wellington's army withstood repeated attacks by the French and drove them from the field while the Prussians arrived in force and broke through Napoleon's right flank. Napoleon_sentence_558

Napoleon returned to Paris and found that both the legislature and the people had turned against him. Napoleon_sentence_559

Realizing that his position was untenable, he abdicated on 22 June in favour of his son. Napoleon_sentence_560

He left Paris three days later and settled at Josephine's former palace in Malmaison (on the western bank of the Seine about 17 kilometres (11 mi) west of Paris). Napoleon_sentence_561

Even as Napoleon travelled to Paris, the Coalition forces swept through France (arriving in the vicinity of Paris on 29 June), with the stated intent of restoring Louis XVIII to the French throne. Napoleon_sentence_562

When Napoleon heard that Prussian troops had orders to capture him dead or alive, he fled to Rochefort, considering an escape to the United States. Napoleon_sentence_563

British ships were blocking every port. Napoleon_sentence_564

Napoleon surrendered to Captain Frederick Maitland on HMS Bellerophon on 15 July 1815. Napoleon_sentence_565

Exile on Saint Helena Napoleon_section_19

The British kept Napoleon on the island of Saint Helena in the Atlantic Ocean, 1,870 km (1,162 mi) from the west coast of Africa. Napoleon_sentence_566

They also took the precaution of sending a garrison of soldiers to uninhabited Ascension Island, which lay between St. Helena and Europe. Napoleon_sentence_567

Napoleon was moved to Longwood House on Saint Helena in December 1815; it had fallen into disrepair, and the location was damp, windswept and unhealthy. Napoleon_sentence_568

The Times published articles insinuating the British government was trying to hasten his death. Napoleon_sentence_569

Napoleon often complained of the living conditions in letters to the governor and his custodian, Hudson Lowe, while his attendants complained of "colds, catarrhs, damp floors and poor provisions." Napoleon_sentence_570

Modern scientists have speculated that his later illness may have arisen from arsenic poisoning caused by copper arsenite in the wallpaper at Longwood House. Napoleon_sentence_571

With a small cadre of followers, Napoleon dictated his memoirs and grumbled about conditions. Napoleon_sentence_572

Lowe cut Napoleon's expenditure, ruled that no gifts were allowed if they mentioned his imperial status, and made his supporters sign a guarantee they would stay with the prisoner indefinitely. Napoleon_sentence_573

While in exile, Napoleon wrote a book about Julius Caesar, one of his great heroes. Napoleon_sentence_574

He also studied English under the tutelage of Count Emmanuel de Las Cases with the main aim of being able to read English newspapers and books, as access to French newspapers and books was heavily restricted to him on Saint Helena. Napoleon_sentence_575

There were rumours of plots and even of his escape, but in reality no serious attempts were made. Napoleon_sentence_576

For English poet Lord Byron, Napoleon was the epitome of the Romantic hero, the persecuted, lonely, and flawed genius. Napoleon_sentence_577

Death Napoleon_section_20

Further information: Death mask of Napoleon and Retour des cendres Napoleon_sentence_578

Napoleon's personal physician, Barry O'Meara, warned London that his declining state of health was mainly caused by the harsh treatment. Napoleon_sentence_579

Napoleon confined himself for months on end in his damp and wretched habitation of Longwood. Napoleon_sentence_580

In February 1821, Napoleon's health began to deteriorate rapidly, and he reconciled with the Catholic Church. Napoleon_sentence_581

He died on 5 May 1821, after confession, Extreme Unction and Viaticum in the presence of Father Ange Vignali. Napoleon_sentence_582

His last words were, France, l'armée, tête d'armée, Joséphine ("France, the army, head of the army, Joséphine"). Napoleon_sentence_583

Napoleon's original death mask was created around 6 May, although it is not clear which doctor created it. Napoleon_sentence_584

In his will, he had asked to be buried on the banks of the Seine, but the British governor said he should be buried on Saint Helena, in the Valley of the Willows. Napoleon_sentence_585

In 1840, Louis Philippe I obtained permission from the British to return Napoleon's remains to France. Napoleon_sentence_586

On 15 December 1840, a state funeral was held. Napoleon_sentence_587

The hearse proceeded from the Arc de Triomphe down the Champs-Élysées, across the Place de la Concorde to the Esplanade des Invalides and then to the cupola in St Jérôme's Chapel, where it remained until the tomb designed by Louis Visconti was completed. Napoleon_sentence_588

In 1861, Napoleon's remains were entombed in a porphyry stone sarcophagus in the crypt under the dome at Les Invalides. Napoleon_sentence_589

Cause of death Napoleon_section_21

The cause of his death has been debated. Napoleon_sentence_590

Napoleon's physician, François Carlo Antommarchi, led the autopsy, which found the cause of death to be stomach cancer. Napoleon_sentence_591

Antommarchi did not sign the official report. Napoleon_sentence_592

Napoleon's father had died of stomach cancer, although this was apparently unknown at the time of the autopsy. Napoleon_sentence_593

Antommarchi found evidence of a stomach ulcer; this was the most convenient explanation for the British, who wanted to avoid criticism over their care of Napoleon. Napoleon_sentence_594

In 1955, the diaries of Napoleon's valet, Louis Marchand, were published. Napoleon_sentence_595

His description of Napoleon in the months before his death led Sten Forshufvud in a 1961 paper in Nature to put forward other causes for his death, including deliberate arsenic poisoning. Napoleon_sentence_596

Arsenic was used as a poison during the era because it was undetectable when administered over a long period. Napoleon_sentence_597

Furthermore, in a 1978 book with Ben Weider, Forshufvud noted that Napoleon's body was found to be well preserved when moved in 1840. Napoleon_sentence_598

Arsenic is a strong preservative, and therefore this supported the poisoning hypothesis. Napoleon_sentence_599

Forshufvud and Weider observed that Napoleon had attempted to quench abnormal thirst by drinking large amounts of orgeat syrup that contained cyanide compounds in the almonds used for flavouring. Napoleon_sentence_600

They maintained that the potassium tartrate used in his treatment prevented his stomach from expelling these compounds and that his thirst was a symptom of the poison. Napoleon_sentence_601

Their hypothesis was that the calomel given to Napoleon became an overdose, which killed him and left extensive tissue damage behind. Napoleon_sentence_602

According to a 2007 article, the type of arsenic found in Napoleon's hair shafts was mineral, the most toxic, and according to toxicologist Patrick Kintz, this supported the conclusion that he was murdered. Napoleon_sentence_603

There have been modern studies that have supported the original autopsy finding. Napoleon_sentence_604

In a 2008 study, researchers analysed samples of Napoleon's hair from throughout his life, as well as samples from his family and other contemporaries. Napoleon_sentence_605

All samples had high levels of arsenic, approximately 100 times higher than the current average. Napoleon_sentence_606

According to these researchers, Napoleon's body was already heavily contaminated with arsenic as a boy, and the high arsenic concentration in his hair was not caused by intentional poisoning; people were constantly exposed to arsenic from glues and dyes throughout their lives. Napoleon_sentence_607

Studies published in 2007 and 2008 dismissed evidence of arsenic poisoning, and confirmed evidence of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer as the cause of death. Napoleon_sentence_608

Religion Napoleon_section_22

Further information: Napoleon and the Catholic Church Napoleon_sentence_609

Napoleon was baptised in Ajaccio on 21 July 1771. Napoleon_sentence_610

He was raised as a Catholic but never developed much faith. Napoleon_sentence_611

As an adult, Napoleon was a deist, believing in an absent and distant God. Napoleon_sentence_612

However, he had a keen appreciation of the power of organized religion in social and political affairs, and he paid a great deal of attention to bending it to his purposes. Napoleon_sentence_613

He noted the influence of Catholicism's rituals and splendors. Napoleon_sentence_614

Napoleon had a civil marriage with Joséphine de Beauharnais, without religious ceremony. Napoleon_sentence_615

Napoleon was crowned Emperor on 2 December 1804 at Notre-Dame de Paris in a ceremony presided over by Pope Pius VII. Napoleon_sentence_616

On the eve of the coronation ceremony, and at the insistence of Pope Pius VII, a private religious wedding ceremony of Napoleon and Joséphine was celebrated. Napoleon_sentence_617

Cardinal Fesch performed the wedding. Napoleon_sentence_618

This marriage was annulled by tribunals under Napoleon's control in January 1810. Napoleon_sentence_619

On 1 April 1810, Napoleon married the Austrian princess Marie Louise in a Catholic ceremony. Napoleon_sentence_620

Napoleon was excommunicated by the Catholic Church, but later reconciled with the Church before his death in 1821. Napoleon_sentence_621

While in exile in Saint Helena he is recorded to have said "I know men; and I tell you that Jesus Christ is not a man." Napoleon_sentence_622

Concordat Napoleon_section_23

Further information: Concordat of 1801 Napoleon_sentence_623

Seeking national reconciliation between revolutionaries and Catholics, the Concordat of 1801 was signed on 15 July 1801 between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII. Napoleon_sentence_624

It solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France and brought back most of its civil status. Napoleon_sentence_625

The hostility of devout Catholics against the state had now largely been resolved. Napoleon_sentence_626

The Concordat did not restore the vast church lands and endowments that had been seized during the revolution and sold off. Napoleon_sentence_627

As a part of the Concordat, Napoleon presented another set of laws called the Organic Articles. Napoleon_sentence_628

While the Concordat restored much power to the papacy, the balance of church–state relations had tilted firmly in Napoleon's favour. Napoleon_sentence_629

He selected the bishops and supervised church finances. Napoleon_sentence_630

Napoleon and the Pope both found the Concordat useful. Napoleon_sentence_631

Similar arrangements were made with the Church in territories controlled by Napoleon, especially Italy and Germany. Napoleon_sentence_632

Now, Napoleon could win favour with the Catholics while also controlling Rome in a political sense. Napoleon_sentence_633

Napoleon said in April 1801, "Skillful conquerors have not got entangled with priests. Napoleon_sentence_634

They can both contain them and use them". Napoleon_sentence_635

French children were issued a catechism that taught them to love and respect Napoleon. Napoleon_sentence_636

Arrest of Pope Pius VII Napoleon_section_24

In 1809, under Napoleon's orders, Pope Pius VII was placed under arrest in Italy, and in 1812 the prisoner Pontiff was transferred to France, being held in the Palace of Fontainebleau. Napoleon_sentence_637

Because the arrest was made in a clandestine manner, some sources describe it as a kidnapping. Napoleon_sentence_638

In January 1813, Napoleon personally forced the Pope to sign a humiliating "Concordat of Fontainebleau" which was later repudiated by the Pontiff. Napoleon_sentence_639

The Pope was not released until 1814, when the Coalition invaded France. Napoleon_sentence_640

Religious emancipation Napoleon_section_25

Further information: Napoleon and the Jews and Napoleon and Protestants Napoleon_sentence_641

Napoleon emancipated Jews, as well as Protestants in Catholic countries and Catholics in Protestant countries, from laws which restricted them to ghettos, and he expanded their rights to property, worship, and careers. Napoleon_sentence_642

Despite the antisemitic reaction to Napoleon's policies from foreign governments and within France, he believed emancipation would benefit France by attracting Jews to the country given the restrictions they faced elsewhere. Napoleon_sentence_643

In 1806 an assembly of Jewish notables was gathered by Napoleon to discuss 12 questions broadly dealing with the relations between Jews and Christians, as well as other issues dealing with the Jewish ability to integrate into French society. Napoleon_sentence_644

Later, after the questions were answered in a satisfactory way according to the Emperor, a "great Sanhedrin" was brought together to transform the answers into decisions that would form the basis of the future status of the Jews in France and the rest of the empire Napoleon was building. Napoleon_sentence_645

He stated, "I will never accept any proposals that will obligate the Jewish people to leave France, because to me the Jews are the same as any other citizen in our country. Napoleon_sentence_646

It takes weakness to chase them out of the country, but it takes strength to assimilate them". Napoleon_sentence_647

He was seen as so favourable to the Jews that the Russian Orthodox Church formally condemned him as "Antichrist and the Enemy of God". Napoleon_sentence_648

One year after the final meeting of the Sanhedrin, on 17 March 1808, Napoleon placed the Jews on probation. Napoleon_sentence_649

Several new laws restricting the citizenship the Jews had been offered 17 years previously were instituted at that time. Napoleon_sentence_650

However, despite pressure from leaders of a number of Christian communities to refrain from granting Jews emancipation, within one year of the issue of the new restrictions, they were once again lifted in response to the appeal of Jews from all over France. Napoleon_sentence_651

Freemasonry Napoleon_section_26

It is not known for certain if Napoleon was initiated into Freemasonry. Napoleon_sentence_652

As Emperor, he appointed his brothers to Masonic offices under his jurisdiction: Louis was given the title of Deputy Grand Master in 1805; Jerome the title of Grand Master of the Grand Orient of Westphalia; Joseph was appointed Grand Master of the Grand Orient de France; and finally Lucien was a member of the Grand Orient of France. Napoleon_sentence_653

Personality Napoleon_section_27

Historians emphasize the strength of the ambition that took Napoleon from an obscure village to command of most of Europe. Napoleon_sentence_654

In-depth academic studies about his early life conclude that up until age 2, he had a "gentle disposition". Napoleon_sentence_655

His older brother, Joseph, frequently received their mother's attention which made Napoleon more assertive and approval-driven. Napoleon_sentence_656

During his early schooling years he would be harshly bullied by classmates for his Corsican identity and control of the French language. Napoleon_sentence_657

To withstand the stress he became domineering, eventually developing an inferiority complex. Napoleon_sentence_658

George F. E. Rudé stresses his "rare combination of will, intellect and physical vigour". Napoleon_sentence_659

In one-on-one situations he typically had a hypnotic effect on people, seemingly bending the strongest leaders to his will. Napoleon_sentence_660

He understood military technology, but was not an innovator in that regard. Napoleon_sentence_661

He was an innovator in using the financial, bureaucratic, and diplomatic resources of France. Napoleon_sentence_662

He could rapidly dictate a series of complex commands to his subordinates, keeping in mind where major units were expected to be at each future point, and like a chess master, "seeing" the best plays moves ahead. Napoleon_sentence_663

Napoleon maintained strict, efficient work habits, prioritizing what needed to be done. Napoleon_sentence_664

He cheated at cards, but repaid the losses; he had to win at everything he attempted. Napoleon_sentence_665

He kept relays of staff and secretaries at work. Napoleon_sentence_666

Unlike many generals, Napoleon did not examine history to ask what Hannibal or Alexander or anyone else did in a similar situation. Napoleon_sentence_667

Critics said he won many battles simply because of luck; Napoleon responded, "Give me lucky generals", arguing that "luck" comes to leaders who recognize opportunity, and seize it. Napoleon_sentence_668

Dwyer states that Napoleon's victories at Austerlitz and Jena in 1805–06 heightened his sense of self-grandiosity, leaving him even more certain of his destiny and invincibility. Napoleon_sentence_669

"I am of the race that founds empires" he once boasted, deeming himself an heir to the Ancient Romans. Napoleon_sentence_670

In terms of influence on events, it was more than Napoleon's personality that took effect. Napoleon_sentence_671

He reorganized France itself to supply the men and money needed for wars. Napoleon_sentence_672

He inspired his men—the Duke of Wellington said his presence on the battlefield was worth 40,000 soldiers, for he inspired confidence from privates to field marshals. Napoleon_sentence_673

He also unnerved the enemy. Napoleon_sentence_674

At the Battle of Auerstadt in 1806, the forces of King Frederick William III of Prussia outnumbered the French by 63,000 to 27,000; however, when he was told, mistakenly, that Napoleon was in command, he ordered a hasty retreat that turned into a rout. Napoleon_sentence_675

The force of his personality neutralized material difficulties as his soldiers fought with the confidence that with Napoleon in charge they would surely win. Napoleon_sentence_676

Image Napoleon_section_28

Further information: Cultural depictions of Napoleon Napoleon_sentence_677

Napoleon has become a worldwide cultural icon who symbolizes military genius and political power. Napoleon_sentence_678

Martin van Creveld described him as "the most competent human being who ever lived". Napoleon_sentence_679

Since his death, many towns, streets, ships, and even cartoon characters have been named after him. Napoleon_sentence_680

He has been portrayed in hundreds of films and discussed in hundreds of thousands of books and articles. Napoleon_sentence_681

When met in person, many of his contemporaries were surprised by his apparently unremarkable physical appearance in contrast to his significant deeds and reputation, especially in his youth, when he was consistently described as small and thin. Napoleon_sentence_682

Joseph Farington, who observed Napoleon personally in 1802, commented that "Samuel Rogers stood a little way from me and ... seemed to be disappointed in the look of [Napoleon's] countenance [face] and said it was that of a little Italian." Napoleon_sentence_683

Farington said Napoleon's eyes were "lighter, and more of a grey, than I should have expected from his complexion", that "His person is below middle size", and that "his general aspect was milder than I had before thought it." Napoleon_sentence_684

A personal friend of Napoleon's said that when he first met him in Brienne-le-Château as a young man, Napoleon was only notable "for the dark color of his complexion, for his piercing and scrutinising glance, and for the style of his conversation"; he also said that Napoleon was personally a serious and somber man: "his conversation bore the appearance of ill-humor, and he was certainly not very amiable." Napoleon_sentence_685

Johann Ludwig Wurstemberger, who accompanied Napoleon from Camp Fornio in 1797 and on the Swiss campaign of 1798, noted that "Bonaparte was rather slight and emaciated-looking; his face, too, was very thin, with a dark complexion ... his black, unpowdered hair hung down evenly over both shoulders", but that, despite his slight and unkempt appearance, "His looks and expression were earnest and powerful." Napoleon_sentence_686

Denis Davydov met him personally and considered him remarkably average in appearance: "His face was slightly swarthy, with regular features. Napoleon_sentence_687

His nose was not very large, but straight, with a slight, hardly noticeable bend. Napoleon_sentence_688

The hair on his head was dark reddish-blond; his eyebrows and eyelashes were much darker than the colour of his hair, and his blue eyes, set off by the almost black lashes, gave him a most pleasing expression ... Napoleon_sentence_689

The man I saw was of short stature, just over five feet tall, rather heavy although he was only 37 years old." Napoleon_sentence_690

During the Napoleonic Wars he was taken seriously by the British press as a dangerous tyrant, poised to invade. Napoleon_sentence_691

Napoleon was mocked in British newspapers as a short tempered small man and he was nicknamed "Little Boney in a strong fit". Napoleon_sentence_692

A nursery rhyme warned children that Bonaparte ravenously ate naughty people; the "bogeyman". Napoleon_sentence_693

At 1.57 metres (5 ft 2 in), he was the height of an average French male but short for an aristocrat or officer (part of why he was assigned to the artillery, since at the time the infantry and cavalry required more commanding figures). Napoleon_sentence_694

It is possible he was taller at 1.70 m (5 ft 7 in) due to the difference in the French measurement of inches. Napoleon_sentence_695

Some historians believe that the reason for the mistake about his size at death came from use of an obsolete old French yardstick (a French foot equals 33 cm, while an English foot equals 30.47 cm). Napoleon_sentence_696

Napoleon was a champion of the metric system and had no use for the old yardsticks. Napoleon_sentence_697

It is more likely that he was 1.57 m (5 ft 2 in), the height he was measured at on St. Helena (a British island), since he would have most likely been measured with an English yardstick rather than a yardstick of the Old French Regime. Napoleon_sentence_698

Napoleon surrounded himself with tall bodyguards and was affectionately nicknamed le petit caporal (the little corporal), reflecting his reported camaraderie with his soldiers rather than his height. Napoleon_sentence_699

When he became First Consul and later Emperor, Napoleon eschewed his general's uniform and habitually wore the green colonel uniform (non-Hussar) of a colonel of the Chasseur à Cheval of the Imperial Guard, the regiment that served as his personal escort many times, with a large bicorne. Napoleon_sentence_700

He also habitually wore (usually on Sundays) the blue uniform of a colonel of the Imperial Guard Foot Grenadiers (blue with white facings and red cuffs). Napoleon_sentence_701

He also wore his Légion d'honneur star, medal and ribbon, and the Order of the Iron Crown decorations, white French-style culottes and white stockings. Napoleon_sentence_702

This was in contrast to the complex uniforms with many decorations of his marshals and those around him. Napoleon_sentence_703

In his later years he gained quite a bit of weight and had a complexion considered pale or sallow, something contemporaries took note of. Napoleon_sentence_704

Novelist Paul de Kock, who saw him in 1811 on the balcony of the Tuileries, called Napoleon "yellow, obese, and bloated". Napoleon_sentence_705

A British captain who met him in 1815 stated "I felt very much disappointed, as I believe everyone else did, in his appearance ... Napoleon_sentence_706

He is fat, rather what we call pot-bellied, and although his leg is well shaped, it is rather clumsy ... Napoleon_sentence_707

He is very sallow, with light grey eyes, and rather thin, greasy-looking brown hair, and altogether a very nasty, priestlike-looking fellow." Napoleon_sentence_708

The stock character of Napoleon is a comically short "petty tyrant" and this has become a cliché in popular culture. Napoleon_sentence_709

He is often portrayed wearing a large bicorne hat with a hand-in-waistcoat gesture—a reference to the painting produced in 1812 by Jacques-Louis David. Napoleon_sentence_710

In 1908 Alfred Adler, a psychologist, cited Napoleon to describe an inferiority complex in which short people adopt an over-aggressive behaviour to compensate for lack of height; this inspired the term Napoleon complex. Napoleon_sentence_711

Reforms Napoleon_section_29

Napoleon instituted various reforms, such as higher education, a tax code, road and sewer systems, and established the Banque de France, the first central bank in French history. Napoleon_sentence_712

He negotiated the Concordat of 1801 with the Catholic Church, which sought to reconcile the mostly Catholic population to his regime. Napoleon_sentence_713

It was presented alongside the Organic Articles, which regulated public worship in France. Napoleon_sentence_714

He dissolved the Holy Roman Empire prior to German Unification later in the 19th century. Napoleon_sentence_715

The sale of the Louisiana Territory to the United States doubled the size of the United States. Napoleon_sentence_716

In May 1802, he instituted the Legion of Honour, a substitute for the old royalist decorations and orders of chivalry, to encourage civilian and military achievements; the order is still the highest decoration in France. Napoleon_sentence_717

Napoleonic Code Napoleon_section_30

Main article: Napoleonic Code Napoleon_sentence_718

Napoleon's set of civil laws, the Code Civil—now often known as the Napoleonic Code—was prepared by committees of legal experts under the supervision of Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, the Second Consul. Napoleon_sentence_719

Napoleon participated actively in the sessions of the Council of State that revised the drafts. Napoleon_sentence_720

The development of the code was a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law legal system with its stress on clearly written and accessible law. Napoleon_sentence_721

Other codes ("Les cinq codes") were commissioned by Napoleon to codify criminal and commerce law; a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which enacted rules of due process. Napoleon_sentence_722

The Napoleonic code was adopted throughout much of Continental Europe, though only in the lands he conquered, and remained in force after Napoleon's defeat. Napoleon_sentence_723

Napoleon said: "My true glory is not to have won forty battles ... Waterloo will erase the memory of so many victories. Napoleon_sentence_724

... Napoleon_sentence_725

But ... what will live forever, is my Civil Code". Napoleon_sentence_726

The Code influences a quarter of the world's jurisdictions such as that of in Continental Europe, the Americas and Africa. Napoleon_sentence_727

Dieter Langewiesche described the code as a "revolutionary project" which spurred the development of bourgeois society in Germany by the extension of the right to own property and an acceleration towards the end of feudalism. Napoleon_sentence_728

Napoleon reorganized what had been the Holy Roman Empire, made up of more than a thousand entities, into a more streamlined forty-state Confederation of the Rhine; this helped promote the German Confederation and the unification of Germany in 1871. Napoleon_sentence_729

The movement toward national unification in Italy was similarly precipitated by Napoleonic rule. Napoleon_sentence_730

These changes contributed to the development of nationalism and the nation state. Napoleon_sentence_731

Napoleon implemented a wide array of liberal reforms in France and across Continental Europe, especially in Italy and Germany, as summarized by British historian Andrew Roberts: Napoleon_sentence_732

Napoleon directly overthrew remnants of feudalism in much of western Continental Europe. Napoleon_sentence_733

He liberalized property laws, ended seigneurial dues, abolished the guild of merchants and craftsmen to facilitate entrepreneurship, legalized divorce, closed the Jewish ghettos and made Jews equal to everyone else. Napoleon_sentence_734

The Inquisition ended as did the Holy Roman Empire. Napoleon_sentence_735

The power of church courts and religious authority was sharply reduced and equality under the law was proclaimed for all men. Napoleon_sentence_736

Warfare Napoleon_section_31

Further information: Napoleonic weaponry and warfare and Military career of Napoleon Bonaparte Napoleon_sentence_737

In the field of military organization, Napoleon borrowed from previous theorists such as Jacques Antoine Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert, and from the reforms of preceding French governments, and then developed much of what was already in place. Napoleon_sentence_738

He continued the policy, which emerged from the Revolution, of promotion based primarily on merit. Napoleon_sentence_739

Corps replaced divisions as the largest army units, mobile artillery was integrated into reserve batteries, the staff system became more fluid and cavalry returned as an important formation in French military doctrine. Napoleon_sentence_740

These methods are now referred to as essential features of Napoleonic warfare. Napoleon_sentence_741

Though he consolidated the practice of modern conscription introduced by the Directory, one of the restored monarchy's first acts was to end it. Napoleon_sentence_742

His opponents learned from Napoleon's innovations. Napoleon_sentence_743

The increased importance of artillery after 1807 stemmed from his creation of a highly mobile artillery force, the growth in artillery numbers, and changes in artillery practices. Napoleon_sentence_744

As a result of these factors, Napoleon, rather than relying on infantry to wear away the enemy's defences, now could use massed artillery as a spearhead to pound a break in the enemy's line that was then exploited by supporting infantry and cavalry. Napoleon_sentence_745

McConachy rejects the alternative theory that growing reliance on artillery by the French army beginning in 1807 was an outgrowth of the declining quality of the French infantry and, later, France's inferiority in cavalry numbers. Napoleon_sentence_746

Weapons and other kinds of military technology remained static through the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras, but 18th-century operational mobility underwent change. Napoleon_sentence_747

Napoleon's biggest influence was in the conduct of warfare. Napoleon_sentence_748

Antoine-Henri Jomini explained Napoleon's methods in a widely used textbook that influenced all European and American armies. Napoleon_sentence_749

Napoleon was regarded by the influential military theorist Carl von Clausewitz as a genius in the operational art of war, and historians rank him as a great military commander. Napoleon_sentence_750

Wellington, when asked who was the greatest general of the day, answered: "In this age, in past ages, in any age, Napoleon". Napoleon_sentence_751

Under Napoleon, a new emphasis towards the destruction, not just outmanoeuvring, of enemy armies emerged. Napoleon_sentence_752

Invasions of enemy territory occurred over broader fronts which made wars costlier and more decisive. Napoleon_sentence_753

The political effect of war increased; defeat for a European power meant more than the loss of isolated enclaves. Napoleon_sentence_754

Near-Carthaginian peaces intertwined whole national efforts, intensifying the Revolutionary phenomenon of total war. Napoleon_sentence_755

Metric system Napoleon_section_32

Main articles: History of the metric system, Mesures usuelles, and Units of measurement in France Napoleon_sentence_756

The official introduction of the metric system in September 1799 was unpopular in large sections of French society. Napoleon_sentence_757

Napoleon's rule greatly aided adoption of the new standard not only across France but also across the French sphere of influence. Napoleon_sentence_758

Napoleon took a retrograde step in 1812 when he passed legislation to introduce the mesures usuelles (traditional units of measurement) for retail trade, a system of measure that resembled the pre-revolutionary units but were based on the kilogram and the metre; for example, the livre metrique (metric pound) was 500 g, in contrast to the value of the livre du roi (the king's pound), 489.5 g. Other units of measure were rounded in a similar manner prior to the definitive introduction of the metric system across parts of Europe in the middle of the 19th century. Napoleon_sentence_759

Education Napoleon_section_33

Napoleon's educational reforms laid the foundation of a modern system of education in France and throughout much of Europe. Napoleon_sentence_760

Napoleon synthesized the best academic elements from the Ancien Régime, The Enlightenment, and the Revolution, with the aim of establishing a stable, well-educated and prosperous society. Napoleon_sentence_761

He made French the only official language. Napoleon_sentence_762

He left some primary education in the hands of religious orders, but he offered public support to secondary education. Napoleon_sentence_763

Napoleon founded a number of state secondary schools (lycées) designed to produce a standardized education that was uniform across France. Napoleon_sentence_764

All students were taught the sciences along with modern and classical languages. Napoleon_sentence_765

Unlike the system during the Ancien Régime, religious topics did not dominate the curriculum, although they were present with the teachers from the clergy. Napoleon_sentence_766

Napoleon hoped to use religion to produce social stability. Napoleon_sentence_767

He gave special attention to the advanced centers, such as the École Polytechnique, that provided both military expertise and state-of-the-art research in science. Napoleon_sentence_768

Napoleon made some of the first efforts at establishing a system of secular and public education. Napoleon_sentence_769

The system featured scholarships and strict discipline, with the result being a French educational system that outperformed its European counterparts, many of which borrowed from the French system. Napoleon_sentence_770

Memory and evaluation Napoleon_section_34

Criticism Napoleon_section_35

In the political realm, historians debate whether Napoleon was "an enlightened despot who laid the foundations of modern Europe" or "a megalomaniac who wrought greater misery than any man before the coming of Hitler". Napoleon_sentence_771

Many historians have concluded that he had grandiose foreign policy ambitions. Napoleon_sentence_772

The Continental powers as late as 1808 were willing to give him nearly all of his gains and titles, but some scholars maintain he was overly aggressive and pushed for too much, until his empire collapsed. Napoleon_sentence_773

Napoleon ended lawlessness and disorder in post-Revolutionary France. Napoleon_sentence_774

He was considered a tyrant and usurper by his opponents. Napoleon_sentence_775

His critics charge that he was not troubled when faced with the prospect of war and death for thousands, turned his search for undisputed rule into a series of conflicts throughout Europe and ignored treaties and conventions alike. Napoleon_sentence_776

His role in the Haitian Revolution and decision to reinstate slavery in France's overseas colonies are controversial and affect his reputation. Napoleon_sentence_777

Napoleon institutionalized plunder of conquered territories: French museums contain art stolen by Napoleon's forces from across Europe. Napoleon_sentence_778

Artefacts were brought to the Musée du Louvre for a grand central museum; his example would later serve as inspiration for more notorious imitators. Napoleon_sentence_779

He was compared to Adolf Hitler by the historian Pieter Geyl in 1947, and Claude Ribbe in 2005. Napoleon_sentence_780

David G. Chandler, a historian of Napoleonic warfare, wrote in 1973 that, "Nothing could be more degrading to the former [Napoleon] and more flattering to the latter [Hitler]. Napoleon_sentence_781

The comparison is odious. Napoleon_sentence_782

On the whole Napoleon was inspired by a noble dream, wholly dissimilar from Hitler's ... Napoleon left great and lasting testimonies to his genius—in codes of law and national identities which survive to the present day. Napoleon_sentence_783

Adolf Hitler left nothing but destruction." Napoleon_sentence_784

Critics argue Napoleon's true legacy must reflect the loss of status for France and needless deaths brought by his rule: historian Victor Davis Hanson writes, "After all, the military record is unquestioned—17 years of wars, perhaps six million Europeans dead, France bankrupt, her overseas colonies lost." Napoleon_sentence_785

McLynn states that, "He can be viewed as the man who set back European economic life for a generation by the dislocating impact of his wars." Napoleon_sentence_786

Vincent Cronin replies that such criticism relies on the flawed premise that Napoleon was responsible for the wars which bear his name, when in fact France was the victim of a series of coalitions which aimed to destroy the ideals of the Revolution. Napoleon_sentence_787

British military historian Correlli Barnett calls him "a social misfit" who exploited France for his personal megalomaniac goals. Napoleon_sentence_788

He says Napoleon's reputation is exaggerated. Napoleon_sentence_789

French scholar Jean Tulard provided an influential account of his image as a saviour. Napoleon_sentence_790

Louis Bergeron has praised the numerous changes he made to French society, especially regarding the law as well as education. Napoleon_sentence_791

His greatest failure was the Russian invasion. Napoleon_sentence_792

Many historians have blamed Napoleon's poor planning, but Russian scholars instead emphasize the Russian response, noting the notorious winter weather was just as hard on the defenders. Napoleon_sentence_793

The large and growing historiography in French, English, Russian, Spanish and other languages has been summarized and evaluated by numerous scholars. Napoleon_sentence_794

Propaganda and memory Napoleon_section_36

Main article: Napoleonic propaganda Napoleon_sentence_795

Napoleon's use of propaganda contributed to his rise to power, legitimated his régime, and established his image for posterity. Napoleon_sentence_796

Strict censorship, controlling aspects of the press, books, theatre, and art were part of his propaganda scheme, aimed at portraying him as bringing desperately wanted peace and stability to France. Napoleon_sentence_797

The propagandistic rhetoric changed in relation to events and to the atmosphere of Napoleon's reign, focusing first on his role as a general in the army and identification as a soldier, and moving to his role as emperor and a civil leader. Napoleon_sentence_798

Specifically targeting his civilian audience, Napoleon fostered a relationship with the contemporary art community, taking an active role in commissioning and controlling different forms of art production to suit his propaganda goals. Napoleon_sentence_799

In England, Russia and across Europe—though not in France—Napoleon was a popular topic of caricature. Napoleon_sentence_800

Hazareesingh (2004) explores how Napoleon's image and memory are best understood. Napoleon_sentence_801

They played a key role in collective political defiance of the Bourbon restoration monarchy in 1815–1830. Napoleon_sentence_802

People from different walks of life and areas of France, particularly Napoleonic veterans, drew on the Napoleonic legacy and its connections with the ideals of the 1789 Revolution. Napoleon_sentence_803

Widespread rumours of Napoleon's return from St. Helena and Napoleon as an inspiration for patriotism, individual and collective liberties, and political mobilization manifested themselves in seditious materials, displaying the tricolor and rosettes. Napoleon_sentence_804

There were also subversive activities celebrating anniversaries of Napoleon's life and reign and disrupting royal celebrations—they demonstrated the prevailing and successful goal of the varied supporters of Napoleon to constantly destabilize the Bourbon regime. Napoleon_sentence_805

Datta (2005) shows that, following the collapse of militaristic Boulangism in the late 1880s, the Napoleonic legend was divorced from party politics and revived in popular culture. Napoleon_sentence_806

Concentrating on two plays and two novels from the period—Victorien Sardou's Madame Sans-Gêne (1893), Maurice Barrès's Les Déracinés (1897), Edmond Rostand's L'Aiglon (1900), and André de Lorde and Gyp's Napoléonette (1913)—Datta examines how writers and critics of the Belle Époque exploited the Napoleonic legend for diverse political and cultural ends. Napoleon_sentence_807

Reduced to a minor character, the new fictional Napoleon became not a world historical figure but an intimate one, fashioned by individuals' needs and consumed as popular entertainment. Napoleon_sentence_808

In their attempts to represent the emperor as a figure of national unity, proponents and detractors of the Third Republic used the legend as a vehicle for exploring anxieties about gender and fears about the processes of democratization that accompanied this new era of mass politics and culture. Napoleon_sentence_809

International Napoleonic Congresses take place regularly, with participation by members of the French and American military, French politicians and scholars from different countries. Napoleon_sentence_810

In January 2012, the mayor of Montereau-Fault-Yonne, near Paris—the site of a late victory of Napoleon—proposed development of Napoleon's Bivouac, a commemorative theme park at a projected cost of 200 million euros. Napoleon_sentence_811


  • Napoleon_item_0_0
  • Napoleon_item_0_1

Long-term influence outside France Napoleon_section_37

Main article: Influence of the French Revolution Napoleon_sentence_812

Napoleon was responsible for spreading the values of the French Revolution to other countries, especially in legal reform. Napoleon_sentence_813

Napoleon did not touch serfdom in Russia. Napoleon_sentence_814

After the fall of Napoleon, not only was the Napoleonic Code retained by conquered countries including the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy and Germany, but has been used as the basis of certain parts of law outside Europe including the Dominican Republic, the US state of Louisiana and the Canadian province of Quebec. Napoleon_sentence_815

The code was also used as a model in many parts of Latin America. Napoleon_sentence_816

The memory of Napoleon in Poland is favourable, for his support for independence and opposition to Russia, his legal code, the abolition of serfdom, and the introduction of modern middle class bureaucracies. Napoleon_sentence_817

Napoleon could be considered one of the founders of modern Germany. Napoleon_sentence_818

After dissolving the Holy Roman Empire, he reduced the number of German states from 300 to less than 50, prior to German Unification. Napoleon_sentence_819

A byproduct of the French occupation was a strong development in German nationalism. Napoleon_sentence_820

Napoleon also significantly aided the United States when he agreed to sell the territory of Louisiana for 15 million dollars during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson. Napoleon_sentence_821

That territory almost doubled the size of the United States, adding the equivalent of 13 states to the Union. Napoleon_sentence_822

From 1796 to 2020 inclusive, at least 95 ships associated with the name of the Emperor of the French were identified as an object of intangible heritage. Napoleon_sentence_823

In the 21st century, at least 18 Napoleon ships are operated under the flag of Indonesia, Germany, Italy, Australia, Argentina, India, Netherlands, United Kingdom and France. Napoleon_sentence_824

Wives, mistresses, and children Napoleon_section_38

Napoleon married Joséphine (née Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de La Pagerie) in 1796, when he was 26; she was a 32-year-old widow whose first husband, Alexandre de Beauharnais, had been executed during the Reign of Terror. Napoleon_sentence_825

Five days after Alexandre de Beauharnais' death, the Reign of Terror initiator Maximilien de Robespierre was overthrown and executed, and, with the help of high-placed friends, Joséphine was freed. Napoleon_sentence_826

Until she met Bonaparte, she had been known as "Rose", a name which he disliked. Napoleon_sentence_827

He called her "Joséphine" instead, and she went by this name henceforth. Napoleon_sentence_828

Bonaparte often sent her love letters while on his campaigns. Napoleon_sentence_829

He formally adopted her son Eugène and second cousin (via marriage) Stéphanie and arranged dynastic marriages for them. Napoleon_sentence_830

Joséphine had her daughter Hortense marry Napoleon's brother Louis. Napoleon_sentence_831

Joséphine had lovers, such as Lieutenant Hippolyte Charles, during Napoleon's Italian campaign. Napoleon_sentence_832

Napoleon learnt of that affair and a letter he wrote about it was intercepted by the British and published widely, to embarrass Napoleon. Napoleon_sentence_833

Napoleon had his own affairs too: during the Egyptian campaign he took Pauline Bellisle Fourès, the wife of a junior officer, as his mistress. Napoleon_sentence_834

She became known as "Cleopatra". Napoleon_sentence_835

While Napoleon's mistresses had children by him, Joséphine did not produce an heir, possibly because of either the stresses of her imprisonment during the Reign of Terror or an abortion she may have had in her twenties. Napoleon_sentence_836

Napoleon chose divorce so he could remarry in search of an heir. Napoleon_sentence_837

Despite his divorce from Josephine, Napoleon showed his dedication to her for the rest of his life. Napoleon_sentence_838

When he heard the news of her death while on exile in Elba, he locked himself in his room and would not come out for two full days. Napoleon_sentence_839

Her name would also be his final word on his deathbed in 1821. Napoleon_sentence_840

On 11 March 1810 by proxy, he married the 19-year-old Marie Louise, Archduchess of Austria, and a great niece of Marie Antoinette. Napoleon_sentence_841

Thus he had married into a German royal and imperial family. Napoleon_sentence_842

Louise was less than happy with the arrangement, at least at first, stating: "Just to see the man would be the worst form of torture". Napoleon_sentence_843

Her great-aunt had been executed in France, while Napoleon had fought numerous campaigns against Austria all throughout his military career. Napoleon_sentence_844

However, she seemed to warm up to him over time. Napoleon_sentence_845

After her wedding, she wrote to her father: "He loves me very much. Napoleon_sentence_846

I respond to his love sincerely. Napoleon_sentence_847

There is something very fetching and very eager about him that is impossible to resist". Napoleon_sentence_848

Napoleon and Marie Louise remained married until his death, though she did not join him in exile on Elba and thereafter never saw her husband again. Napoleon_sentence_849

The couple had one child, Napoleon Francis Joseph Charles (1811–1832), known from birth as the King of Rome. Napoleon_sentence_850

He became Napoleon II in 1814 and reigned for only two weeks. Napoleon_sentence_851

He was awarded the title of the Duke of Reichstadt in 1818 and died of tuberculosis aged 21, with no children. Napoleon_sentence_852

Napoleon acknowledged one illegitimate son: Charles Léon (1806–1881) by Eléonore Denuelle de La Plaigne. Napoleon_sentence_853

Alexandre Colonna-Walewski (1810–1868), the son of his mistress Maria Walewska, although acknowledged by Walewska's husband, was also widely known to be his child, and the DNA of his direct male descendant has been used to help confirm Napoleon's Y-chromosome haplotype. Napoleon_sentence_854

He may have had further unacknowledged illegitimate offspring as well, such as Eugen Megerle von Mühlfeld by Emilie Victoria Kraus and Hélène Napoleone Bonaparte (1816–1907) by Albine de Montholon. Napoleon_sentence_855

See also Napoleon_section_39


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