National Register of Historic Places

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is about the U.S. Register. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_0

For the Canadian online database, see Canadian Register of Historic Places. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_1

National Register of Historic Places_table_infobox_0

National Register of Historic PlacesNational Register of Historic Places_table_caption_0
Agency overviewNational Register of Historic Places_header_cell_0_0_0
FormedNational Register of Historic Places_header_cell_0_1_0 1966; 54 years ago (1966)National Register of Historic Places_cell_0_1_1
Annual budgetNational Register of Historic Places_header_cell_0_2_0 $16.8 million (2018)National Register of Historic Places_cell_0_2_1
Agency executiveNational Register of Historic Places_header_cell_0_3_0 National Register of Historic Places_cell_0_3_1
Parent departmentNational Register of Historic Places_header_cell_0_4_0 National Park ServiceNational Register of Historic Places_cell_0_4_1
WebsiteNational Register of Historic Places_header_cell_0_5_0 National Register of Historic Places_cell_0_5_1

The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_2

A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred in preserving the property. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_3

The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_4

Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_5

The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_6

For most of its history, the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service (NPS), an agency within the United States Department of the Interior. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_7

Its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, as well as to coordinate, identify and protect historic sites in the United States. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_8

While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_9

Protection of the property is not guaranteed. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_10

During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_11

The application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_12

Occasionally, historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States (such as the American Embassy in Tangiers) are also listed. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_13

Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts and multiple property submissions (MPS). National Register of Historic Places_sentence_14

The Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, site, structure, building or object. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_15

National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_16

Some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_17

These include National Historic Landmarks (NHL), National Historic Sites (NHS), National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials and some National Monuments. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_18

(Federal properties can be proclaimed National Monuments under the Antiquities Act because of either their historical or natural significance. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_19

They are managed by multiple agencies. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_20

Only monuments that are historic in character and managed by the National Park Service are listed administratively in the National Register.) National Register of Historic Places_sentence_21

History National Register of Historic Places_section_0

Main article: History of the National Register of Historic Places National Register of Historic Places_sentence_22

On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPO). National Register of Historic Places_sentence_23

Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_24

Approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_25

The 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_26

To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior, with director George B. Hartzog Jr., established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation (OAHP). National Register of Historic Places_sentence_27

Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_28

Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_29

Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_30

The division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_31

The first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_32

During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small, understaffed and underfunded. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_33

However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but later for commercial structures as well. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_34

A few years later in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.S. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_35 National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates". National Register of Historic Places_sentence_36

Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_37

From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service (HCRS) of the United States Department of the Interior. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_38

In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_39

Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_40

He was described as a skilled administrator, who was sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, academia and local governments. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_41

Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs eventually became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_42

The 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_43

Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_44

The National Register of Historic Places has grown considerably from its legislative origins in 1966. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_45

In 1986, citizens and groups nominated 3,623 separate properties, sites and districts for inclusion on the National Register, a total of 75,000 separate properties. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_46

Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_47

Others are listed as contributing members within historic districts. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_48

Nomination process National Register of Historic Places_section_1

Any individual can prepare a National Register nomination, although historians and historic preservation consultants often are employed for this work. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_49

The nomination consists of a standard nomination form and contains basic information about a property's physical appearance and the type of significance embodied in the building, structure, object, site, or district. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_50

The State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) receives National Register nominations and provides feedback to the nominating individual or group. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_51

After preliminary review, the SHPO sends each nomination to the state's historic review commission, which then recommends whether the State Historic Preservation Officer should send the nomination to the Keeper of the National Register. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_52

For any non-Federally owned property, only the State Historic Preservation Officer may officially nominate a property for inclusion in the National Register. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_53

After the nomination is recommended for listing in the National Register by the SHPO, the nomination is sent to the National Park Service, which approves or denies the nomination. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_54

If approved, the property is entered officially by the Keeper of the National Register into the National Register of Historic Places. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_55

Property owners are notified of the nomination during the review by the SHPO and state's historic review commission. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_56

If an owner objects to a nomination of private property, or in the case of a historic district, a majority of owners, then the property cannot be listed in the National Register of Historic Places. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_57

Criteria National Register of Historic Places_section_2

For a property to be eligible for the National Register, it must meet at least one of the four National Register main criteria. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_58

Information about architectural styles, association with various aspects of social history and commerce and ownership are all integral parts of the nomination. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_59

Each nomination contains a narrative section that provides a detailed physical description of the property and justifies why it is significant historically with regard either to local, state, or national history. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_60

The four National Register of Historic Places criteria are the following. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_61

National Register of Historic Places_unordered_list_0

  • Criterion A, "Event", the property must make a contribution to the major pattern of American history.National Register of Historic Places_item_0_0
  • Criterion B, "Person", is associated with significant people of the American past.National Register of Historic Places_item_0_1
  • Criterion C, "Design/Construction", concerns the distinctive characteristics of the building by its architecture and construction, including having great artistic value or being the work of a master.National Register of Historic Places_item_0_2
  • Criterion D, "Information potential", is satisfied if the property has yielded or may be likely to yield information important to prehistory or history.National Register of Historic Places_item_0_3

The criteria are applied differently for different types of properties; for instance, maritime properties have application guidelines different from those of buildings. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_62

Exclusions National Register of Historic Places_section_3

There are specific instances where properties usually do not merit listing in the National Register. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_63

As a general rule, cemeteries, birthplaces, graves of historical figures, properties owned by religious institutions or used for religious purposes, moved structures, reconstructed historic buildings, commemorative properties and properties that have achieved significance during the last fifty years are not qualified for listing on the Register. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_64

There are, however, exceptions to all the preceding; mitigating circumstances allow properties classified in one of those groups to be included. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_65

Properties listed National Register of Historic Places_section_4

See also: United States National Register of Historic Places listings and List of U.S. National Historic Landmarks by state National Register of Historic Places_sentence_66

A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, site, building, or property. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_67

However, the Register is mostly "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives." National Register of Historic Places_sentence_68

The National Register of Historic Places automatically includes all National Historic Landmarks as well as all historic areas administered by the National Park Service. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_69

Landmarks such as these include National Historic Sites (NHS), National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials and some National Monuments. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_70

Occasionally, historic sites outside the country's borders, but associated with the United States, such as the American Legation in Tangiers, also are listed. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_71

Listing in the National Register does not restrict private property owners from the use of their property. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_72

Some states and municipalities, however, may have laws that become effective when a property is listed in the National Register. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_73

If federal money or a federal permitting process is involved, Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 is invoked. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_74

Section 106 requires the federal agency involved to assess the effect of its actions on historic resources. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_75

Statutorily, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) has the most significant role by Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_76

The section requires that the director of any federal agency with direct or indirect jurisdiction of a project that may affect a property listed or determined eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, must first report to the Advisory Council. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_77

The director of said agency is required to "take into account the effect of the undertaking" on the National Register property, as well as to afford the ACHP a reasonable opportunity to comment. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_78

While Section 106 does not mandate explicitly that any federal agency director accept the advice of the ACHP, their advice has practical influence, especially given the statutory obligations of the NHPA that require federal agencies to "take into account the effect of the undertaking." National Register of Historic Places_sentence_79

In cases where the ACHP determines federal action will have an "adverse effect" on historic properties, mitigation is sought. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_80

Typically, a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) is created by which the involved parties agree to a particular plan. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_81

Many states have laws similar to Section 106. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_82

In contrast to conditions relating to a federally designated historic district, municipal ordinances governing local historic districts often restrict certain kinds of changes to properties. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_83

Thus, they may protect the property more than a National Register listing does. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_84

The Department of Transportation Act, passed on October 15, 1966, the same day as the National Historic Preservation Act, included provisions that addressed historic preservation. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_85

The DOT Act is much more general than Section 106 NHPA in that it refers to properties other than those listed in the Register. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_86

The more general language has allowed more properties and parklands to enjoy status as protected areas by this legislation, a policy developed early in its history. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_87

The United States Supreme Court ruled in the 1971 case Citizens to Preserve Overton Park v. Volpe that parklands could have the same protected status as "historic sites." National Register of Historic Places_sentence_88

National Register of Historic Places_unordered_list_1

  • National Register of Historic Places_item_1_4
  • National Register of Historic Places_item_1_5
  • National Register of Historic Places_item_1_6
  • National Register of Historic Places_item_1_7
  • National Register of Historic Places_item_1_8
  • National Register of Historic Places_item_1_9
  • National Register of Historic Places_item_1_10
  • National Register of Historic Places_item_1_11
  • National Register of Historic Places_item_1_12
  • National Register of Historic Places_item_1_13
  • National Register of Historic Places_item_1_14

Multiple property submission National Register of Historic Places_section_5

A multiple property submission (MPS) is a thematic group listing of the National Register of Historic Places that consists of related properties that share a common theme and can be submitted as a group. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_89

Multiple property submissions must satisfy certain basic criteria for the group of properties to be included in the National Register. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_90

The process begins with the multiple property documentation forms, which acts as a cover document rather than the nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_91

The purpose of the documentation form is to establish the basis of eligibility for related properties. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_92

The information of the multiple property documentation form can be used to nominate and register related historic properties simultaneously, or to establish criteria for properties that may be nominated in the future. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_93

Thus, additions to an MPS can occur over time. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_94

The nomination of individual properties in an MPS is accomplished in the same manner as other nominations. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_95

The name of the "thematic group" denotes the historical theme of the properties. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_96

It is considered the "multiple property listing." National Register of Historic Places_sentence_97

Once an individual property or a group of properties is nominated and listed in the National Register, the multiple property documentation form, combined with the individual National Register of Historic Places nomination forms, constitute a multiple property submission. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_98

Examples of MPS include the Lee County Multiple Property Submission, the Warehouses in Omaha, the Boundary Markers of the Original District of Columbia and the Illinois Carnegie Libraries. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_99

Before the term "Multiple Property Submission" was introduced in 1984, such listings were known as "Thematic Resources", such as the Operating Passenger Railroad Stations Thematic Resource, or "Multiple Resource Areas". National Register of Historic Places_sentence_100

Types of properties National Register of Historic Places_section_6

See also: National Register of Historic Places property types and Historic districts in the United States National Register of Historic Places_sentence_101

Listed properties are generally in one of five broad categories, although there are special considerations for other types of properties that in any one, or into more specialized subcategories. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_102

The five general categories for National Register properties are: building, structure, site, district and object. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_103

In addition, historic districts consist of contributing and non-contributing properties. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_104

Buildings, as defined by the National Register, are distinguished in the traditional sense. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_105

Examples include a house, barn, hotel, church, or similar construction. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_106

They are created primarily to shelter human activity. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_107

The term building, as in outbuilding, can be used to refer to historically and functionally related units, such as a courthouse and a jail or a barn and a house. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_108

Structures differ from buildings in that they are functional constructions meant to be used for purposes other than sheltering human activity. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_109

Examples include an aircraft, a grain elevator, a gazebo and a bridge. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_110

Objects are usually artistic in nature, or small in scale compared to structures and buildings. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_111

Although objects may be movable, they are generally associated with a specific setting or environment. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_112

Examples of objects include monuments, sculptures and fountains. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_113

Sites are the locations of significant events, which can be prehistoric or historic in nature and represent activities or buildings (standing, ruined, or vanished). National Register of Historic Places_sentence_114

When sites are listed, it is the locations themselves that are of historical interest. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_115

They possess cultural or archaeological value regardless of the value of any structures that currently exist at the locations. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_116

Examples of types of sites include shipwrecks, battlefields, campsites, natural features and rock shelters. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_117

Historic districts possess a concentration, association, or continuity of the other four types of properties. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_118

Objects, structures, buildings and sites in a historic district are united historically or aesthetically, either by choice or by the nature of their development. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_119

There are several other different types of historic preservation associated with the properties of the National Register of Historic Places that cannot be classified as either simple buildings and historic districts. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_120

Through the National Park Service, the National Register of Historic Places publishes a series of bulletins designed to aid in evaluating and applying the criteria for evaluation of different types of properties. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_121

Although the criteria are always the same, the manner they are applied may differ slightly, depending upon the type of property involved. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_122

The National Register bulletins describe application of the criteria for aids to navigation, historic battlefields, archaeological sites, aviation properties, cemeteries and burial places, historic designed landscapes, mining sites, post offices, properties associated with significant persons, properties achieving significance within the last fifty years, rural historic landscapes, traditional cultural properties and vessels and shipwrecks. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_123

Property owner incentives National Register of Historic Places_section_7

Properties are not protected in any strict sense by the Federal listing. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_124

States and local zoning bodies may or may not choose to protect listed historic places. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_125

Indirect protection is possible, by state and local regulations on development of National Register properties and by tax incentives. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_126

Until 1976, federal tax incentives were virtually non-existent for buildings on the National Register. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_127

Before 1976 the federal tax code favored new construction rather than the reuse of existing, sometimes historical, structures. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_128

In 1976, the tax code was altered to provide tax incentives that promote preservation of income-producing historic properties. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_129

The National Park Service was given the responsibility to ensure that only rehabilitations that preserved the historic character of a building would qualify for federal tax incentives. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_130

A qualifying rehabilitation is one that the NPS deems consistent with the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_131

Properties and sites listed in the Register, as well as those located in and contributing to the period of significance of National Register Historic Districts, became eligible for the federal tax benefits. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_132

Owners of income-producing properties listed individually in the National Register of Historic Places or of properties that are contributing resources within a National Register Historic District may be eligible for a 20% investment tax credit for the rehabilitation of the historic structure. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_133

The rehabilitation may be of a commercial, industrial, or residential property, for rentals. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_134

The tax incentives program is operated by the Federal Historic Preservation Tax Incentives program, which is managed jointly by the National Park Service, individual State Historic Preservation Offices and the Internal Revenue Service. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_135

Aside from the 20% tax credit, the tax incentive program offers a 10% tax credit for rehabilitation to owners of non-historic, non-residential buildings constructed before 1936. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_136

Some property owners may also qualify for grants, like the now-defunct Save America's Treasures grants, which apply specifically to properties entered in the Register with national significance or designated as National Historic Landmarks. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_137

The NHPA did not distinguish between properties listed in the National Register of Historic Places and those designated as National Historic Landmarks concerning qualification for tax incentives or grants. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_138

This was deliberate, as the authors of the act had learned from experience that distinguishing between categories of significance for such incentives caused the lowest category to become expendable. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_139

Essentially, this made the Landmarks a kind of "honor roll" of the most significant properties of the National Register of Historic Places. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_140

Recent past National Register of Historic Places_section_8

In American historic preservation, the 50-year rule is the generally held belief that a property must be at least 50 years old to be listed in the National Register of Historic Places. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_141

Actually, there is no hard rule. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_142

As stated by John H. Sprinkle, Jr., Deputy Director of the Federal Preservation Institute, "this 'rule' is only an exception to the criteria that shape listings within the National Register of Historic Places. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_143

Of the eight 'exceptions' [or criteria considerations], Consideration G, for properties that have achieved significance within the past fifty years, is probably the best-known, yet also misunderstood preservation principle in America." National Register of Historic Places_sentence_144

Each year, a new group of resources crosses the 50-year threshold. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_145

The preservation of these "underage" resources has gained attention in recent years. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_146

Limitations National Register of Historic Places_section_9

As of 1999, there have been 982 properties removed from the Register, most often due to being destroyed. National Register of Historic Places_sentence_147

Among the properties that were demolished or otherwise destroyed after their listing are the Jobbers Canyon Historic District in Omaha, Nebraska (listed in 1979, demolished in 1989), Pan-Pacific Auditorium in Los Angeles, California (listed in 1978, destroyed in a fire in 1989), Palace Amusements in Asbury Park, New Jersey (listed in 2000, demolished in 2004), The Balinese Room in Galveston, Texas (listed in 1997, destroyed by Hurricane Ike in 2008), and seven of the nine buildings included in the University of Connecticut Historic District in Storrs, Connecticut (listed in 1989, demolished in 2017). National Register of Historic Places_sentence_148

See also National Register of Historic Places_section_10

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National Register of Historic Places.