National redoubt

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A national redoubt or national fortress is an area to which the (remnant) forces of a nation can be withdrawn if the main battle has been lost or even earlier if defeat is considered inevitable. National redoubt_sentence_0

Typically, a region is chosen with a geography favouring defence, such as a mountainous area or a peninsula, to function as a final holdout to preserve national independence and host an effective resistance movement for the duration of the conflict. National redoubt_sentence_1

Western Europe National redoubt_section_0

Belgium National redoubt_section_1

Main article: National redoubt of Belgium National redoubt_sentence_2

From the middle of the 19th century until 1914 the fortress city of Antwerp was the official National Redoubt of Antwerp in Belgium. National redoubt_sentence_3

Fortress Antwerp was a defensive belt of fortifications built in two rings to defend Antwerp. National redoubt_sentence_4

Antwerp was designated to be a national reduit (Réduit national (French) or De versterkte stelling Antwerpen (Dutch)) in case Belgium was attacked. National redoubt_sentence_5

It was built in the period 1859–1914. National redoubt_sentence_6

In total it encompasses a belt of fortifications of 95 km. National redoubt_sentence_7

France National redoubt_section_2

In 1940 Brittany was briefly considered as such in the last stages of the Fall of France, but proved impractical. National redoubt_sentence_8

Netherlands National redoubt_section_3

See also: Battle of the Netherlands § Dutch defensive strategy National redoubt_sentence_9

Until 1920, the "Fortress Amsterdam" was the national redoubt of the Netherlands. National redoubt_sentence_10

Between 1920 and 1940, Fortress Amsterdam was extended to Fortress Holland, to include a larger part of the country's heartland. National redoubt_sentence_11

In both cases, neither "redoubt" proved defensible even though the Dutch Water Line, a precursor in the Netherlands, managed to stop the advances of the French troops in the Rampjaar 1672, providing the Dutch with the needed time to gain the upper hand. National redoubt_sentence_12

Portugal National redoubt_section_4

See also: Lines of Torres Vedras National redoubt_sentence_13

Since the early 19th century to the World War II, Lisbon was considered the national redoubt of Portugal. National redoubt_sentence_14

Besides being the capital, the largest city and the major port of the country, Lisbon was considered the last defensible redoubt in case of an invasion of Portugal by a major power. National redoubt_sentence_15

During this period, successive systems of defense were implemented. National redoubt_sentence_16

The first major defense system of Lisbon was built during the Peninsular War, as the Lines of Torres Vedras. National redoubt_sentence_17

These consisted in two lines of fortifications that protected the region of Lisbon (with a third line around the coastal fortress of São Julião da Barra). National redoubt_sentence_18

The Lines of Torres Vedras were able to block Masséna's 1810 offensive. National redoubt_sentence_19

Another major defense system was implemented in the late 19th century as the Lisbon Entrenched Camp. National redoubt_sentence_20

This was a modern (for its day) system of fortifications, aimed to protect the Portuguese capital against an attack coming from land or from the sea. National redoubt_sentence_21

Its land component sector consisted in several modern forts, connected by protected roads and telegraph lines. National redoubt_sentence_22

Its sea front defense consisted in coastal artillery batteries, complemented by naval dedicated assets, including a coastal battleship, torpedo boats, submarines and naval mines. National redoubt_sentence_23

The last major system of defense of Lisbon was implemented during World War II. National redoubt_sentence_24

It included a system of anti-aircraft, ground, coastal and maritime defenses. National redoubt_sentence_25

Parts of this system, namely its fortified coastal defense batteries remained partially active until the late 1990s. National redoubt_sentence_26

Central Europe National redoubt_section_5

Germany National redoubt_section_6

The Alpine Fortress (German: Alpenfestung) was the World War II national redoubt planned by Heinrich Himmler in November/December 1943 for Germany's government and armed forces to retreat to an area from "southern Bavaria across western Austria to northern Italy". National redoubt_sentence_27

The plan was never fully endorsed by Hitler and no serious attempt was made to put the plan into operation. National redoubt_sentence_28

Italy National redoubt_section_7

Main article: Alpine Wall National redoubt_sentence_29

The Alpine Wall (Vallo Alpino) was a defence structure developed against the allied Germany in the Alps. National redoubt_sentence_30

It was reused at the end of the World War II from German troops, and after the World War II in the Cold War to prevent an invasion from Soviet Union. National redoubt_sentence_31

Switzerland National redoubt_section_8

Main article: National Redoubt (Switzerland) National redoubt_sentence_32

Swiss National Redoubt (Schweizer Alpenfestung or Réduit suisse) was a defensive plan developed by the Swiss government during World War II to respond to a possible German invasion, which had been planned but was never carried out. National redoubt_sentence_33

The plan was in three stages: first, to hold an invading army on the border; second, if that failed, to launch a delaying war that would allow the bulk of Swiss forces to withdraw to a defensible perimeter in the Swiss Alps; and third, to defend that mountain stronghold. National redoubt_sentence_34

Austria National redoubt_section_9

During the Cold War, Austria developed a similar plan called Raumverteidigung (area defence). National redoubt_sentence_35

The plan was primarily directed against Hungary and Czechoslovakia (and later the Warsaw Pact) but it also included plans against an attack by NATO forces. National redoubt_sentence_36

The Austrian Armed Forces would retreat into key zones situated in the alpine region and defend it. National redoubt_sentence_37

They would also employ guerrilla warfare behind enemy lines and delay the enemy advance in the area's security zones. National redoubt_sentence_38

Other regions National redoubt_section_10

China National redoubt_section_11

During the Second Sino-Japanese War in World War II, the city of Kunming was prepared as a national redoubt in case the temporary capital, Chongqing, fell. National redoubt_sentence_39

An elaborate system of caves to serve as offices, barracks and factories was prepared but never used. National redoubt_sentence_40

Kunming was again slated to serve in this role in the renewed Chinese civil war, but the Nationalist garrison changed sides and joined the Communists. National redoubt_sentence_41

Instead, Taiwan became the last redoubt and home of the Nationalist government, a role which continues to this day. National redoubt_sentence_42

Japan National redoubt_section_12

Towards the end of World War II, the Matsushiro Underground Imperial Headquarters were built in Nagano Prefecture. National redoubt_sentence_43

They were intended as a base from which the Japanese government could operate. National redoubt_sentence_44

The base was partly completed by the time of Japan's surrender. National redoubt_sentence_45

Mandate of Palestine National redoubt_section_13

As German Afrika Korps forces proceeded eastward towards Egypt in World War II, the Jewish community in Palestine considered retreating into fortified positions at Haifa and the Mount Carmel region, were the German advance to reach them. National redoubt_sentence_46

The Palestine Post Occupation Scheme was a short-lived 1942 collaboration between the Jewish underground Palmach and the British Special Operations Executive, with training for the plan centered at the kibbutz Mishmar HaEmek, and Moshe Dayan to be put in charge of managing a clandestine radio network. National redoubt_sentence_47

In Jewish underground circles, the plan was also variously called the "Plan for the North", "Masada on the Carmel", "Haifa-Tobruk", "Haifa-Masada-Musa-Dagh", or "Haifa Stronghold". National redoubt_sentence_48

The planners on the Palmach side were Yohanan Ratner and Yitzhak Sadeh. National redoubt_sentence_49

David Shaltiel (commander in Haifa at the time) and Yitzhak Gruenbaum were vocal supporters of a Masada-like stand, while Yigal Allon and others were skeptical of its usefulness. National redoubt_sentence_50

The evacuation of women and children to Cyprus was also considered. National redoubt_sentence_51

The decisive British victory at the Second Battle of El Alamein soon afterward rendered the plan moot. National redoubt_sentence_52

Poland National redoubt_section_14

During the 1930s, assuming that Poland was attacked only by the Germans, the Polish forces were to make the last stand in the area of the Romanian Bridgehead. National redoubt_sentence_53

After the Battle of Bzura was over and even after the Soviet invasion of Poland, many Polish divisions kept on heading towards the Romanian Bridgehead. National redoubt_sentence_54

Beck's proposal to establish Lviv (Lwów) as the temporary capital of Poland, in the case of German attack, was rejected; possibly because Lviv was west of the Romanian bridgehead. National redoubt_sentence_55

Sweden National redoubt_section_15

Karlsborg Fortress was conceived in 19th century Sweden to host monarchy, government, parliament and gold reserves in time of war. National redoubt_sentence_56

Karlsborg was selected as Sweden's eastern coast and Stockholm became rather exposed after Sweden's loss of Finland in 1809. National redoubt_sentence_57

Yugoslavia National redoubt_section_16

According to the "Total National Resistance" defense doctrine of the second Yugoslavia, a rugged highland area focused on central Bosnia (roughly, the Lašva Valley) was to function as a redoubt to which the Yugoslav People's Army would retreat in case of a Soviet or NATO invasion. National redoubt_sentence_58

Defense of the rest of the country was to be left to the guerrilla-warfare efforts of the Territorial Defense forces. National redoubt_sentence_59

A network of industrial zones and fortified bases was developed in anticipation, including factories in boom cities like Zenica and an underground air force base at Željava and a command bunker complex intended for the use of Marshal Josip Broz Tito. National redoubt_sentence_60

See also National redoubt_section_17

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National redoubt.