Nature reserve

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"Biological reserve" redirects here. Nature reserve_sentence_0

For use of the term specific to Brazil, see Biological reserve (Brazil). Nature reserve_sentence_1

"Biosphere reserve" redirects here. Nature reserve_sentence_2

For use of the term specific to UNESCO, see Man and the Biosphere Programme. Nature reserve_sentence_3

A nature reserve (also known as a natural reserve, wildlife refuge, wildlife sanctuary, biosphere reserve or bioreserve, natural or nature preserve, or nature conservation area), is a protected area of importance for flora, fauna, or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for purposes of conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research. Nature reserve_sentence_4

They may be designated by government institutions in some countries, or by private landowners, such as charities and research institutions. Nature reserve_sentence_5

Nature reserves fall into different IUCN categories depending on the level of protection afforded by local laws. Nature reserve_sentence_6

Normally it is more strictly protected than a nature park. Nature reserve_sentence_7

Various jurisdictions may use other terminology, such as ecological protection area or private protected area in legislation and in official titles of the reserves. Nature reserve_sentence_8

History Nature reserve_section_0

Cultural practices that roughly equate to the establishment and maintenance of reserved areas for animals date back to antiquity, with King Tissa of Ceylon establishing one of the world's earliest wildlife sanctuaries in the 3rd century BC. Nature reserve_sentence_9

Early reservations often had a religious underpinning, such as the 'evil forest' areas of West Africa which were forbidden to humans, who were threatened with spiritual attack if they went there. Nature reserve_sentence_10

Sacred areas taboo from human entry to fishing and hunting are known by many ancient cultures worldwide. Nature reserve_sentence_11

The world's first modern nature reserve was established in 1821 by the naturalist and explorer Charles Waterton around his estate in Walton Hall, West Yorkshire. Nature reserve_sentence_12

He spent £9000 on the construction of a three-mile long, 9 ft tall wall to enclose his park against poachers. Nature reserve_sentence_13

He tried to encourage bird life by planting trees and hollowing out trunks for owls to nest in. Nature reserve_sentence_14

Waterton invented artificial nest boxes to house starlings, jackdaws and sand martins; and unsuccessfully attempted to introduce little owls from Italy. Nature reserve_sentence_15

Waterton allowed local people access to his reserve and was described by David Attenborough as "one of the first people anywhere to recognise not only that the natural world was of great importance but that it needed protection as humanity made more and more demands on it". Nature reserve_sentence_16

Drachenfels (Siebengebirge) was protected as the first state-designated nature reserve in modern-day Germany; the site was bought by the Prussian State in 1836 to protect it from further quarrying. Nature reserve_sentence_17

The first major nature reserve was Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming, United States, followed by the Royal National Park near Sydney, Australia and the Barguzin Nature Reserve of Imperial Russia, the first of zapovedniks set up by a federal government entirely for the scientific study of nature. Nature reserve_sentence_18

Around the world Nature reserve_section_1

There are several national and international organizations that oversee the numerous non-profit animal sanctuaries and refuges in order to provide a general system for sanctuaries to follow. Nature reserve_sentence_19

Among them, the American Sanctuary Association monitors and aids in various facilities to care for exotic wildlife. Nature reserve_sentence_20

The number of sanctuaries has substantially increased over the past few years. Nature reserve_sentence_21

Australia Nature reserve_section_2

See also: Nature reserve (Australia) Nature reserve_sentence_22

In Australia, a nature reserve is the title of a type of protected area used in the jurisdictions of the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Tasmania and Western Australia. Nature reserve_sentence_23

The term "nature reserve" is defined in the relevant statutes used in those states and territories rather than by a single national statute. Nature reserve_sentence_24

As of 2016, 1767 out of a total of 11044 protected areas listed within the Australian National Reserve System used the term "nature reserve" in their names. Nature reserve_sentence_25

Brazil Nature reserve_section_3

In Brazil, nature reserves are classified by the National System of Conservation Units as ecological stations (Portuguese: estações ecológicas) or biological reserves (Portuguese: reservas biológicas). Nature reserve_sentence_26

Their main objectives are preserving fauna and flora and other natural attributes, excluding direct human interference. Nature reserve_sentence_27

Visits are allowed only with permission, and only for educational or scientific purposes. Nature reserve_sentence_28

Changes to the ecosystems in both types of reserve are allowed to restore and preserve the natural balance, biological diversity and natural ecological processes. Nature reserve_sentence_29

Ecological stations are also allowed to change the environment within strictly defined limits (e.g. affecting no more than three percent of the area or 1,500 hectares (3,700 acres), whichever is less) for the purpose of scientific research. Nature reserve_sentence_30

A wildlife reserve in Brazil is also protected, and hunting is not allowed, but products and by-products from research may be sold. Nature reserve_sentence_31

Wildlife refuges in Brazil have as their objective the protection of natural flora and fauna where conditions are assured for the existence and reproduction of species or communities of the local flora and the resident or migratory fauna. Nature reserve_sentence_32

The refuges can consist of privately owned land, as long as the objectives of the unit are compatible with the landowners' usage of the land and natural resources. Nature reserve_sentence_33

Public visits are subject to the conditions and restrictions established by the management plan of the unit and are subject to authorisation by and regulations of the main administrative and scientific research body. Nature reserve_sentence_34

Canada Nature reserve_section_4

In Canada, UNESCO has recognized 18 nature reserves, mostly along the Niagara Escarpment and St. Lawrence River in Ontario. Nature reserve_sentence_35

Federally, Canada recognizes 55 National Wildlife Areas across the country, containing species of ecological significance. Nature reserve_sentence_36

The relevant Ministry is known as Environment and Climate Change Canada, which protects these areas under legislation known as the Canada Wildlife Act. Nature reserve_sentence_37

The areas comprise approximately 1,000,000 ha (2,500,000 acres) of habitat, half of which is marine habitat, for the purpose of conservation and research. Nature reserve_sentence_38

Many conservation groups protect nature reserves in Canada as well, including Nature Conservancy Canada, Ducks Unlimited, and Escarpment Biosphere Conservancy. Nature reserve_sentence_39

These charities operate to protect wilderness on privately owned lands, including through Canada's Ecological Gifts Program. Nature reserve_sentence_40

Egypt Nature reserve_section_5

There are 30 nature reserves in Egypt which cover 12% of Egyptian land. Nature reserve_sentence_41

Those nature reserves were built according to the laws no. Nature reserve_sentence_42

102/1983 and 4/1994 for protection of the Egyptian nature reserve. Nature reserve_sentence_43

Egypt announced a plan from to build 40 nature reserves from 1997 to 2017, to help protect the natural resources and the culture and history of those areas. Nature reserve_sentence_44

The largest nature reserve in Egypt is Gebel Elba (35,600 square kilometres (13,700 sq mi)) in the southeast, on the Red Sea coast. Nature reserve_sentence_45

Europe Nature reserve_section_6

Denmark Nature reserve_section_7

Denmark has three national parks and several nature reserves, some of them inside the national park areas. Nature reserve_sentence_46

The largest single reserve is Hanstholm Nature Reserve, which covers 40 km (9,900 acres) and is part of Thy National Park. Nature reserve_sentence_47

Sweden Nature reserve_section_8

In Sweden, there are 29 national parks. Nature reserve_sentence_48

The first of them was established in 1909. Nature reserve_sentence_49

In fact, Sweden was the first European country that established 9 national parks. Nature reserve_sentence_50

There are almost 4,000 nature reserves in Sweden. Nature reserve_sentence_51

They comprise about 85% of the surface that is protected by the Swedish Environmental Code. Nature reserve_sentence_52

Estonia Nature reserve_section_9

In Estonia, there are 5 national parks, more than 100 nature reserves, and around 130 landscape protection areas. Nature reserve_sentence_53

The largest nature reserve in Estonia is Alam-Pedja Nature Reserve, which covers 342 km (85,000 acres). Nature reserve_sentence_54

France Nature reserve_section_10

As of 2017, France counts 10 national parks, around 50 regional nature parks, and 8 marine parks. Nature reserve_sentence_55

Germany Nature reserve_section_11

In 1995 Germany had 5,314 nature reserves (German: Naturschutzgebiete) covering 6,845 km (2,643 sq mi), the largest total areas being in Bavaria with 1,416 km (547 sq mi) and Lower Saxony with 1,275 km (492 sq mi). Nature reserve_sentence_56

Hungary Nature reserve_section_12

In Hungary, there are 10 national parks, more than 15 nature reserves and more than 250 protected areas. Nature reserve_sentence_57

Hortobágy National Park is the largest continuous natural grassland in Europe and the oldest national park in Hungary. Nature reserve_sentence_58

It is situated on the eastern part of Hungary, on the plain of the Alföld. Nature reserve_sentence_59

It was established in 1972. Nature reserve_sentence_60

There are alkaline grasslands interrupted by marshes. Nature reserve_sentence_61

They have a sizable importance because there are the fishponds. Nature reserve_sentence_62

One of the most spectacular sights of the park is the autumn migration of cranes. Nature reserve_sentence_63

Some famous Hungarian animal species live in Hortobágy National Park, such as the grey cattle, racka long-wool sheep living only in Hungary, Hungarian horses and buffalo. Nature reserve_sentence_64

Hortobágy National Park has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1 December 1999. Nature reserve_sentence_65

Poland Nature reserve_section_13

Main article: Nature reserves in Poland Nature reserve_sentence_66

As of 2011, Poland has 1469 nature reserves. Nature reserve_sentence_67

Portugal Nature reserve_section_14

Main article: Protected areas of Portugal Nature reserve_sentence_68

Nature reserves are one of the 11 types of protected areas in Portugal. Nature reserve_sentence_69

As of 2012, Portugal had a total of 46 protected areas, which represented 6,807.89 km (2,628.54 sq mi) of land and 463.94 km (179.13 sq mi) of marine surfaces. Nature reserve_sentence_70

Among the protected areas, nine are classified as nature reserve (Portuguese: reserva natural). Nature reserve_sentence_71

Romania Nature reserve_section_15

Main article: Protected areas of Romania Nature reserve_sentence_72

About 5.18% of the area of Romania has a protected status (12,360 km (4,770 sq mi)), including the Danube Delta, which makes up half of this area (2.43% of Romania's total area). Nature reserve_sentence_73

Spain Nature reserve_section_16

See also: List_of_national_parks_of_Spain Nature reserve_sentence_74

There are 15 National Parks, and around 90 Natural Parks in Spain. Nature reserve_sentence_75

Spain is the country with the most sites listed in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. Nature reserve_sentence_76

Switzerland Nature reserve_section_17

See also: Nature parks in Switzerland Nature reserve_sentence_77

The Swiss National Park, created in 1914, was one of the earliest national parks in Europe. Nature reserve_sentence_78

In addition to the Swiss National Park, Switzerland also has sixteen regional nature parks. Nature reserve_sentence_79

The environmental organization Pro Natura takes care of about 650 nature reserves of various sizes throughout Switzerland (250 km (97 sq mi)). Nature reserve_sentence_80

India Nature reserve_section_18

Main article: Biosphere reserves of India Nature reserve_sentence_81

India's 18 biospheres extend over a total of 85,940 km (33,180 sq mi) and protect larger areas than typical national parks in other countries. Nature reserve_sentence_82

The first national reserve of India was established in 1986. Nature reserve_sentence_83

Israel Nature reserve_section_19

Main article: Nature reserves of Israel Nature reserve_sentence_84

Israel's national parks are declared historic sites or nature reserves, which are mostly operated and maintained by the National Nature and Parks Authority. Nature reserve_sentence_85

As of 2019, Israel maintains more than 490 nature reserves that protect 2,500 species of indigenous wild plants, 20 species of fish, 530 species of birds and 70 species of mammals. Nature reserve_sentence_86

In total, they cover 6,400 km (2,500 sq mi) of nature reserves, approximately 28% of the country's land area. Nature reserve_sentence_87

In 1984, the two areas with the highest number of nature reserves were the South (15.2%) and Samaria (the Shomron, 13.5%). Nature reserve_sentence_88

Japan Nature reserve_section_20

Under the Nature Conservation Law, places can be designated as 'wilderness areas', 'nature conservation areas' and 'prefectural nature conservation areas'. Nature reserve_sentence_89

In 1995, when the Japanese Government published its information in English, there were 5 wildernesses, 10 nature conservation areas and 516 prefectural nature conservation areas. Nature reserve_sentence_90

Jordan Nature reserve_section_21

Main article: Nature reserves in Jordan Nature reserve_sentence_91

There are seven nature reserves in Jordan. Nature reserve_sentence_92

In 1966 the organization that would later start Jordan's nature reserves, the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature, was founded. Nature reserve_sentence_93

RSCN's first efforts involved bringing back severely endangered species. Nature reserve_sentence_94

In 1973, RSCN was given the right to issue hunting licenses, giving RSCN an upper hand in preventing extinction. Nature reserve_sentence_95

The first step was the founding of Jordan's first nature reserve, Shaumari Wildlife Reserve, in 1975. Nature reserve_sentence_96

The primary purpose was to create means to breed endangered species, specifically: the Arabian oryx, gazelles, ostriches, and Persian onagers in their natural environment. Nature reserve_sentence_97

Kyrgyzstan Nature reserve_section_22

By the end of 2009 there were 10 nature reserves (Kyrgyz: корук, koruk) in Kyrgyzstan covering 600,000 hectares (6,000 km) or about three percent of the total area of the country. Nature reserve_sentence_98

New Zealand Nature reserve_section_23

Main article: Protected areas of New Zealand Nature reserve_sentence_99

New Zealand has a variety of types of reserve, including national parks, various types of conservation areas (including stewardship land that is yet to be officially classified), and seven specific types of "reserve", each of which prioritize various degrees of protection to different amenities such as scenery, recreation, flora and fauna, scientific value, or history. Nature reserve_sentence_100

Land is often sub-categorised beneath its general classification, as defined in law between the Reserves Act of 1977, the National Parks Act of 1980, and the Conservation Act of 1987. Nature reserve_sentence_101

Under these classifications, the Department of Conservation administers more than 80,000 square kilometres (31,000 sq mi)—nearly 30% of the nation's total area—with at least some degree of protection. Nature reserve_sentence_102

This land is composed of 14 National Parks, 30 Conservation Parks, and approximately 8,900 discrete areas of land in total. Nature reserve_sentence_103

Although the most public land is strongly protected for natural preservation, the term nature reserve is specifically defined in the Reserves Act to mean a reserve that prioritizes the protection of rare flora and fauna, to the extent that public access is by permit only. Nature reserve_sentence_104

Some of these reserves include Ecological Islands, a comparatively new concept in wildlife preservation, pioneered in New Zealand to help rebuild the populations of nearly extinct birds, and other species that are heavily threatened by introduced predators. Nature reserve_sentence_105

Nicaragua Nature reserve_section_24

In Nicaragua, the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (MARENA) is in charge of environmental protection and of the study, planning, and management of Nicaragua's natural resources. Nature reserve_sentence_106

Nearly one-fifth of the territory is designated as protected areas like national parks, nature reserves (including the Bosawás Biosphere Reserve), and biological reserves. Nature reserve_sentence_107

Nicaragua has 78 protected areas that cover 22,422 km (8,657 sq mi), about 17.3% of the nation's landmass. Nature reserve_sentence_108

Private nature reserves exist with land excluded from private land trusts and maintained at the sole cost of the proprietor. Nature reserve_sentence_109

For example, "O Parks, WildLife, and Recreation" was established within the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor by former FDNY firefighter Kevin Michael Shea, who purchased 46 acres (0.19 km) of land in this manner and is an example of this type of private nature reserve. Nature reserve_sentence_110

Russia Nature reserve_section_25

Main article: Zapovednik Nature reserve_sentence_111

There are around 100 nature reserves (Russian: заповедник, zapovednik) in Russia, covering some 330,000 km (130,000 sq mi), or about 1.4% of the country's total area. Nature reserve_sentence_112

A few of them predate the October Revolution of 1917, but most have been created during the Soviet Union era. Nature reserve_sentence_113

There are also natural protected areas where only certain species are protected, or only certain activities are prohibited; those are known as zakaznik (Russian: заказник). Nature reserve_sentence_114

Unofficial sanctuaries can also occur as a result of human accidents; the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone has in practice become a wildlife refuge since very few people live in the area. Nature reserve_sentence_115

Wildlife has flourished in the zone since the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986. Nature reserve_sentence_116

South Africa Nature reserve_section_26

South Africa is well known for its many nature reserves. Nature reserve_sentence_117

The oldest nature reserve in the country (and oldest conservation area in the world) is the Groenkloof Nature Reserve that was established in 1892 in the capital city Pretoria in the old South African Republic and current Republic of South Africa. Nature reserve_sentence_118

The country has many national parks but the best-known is the Kruger National Park, which was announced in 1898, and is the largest, at nearly 2,000,000 ha (20,000 km). Nature reserve_sentence_119

The Kruger Park and Table Mountain National Park are two of South Africa's most visited tourist attractions. Nature reserve_sentence_120

South Africa also has a number of World Heritage Sites and provincial game reserves including Shamwari, Londolozi, Sanbona and Lalibela. Nature reserve_sentence_121

The country currently has 20 national parks covering 3,700,000 ha (37,000 km), about 3% of the total area of South Africa. Nature reserve_sentence_122

Sri Lanka Nature reserve_section_27

The area around Mihintale, Sri Lanka as a sanctuary for wildlife, probably the first of its generation in the ancient world. Nature reserve_sentence_123

According to stone inscriptions found in the vicinity, the king commanded the people not to harm animals or destroy trees within the area. Nature reserve_sentence_124

Ukraine Nature reserve_section_28

There are 4 biosphere reserves (two of them are dated 1927 and 1874) and 17 nature reserves in Ukraine, covering 160,000 ha (400,000 acres). Nature reserve_sentence_125

Ukraine administers 40 national parks, 2632 habitat management areas, 3025 nature monuments, and 1430 other preservations. Nature reserve_sentence_126

United Kingdom Nature reserve_section_29

There are some differences between the regulations for England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales, which are separately managed. Nature reserve_sentence_127

At the end of March 2004, there were 215 national nature reserves in England with a total area of 879 km (339 sq mi). Nature reserve_sentence_128

The reserves are scattered through England, from Lindisfarne in Northumberland to The Lizard in Cornwall. Nature reserve_sentence_129

Nearly every rural county has at least one. Nature reserve_sentence_130

Many national nature reserves contain nationally important populations of rare flowers, ferns and mosses, butterflies and other insects, and nesting and wintering birds. Nature reserve_sentence_131

Examples include unique alpine plants at Upper Teesdale and the field of snake's head fritillaries at North Meadow, Cricklade, Wiltshire. Nature reserve_sentence_132

There are now over 1,050 local nature reserves in England. Nature reserve_sentence_133

They range from windswept coastal headlands, ancient woodlands and flower-rich meadows to former inner-city railways, long-abandoned landfill sites and industrial areas now re-colonized by wildlife. Nature reserve_sentence_134

In total, they cover almost 40,000 ha (99,000 acres)—an impressive natural resource which makes an important contribution to England's biodiversity. Nature reserve_sentence_135

A good example is Rye Harbour Nature Reserve in East Sussex, where a network of footpaths enables visitors to explore shingle, saltmarsh, saline lagoon, reedbed, and grazing marsh habitats. Nature reserve_sentence_136

Through the Natural Heritage (Scotland) Act 1991 the Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) was established in 1992 as a government body, responsible to the Scottish Government Ministers and through them to the Scottish Parliament. Nature reserve_sentence_137

At 31 March 2008, there were 65 Scottish national nature reserves with a total area of approximately 1,330 km (510 sq mi). Nature reserve_sentence_138

Section 21 of the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949 gives local authorities the exclusive statutory power to establish a local nature reserve in consultation with the SNH. Nature reserve_sentence_139

United States Nature reserve_section_30

In the United States, the U.S. Nature reserve_sentence_140 Fish and Wildlife Service, managed by the Secretary of the Interior, is responsible for managing many of the federal nature reserves including the National Wildlife Refuge System. Nature reserve_sentence_141

The National Wildlife Refuge System includes areas administered for the protection and conservation of fish and wildlife that are threatened with extinction, as well as wildlife ranges, game ranges, wildlife management areas, and waterfowl production areas. Nature reserve_sentence_142

The first North American wildlife refuge, Lake Merritt Wildlife sanctuary at Lake Merritt, was established by Samuel Merritt and enacted in California state law in 1870 as the first government owned refuge. Nature reserve_sentence_143

The first federally owned refuge in the United States is Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge and was established by Theodore Roosevelt in 1903 as part of his Square Deal campaign to improve the country. Nature reserve_sentence_144

At the time, setting aside land for wildlife was not a constitutional right of the president. Nature reserve_sentence_145

In 2006, a bi-partisan group of US House of Representatives members established the Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus to further support the needs of the National Wildlife Refuge System in Congress. Nature reserve_sentence_146

There are also state-level administered State Nature Reserves found throughout the country, as well as smaller reserves operated by local governments, private trusts, or even funded through public donations. Nature reserve_sentence_147

Private nature reserves also exist, with land excluded from private land trusts and maintained at the sole cost of the proprietor, such as the 1,800 acres (730 ha) Wilbur Hot Springs. Nature reserve_sentence_148

See also Nature reserve_section_31

Nature reserve_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: reserve.