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"National Socialism" and "Nazi" redirect here. Nazism_sentence_0

For other uses, see National Socialism (disambiguation) and Nazi (disambiguation). Nazism_sentence_1

National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus; German pronunciation: [nat͡sjoˈnaːlzot͡sjaˌlɪsmʊs), commonly known in English as Nazism (/ˈnɑːtsiɪzəm, ˈnæt-/), or, especially during Adolf Hitler's rise to power, Hitlerism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei "National Socialist German Workers' Party" or NSDAP) in Nazi Germany. Nazism_sentence_2

The related term "Neo-Nazism" is applied to other far-right groups with similar ideas and aims. Nazism_sentence_3

Nazism is a form of fascism, with disdain for liberal democracy and the parliamentary system. Nazism_sentence_4

It incorporates fervent antisemitism, anti-communism, scientific racism, and the use of eugenics into its creed. Nazism_sentence_5

Its extreme nationalism originated in pan-Germanism and the ethno-nationalist Völkisch movement which had been a prominent aspect of German nationalism since the late 19th century, and it was strongly influenced by the Freikorps paramilitary groups that emerged after Germany's defeat in World War I, from which came the party's underlying "cult of violence". Nazism_sentence_6

Nazism subscribed to pseudo-scientific theories of a racial hierarchy and social Darwinism, identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. Nazism_sentence_7

It aimed to overcome social divisions and create a German homogeneous society based on racial purity which represented a people's community (Volksgemeinschaft). Nazism_sentence_8

The Nazis aimed to unite all Germans living in historically German territory, as well as gain additional lands for German expansion under the doctrine of Lebensraum and exclude those who they deemed either Community Aliens or "inferior" races. Nazism_sentence_9

The term National Socialism arose out of attempts to create a nationalist redefinition of socialism, as an alternative to both Marxist international socialism and free-market capitalism. Nazism_sentence_10

Nazism rejected the Marxist concepts of class conflict and universal equality, opposed cosmopolitan internationalism and sought to convince all parts of the new German society to subordinate their personal interests to the "common good", accepting political interests as the main priority of economic organization, which tended to match the general outlook of collectivism or communitarianism rather than economic socialism. Nazism_sentence_11

The Nazi Party's precursor, the pan-German nationalist and antisemitic German Workers' Party (DAP), was founded on 5 January 1919. Nazism_sentence_12

By the early 1920s, the party was renamed the National Socialist German Workers' Party—to attract workers away from left-wing parties such as the Social Democrats (SPD) and the Communists (KPD) — and Adolf Hitler assumed control of the organization. Nazism_sentence_13

The National Socialist Program, or "25 Points", was adopted in 1920 and called for a united Greater Germany that would deny citizenship to Jews or those of Jewish descent, while also supporting land reform and the nationalization of some industries. Nazism_sentence_14

In Mein Kampf, literally "My Struggle" and published in 1925–1926, Hitler outlined the antisemitism and anti-communism at the heart of his political philosophy as well as his disdain for representative democracy and his belief in Germany's right to territorial expansion. Nazism_sentence_15

The Nazi Party won the greatest share of the popular vote in the two Reichstag general elections of 1932, making them the largest party in the legislature by far, albeit still short of an outright majority. Nazism_sentence_16

Because none of the parties were willing or able to put together a coalition government, Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany in 1933 by President Paul von Hindenburg through the support and connivance of traditional conservative nationalists who believed that they could control him and his party. Nazism_sentence_17

With the use of emergency presidential decrees by Hindenburg and a change in the Weimar Constitution which allowed the Cabinet to rule by direct decree, bypassing both Hindenburg and the Reichstag, the Nazis soon established a one-party state. Nazism_sentence_18

The Sturmabteilung (SA) and the Schutzstaffel (SS) functioned as the paramilitary organizations of the Nazi Party. Nazism_sentence_19

Using the SS for the task, Hitler purged the party's more socially and economically radical factions in the mid-1934 Night of the Long Knives, including the leadership of the SA. Nazism_sentence_20

After the death of President Hindenburg, political power was concentrated in Hitler's hands and he became Germany's head of state as well as the head of the government, with the title of Führer, meaning "leader". Nazism_sentence_21

From that point, Hitler was effectively the dictator of Nazi Germany, which was also known as the Third Reich, under which Jews, political opponents and other "undesirable" elements were marginalized, imprisoned or murdered. Nazism_sentence_22

During World War II, many millions of people—including around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe—were eventually exterminated in a genocide which became known as the Holocaust. Nazism_sentence_23

Following Germany's defeat in World War II and the discovery of the full extent of the Holocaust, Nazi ideology became universally disgraced. Nazism_sentence_24

It is widely regarded as immoral and evil, with only a few fringe racist groups, usually referred to as neo-Nazis, describing themselves as followers of National Socialism. Nazism_sentence_25

Etymology Nazism_section_0

The full name of the party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (English: National-Socialist German Workers' Party); they officially used the acronym NSDAP. Nazism_sentence_26

The term "Nazi" was in use before the rise of the NSDAP as a colloquial and derogatory word for a backwards farmer or peasant, characterizing an awkward and clumsy person. Nazism_sentence_27

In this sense, the word Nazi was a hypocorism of the German male name Igna(t)z (itself a variation of the name Ignatius)—Igna(t)z being a common name at the time in Bavaria, the area from which the NSDAP emerged. Nazism_sentence_28

In the 1920s, political opponents of the NSDAP in the German labour movement seized on this and—using the earlier abbreviated term "Sozi" for Sozialist (English: Socialist) as an example—shortened NSDAP's name, Nationalsozialistische, to the dismissive "Nazi", in order to associate them with the derogatory use of the term mentioned above. Nazism_sentence_29

The first use of the term "Nazi" by the National Socialists occurred in 1926 in a publication by Joseph Goebbels called Der Nazi-Sozi ["The Nazi-Sozi"]. Nazism_sentence_30

In Goebbels' pamphlet, the word "Nazi" only appears when linked with the word "Sozi" as an abbreviation of "National Socialism". Nazism_sentence_31

After the NSDAP's rise to power in the 1930s, the use of the term "Nazi" by itself or in terms such as "Nazi Germany", "Nazi regime" and so on was popularised by German exiles outside the country, but not in Germany. Nazism_sentence_32

From them, the term spread into other languages and it was eventually brought back into Germany after World War II. Nazism_sentence_33

The NSDAP briefly adopted the designation "Nazi" in an attempt to reappropriate the term, but it soon gave up this effort and generally avoided using the term while it was in power. Nazism_sentence_34

A compendium of conversations of Hitler from 1941 through 1944 entitled Hitler's Table Talk does not contain the word "Nazi" either. Nazism_sentence_35

In speeches by Hermann Göring, he never uses the term "Nazi." Nazism_sentence_36

Hitler Youth leader Melita Maschmann wrote a book about her experience entitled Account Rendered. Nazism_sentence_37

She did not refer to herself as a "Nazi," even though she was writing well after World War II. Nazism_sentence_38

In 1933, 581 members of the National Socialist Party answered interview questions put to them by Professor from Columbia University. Nazism_sentence_39

They similarly did not refer to themselves as "Nazis." Nazism_sentence_40

In each case, the authors refer to themselves as "National Socialists" and their movement as "National Socialism," but never as "Nazis." Nazism_sentence_41

Position within the political spectrum Nazism_section_1

Main article: Left–right political spectrum Nazism_sentence_42

The majority of scholars identify Nazism in both theory and practice as a form of far-right politics. Nazism_sentence_43

Far-right themes in Nazism include the argument that superior people have a right to dominate other people and purge society of supposed inferior elements. Nazism_sentence_44

Adolf Hitler and other proponents denied that Nazism was either left-wing or right-wing: instead, they officially portrayed Nazism as a syncretic movement. Nazism_sentence_45

In Mein Kampf, Hitler directly attacked both left-wing and right-wing politics in Germany, saying: Nazism_sentence_46

In a speech given in Munich on 12 April 1922, Hitler stated: Nazism_sentence_47

When asked in a 27 January 1934 whether he supported the "bourgeois right-wing", Hitler claimed that Nazism was not exclusively for any class and he indicated that it favoured neither the left nor the right, but preserved "pure" elements from both "camps" by stating: "From the camp of bourgeois tradition, it takes national resolve, and from the materialism of the Marxist dogma, living, creative Socialism". Nazism_sentence_48

Historians regard the equation of Nazism as 'Hitlerism' as too simplistic since the term was used prior to the rise of Hitler and the Nazis and the different ideologies incorporated into Nazism were already well established in certain parts of German society before World War I. Nazism_sentence_49

The Nazis were strongly influenced by the post–World War I far-right in Germany, which held common beliefs such as anti-Marxism, anti-liberalism and antisemitism, along with nationalism, contempt for the Treaty of Versailles and condemnation of the Weimar Republic for signing the armistice in November 1918 which later led it to sign the Treaty of Versailles. Nazism_sentence_50

A major inspiration for the Nazis were the far-right nationalist Freikorps, paramilitary organizations that engaged in political violence after World War I. Nazism_sentence_51

Initially, the post–World War I German far-right was dominated by monarchists, but the younger generation, which was associated with völkisch nationalism, was more radical and it did not express any emphasis on the restoration of the German monarchy. Nazism_sentence_52

This younger generation desired to dismantle the Weimar Republic and create a new radical and strong state based upon a martial ruling ethic that could revive the "Spirit of 1914" which was associated with German national unity (Volksgemeinschaft). Nazism_sentence_53

The Nazis, the far-right monarchists, the reactionary German National People's Party (DNVP) and others, such as monarchist officers in the German Army and several prominent industrialists, formed an alliance in opposition to the Weimar Republic on 11 October 1931 in Bad Harzburg, officially known as the "National Front", but commonly referred to as the Harzburg Front. Nazism_sentence_54

The Nazis stated that the alliance was purely tactical and they continued to have differences with the DNVP. Nazism_sentence_55

The Nazis described the DNVP as a bourgeois party and they called themselves an anti-bourgeois party. Nazism_sentence_56

After the elections of July 1932, the alliance broke down when the DNVP lost many of its seats in the Reichstag. Nazism_sentence_57

The Nazis denounced them as "an insignificant heap of reactionaries". Nazism_sentence_58

The DNVP responded by denouncing the Nazis for their socialism, their street violence and the "economic experiments" that would take place if the Nazis ever rose to power. Nazism_sentence_59

But amidst an inconclusive political situation in which conservative politicians Franz von Papen and Kurt von Schleicher were unable to form stable governments without the Nazis, Papen proposed to President Hindenburg to appoint Hitler as Chancellor at the head of a government formed primarily of conservatives, with only three Nazi ministers. Nazism_sentence_60

Hindenburg did so, and contrary to the expectations of Papen and the DNVP, Hitler was soon able to establish a Nazi one-party dictatorship. Nazism_sentence_61

Kaiser Wilhelm II, who was pressured to abdicate the throne and flee into exile amidst an attempted communist revolution in Germany, initially supported the Nazi Party. Nazism_sentence_62

His four sons, including Prince Eitel Friedrich and Prince Oskar, became members of the Nazi Party in hopes that in exchange for their support, the Nazis would permit the restoration of the monarchy. Nazism_sentence_63

There were factions within the Nazi Party, both conservative and radical. Nazism_sentence_64

The conservative Nazi Hermann Göring urged Hitler to conciliate with capitalists and reactionaries. Nazism_sentence_65

Other prominent conservative Nazis included Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich. Nazism_sentence_66

Meanwhile, the radical Nazi Joseph Goebbels opposed capitalism, viewing it as having Jews at its core and he stressed the need for the party to emphasize both a proletarian and a national character. Nazism_sentence_67

Those views were shared by Otto Strasser, who later left the Nazi Party and formed the Black Front in the belief that Hitler had allegedly betrayed the party's socialist goals by endorsing capitalism. Nazism_sentence_68

When the Nazi Party emerged from obscurity to become a major political force after 1929, the conservative faction rapidly gained more influence, as wealthy donors took an interest in the Nazis as a potential bulwark against communism. Nazism_sentence_69

The Nazi Party had previously been financed almost entirely from membership dues, but after 1929 its leadership began actively seeking donations from German industrialists, and Hitler began holding dozens of fundraising meetings with business leaders. Nazism_sentence_70

In the midst of the Great Depression, facing the possibility of economic ruin on the one hand and a Communist or Social Democratic government on the other hand, German business increasingly turned to Nazism as offering a way out of the situation, by promising a state-driven economy that would support, rather than attack, existing business interests. Nazism_sentence_71

By January 1933, the Nazi Party had secured the support of important sectors of German industry, mainly among the steel and coal producers, the insurance business and the chemical industry. Nazism_sentence_72

Large segments of the Nazi Party, particularly among the members of the Sturmabteilung (SA), were committed to the party's official socialist, revolutionary and anti-capitalist positions and expected both a social and an economic revolution when the party gained power in 1933. Nazism_sentence_73

In the period immediately before the Nazi seizure of power, there were even Social Democrats and Communists who switched sides and became known as "Beefsteak Nazis": brown on the outside and red inside. Nazism_sentence_74

The leader of the SA, Ernst Röhm, pushed for a "second revolution" (the "first revolution" being the Nazis' seizure of power) that would enact socialist policies. Nazism_sentence_75

Furthermore, Röhm desired that the SA absorb the much smaller German Army into its ranks under his leadership. Nazism_sentence_76

Once the Nazis achieved power, Röhm's SA was directed by Hitler to violently suppress the parties of the left, but they also began attacks against individuals deemed to be associated with conservative reaction. Nazism_sentence_77

Hitler saw Röhm's independent actions as violating and possibly threatening his leadership, as well as jeopardising the regime by alienating the conservative President Paul von Hindenburg and the conservative-oriented German Army. Nazism_sentence_78

This resulted in Hitler purging Röhm and other radical members of the SA in 1934, in what came to be known as the Night of the Long Knives. Nazism_sentence_79

Before he joined the Bavarian Army to fight in World War I, Hitler had lived a bohemian lifestyle as a petty street watercolour artist in Vienna and Munich and he maintained elements of this lifestyle later on, going to bed very late and rising in the afternoon, even after he became Chancellor and then Führer. Nazism_sentence_80

After the war, his battalion was absorbed by the Bavarian Soviet Republic from 1918 to 1919, where he was elected Deputy Battalion Representative. Nazism_sentence_81

According to historian Thomas Weber, Hitler attended the funeral of communist Kurt Eisner (a German Jew), wearing a black mourning armband on one arm and a red communist armband on the other, which he took as evidence that Hitler's political beliefs had not yet solidified. Nazism_sentence_82

In Mein Kampf, Hitler never mentioned any service with the Bavarian Soviet Republic and he stated that he became an antisemite in 1913 during his years in Vienna. Nazism_sentence_83

This statement has been disputed by the contention that he was not an antisemite at that time, even though it is well established that he read many antisemitic tracts and journals during that time and admired Karl Lueger, the antisemitic mayor of Vienna. Nazism_sentence_84

Hitler altered his political views in response to the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in June 1919 and it was then that he became an antisemitic, German nationalist. Nazism_sentence_85

Hitler expressed opposition to capitalism, regarding it as having Jewish origins and accusing capitalism of holding nations ransom to the interests of a parasitic cosmopolitan rentier class. Nazism_sentence_86

He also expressed opposition to communism and egalitarian forms of socialism, arguing that inequality and hierarchy are beneficial to the nation. Nazism_sentence_87

He believed that communism was invented by the Jews to weaken nations by promoting class struggle. Nazism_sentence_88

After his rise to power, Hitler took a pragmatic position on economics, accepting private property and allowing capitalist private enterprises to exist so long as they adhered to the goals of the Nazi state, but not tolerating enterprises that he saw as being opposed to the national interest. Nazism_sentence_89

German business leaders disliked Nazi ideology but came to support Hitler, because they saw the Nazis as a useful ally to promote their interests. Nazism_sentence_90

Business groups made significant financial contributions to the Nazi Party both before and after the Nazi seizure of power, in the hope that a Nazi dictatorship would eliminate the organized labour movement and the left-wing parties. Nazism_sentence_91

Hitler actively sought to gain the support of business leaders by arguing that private enterprise is incompatible with democracy. Nazism_sentence_92

Although he opposed communist ideology, Hitler publicly praised the Soviet Union's leader Joseph Stalin and Stalinism on numerous occasions. Nazism_sentence_93

Hitler commended Stalin for seeking to purify the Communist Party of the Soviet Union of Jewish influences, noting Stalin's purging of Jewish communists such as Leon Trotsky, Grigory Zinoviev, Lev Kamenev and Karl Radek. Nazism_sentence_94

While Hitler had always intended to bring Germany into conflict with the Soviet Union so he could gain Lebensraum ("living space"), he supported a temporary strategic alliance between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union to form a common anti-liberal front so they could defeat liberal democracies, particularly France. Nazism_sentence_95

Hitler admired the British Empire and its colonial system as living proof of Germanic superiority over "inferior" races and saw the United Kingdom as Germany's natural ally. Nazism_sentence_96

He wrote in Mein Kampf: "For a long time to come there will be only two Powers in Europe with which it may be possible for Germany to conclude an alliance. Nazism_sentence_97

These Powers are Great Britain and Italy." Nazism_sentence_98

Origins Nazism_section_2

See also: Early timeline of Nazism Nazism_sentence_99

The historical roots of Nazism are to be found in various elements of European political culture which were in circulation in the intellectual capitals of the continent, what Joachim Fest called the "scrapheap of ideas" prevalent at the time. Nazism_sentence_100

In Hitler and the Collapse of the Weimar Republic, historian Martin Broszat points out that Nazism_sentence_101

Brought together, the result was an anti-intellectual and politically semi-illiterate ideology lacking cohesion, a product of mass culture which allowed its followers emotional attachment and offered a simplified and easily-digestible world-view based on a political mythology for the masses. Nazism_sentence_102

Völkisch nationalism Nazism_section_3

Further information: German Question, German nationalism, Pan-Germanism, Unification of Germany, and Völkisch movement Nazism_sentence_103

One of the most significant ideological influences on the Nazis was the German nationalist Johann Gottlieb Fichte, whose works had served as an inspiration to Hitler and other Nazi Party members, including Dietrich Eckart and Arnold Fanck. Nazism_sentence_104

In Speeches to the German Nation (1808), written amid Napoleonic France's occupation of Berlin, Fichte called for a German national revolution against the French occupiers, making passionate public speeches, arming his students for battle against the French and stressing the need for action by the German nation so it could free itself. Nazism_sentence_105

Fichte's nationalism was populist and opposed to traditional elites, spoke of the need for a "People's War" (Volkskrieg) and put forth concepts similar to those which the Nazis adopted. Nazism_sentence_106

Fichte promoted German exceptionalism and stressed the need for the German nation to purify itself (including purging the German language of French words, a policy that the Nazis undertook upon their rise to power). Nazism_sentence_107

Another important figure in pre-Nazi völkisch thinking was Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl, whose work—Land und Leute (Land and People, written between 1857 and 1863)—collectively tied the organic German Volk to its native landscape and nature, a pairing which stood in stark opposition to the mechanical and materialistic civilization which was then developing as a result of industrialization. Nazism_sentence_108

Geographers Friedrich Ratzel and Karl Haushofer borrowed from Riehl's work as did Nazi ideologues Alfred Rosenberg and Paul Schultze-Naumburg, both of whom employed some of Riehl's philosophy in arguing that "each nation-state was an organism that required a particular living space in order to survive". Nazism_sentence_109

Riehl's influence is overtly discernible in the Blut und Boden (Blood and Soil) philosophy introduced by Oswald Spengler, which the Nazi agriculturalist Walther Darré and other prominent Nazis adopted. Nazism_sentence_110

Völkisch nationalism denounced soulless materialism, individualism and secularised urban industrial society, while advocating a "superior" society based on ethnic German "folk" culture and German "blood". Nazism_sentence_111

It denounced foreigners and foreign ideas and declared that Jews, Freemasons and others were "traitors to the nation" and unworthy of inclusion. Nazism_sentence_112

Völkisch nationalism saw the world in terms of natural law and romanticism and it viewed societies as organic, extolling the virtues of rural life, condemning the neglect of tradition and the decay of morals, denounced the destruction of the natural environment and condemned "cosmopolitan" cultures such as Jews and Romani. Nazism_sentence_113

The first party that attempted to combine nationalism and socialism was the (Austria-Hungary) German Workers' Party, which predominantly aimed to solve the conflict between the Austrian Germans and the Czechs in the multi-ethnic Austrian Empire, then part of Austria-Hungary. Nazism_sentence_114

In 1896 the German politician Friedrich Naumann formed the National-Social Association which aimed to combine German nationalism and a non-Marxist form of socialism together; the attempt turned out to be futile and the idea of linking nationalism with socialism quickly became equated with antisemites, extreme German nationalists and the völkisch movement in general. Nazism_sentence_115

During the era of the German Empire, völkisch nationalism was overshadowed by both Prussian patriotism and the federalist tradition of its various component states. Nazism_sentence_116

The events of World War I, including the end of the Prussian monarchy in Germany, resulted in a surge of revolutionary völkisch nationalism. Nazism_sentence_117

The Nazis supported such revolutionary völkisch nationalist policies and they claimed that their ideology was influenced by the leadership and policies of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, who was instrumental in founding the German Empire. Nazism_sentence_118

The Nazis declared that they were dedicated to continuing the process of creating a unified German nation state that Bismarck had begun and desired to achieve. Nazism_sentence_119

While Hitler was supportive of Bismarck's creation of the German Empire, he was critical of Bismarck's moderate domestic policies. Nazism_sentence_120

On the issue of Bismarck's support of a Kleindeutschland ("Lesser Germany", excluding Austria) versus the Pan-German Großdeutschland ("Greater Germany") which the Nazis advocated, Hitler stated that Bismarck's attainment of Kleindeutschland was the "highest achievement" Bismarck could have achieved "within the limits possible at that time". Nazism_sentence_121

In Mein Kampf (My Struggle), Hitler presented himself as a "second Bismarck". Nazism_sentence_122

During his youth in Austria, Hitler was politically influenced by Austrian Pan-Germanist proponent Georg Ritter von Schönerer, who advocated radical German nationalism, antisemitism, anti-Catholicism, anti-Slavic sentiment and anti-Habsburg views. Nazism_sentence_123

From von Schönerer and his followers, Hitler adopted for the Nazi movement the Heil greeting, the Führer title and the model of absolute party leadership. Nazism_sentence_124

Hitler was also impressed by the populist antisemitism and the anti-liberal bourgeois agitation of Karl Lueger, who as the mayor of Vienna during Hitler's time in the city used a rabble-rousing style of oratory that appealed to the wider masses. Nazism_sentence_125

Unlike von Schönerer, Lueger was not a German nationalist and instead was a pro-Catholic Habsburg supporter and only used German nationalist notions occasionally for his own agenda. Nazism_sentence_126

Although Hitler praised both Lueger and Schönerer, he criticized the former for not applying a racial doctrine against the Jews and Slavs. Nazism_sentence_127

Racial theories and antisemitism Nazism_section_4

Main article: Nazism and race Nazism_sentence_128

The concept of the Aryan race, which the Nazis promoted, stems from racial theories asserting that Europeans are the descendants of Indo-Iranian settlers, people of ancient India and ancient Persia. Nazism_sentence_129

Proponents of this theory based their assertion on the fact that words in European languages and words in Indo-Iranian languages have similar pronunciations and meanings. Nazism_sentence_130

Johann Gottfried Herder argued that the Germanic peoples held close racial connections to the ancient Indians and the ancient Persians, who he claimed were advanced peoples that possessed a great capacity for wisdom, nobility, restraint and science. Nazism_sentence_131

Contemporaries of Herder used the concept of the Aryan race to draw a distinction between what they deemed to be "high and noble" Aryan culture versus that of "parasitic" Semitic culture. Nazism_sentence_132

Notions of white supremacy and Aryan racial superiority were combined in the 19th century, with white supremacists maintaining the belief that certain groups of white people were members of an Aryan "master race" that is superior to other races and particularly superior to the Semitic race, which they associated with "cultural sterility". Nazism_sentence_133

Arthur de Gobineau, a French racial theorist and aristocrat, blamed the fall of the ancien régime in France on racial degeneracy caused by racial intermixing, which he argued had destroyed the purity of the Aryan race, a term which he only reserved for Germanic people. Nazism_sentence_134

Gobineau's theories, which attracted a strong following in Germany, emphasized the existence of an irreconcilable polarity between Aryan (Germanic) and Jewish cultures. Nazism_sentence_135

Aryan mysticism claimed that Christianity originated in Aryan religious traditions, and that Jews had usurped the legend from Aryans. Nazism_sentence_136

Houston Stewart Chamberlain, an English-born German proponent of racial theory, supported notions of Germanic supremacy and antisemitism in Germany. Nazism_sentence_137

Chamberlain's work, The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899), praised Germanic peoples for their creativity and idealism while asserting that the Germanic spirit was threatened by a "Jewish" spirit of selfishness and materialism. Nazism_sentence_138

Chamberlain used his thesis to promote monarchical conservatism while denouncing democracy, liberalism and socialism. Nazism_sentence_139

The book became popular, especially in Germany. Nazism_sentence_140

Chamberlain stressed a nation's need to maintain its racial purity in order to prevent its degeneration and argued that racial intermingling with Jews should never be permitted. Nazism_sentence_141

In 1923, Chamberlain met Hitler, whom he admired as a leader of the rebirth of the free spirit. Nazism_sentence_142

Madison Grant's work The Passing of the Great Race (1916) advocated Nordicism and proposed that a eugenics program should be implemented in order to preserve the purity of the Nordic race. Nazism_sentence_143

After reading the book, Hitler called it "my Bible". Nazism_sentence_144

In Germany, the belief that Jews were economically exploiting Germans became prominent due to the ascendancy of many wealthy Jews into prominent positions upon the unification of Germany in 1871. Nazism_sentence_145

From 1871 to the early 20th century, German Jews were overrepresented in Germany's upper and middle classes while they were underrepresented in Germany's lower classes, particularly in the fields of agricultural and industrial labour. Nazism_sentence_146

German Jewish financiers and bankers played a key role in fostering Germany's economic growth from 1871 to 1913 and they benefited enormously from this boom. Nazism_sentence_147

In 1908, amongst the twenty-nine wealthiest German families with aggregate fortunes of up to 55 million marks at the time, five were Jewish and the Rothschilds were the second wealthiest German family. Nazism_sentence_148

The predominance of Jews in Germany's banking, commerce and industry sectors during this time period was very high, even though Jews were estimated to account for only 1% of the population of Germany. Nazism_sentence_149

The overrepresentation of Jews in these areas fueled resentment among non-Jewish Germans during periods of economic crisis. Nazism_sentence_150

The 1873 stock market crash and the ensuing depression resulted in a spate of attacks on alleged Jewish economic dominance in Germany and antisemitism increased. Nazism_sentence_151

During this time period, in the 1870s, German völkisch nationalism began to adopt antisemitic and racist themes and it was also adopted by a number of radical right political movements. Nazism_sentence_152

Radical antisemitism was promoted by prominent advocates of völkisch nationalism, including Eugen Diederichs, Paul de Lagarde and Julius Langbehn. Nazism_sentence_153

De Lagarde called the Jews a "bacillus, the carriers of decay ... who pollute every national culture ... and destroy all faiths with their materialistic liberalism" and he called for the extermination of the Jews. Nazism_sentence_154

Langbehn called for a war of annihilation against the Jews, and his genocidal policies were later published by the Nazis and given to soldiers on the front during World War II. Nazism_sentence_155

One antisemitic ideologue of the period, Friedrich Lange, even used the term "National Socialism" to describe his own anti-capitalist take on the völkisch nationalist template. Nazism_sentence_156

Johann Gottlieb Fichte accused Jews in Germany of having been and inevitably of continuing to be a "state within a state" that threatened German national unity. Nazism_sentence_157

Fichte promoted two options in order to address this, his first one being the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine so the Jews could be impelled to leave Europe. Nazism_sentence_158

His second option was violence against Jews and he said that the goal of the violence would be "to cut off all their heads in one night, and set new ones on their shoulders, which should not contain a single Jewish idea". Nazism_sentence_159

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (1912) is an antisemitic forgery created by the secret service of the Russian Empire, the Okhrana. Nazism_sentence_160

Many antisemites believed it was real and thus it became widely popular after World War I. Nazism_sentence_161

The Protocols claimed that there was a secret international Jewish conspiracy to take over the world. Nazism_sentence_162

Hitler had been introduced to The Protocols by Alfred Rosenberg and from 1920 onwards he focused his attacks by claiming that Judaism and Marxism were directly connected, that Jews and Bolsheviks were one and the same and that Marxism was a Jewish ideology-this became known as "Jewish Bolshevism". Nazism_sentence_163

Hitler believed that The Protocols were authentic. Nazism_sentence_164

Prior to the Nazi ascension to power, Hitler often blamed moral degradation on Rassenschande ("racial defilement"), a way to assure his followers of his continuing antisemitism, which had been toned down for popular consumption. Nazism_sentence_165

Prior to the induction of the Nuremberg Race Laws in 1935 by the Nazis, many German nationalists such as Roland Freisler strongly supported laws to ban Rassenschande between Aryans and Jews as racial treason. Nazism_sentence_166

Even before the laws were officially passed, the Nazis banned sexual relations and marriages between party members and Jews. Nazism_sentence_167

Party members found guilty of Rassenschande were severely punished; some party members were even sentenced to death. Nazism_sentence_168

The Nazis claimed that Bismarck was unable to complete German national unification because Jews had infiltrated the German parliament and they claimed that their abolition of parliament had ended this obstacle to unification. Nazism_sentence_169

Using the stab-in-the-back myth, the Nazis accused Jews—and other populations who it considered non-German—of possessing extra-national loyalties, thereby exacerbating German antisemitism about the Judenfrage (the Jewish Question), the far-right political canard which was popular when the ethnic völkisch movement and its politics of Romantic nationalism for establishing a Großdeutschland was strong. Nazism_sentence_170

Nazism's racial policy positions may have developed from the views of important biologists of the 19th century, including French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, through Ernst Haeckel's idealist version of Lamarckism and the father of genetics, German botanist Gregor Mendel. Nazism_sentence_171

Haeckel's works were later condemned by the Nazis as inappropriate for "National-Socialist formation and education in the Third Reich". Nazism_sentence_172

This may have been because of his "monist" atheistic, materialist philosophy, which the Nazis disliked, along with his friendliness to Jews, opposition to militarism and support altruism, with one Nazi official calling for them to be banned. Nazism_sentence_173

Unlike Darwinian theory, Lamarckian theory officially ranked races in a hierarchy of evolution from apes while Darwinian theory did not grade races in a hierarchy of higher or lower evolution from apes, but simply stated that all humans as a whole had progressed in their evolution from apes. Nazism_sentence_174

Many Lamarckians viewed "lower" races as having been exposed to debilitating conditions for too long for any significant "improvement" of their condition to take place in the near future. Nazism_sentence_175

Haeckel used Lamarckian theory to describe the existence of interracial struggle and put races on a hierarchy of evolution, ranging from wholly human to subhuman. Nazism_sentence_176

Mendelian inheritance, or Mendelism, was supported by the Nazis, as well as by mainstream eugenicists of the time. Nazism_sentence_177

The Mendelian theory of inheritance declared that genetic traits and attributes were passed from one generation to another. Nazism_sentence_178

Eugenicists used Mendelian inheritance theory to demonstrate the transfer of biological illness and impairments from parents to children, including mental disability, whereas others also used Mendelian theory to demonstrate the inheritance of social traits, with racialists claiming a racial nature behind certain general traits such as inventiveness or criminal behaviour. Nazism_sentence_179

Use of the American racist model Nazism_section_5

Hitler and other Nazi legal theorists were inspired by America's institutional racism and saw it as the model to follow. Nazism_sentence_180

In particular, they saw it as a model for the expansion of territory and the elimination of indigenous inhabitants therefrom, for laws denying full citizenship for blacks, which they wanted to implement also against Jews, and for racist immigration laws banning some races. Nazism_sentence_181

In "Mein Kampf" Hitler extolled America as the only contemporary example of a country with racist ("völkisch") citizenship statutes in the 1920s, and Nazi lawyers made use of the American models in crafting laws for Nazi Germany. Nazism_sentence_182

U.S. citizenship laws and anti-miscegenation laws directly inspired the two principal Nuremberg Laws—the Citizenship Law and the Blood Law. Nazism_sentence_183

Response to World War I and Italian Fascism Nazism_section_6

During World War I, German sociologist Johann Plenge spoke of the rise of a "National Socialism" in Germany within what he termed the "ideas of 1914" that were a declaration of war against the "ideas of 1789" (the French Revolution). Nazism_sentence_184

According to Plenge, the "ideas of 1789" which included the rights of man, democracy, individualism and liberalism were being rejected in favour of "the ideas of 1914" which included the "German values" of duty, discipline, law and order. Nazism_sentence_185

Plenge believed that ethnic solidarity (Volksgemeinschaft) would replace class division and that "racial comrades" would unite to create a socialist society in the struggle of "proletarian" Germany against "capitalist" Britain. Nazism_sentence_186

He believed that the "Spirit of 1914" manifested itself in the concept of the "People's League of National Socialism". Nazism_sentence_187

This National Socialism was a form of state socialism that rejected the "idea of boundless freedom" and promoted an economy that would serve the whole of Germany under the leadership of the state. Nazism_sentence_188

This National Socialism was opposed to capitalism due to the components that were against "the national interest" of Germany, but insisted that National Socialism would strive for greater efficiency in the economy. Nazism_sentence_189

Plenge advocated an authoritarian, rational ruling elite to develop National Socialism through a hierarchical technocratic state, and his ideas were part of the basis of Nazism. Nazism_sentence_190

Oswald Spengler, a German cultural philosopher, was a major influence on Nazism, although after 1933 he became alienated from Nazism and was later condemned by the Nazis for criticising Adolf Hitler. Nazism_sentence_191

Spengler's conception of national socialism and a number of his political views were shared by the Nazis and the Conservative Revolutionary movement. Nazism_sentence_192

Spengler's views were also popular amongst Italian Fascists, including Benito Mussolini. Nazism_sentence_193

Spengler's book The Decline of the West (1918), written during the final months of World War I, addressed the supposed decadence of modern European civilization, which he claimed was caused by atomising and irreligious individualisation and cosmopolitanism. Nazism_sentence_194

Spengler's major thesis was that a law of historical development of cultures existed involving a cycle of birth, maturity, ageing and death when it reaches its final form of civilisation. Nazism_sentence_195

Upon reaching the point of civilisation, a culture will lose its creative capacity and succumb to decadence until the emergence of "barbarians" creates a new epoch. Nazism_sentence_196

Spengler considered the Western world as having succumbed to decadence of intellect, money, cosmopolitan urban life, irreligious life, individualisation and believed that it was at the end of its biological and "spiritual" fertility. Nazism_sentence_197

He believed that the "young" German nation as an imperial power would inherit the legacy of Ancient Rome, lead a restoration of value in "blood" and instinct, while the ideals of rationalism would be revealed as absurd. Nazism_sentence_198

Spengler's notions of "Prussian socialism" as described in his book Preussentum und Sozialismus ("Prussiandom and Socialism", 1919), influenced Nazism and the Conservative Revolutionary movement. Nazism_sentence_199

Spengler wrote: "The meaning of socialism is that life is controlled not by the opposition between rich and poor, but by the rank that achievement and talent bestow. Nazism_sentence_200

That is our freedom, freedom from the economic despotism of the individual". Nazism_sentence_201

Spengler adopted the anti-English ideas addressed by Plenge and Sombart during World War I that condemned English liberalism and English parliamentarianism while advocating a national socialism that was free from Marxism and that would connect the individual to the state through corporatist organisation. Nazism_sentence_202

Spengler claimed that socialistic Prussian characteristics existed across Germany, including creativity, discipline, concern for the greater good, productivity and self-sacrifice. Nazism_sentence_203

He prescribed war as a necessity by saying: "War is the eternal form of higher human existence and states exist for war: they are the expression of the will to war". Nazism_sentence_204

Spengler's definition of socialism did not advocate a change to property relations. Nazism_sentence_205

He denounced Marxism for seeking to train the proletariat to "expropriate the expropriator", the capitalist and then to let them live a life of leisure on this expropriation. Nazism_sentence_206

He claimed that "Marxism is the capitalism of the working class" and not true socialism. Nazism_sentence_207

According to Spengler, true socialism would be in the form of corporatism, stating that "local corporate bodies organised according to the importance of each occupation to the people as a whole; higher representation in stages up to a supreme council of the state; mandates revocable at any time; no organised parties, no professional politicians, no periodic elections". Nazism_sentence_208

Wilhelm Stapel, an antisemitic German intellectual, used Spengler's thesis on the cultural confrontation between Jews as whom Spengler described as a Magian people versus Europeans as a Faustian people. Nazism_sentence_209

Stapel described Jews as a landless nomadic people in pursuit of an international culture whereby they can integrate into Western civilisation. Nazism_sentence_210

As such, Stapel claims that Jews have been attracted to "international" versions of socialism, pacifism or capitalism because as a landless people the Jews have transgressed various national cultural boundaries. Nazism_sentence_211

Arthur Moeller van den Bruck was initially the dominant figure of the Conservative Revolutionaries influenced Nazism. Nazism_sentence_212

He rejected reactionary conservatism while proposing a new state that he coined the "Third Reich", which would unite all classes under authoritarian rule. Nazism_sentence_213

Van den Bruck advocated a combination of the nationalism of the right and the socialism of the left. Nazism_sentence_214

Fascism was a major influence on Nazism. Nazism_sentence_215

The seizure of power by Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini in the March on Rome in 1922 drew admiration by Hitler, who less than a month later had begun to model himself and the Nazi Party upon Mussolini and the Fascists. Nazism_sentence_216

Hitler presented the Nazis as a form of German fascism. Nazism_sentence_217

In November 1923, the Nazis attempted a "March on Berlin" modelled after the March on Rome, which resulted in the failed Beer Hall Putsch in Munich. Nazism_sentence_218

Hitler spoke of Nazism being indebted to the success of Fascism's rise to power in Italy. Nazism_sentence_219

In a private conversation in 1941, Hitler said that "the brown shirt would probably not have existed without the black shirt", the "brown shirt" referring to the Nazi militia and the "black shirt" referring to the Fascist militia. Nazism_sentence_220

He also said in regards to the 1920s: "If Mussolini had been outdistanced by Marxism, I don't know whether we could have succeeded in holding out. Nazism_sentence_221

At that period National Socialism was a very fragile growth". Nazism_sentence_222

Other Nazis—especially those at the time associated with the party's more radical wing such as Gregor Strasser, Joseph Goebbels and Heinrich Himmler—rejected Italian Fascism, accusing it of being too conservative or capitalist. Nazism_sentence_223

Alfred Rosenberg condemned Italian Fascism for being racially confused and having influences from philosemitism. Nazism_sentence_224

Strasser criticised the policy of Führerprinzip as being created by Mussolini and considered its presence in Nazism as a foreign imported idea. Nazism_sentence_225

Throughout the relationship between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, a number of lower-ranking Nazis scornfully viewed fascism as a conservative movement that lacked a full revolutionary potential. Nazism_sentence_226

Ideology Nazism_section_7

Nationalism and racialism Nazism_section_8

Further information: Nazism and race and Racial policy of Nazi Germany Nazism_sentence_227

Nazism emphasized German nationalism, including both irredentism and expansionism. Nazism_sentence_228

Nazism held racial theories based upon a belief in the existence of an Aryan master race that was superior to all other races. Nazism_sentence_229

The Nazis emphasised the existence of racial conflict between the Aryan race and others—particularly Jews, whom the Nazis viewed as a mixed race that had infiltrated multiple societies and was responsible for exploitation and repression of the Aryan race. Nazism_sentence_230

The Nazis also categorised Slavs as Untermensch (sub-human). Nazism_sentence_231

Wolfgang Bialas argues that the Nazis' sense of morality could be described as a form of procedural virtue ethics, as it demanded unconditional obedience to absolute virtues with the attitude of social engineering and replaced common sense intuitions with an ideological catalogue of virtues and commands. Nazism_sentence_232

The ideal Nazi new man was to be race-conscious and an ideologically dedicated warrior who would commit actions for the sake of the German race while at the same time convinced he was doing the right thing and acting morally. Nazism_sentence_233

The Nazis believed an individual could only develop their capabilities and individual characteristics within the framework of the individual's racial membership; the race one belonged to determined whether or not one was worthy of moral care. Nazism_sentence_234

The Christian concept of self-denial was to be replaced with the idea of self-assertion towards those deemed inferior. Nazism_sentence_235

Natural selection and the struggle for existence were declared by the Nazis to be the most divine laws; peoples and individuals deemed inferior were said to be incapable of surviving without those deemed superior, yet by doing so they imposed a burden on the superior. Nazism_sentence_236

Natural selection was deemed to favour the strong over the weak and the Nazis deemed that protecting those declared inferior was preventing nature from taking its course; those incapable of asserting themselves were viewed as doomed to annihilation, with the right to life being granted only to those who could survive on their own. Nazism_sentence_237

Irredentism and expansionism Nazism_section_9

Further information: Lebensraum Nazism_sentence_238

The German Nazi Party supported German irredentist claims to Austria, Alsace-Lorraine, the region now known as the Czech Republic and the territory known since 1919 as the Polish Corridor. Nazism_sentence_239

A major policy of the German Nazi Party was Lebensraum ("living space") for the German nation based on claims that Germany after World War I was facing an overpopulation crisis and that expansion was needed to end the country's overpopulation within existing confined territory, and provide resources necessary to its people's well-being. Nazism_sentence_240

Since the 1920s, the Nazi Party publicly promoted the expansion of Germany into territories held by the Soviet Union. Nazism_sentence_241

In Mein Kampf, Hitler stated that Lebensraum would be acquired in Eastern Europe, especially Russia. Nazism_sentence_242

In his early years as the Nazi leader, Hitler had claimed that he would be willing to accept friendly relations with Russia on the tactical condition that Russia agree to return to the borders established by the German–Russian peace agreement of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed by Grigori Sokolnikov of the Russian Soviet Republic in 1918 which gave large territories held by Russia to German control in exchange for peace. Nazism_sentence_243

In 1921, Hitler had commended the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk as opening the possibility for restoration of relations between Germany and Russia by saying: Nazism_sentence_244

From 1921 to 1922, Hitler evoked rhetoric of both the achievement of Lebensraum involving the acceptance of a territorially reduced Russia as well as supporting Russian nationals in overthrowing the Bolshevik government and establishing a new Russian government. Nazism_sentence_245

Hitler's attitudes changed by the end of 1922, in which he then supported an alliance of Germany with Britain to destroy Russia. Nazism_sentence_246

Hitler later declared how far he intended to expand Germany into Russia: Nazism_sentence_247

Policy for Lebensraum planned mass expansion of Germany's borders to eastwards of the Ural Mountains. Nazism_sentence_248

Hitler planned for the "surplus" Russian population living west of the Urals to be deported to the east of the Urals. Nazism_sentence_249

Historian Adam Tooze explains that Hitler believed that lebensraum was vital to securing American-style consumer affluence for the German people. Nazism_sentence_250

In this light, Tooze argues that the view that the regime faced a "guns or butter" contrast is mistaken. Nazism_sentence_251

While it is true that resources were diverted from civilian consumption to military production, Tooze explains that at a strategic level "guns were ultimately viewed as a means to obtaining more butter." Nazism_sentence_252

While the Nazi pre-occupation with agrarian living and food production are often seen as a sign of their backwardness, Tooze explains this was in fact a major driving issue in European society for at least the last two centuries. Nazism_sentence_253

The issue of how European societies should respond to the new global economy in food was one of the major issues facing Europe in the early 20th century. Nazism_sentence_254

Agrarian life in Europe (except perhaps with the exception of Britain) was incredibly common—in the early 1930s, over 9 million Germans (almost a third of the work force) were still working in agriculture and many people not working in agriculture still had small allotments or otherwise grew their own food. Nazism_sentence_255

Tooze estimates that just over half the German population in the 1930s was living in towns and villages with populations under 20,000 people. Nazism_sentence_256

Many people in cities still had memories of rural-urban migration—Tooze thus explains that the Nazis obsessions with agrarianism were not an atavistic gloss on a modern industrial nation but a consequence of the fact that Nazism (as both an ideology and as a movement) was the product of a society still in economic transition. Nazism_sentence_257

The Nazis obsession with food production was a consequence of the First World War. Nazism_sentence_258

While Europe was able to avert famine with international imports, blockades brought the issue of food supply back into European politics, the Allied blockade of Germany in and after World War I did not cause an outright famine but chronic malnutrition did kill an estimated 600,000 people in Germany and Austria. Nazism_sentence_259

The economic crises of the interwar period meant that most Germans had memories of acute hunger. Nazism_sentence_260

Thus Tooze concludes that the Nazis obsession with acquiring land was not a case of "turning back the clock" but more a refusal to accept that the result of the distribution of land, resources and population, which had resulted from the imperialist wars of the 18th and 19th centuries, should be accepted as final. Nazism_sentence_261

While the victors of the First World War had either suitable agricultural land to population ratios or large empires (or both), allowing them to declare the issue of living space closed, the Nazis, knowing Germany lacked either of these, refused to accept that Germany's place in the world was to be a medium-sized workshop dependent upon imported food. Nazism_sentence_262

According to Goebbels, the conquest of Lebensraum was intended as an initial step towards the final goal of Nazi ideology, which was the establishment of complete German global hegemony. Nazism_sentence_263

Rudolf Hess relayed to Walter Hewel Hitler's belief that world peace could only be acquired "when one power, the racially best one, has attained uncontested supremacy". Nazism_sentence_264

When this control would be achieved, this power could then set up for itself a world police and assure itself "the necessary living space. Nazism_sentence_265

[...] The lower races will have to restrict themselves accordingly". Nazism_sentence_266

Racial theories Nazism_section_10

In its racial categorization, Nazism viewed what it called the Aryan race as the master race of the world—a race that was superior to all other races. Nazism_sentence_267

It viewed Aryans as being in racial conflict with a mixed race people, the Jews, whom the Nazis identified as a dangerous enemy of the Aryans. Nazism_sentence_268

It also viewed a number of other peoples as dangerous to the well-being of the Aryan race. Nazism_sentence_269

In order to preserve the perceived racial purity of the Aryan race, a set of race laws was introduced in 1935 which came to be known as the Nuremberg Laws. Nazism_sentence_270

At first these laws only prevented sexual relations and marriages between Germans and Jews, but they were later extended to the "Gypsies, Negroes, and their bastard offspring", who were described by the Nazis as people of "alien blood". Nazism_sentence_271

Such relations between Aryans (cf. Nazism_sentence_272

Aryan certificate) and non-Aryans were now punishable under the race laws as Rassenschande or "race defilement". Nazism_sentence_273

After the war began, the race defilement law was extended to include all foreigners (non-Germans). Nazism_sentence_274

At the bottom of the racial scale of non-Aryans were Jews, Romanis, Slavs and blacks. Nazism_sentence_275

To maintain the "purity and strength" of the Aryan race, the Nazis eventually sought to exterminate Jews, Romani, Slavs and the physically and mentally disabled. Nazism_sentence_276

Other groups deemed "degenerate" and "asocial" who were not targeted for extermination, but were subjected to exclusionary treatment by the Nazi state, included homosexuals, blacks, Jehovah's Witnesses and political opponents. Nazism_sentence_277

One of Hitler's ambitions at the start of the war was to exterminate, expel or enslave most or all Slavs from Central and Eastern Europe in order to acquire living space for German settlers. Nazism_sentence_278

A Nazi-era school textbook for German students entitled Heredity and Racial Biology for Students written by Jakob Graf described to students the Nazi conception of the Aryan race in a section titled "The Aryan: The Creative Force in Human History". Nazism_sentence_279

Graf claimed that the original Aryans developed from Nordic peoples who invaded ancient India and launched the initial development of Aryan culture there that later spread to ancient Persia and he claimed that the Aryan presence in Persia was what was responsible for its development into an empire. Nazism_sentence_280

He claimed that ancient Greek culture was developed by Nordic peoples due to paintings of the time which showed Greeks who were tall, light-skinned, light-eyed, blond-haired people. Nazism_sentence_281

He said that the Roman Empire was developed by the Italics who were related to the Celts who were also a Nordic people. Nazism_sentence_282

He believed that the vanishing of the Nordic component of the populations in Greece and Rome led to their downfall. Nazism_sentence_283

The Renaissance was claimed to have developed in the Western Roman Empire because of the Germanic invasions that brought new Nordic blood to the Empire's lands, such as the presence of Nordic blood in the Lombards (referred to as Longobards in the book); that remnants of the western Goths were responsible for the creation of the Spanish Empire; and that the heritage of the Franks, Goths and Germanic peoples in France was what was responsible for its rise as a major power. Nazism_sentence_284

He claimed that the rise of the Russian Empire was due to its leadership by people of Norman descent. Nazism_sentence_285

He described the rise of Anglo-Saxon societies in North America, South Africa and Australia as being the result of the Nordic heritage of Anglo-Saxons. Nazism_sentence_286

He concluded these points by saying: "Everywhere Nordic creative power has built mighty empires with high-minded ideas, and to this very day Aryan languages and cultural values are spread over a large part of the world, though the creative Nordic blood has long since vanished in many places". Nazism_sentence_287

In Nazi Germany, the idea of creating a master race resulted in efforts to "purify" the Deutsche Volk through eugenics and its culmination was the compulsory sterilization or the involuntary euthanasia of physically or mentally disabled people. Nazism_sentence_288

After World War II, the euthanasia programme was named Action T4. Nazism_sentence_289

The ideological justification for euthanasia was Hitler's view of Sparta (11th century – 195 BC) as the original völkisch state and he praised Sparta's dispassionate destruction of congenitally deformed infants in order to maintain racial purity. Nazism_sentence_290

Some non-Aryans enlisted in Nazi organisations like the Hitler Youth and the Wehrmacht, including Germans of African descent and Jewish descent. Nazism_sentence_291

The Nazis began to implement "racial hygiene" policies as soon as they came to power. Nazism_sentence_292

The July 1933 "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring" prescribed compulsory sterilization for people with a range of conditions which were thought to be hereditary, such as schizophrenia, epilepsy, Huntington's chorea and "imbecility". Nazism_sentence_293

Sterilization was also mandated for chronic alcoholism and other forms of social deviance. Nazism_sentence_294

An estimated 360,000 people were sterilised under this law between 1933 and 1939. Nazism_sentence_295

Although some Nazis suggested that the programme should be extended to people with physical disabilities, such ideas had to be expressed carefully, given the fact that some Nazis had physical disabilities, one example being one of the most powerful figures of the regime, Joseph Goebbels, who had a deformed right leg. Nazism_sentence_296

Nazi racial theorist Hans F. K. Günther argued that European peoples were divided into five races: Nordic, Mediterranean, Dinaric, Alpine and East Baltic. Nazism_sentence_297

Günther applied a Nordicist conception in order to justify his belief that Nordics were the highest in the racial hierarchy. Nazism_sentence_298

In his book Rassenkunde des deutschen Volkes (1922) ("Racial Science of the German People"), Günther recognised Germans as being composed of all five races, but emphasized the strong Nordic heritage among them. Nazism_sentence_299

Hitler read Rassenkunde des deutschen Volkes, which influenced his racial policy. Nazism_sentence_300

Gunther believed that Slavs belonged to an "Eastern race" and he warned against Germans mixing with them. Nazism_sentence_301

The Nazis described Jews as being a racially mixed group of primarily Near Eastern and Oriental racial types. Nazism_sentence_302

Because such racial groups were concentrated outside Europe, the Nazis claimed that Jews were "racially alien" to all European peoples and that they did not have deep racial roots in Europe. Nazism_sentence_303

Günther emphasized Jews' Near Eastern racial heritage. Nazism_sentence_304

Günther identified the mass conversion of the Khazars to Judaism in the 8th century as creating the two major branches of the Jewish people, those of primarily Near Eastern racial heritage became the Ashkenazi Jews (that he called Eastern Jews) while those of primarily Oriental racial heritage became the Sephardi Jews (that he called Southern Jews). Nazism_sentence_305

Günther claimed that the Near Eastern type was composed of commercially spirited and artful traders, that the type held strong psychological manipulation skills which aided them in trade. Nazism_sentence_306

He claimed that the Near Eastern race had been "bred not so much for the conquest and exploitation of nature as it had been for the conquest and exploitation of people". Nazism_sentence_307

Günther believed that European peoples had a racially motivated aversion to peoples of Near Eastern racial origin and their traits, and as evidence of this he showed multiple examples of depictions of satanic figures with Near Eastern physiognomies in European art. Nazism_sentence_308

Hitler's conception of the Aryan Herrenvolk ("Aryan master race") excluded the vast majority of Slavs from central and eastern Europe (i.e. Poles, Russians, Ukrainians, etc.). Nazism_sentence_309

They were regarded as a race of men not inclined to a higher form of civilization, which was under an instinctive force that reverted them back to nature. Nazism_sentence_310

The Nazis also regarded the Slavs as having dangerous Jewish and Asiatic, meaning Mongol, influences. Nazism_sentence_311

Because of this, the Nazis declared Slavs to be Untermenschen ("subhumans"). Nazism_sentence_312

Nazi anthropologists attempted to scientifically prove the historical admixture of the Slavs who lived further East and leading Nazi racial theorist Hans Günther regarded the Slavs as being primarily Nordic centuries ago but he believed that they had mixed with non-Nordic types over time. Nazism_sentence_313

Exceptions were made for a small percentage of Slavs who the Nazis saw as descended from German settlers and therefore fit to be Germanised and considered part of the Aryan master race. Nazism_sentence_314

Hitler described Slavs as "a mass of born slaves who feel the need for a master". Nazism_sentence_315

The Nazi notion of Slavs as inferior served as a legitimization of their desire to create Lebensraum for Germans and other Germanic people in eastern Europe, where millions of Germans and other Germanic settlers would be moved into once those territories were conquered, while the original Slavic inhabitants were to be annihilated, removed or enslaved. Nazism_sentence_316

Nazi Germany's policy changed towards Slavs in response to military manpower shortages, forced it to allow Slavs to serve in its armed forces within the occupied territories in spite of the fact that they were considered "subhuman". Nazism_sentence_317

Hitler declared that racial conflict against Jews was necessary in order to save Germany from suffering under them and he dismissed concerns that the conflict with them was inhumane and unjust: Nazism_sentence_318

Nazi propagandist Joseph Goebbels frequently employed antisemitic rhetoric to underline this view: "The Jew is the enemy and the destroyer of the purity of blood, the conscious destroyer of our race." Nazism_sentence_319

Social class Nazism_section_11

National Socialist politics was based on competition and struggle as its organizing principle, and the Nazis believed that "human life consisted of eternal struggle and competition and derived its meaning from struggle and competition." Nazism_sentence_320

The Nazis saw this eternal struggle in military terms, and advocated a society organized like an army in order to achieve success. Nazism_sentence_321

They promoted the idea of a national-racial "people's community" (Volksgemeinschaft) in order to accomplish "the efficient prosecution of the struggle against other peoples and states." Nazism_sentence_322

Like an army, the Volksgemeinschaft was meant to consist of a hierarchy of ranks or classes of people, some commanding and others obeying, all working together for a common goal. Nazism_sentence_323

This concept was rooted in the writings of 19th century völkisch authors who glorified medieval German society, viewing it as a "community rooted in the land and bound together by custom and tradition," in which there was neither class conflict nor selfish individualism. Nazism_sentence_324

The Nazis concept of the volksgemeinschaft appealed to many, as it was seen as it seemed at once to affirm a commitment to a new type of society for the modern age yet also offer protection from the tensions and insecurities of modernisation. Nazism_sentence_325

It would balance individual achievement with group solidarity and cooperation with competition. Nazism_sentence_326

Stripped of its ideological overtones, the Nazi vision of modernisation without internal conflict and a political community that offered both security and opportunity was so potent a vision of the future that many Germans were willing to overlook its racist and anti-Semitic essence. Nazism_sentence_327

Nazism rejected the Marxist concept of class conflict, and it praised both German capitalists and German workers as essential to the Volksgemeinschaft. Nazism_sentence_328

In the Volksgemeinschaft, social classes would continue to exist, but there would be no class conflict between them. Nazism_sentence_329

Hitler said that "the capitalists have worked their way to the top through their capacity, and as the basis of this selection, which again only proves their higher race, they have a right to lead." Nazism_sentence_330

German business leaders co-operated with the Nazis during their rise to power and received substantial benefits from the Nazi state after it was established, including high profits and state-sanctioned monopolies and cartels. Nazism_sentence_331

Large celebrations and symbolism were used extensively to encourage those engaged in physical labour on behalf of Germany, with leading National Socialists often praising the "honour of labour", which fostered a sense of community (Gemeinschaft) for the German people and promoted solidarity towards the Nazi cause. Nazism_sentence_332

To win workers away from Marxism, Nazi propaganda sometimes presented its expansionist foreign policy goals as a "class struggle between nations." Nazism_sentence_333

Bonfires were made of school children's differently coloured caps as symbolic of the unity of different social classes. Nazism_sentence_334

In 1922, Hitler discredited other nationalist and racialist political parties as disconnected from the mass populace, especially lower and working-class young people: Nazism_sentence_335

Nevertheless, the Nazi Party's voter base consisted mainly of farmers and the middle class, including groups such as Weimar government officials, school teachers, doctors, clerks, self-employed businessmen, salesmen, retired officers, engineers, and students. Nazism_sentence_336

Their demands included lower taxes, higher prices for food, restrictions on department stores and consumer co-operatives, and reductions in social services and wages. Nazism_sentence_337

The need to maintain the support of these groups made it difficult for the Nazis to appeal to the working class, since the working class often had opposite demands. Nazism_sentence_338

From 1928 onward, the Nazi Party's growth into a large national political movement was dependent on middle class support, and on the public perception that it "promised to side with the middle classes and to confront the economic and political power of the working class." Nazism_sentence_339

The financial collapse of the white collar middle-class of the 1920s figures much in their strong support of Nazism. Nazism_sentence_340

Although the Nazis continued to make appeals to "the German worker", historian Timothy Mason concludes that "Hitler had nothing but slogans to offer the working class." Nazism_sentence_341

Historians Conan Fischer and Detlef Mühlberger argue that while the Nazis were primarily rooted in the lower middle class, they were able to appeal to all classes in society and that while workers were generally underrepresented, they were still a substantial source of support for the Nazis. Nazism_sentence_342

H.L. Nazism_sentence_343

Ansbacher argues that the working-class soldiers had the most faith in Hitler out of any occupational group in Germany. Nazism_sentence_344

The Nazis also established a norm that every worker should be semi-skilled, which was not simply rhetorical; the number of men leaving school to enter the work force as unskilled labourers fell from 200,000 in 1934 to 30,000 in 1939. Nazism_sentence_345

For many working-class families, the 1930s and 1940s were a time of social mobility; not in the sense of moving into the middle class but rather moving within the blue-collar skill hierarchy. Nazism_sentence_346

Overall, the experience of workers varied considerably under Nazism. Nazism_sentence_347

Workers wages did not increase much during Nazi rule, as the government feared wage-price inflation and thus wage growth was limited. Nazism_sentence_348

Prices for food and clothing rose, though costs for heating, rent and light decreased. Nazism_sentence_349

Skilled workers were in shortage from 1936 onward, meaning that workers who engaged in vocational training could look forward to considerably higher wages. Nazism_sentence_350

Benefits provided by the Labour Front were generally positively received, even if workers did not always buy in to propaganda about the volksgemeinschaft. Nazism_sentence_351

Workers welcomed opportunities for employment after the harsh years of the Great Depression, creating a common belief that the Nazis had removed the insecurity of unemployment. Nazism_sentence_352

Workers who remained discontented risked the Gestapo's informants. Nazism_sentence_353

Ultimately, the Nazis faced a conflict between their rearmament program, which by necessity would require material sacrifices from workers (longer hours and a lower standard of living), versus a need to maintain the confidence of the working class in the regime. Nazism_sentence_354

Hitler was sympathetic to the view that stressed taking further measures for rearmament but he did not fully implement the measures required for it in order to avoid alienating the working class. Nazism_sentence_355

While the Nazis had substantial support amongst the middle-class, they often attacked traditional middle-class values and Hitler personally held great contempt for them. Nazism_sentence_356

This was because the traditional image of the middle class was one that was obsessed with personal status, material attainment and quiet, comfortable living, which was in opposition to the Nazism's ideal of a New Man. Nazism_sentence_357

The Nazis' New Man was envisioned as a heroic figure who rejected a materialistic and private life for a public life and a pervasive sense of duty, willing to sacrifice everything for the nation. Nazism_sentence_358

Despite the Nazis' contempt for these values, they were still able to secure millions of middle-class votes. Nazism_sentence_359

Hermann Beck argues that while some members of the middle-class dismissed this as mere rhetoric, many others in some ways agreed with the Nazis—the defeat of 1918 and the failures of the Weimar period caused many middle-class Germans to question their own identity, thinking their traditional values to be anachronisms and agreeing with the Nazis that these values were no longer viable. Nazism_sentence_360

While this rhetoric would become less frequent after 1933 due to the increased emphasis on the volksgemeinschaft, it and its ideas would never truly disappear until the overthrow of the regime. Nazism_sentence_361

The Nazis instead emphasised that the middle-class must become staatsbürger, a publicly active and involved citizen, rather than a selfish, materialistic spießbürger, who was only interested in private life. Nazism_sentence_362

Sex and gender Nazism_section_12

Further information: Women in Nazi Germany Nazism_sentence_363

Nazi ideology advocated excluding women from political involvement and confining them to the spheres of "Kinder, Küche, Kirche" (Children, Kitchen, Church). Nazism_sentence_364

Many women enthusiastically supported the regime, but formed their own internal hierarchies. Nazism_sentence_365

Hitler's own opinion on the matter of women in Nazi Germany was that while other eras of German history had experienced the development and liberation of the female mind, the National Socialist goal was essentially singular in that it wished for them to produce a child. Nazism_sentence_366

Based on this theme, Hitler once remarked about women that "with every child that she brings into the world, she fights her battle for the nation. Nazism_sentence_367

The man stands up for the Volk, exactly as the woman stands up for the family". Nazism_sentence_368

Proto-natalist programs in Nazi Germany offered favourable loans and grants to newlyweds and encouraged them to give birth to offspring by providing them with additional incentives. Nazism_sentence_369

Contraception was discouraged for racially valuable women in Nazi Germany and abortion was forbidden by strict legal mandates, including prison sentences for women who sought them as well as prison sentences for doctors who performed them, whereas abortion for racially "undesirable" persons was encouraged. Nazism_sentence_370

While unmarried until the very end of the regime, Hitler often made excuses about his busy life hindering any chance for marriage. Nazism_sentence_371

Among National Socialist ideologues, marriage was valued not for moral considerations but because it provided an optimal breeding environment. Nazism_sentence_372

Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler reportedly told a confidant that when he established the Lebensborn program, an organisation that would dramatically increase the birth rate of "Aryan" children through extramarital relations between women classified as racially pure and their male equals, he had only the purest male "conception assistants" in mind. Nazism_sentence_373

Since the Nazis extended the Rassenschande ("race defilement") law to all foreigners at the beginning of the war, pamphlets were issued to German women which ordered them to avoid sexual relations with foreign workers who were brought to Germany and the pamphlets also ordered German women to view these same foreign workers as a danger to their blood. Nazism_sentence_374

Although the law was applicable to both genders, German women were punished more severely for having sexual relations with foreign forced labourers in Germany. Nazism_sentence_375

The Nazis issued the Polish decrees on 8 March 1940 which contained regulations concerning the Polish forced labourers (Zivilarbeiter) who were brought to Germany during World War II. Nazism_sentence_376

One of the regulations stated that any Pole "who has sexual relations with a German man or woman, or approaches them in any other improper manner, will be punished by death". Nazism_sentence_377

After the decrees were enacted, Himmler stated: Nazism_sentence_378

The Nazis later issued similar regulations against the Eastern Workers (Ost-Arbeiters), including the imposition of the death penalty if they engaged in sexual relations with German persons. Nazism_sentence_379

Heydrich issued a decree on 20 February 1942 which declared that sexual intercourse between a German woman and a Russian worker or prisoner of war would result in the Russian man being punished with the death penalty. Nazism_sentence_380

Another decree issued by Himmler on 7 December 1942 stated that any "unauthorised sexual intercourse" would result in the death penalty. Nazism_sentence_381

Because the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour did not permit capital punishment for race defilement, special courts were convened in order to allow the death penalty to be imposed in some cases. Nazism_sentence_382

German women accused of race defilement were marched through the streets with their head shaven and placards detailing their crimes were placed around their necks and those convicted of race defilement were sent to concentration camps. Nazism_sentence_383

When Himmler reportedly asked Hitler what the punishment should be for German girls and German women who were found guilty of race defilement with prisoners of war (POWs), he ordered that "every POW who has relations with a German girl or a German would be shot" and the German woman should be publicly humiliated by "having her hair shorn and being sent to a concentration camp". Nazism_sentence_384

The League of German Girls was particularly regarded as instructing girls to avoid race defilement, which was treated with particular importance for young females. Nazism_sentence_385

Opposition to homosexuality Nazism_section_13

Further information: Persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany and the Holocaust Nazism_sentence_386

After the Night of the Long Knives, Hitler promoted Himmler and the SS, who then zealously suppressed homosexuality by saying: "We must exterminate these people root and branch ... the homosexual must be eliminated". Nazism_sentence_387

In 1936, Himmler established the "Reichszentrale zur Bekämpfung der Homosexualität und Abtreibung" ("Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion"). Nazism_sentence_388

The Nazi regime incarcerated some 100,000 homosexuals during the 1930s. Nazism_sentence_389

As concentration camp prisoners, homosexual men were forced to wear pink triangle badges. Nazism_sentence_390

Nazi ideology still viewed German men who were gay as a part of the Aryan master race, but the Nazi regime attempted to force them into sexual and social conformity. Nazism_sentence_391

Homosexuals were viewed as failing in their duty to procreate and reproduce for the Aryan nation. Nazism_sentence_392

Gay men who would not change or feign a change in their sexual orientation were sent to concentration camps under the "Extermination Through Work" campaign. Nazism_sentence_393

Religion Nazism_section_14

Further information: Catholic Church and Nazi Germany, German Christians (movement), German Faith Movement, Kreuz und Adler, Positive Christianity, Religion in Nazi Germany, Religious aspects of Nazism, and Religious views of Adolf Hitler Nazism_sentence_394

The Nazi Party Programme of 1920 guaranteed freedom for all religious denominations which were not hostile to the State and it also endorsed Positive Christianity in order to combat "the Jewish-materialist spirit". Nazism_sentence_395

Positive Christianity was a modified version of Christianity which emphasized racial purity and nationalism. Nazism_sentence_396

The Nazis were aided by theologians such as Ernst Bergmann. Nazism_sentence_397

In his work Die 25 Thesen der Deutschreligion (Twenty-five Points of the German Religion), Bergmann held the view that the Old Testament of the Bible was inaccurate along with portions of the New Testament, claimed that Jesus was not a Jew but was instead of Aryan origin and he also claimed that Adolf Hitler was the new messiah. Nazism_sentence_398

Hitler denounced the Old Testament as "Satan's Bible" and using components of the New Testament he attempted to prove that Jesus was both an Aryan and an antisemite by citing passages such as where he noted that Jesus is yelling at "the Jews", as well as saying to them "your father is the devil" and the Cleansing of the Temple, which describes Jesus' whipping of the "Children of the Devil". Nazism_sentence_399

Hitler claimed that the New Testament included distortions by Paul the Apostle, who Hitler described as a "mass-murderer turned saint". Nazism_sentence_400

In their propaganda, the Nazis used the writings of Martin Luther, the Protestant Reformer. Nazism_sentence_401

They publicly displayed an original edition of Luther's On the Jews and their Lies during the annual Nuremberg rallies. Nazism_sentence_402

The Nazis endorsed the pro-Nazi Protestant German Christians organization. Nazism_sentence_403

The Nazis were initially very hostile to Catholics because most Catholics supported the German Centre Party. Nazism_sentence_404

Catholics opposed the Nazis' promotion of compulsory sterilization of those whom they deemed inferior and the Catholic Church forbade its members to vote for the Nazis. Nazism_sentence_405

In 1933, extensive Nazi violence occurred against Catholics due to their association with the Centre Party and their opposition to the Nazi regime's sterilization laws. Nazism_sentence_406

The Nazis demanded that Catholics declare their loyalty to the German state. Nazism_sentence_407

In their propaganda, the Nazis used elements of Germany's Catholic history, in particular the German Catholic Teutonic Knights and their campaigns in Eastern Europe. Nazism_sentence_408

The Nazis identified them as "sentinels" in the East against "Slavic chaos", though beyond that symbolism, the influence of the Teutonic Knights on Nazism was limited. Nazism_sentence_409

Hitler also admitted that the Nazis' night rallies were inspired by the Catholic rituals which he had witnessed during his Catholic upbringing. Nazism_sentence_410

The Nazis did seek official reconciliation with the Catholic Church and they endorsed the creation of the pro-Nazi Catholic Kreuz und Adler, an organization which advocated a form of national Catholicism that would reconcile the Catholic Church's beliefs with Nazism. Nazism_sentence_411

On 20 July 1933, a concordat (Reichskonkordat) was signed between Nazi Germany and the Catholic Church, which in exchange for acceptance of the Catholic Church in Germany required German Catholics to be loyal to the German state. Nazism_sentence_412

The Catholic Church then ended its ban on members supporting the Nazi Party. Nazism_sentence_413

Historian Michael Burleigh claims that Nazism used Christianity for political purposes, but such use required that "fundamental tenets were stripped out, but the remaining diffuse religious emotionality had its uses". Nazism_sentence_414

Burleigh claims that Nazism's conception of spirituality was "self-consciously pagan and primitive". Nazism_sentence_415

Historian Roger Griffin rejects the claim that Nazism was primarily pagan, noting that although there were some influential neo-paganists in the Nazi Party, such as Heinrich Himmler and Alfred Rosenberg, they represented a minority and their views did not influence Nazi ideology beyond its use for symbolism. Nazism_sentence_416

It is noted that Hitler denounced Germanic paganism in Mein Kampf and condemned Rosenberg's and Himmler's paganism as "nonsense". Nazism_sentence_417

Economics Nazism_section_15

Main article: Economy of Nazi Germany Nazism_sentence_418

Further information: Economics of fascism Nazism_sentence_419

The Nazis came to power in the midst of Great Depression, when the unemployment rate at that point in time was close to 30%. Nazism_sentence_420

Generally speaking, Nazi theorists and politicians blamed Germany's previous economic failures on political causes like the influence of Marxism on the workforce, the sinister and exploitative machinations of what they called international Jewry and the vindictiveness of the western political leaders' war reparation demands. Nazism_sentence_421

Instead of traditional economic incentives, the Nazis offered solutions of a political nature, such as the elimination of organised trade unions, rearmament (in contravention of the Versailles Treaty) and biological politics. Nazism_sentence_422

Various work programs designed to establish full-employment for the German population were instituted once the Nazis seized full national power. Nazism_sentence_423

Hitler encouraged nationally supported projects like the construction of the Autobahn highway system, the introduction of an affordable people's car (Volkswagen) and later the Nazis bolstered the economy through the business and employment generated by military rearmament. Nazism_sentence_424

The Nazis benefited early in the regime's existence from the first post-Depression economic upswing, and this combined with their public works projects, job-procurement program and subsidised home repair program reduced unemployment by as much as 40 percent in one year. Nazism_sentence_425

This development tempered the unfavourable psychological climate caused by the earlier economic crisis and encouraged Germans to march in step with the regime. Nazism_sentence_426

The economic policies of the Nazis were in many respects a continuation of the policies of the German National People's Party, a national-conservative party and the Nazis' coalition partner. Nazism_sentence_427

While other Western capitalist countries strove for increased state ownership of industry during the same period, the Nazis transferred public ownership and public services into the private sector. Nazism_sentence_428

It was an intentional policy with multiple objectives rather than ideologically driven and was used as a tool to enhance support for the Nazi government and the party. Nazism_sentence_429

The Nazi government continued the economic policies introduced by the government of Kurt von Schleicher in 1932 to combat the effects of the Depression. Nazism_sentence_430

Upon being appointed Chancellor in 1933, Hitler appointed Hjalmar Schacht, a former member of the German Democratic Party, as President of the Reichsbank in 1933 and Minister of Economics in 1934. Nazism_sentence_431

Hitler promised measures to increase employment, protect the German currency, and promote recovery from the Great Depression. Nazism_sentence_432

These included an agrarian settlement program, labor service, and a guarantee to maintain health care and pensions. Nazism_sentence_433

However, these policies and programs, which included a large public works programs supported by deficit spending such as the construction of the Autobahn network to stimulate the economy and reduce unemployment, were inherited and planned to be undertaken by the Weimar Republic during conservative Paul von Hindenburg's presidency and which the Nazis appropriated as their own after coming to power. Nazism_sentence_434

Above all, Hitler's priority was rearmament and the buildup of the German military in preparation for an eventual war to conquer Lebensraum in the East. Nazism_sentence_435

The policies of Schacht created a scheme for deficit financing, in which capital projects were paid for with the issuance of promissory notes called Mefo bills, which could be traded by companies with each other. Nazism_sentence_436

This was particularly useful in allowing Germany to rearm because the Mefo bills were not Reichsmarks and did not appear in the federal budget, so they helped conceal rearmament. Nazism_sentence_437

At the beginning of his rule, Hitler said that "the future of Germany depends exclusively and only on the reconstruction of the Wehrmacht. Nazism_sentence_438

All other tasks must cede precedence to the task of rearmament." Nazism_sentence_439

This policy was implemented immediately, with military expenditures quickly growing far larger than the civilian work-creation programs. Nazism_sentence_440

As early as June 1933, military spending for the year was budgeted to be three times larger than the spending on all civilian work-creation measures in 1932 and 1933 combined. Nazism_sentence_441

Nazi Germany increased its military spending faster than any other state in peacetime, with the share of military spending rising from 1 percent to 10 percent of national income in the first two years of the regime alone. Nazism_sentence_442

Eventually, it reached as high as 75 percent by 1944. Nazism_sentence_443

In spite of their rhetoric condemning big business prior to their rise to power, the Nazis quickly entered into a partnership with German business from as early as February 1933. Nazism_sentence_444

That month, after being appointed Chancellor but before gaining dictatorial powers, Hitler made a personal appeal to German business leaders to help fund the Nazi Party for the crucial months that were to follow. Nazism_sentence_445

He argued that they should support him in establishing a dictatorship because "private enterprise cannot be maintained in the age of democracy" and because democracy would allegedly lead to communism. Nazism_sentence_446

He promised to destroy the German left and the trade unions, without any mention of anti-Jewish policies or foreign conquests. Nazism_sentence_447

In the following weeks, the Nazi Party received contributions from seventeen different business groups, with the largest coming from IG Farben and Deutsche Bank. Nazism_sentence_448

Historian Adam Tooze writes that the leaders of German business were therefore "willing partners in the destruction of political pluralism in Germany". Nazism_sentence_449

In exchange, owners and managers of German businesses were granted unprecedented powers to control their workforce, collective bargaining was abolished and wages were frozen at a relatively low level. Nazism_sentence_450

Business profits also rose very rapidly, as did corporate investment. Nazism_sentence_451

In addition, the Nazis privatized public properties and public services, only increasing economic state control through regulations. Nazism_sentence_452

Hitler believed that private ownership was useful in that it encouraged creative competition and technical innovation, but insisted that it had to conform to national interests and be "productive" rather than "parasitical". Nazism_sentence_453

Private property rights were conditional upon following the economic priorities set by the Nazi leadership, with high profits as a reward for firms who followed them and the threat of nationalization being used against those who did not. Nazism_sentence_454

Under Nazi economics, free competition and self-regulating markets diminished, but Hitler's social Darwinist beliefs made him retain business competition and private property as economic engines. Nazism_sentence_455

The Nazis were hostile to the idea of social welfare in principle, upholding instead the social Darwinist concept that the weak and feeble should perish. Nazism_sentence_456

They condemned the welfare system of the Weimar Republic as well as private charity, accusing them of supporting people regarded as racially inferior and weak, who should have been weeded out in the process of natural selection. Nazism_sentence_457

Nevertheless, faced with the mass unemployment and poverty of the Great Depression, the Nazis found it necessary to set up charitable institutions to help racially-pure Germans in order to maintain popular support, while arguing that this represented "racial self-help" and not indiscriminate charity or universal social welfare. Nazism_sentence_458

Nazi programs such as the Winter Relief of the German People and the broader National Socialist People's Welfare (NSV) were organized as quasi-private institutions, officially relying on private donations from Germans to help others of their race, although in practice those who refused to donate could face severe consequences. Nazism_sentence_459

Unlike the social welfare institutions of the Weimar Republic and the Christian charities, the NSV distributed assistance on explicitly racial grounds. Nazism_sentence_460

It provided support only to those who were "racially sound, capable of and willing to work, politically reliable, and willing and able to reproduce." Nazism_sentence_461

Non-Aryans were excluded, as well as the "work-shy", "asocials" and the "hereditarily ill." Successful efforts were made to get middle-class women involved in social work assisting large families, and the Winter Relief campaigns acted as a ritual to generate public sympathy. Nazism_sentence_462

Agrarian policies were also important to the Nazis since they corresponded not just to the economy but to their geopolitical conception of Lebensraum as well. Nazism_sentence_463

For Hitler, the acquisition of land and soil was requisite in moulding the German economy. Nazism_sentence_464

To tie farmers to their land, selling agricultural land was prohibited. Nazism_sentence_465

Farm ownership remained private, but business monopoly rights were granted to marketing boards to control production and prices with a quota system. Nazism_sentence_466

The Hereditary Farm Law of 1933 established a cartel structure under a government body known as the Reichsnährstand (RNST) which determined "everything from what seeds and fertilizers were used to how land was inherited". Nazism_sentence_467

Hitler primarily viewed the German economy as an instrument of power and believed the economy was not about creating wealth and technical progress so as to improve the quality of life for a nation's citizenry, but rather that economic success was paramount for providing the means and material foundations necessary for military conquest. Nazism_sentence_468

While economic progress generated by National Socialist programs had its role in appeasing the German people, the Nazis and Hitler in particular did not believe that economic solutions alone were sufficient to thrust Germany onto the stage as a world power. Nazism_sentence_469

The Nazis thus sought to secure a general economic revival accompanied by massive military spending for rearmament, especially later through the implementation of the Four Year Plan, which consolidated their rule and firmly secured a command relationship between the German arms industry and the National Socialist government. Nazism_sentence_470

Between 1933 and 1939, military expenditures were upwards of 82 billion Reichsmarks and represented 23 percent of Germany's gross national product as the Nazis mobilised their people and economy for war. Nazism_sentence_471

Anti-communism Nazism_section_16

The Nazis claimed that communism was dangerous to the well-being of nations because of its intention to dissolve private property, its support of class conflict, its aggression against the middle class, its hostility towards small business and its atheism. Nazism_sentence_472

Nazism rejected class conflict-based socialism and economic egalitarianism, favouring instead a stratified economy with social classes based on merit and talent, retaining private property and the creation of national solidarity that transcends class distinction. Nazism_sentence_473

Historians Ian Kershaw and Joachim Fest argue that in post–World War I Germany, the Nazis were one of many nationalist and fascist political parties contending for the leadership of Germany's anti-communist movement. Nazism_sentence_474

In Mein Kampf, Hitler stated his desire to "make war upon the Marxist principle that all men are equal." Nazism_sentence_475

He believed that "the notion of equality was a sin against nature." Nazism_sentence_476

Nazism upheld the "natural inequality of men," including inequality between races and also within each race. Nazism_sentence_477

The National Socialist state aimed to advance those individuals with special talents or intelligence, so they could rule over the masses. Nazism_sentence_478

Nazi ideology relied on elitism and the Führerprinzip (leadership principle), arguing that elite minorities should assume leadership roles over the majority, and that the elite minority should itself be organized according to a "hierarchy of talent", with a single leader—the Führer—at the top. Nazism_sentence_479

The Führerprinzip held that each member of the hierarchy owed absolute obedience to those above him and should hold absolute power over those below him. Nazism_sentence_480

During the 1920s, Hitler urged disparate Nazi factions to unite in opposition to Jewish Bolshevism. Nazism_sentence_481

Hitler asserted that the "three vices" of "Jewish Marxism" were democracy, pacifism and internationalism. Nazism_sentence_482

The Communist movement, the trade unions, the Social Democratic Party and the left-wing press were all considered to be Jewish-controlled and part of the "international Jewish conspiracy" to weaken the German nation by promoting internal disunity through class struggle. Nazism_sentence_483

The Nazis also believed that the Jews had instigated the Bolshevik revolution in Russia and that Communists had stabbed Germany in the back and caused it to lose the First World War. Nazism_sentence_484

They further argued that modern cultural trends of the 1920s (such as jazz music and cubist art) represented "cultural Bolshevism" and were part of a political assault aimed at the spiritual degeneration of the German Volk. Nazism_sentence_485

Joseph Goebbels published a pamphlet titled The Nazi-Sozi which gave brief points of how National Socialism differed from Marxism. Nazism_sentence_486

In 1930, Hitler said: "Our adopted term 'Socialist' has nothing to do with Marxist Socialism. Nazism_sentence_487

Marxism is anti-property; true Socialism is not". Nazism_sentence_488

The Communist Party of Germany (KPD) was the largest Communist Party in the world outside of the Soviet Union, until it was destroyed by the Nazis in 1933. Nazism_sentence_489

In the 1920s and early 30s, Communists and Nazis often fought each other directly in street violence, with the Nazi paramilitary organizations being opposed by the Communist Red Front and Anti-Fascist Action. Nazism_sentence_490

After the beginning of the Great Depression, both Communists and Nazis saw their share of the vote increase. Nazism_sentence_491

While the Nazis were willing to form alliances with other parties of the right, the Communists refused to form an alliance with the Social Democratic Party of Germany, the largest party of the left. Nazism_sentence_492

After the Nazis came to power, they quickly banned the Communist Party under the allegation that it was preparing for revolution and that it had caused the Reichstag fire. Nazism_sentence_493

Four thousand KPD officials were arrested in February 1933, and by the end of the year 130,000 communists had been sent to concentration camps. Nazism_sentence_494

During the late 1930s and the 1940s, anti-communist regimes and groups that supported Nazism included the Falange in Francoist Spain, the Vichy regime and the 33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French) in France and the British Union of Fascists under Oswald Mosley. Nazism_sentence_495

Views of capitalism Nazism_section_17

See also: List of companies involved in the Holocaust Nazism_sentence_496

The Nazis argued that free-market capitalism damages nations due to international finance and the worldwide economic dominance of disloyal big business, which they considered to be the product of Jewish influences. Nazism_sentence_497

Nazi propaganda posters in working class districts emphasised anti-capitalism, such as one that said: "The maintenance of a rotten industrial system has nothing to do with nationalism. Nazism_sentence_498

I can love Germany and hate capitalism". Nazism_sentence_499

Both in public and in private, Hitler expressed disdain for capitalism, arguing that it holds nations ransom in the interests of a parasitic cosmopolitan rentier class. Nazism_sentence_500

Hitler opposed free-market capitalism because it "could not be trusted to put national interests first" and desired an economy that would direct resources "in ways that matched the many national goals of the regime" such as the buildup of the military, building programs for cities and roads, and economic self-sufficiency. Nazism_sentence_501

Hitler also distrusted capitalism for being unreliable due to its egotism and preferred a state-directed economy that maintains private property and competition but subordinates them to the interests of the Volk. Nazism_sentence_502

Hitler told a party leader in 1934: "The economic system of our day is the creation of the Jews". Nazism_sentence_503

Hitler said to Benito Mussolini that capitalism had "run its course". Nazism_sentence_504

Hitler also said that the business bourgeoisie "know nothing except their profit. Nazism_sentence_505

'Fatherland' is only a word for them." Nazism_sentence_506

Hitler was personally disgusted with the ruling bourgeois elites of Germany during the period of the Weimar Republic, whom he referred to as "cowardly shits". Nazism_sentence_507

In Mein Kampf, Hitler effectively supported mercantilism in the belief that economic resources from their respective territories should be seized by force, as he believed that the policy of Lebensraum would provide Germany with such economically valuable territories. Nazism_sentence_508

Hitler argued that the only means to maintain economic security was to have direct control over resources rather than being forced to rely on world trade. Nazism_sentence_509

Hitler claimed that war to gain such resources was the only means to surpass the failing capitalist economic system. Nazism_sentence_510

In practice, however, the Nazis merely opposed one type of capitalism, namely 19th-century free-market capitalism and the laissez-faire model, which they nonetheless applied to the social sphere in the form of social Darwinism. Nazism_sentence_511

Rather, Nazi Germany has been described as an example of authoritarian or totalitarian capitalism. Nazism_sentence_512

While claiming to strive for autarky in propaganda, the Nazis crushed existing movements towards self-sufficiency and established extensive capital connections in efforts to ready for expansionist war and genocide in alliance with traditional business and commerce elites. Nazism_sentence_513

In spite of their anti-capitalist rhetoric in opposition to big business, the Nazis allied with German business as soon as they got in power by appealing to the fear of communism and promising to destroy the German left and trade unions, eventually purging both more radical and reactionary elements from the party in 1934. Nazism_sentence_514

Joseph Goebbels, who would later go on to become the Nazi Propaganda Minister, was strongly opposed to both capitalism and communism, viewing them as the "two great pillars of materialism" that were "part of the international Jewish conspiracy for world domination." Nazism_sentence_515

Nevertheless, he wrote in his diary in 1925 that if he were forced to choose between them, "in the final analysis, it would be better for us to go down with Bolshevism than live in eternal slavery under capitalism". Nazism_sentence_516

Goebbels also linked his antisemitism to his anti-capitalism, stating in a 1929 pamphlet that "we see, in the Hebrews, the incarnation of capitalism, the misuse of the nation's goods." Nazism_sentence_517

Within the Nazi Party, the faction associated with anti-capitalist beliefs was the Sturmabteilung (SA), a paramilitary wing led by Ernst Röhm. Nazism_sentence_518

The SA had a complicated relationship with the rest of the party, giving both Röhm himself and local SA leaders significant autonomy. Nazism_sentence_519

Different local leaders would even promote different political ideas in their units, including "nationalistic, socialistic, anti-Semitic, racist, völkisch, or conservative ideas." Nazism_sentence_520

There was tension between the SA and Hitler, especially from 1930 onward, as Hitler's "increasingly close association with big industrial interests and traditional rightist forces" caused many in the SA to distrust him. Nazism_sentence_521

The SA regarded Hitler's seizure of power in 1933 as a "first revolution" against the left, and some voices within the ranks began arguing for a "second revolution" against the right. Nazism_sentence_522

After engaging in violence against the left in 1933, Röhm's SA also began attacks against individuals deemed to be associated with conservative reaction. Nazism_sentence_523

Hitler saw Röhm's independent actions as violating and possibly threatening his leadership, as well as jeopardising the regime by alienating the conservative President Paul von Hindenburg and the conservative-oriented German Army. Nazism_sentence_524

This resulted in Hitler purging Röhm and other radical members of the SA in 1934, during the Night of the Long Knives. Nazism_sentence_525

Totalitarianism Nazism_section_18

See also: Totalitarianism Nazism_sentence_526

Under Nazism, with its emphasis on the nation, individualism was denounced and instead importance was placed upon Germans belonging to the German Volk and "people's community" (Volksgemeinschaft). Nazism_sentence_527

Hitler declared that "every activity and every need of every individual will be regulated by the collectivity represented by the party" and that "there are no longer any free realms in which the individual belongs to himself". Nazism_sentence_528

Himmler justified the establishment of a repressive police state, in which the security forces could exercise power arbitrarily, by claiming that national security and order should take precedence over the needs of the individual. Nazism_sentence_529

According to the famous philosopher and political theorist, Hannah Arendt, the allure of Nazism as a totalitarian ideology (with its attendant mobilisation of the German population) resided within the construct of helping that society deal with the cognitive dissonance resultant from the tragic interruption of the First World War and the economic and material suffering consequent to the Depression and brought to order the revolutionary unrest occurring all around them. Nazism_sentence_530

Instead of the plurality that existed in democratic or parliamentary states, Nazism as a totalitarian system promulgated "clear" solutions to the historical problems faced by Germany, levied support by de-legitimizing the former government of Weimar and provided a politico-biological pathway to a better future, one free from the uncertainty of the past. Nazism_sentence_531

It was the atomised and disaffected masses that Hitler and the party elite pointed in a particular direction and using clever propaganda to make them into ideological adherents, exploited in bringing Nazism to life. Nazism_sentence_532

While the ideologues of Nazism, much like those of Stalinism, abhorred democratic or parliamentary governance as practiced in the United States or Britain, their differences are substantial. Nazism_sentence_533

An epistemic crisis occurs when one tries to synthesize and contrast Nazism and Stalinism as two-sides of the same coin with their similarly tyrannical leaders, state-controlled economies and repressive police structures. Nazism_sentence_534

Namely, while they share a common thematic political construction, they are entirely inimical to one another in their worldviews and when more carefully analysed against one another on a one-to-one level, an "irreconcilable asymmetry" results. Nazism_sentence_535

Reactionary or revolutionary question Nazism_section_19

Although Nazism is often seen as a reactionary movement, it did not seek a return of Germany to the pre-Weimar monarchy, but instead looked much further back to a mythic halcyon Germany which never existed. Nazism_sentence_536

It has also been seen—as it was by the German-American scholar Franz Leopold Neumann—as the result of a crisis of capitalism which manifested as a "totalitarian monopoly capitalism". Nazism_sentence_537

In this view Nazism is a mass movement of the middle class which was in opposition to a mass movement of workers in socialism and its extreme form, Communism. Nazism_sentence_538

Historian Karl Dietrich Bracher argues: Nazism_sentence_539

About Hitler's and the Nazi Party's political positions, Bracher further argues: Nazism_sentence_540

Similarly, historian Modris Eksteins argued: Nazism_sentence_541

After the failure of the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923, and his subsequent trial and imprisonment, Hitler decided that the way for the Nazi Party to achieve power was not through insurrection, but through legal and quasi-legal means. Nazism_sentence_542

This did not sit well with the brown-shirted stormtroopers of the SA, especially those in Berlin, who chafed under the restrictions that Hitler placed on them, and their subordination to the party. Nazism_sentence_543

This resulted in the Stennes Revolt of 1930–31, after which Hitler made himself the Supreme Commander of the SA, and brought Ernst Röhm back to be their Chief of Staff and keep them in line. Nazism_sentence_544

The quashing of the SA's revolutionary fervor convinced many businessmen and military leaders that the Nazis had put aside their insurrectionist past, and that Hitler could be a reliable partner Nazism_sentence_545

After the Nazis' "Seizure of Power" in 1933, Röhm and the Brown Shirts were not content for the party to simply carry the reins of power. Nazism_sentence_546

Instead, they pressed for a continuation of the "National Socialist revolution" to bring about sweeping social changes, which Hitler, primarily for tactical reasons, was not willing to do at that time. Nazism_sentence_547

He was instead focused on rebuilding the military and reorienting the economy to provide the rearmament necessary for invasion of the countries to the east of Germany, especially Poland and Russia, to get the Lebensraum ("living space") he believed was necessary to the survival of the Aryan race. Nazism_sentence_548

For this, he needed the co-operation of not only the military, but also the vital organs of capitalism, the banks and big businesses, which he would be unlikely to get if Germany's social and economic structure was being radically overhauled. Nazism_sentence_549

Röhm's public proclamation that the SA would not allow the "German Revolution" to be halted or undermined caused Hitler to announce that "The revolution is not a permanent condition." Nazism_sentence_550

The unwillingness of Röhm and the SA to cease their agitation for a "Second Revolution", and the unwarranted fear of a "Röhm putsch" to accomplish it, were factors behind Hitler's purging of the SA leadership in the Night of the Long Knives in July 1934. Nazism_sentence_551

Despite such tactical breaks necessitated by pragmatic concerns, which were typical for Hitler during his rise to power and in the early years of his regime, Hitler never ceased being a revolutionary dedicated to the radical transformation of Germany, especially when it concerned racial matters. Nazism_sentence_552

In his monograph, Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary?, Martyn Housden concludes: Nazism_sentence_553

There were aspects of Nazism which were reactionary, such as their attitude toward the role of women in society, which was completely traditionalist, calling for the return of women to the home as wives, mothers and homemakers, although ironically this ideological policy was undermined in reality by the growing labor shortages and need for more workers. Nazism_sentence_554

The number of women in the workplace climbed throughout the period of Nazi control of Germany, from 4.24 million in 1933 to 4.52 million in 1936 and 5.2 million in 1938, numbers that far exceeded those of the Weimar Republic. Nazism_sentence_555

Another reactionary aspect of Nazism was in their arts policy, which stemmed from Hitler's rejection of all forms of "degenerate" modern art, music and architecture. Nazism_sentence_556

Overall, Nazism being the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party, and the Nazi Party being the manifestation of Hitler's will—is best seen as essentially revolutionary in nature. Nazism_sentence_557

Post-war Nazism Nazism_section_20

Main article: Neo-Nazism Nazism_sentence_558

Following Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II and the end of the Holocaust, overt expressions of support for Nazi ideas were prohibited in Germany and other European countries. Nazism_sentence_559

Nonetheless, movements which self-identify as National Socialist or which are described as adhering to Nazism continue to exist on the fringes of politics in many western societies. Nazism_sentence_560

Usually espousing a white supremacist ideology, many deliberately adopt the symbols of Nazi Germany. Nazism_sentence_561

See also Nazism_section_21


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