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PeriodNeolithic_header_cell_0_0_0 Final period of Stone AgeNeolithic_cell_0_0_1
DatesNeolithic_header_cell_0_1_0 10,000–4,500 BCNeolithic_cell_0_1_1
Preceded byNeolithic_header_cell_0_2_0 Mesolithic, EpipalaeolithicNeolithic_cell_0_2_1
Followed byNeolithic_header_cell_0_3_0 ChalcolithicNeolithic_cell_0_3_1

The Neolithic (/ˌniːoʊˈlɪθɪk/ (listen), also known as the "New Stone Age"), the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, and later in other parts of the world. Neolithic_sentence_0

The Neolithic division lasted (in that part of the world) until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago (4500 BC), marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Neolithic_sentence_1

In other places the Neolithic lasted longer. Neolithic_sentence_2

In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Neolithic_sentence_3

Other parts of the world (including Oceania and the northern regions of the Americas) remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development until European contact. Neolithic_sentence_4

The Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals. Neolithic_sentence_5

The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, "new", and λίθος líthos, "stone", literally meaning "New Stone Age". Neolithic_sentence_6

The term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. Neolithic_sentence_7

Origin Neolithic_section_0

Further information: Center of origin Neolithic_sentence_8

Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming. Neolithic_sentence_9

The Natufian period or "proto-Neolithic" lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, and is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPNA) of 10,200–8800 BC. Neolithic_sentence_10

As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, and a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas (about 10,000 BC) are thought to have forced people to develop farming. Neolithic_sentence_11

By 10,200–8,800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Neolithic_sentence_12

Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Neolithic_sentence_13

Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat, millet and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep and goats. Neolithic_sentence_14

By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, and the use of pottery. Neolithic_sentence_15

Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery. Neolithic_sentence_16

In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose completely independently of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Neolithic_sentence_17

Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture. Neolithic_sentence_18

Periods by pottery phase Neolithic_section_1

Periods by region Neolithic_section_2

Western Asia Neolithic_section_3

Fertile Crescent Neolithic_section_4

Around 10,000 BC the first fully developed Neolithic cultures belonging to the phase Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) appeared in the Fertile Crescent. Neolithic_sentence_19

Around 10,700–9400 BC a settlement was established in Tell Qaramel, 10 miles (16 km) north of Aleppo. Neolithic_sentence_20

The settlement included two temples dating to 9650 BC. Neolithic_sentence_21

Around 9000 BC during the PPNA, one of the world's first towns, Jericho, appeared in the Levant. Neolithic_sentence_22

It was surrounded by a stone wall and contained a population of 2,000–3,000 people and a massive stone tower. Neolithic_sentence_23

Around 6400 BC the Halaf culture appeared in Syria and Northern Mesopotamia. Neolithic_sentence_24

In 1981 a team of researchers from the Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée, including Jacques Cauvin and Oliver Aurenche divided Near East Neolithic chronology into ten periods (0 to 9) based on social, economic and cultural characteristics. Neolithic_sentence_25

In 2002 Danielle Stordeur and Frédéric Abbès advanced this system with a division into five periods. Neolithic_sentence_26


  1. Natufian between 12,000 and 10,200 BC,Neolithic_item_0_0
  2. Khiamian between 10,200 and 8800 BC, PPNA: Sultanian (Jericho), Mureybetian,Neolithic_item_0_1
  3. Early PPNB (PPNB ancien) between 8800 and 7600 BC, middle PPNB (PPNB moyen) between 7600 and 6900 BC,Neolithic_item_0_2
  4. Late PPNB (PPNB récent) between 7500 and 7000 BC,Neolithic_item_0_3
  5. A PPNB (sometimes called PPNC) transitional stage (PPNB final) in which Halaf and dark faced burnished ware begin to emerge between 6900 and 6400 BC.Neolithic_item_0_4

They also advanced the idea of a transitional stage between the PPNA and PPNB between 8800 and 8600 BC at sites like Jerf el Ahmar and Tell Aswad. Neolithic_sentence_27

Southern Mesopotamia Neolithic_section_5

Alluvial plains (Sumer/Elam). Neolithic_sentence_28

Low rainfall makes irrigation systems necessary. Neolithic_sentence_29

Ubaid culture from 6,900 BC. Neolithic_sentence_30

North Africa Neolithic_section_6

Domestication of sheep and goats reached Egypt from the Near East possibly as early as 6000 BC. Neolithic_sentence_31

Graeme Barker states "The first indisputable evidence for domestic plants and animals in the Nile valley is not until the early fifth millennium BC in northern Egypt and a thousand years later further south, in both cases as part of strategies that still relied heavily on fishing, hunting, and the gathering of wild plants" and suggests that these subsistence changes were not due to farmers migrating from the Near East but was an indigenous development, with cereals either indigenous or obtained through exchange. Neolithic_sentence_32

Other scholars argue that the primary stimulus for agriculture and domesticated animals (as well as mud-brick architecture and other Neolithic cultural features) in Egypt was from the Middle East. Neolithic_sentence_33

Sub-Saharan Africa Neolithic_section_7

Further information: Pastoral Neolithic and Savanna Pastoral Neolithic Neolithic_sentence_34

The Pastoral Neolithic refers to a period in Africa's prehistory marking the beginning of food production on the continent following the Later Stone Age. Neolithic_sentence_35

In contrast to the Neolithic in other parts of the world, which saw the development of farming societies, the first form of African food production was mobile pastoralism, or ways of life centered on the herding and management of livestock. Neolithic_sentence_36

The term "Pastoral Neolithic" is used most often by archaeologists to describe early pastoralist periods in the Sahara, as well as in eastern Africa. Neolithic_sentence_37

The Savanna Pastoral Neolithic or SPN (formerly known as the Stone Bowl Culture) is a collection of ancient societies that appeared in the Rift Valley of East Africa and surrounding areas during a time period known as the Pastoral Neolithic. Neolithic_sentence_38

They were South Cushitic speaking pastoralists, who tended to bury their dead in cairns whilst their toolkit was characterized by stone bowls, pestles, grindstones and earthenware pots. Neolithic_sentence_39

Through archaeology, historical linguistics and archaeogenetics, they conventionally have been identified with the area's first Afroasiatic-speaking settlers. Neolithic_sentence_40

Archaeological dating of livestock bones and burial cairns has also established the cultural complex as the earliest center of pastoralism and stone construction in the region. Neolithic_sentence_41

Europe Neolithic_section_8

Main article: Neolithic Europe Neolithic_sentence_42

In southeast Europe agrarian societies first appeared in the 7th millennium BC, attested by one of the earliest farming sites of Europe, discovered in Vashtëmi, southeastern Albania and dating back to 6500 BC. Neolithic_sentence_43

In Northwest Europe it is much later, typically lasting just under 3,000 years from c. 4500 BC–1700 BC. Neolithic_sentence_44

Anthropomorphic figurines have been found in the Balkans from 6000 BC, and in Central Europe by around 5800 BC (La Hoguette). Neolithic_sentence_45

Among the earliest cultural complexes of this area are the Sesklo culture in Thessaly, which later expanded in the Balkans giving rise to Starčevo-Körös (Cris), Linearbandkeramik, and Vinča. Neolithic_sentence_46

Through a combination of cultural diffusion and migration of peoples, the Neolithic traditions spread west and northwards to reach northwestern Europe by around 4500 BC. Neolithic_sentence_47

The Vinča culture may have created the earliest system of writing, the Vinča signs, though archaeologist Shan Winn believes they most likely represented pictograms and ideograms rather than a truly developed form of writing. Neolithic_sentence_48

The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture built enormous settlements in Romania, Moldova and Ukraine from 5300 to 2300 BC. Neolithic_sentence_49

The megalithic temple complexes of Ġgantija on the Mediterranean island of Gozo (in the Maltese archipelago) and of Mnajdra (Malta) are notable for their gigantic Neolithic structures, the oldest of which date back to around 3600 BC. Neolithic_sentence_50

The Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni, Paola, Malta, is a subterranean structure excavated around 2500 BC; originally a sanctuary, it became a necropolis, the only prehistoric underground temple in the world, and shows a degree of artistry in stone sculpture unique in prehistory to the Maltese islands. Neolithic_sentence_51

After 2500 BC, these islands were depopulated for several decades until the arrival of a new influx of Bronze Age immigrants, a culture that cremated its dead and introduced smaller megalithic structures called dolmens to Malta. Neolithic_sentence_52

In most cases there are small chambers here, with the cover made of a large slab placed on upright stones. Neolithic_sentence_53

They are claimed to belong to a population different from that which built the previous megalithic temples. Neolithic_sentence_54

It is presumed the population arrived from Sicily because of the similarity of Maltese dolmens to some small constructions found there. Neolithic_sentence_55

South and East Asia Neolithic_section_9

Settled life, encompassing the transition from foraging to farming and pastoralism, began in South Asia in the region of Balochistan, Pakistan, around 7,000 BC. Neolithic_sentence_56

At the site of Mehrgarh, Balochistan, presence can be documented of the domestication of wheat and barley, rapidly followed by that of goats, sheep, and cattle. Neolithic_sentence_57

In April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of teeth in vivo (using bow drills and flint tips) was found in Mehrgarh. Neolithic_sentence_58

In South India, the Neolithic began by 6500 BC and lasted until around 1400 BC when the Megalithic transition period began. Neolithic_sentence_59

South Indian Neolithic is characterized by Ash mounds from 2500 BC in Karnataka region, expanded later to Tamil Nadu. Neolithic_sentence_60

In East Asia, the earliest sites include the Nanzhuangtou culture around 9500–9000 BC, Pengtoushan culture around 7500–6100 BC, and Peiligang culture around 7000–5000 BC. Neolithic_sentence_61

The 'Neolithic' (defined in this paragraph as using polished stone implements) remains a living tradition in small and extremely remote and inaccessible pockets of West Papua (Indonesian New Guinea). Neolithic_sentence_62

Polished stone adze and axes are used in the present day (as of 2008) in areas where the availability of metal implements is limited. Neolithic_sentence_63

This is likely to cease altogether in the next few years as the older generation die off and steel blades and chainsaws prevail. Neolithic_sentence_64

In 2012, news was released about a new farming site discovered in Munam-ri, Goseong, Gangwon Province, South Korea, which may be the earliest farmland known to date in east Asia. Neolithic_sentence_65

"No remains of an agricultural field from the Neolithic period have been found in any East Asian country before, the institute said, adding that the discovery reveals that the history of agricultural cultivation at least began during the period on the Korean Peninsula". Neolithic_sentence_66

The farm was dated between 3600 and 3000 BC. Neolithic_sentence_67

Pottery, stone projectile points, and possible houses were also found. Neolithic_sentence_68

"In 2002, researchers discovered prehistoric earthenware, jade earrings, among other items in the area". Neolithic_sentence_69

The research team will perform accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating to retrieve a more precise date for the site. Neolithic_sentence_70

The Americas Neolithic_section_10

In Mesoamerica, a similar set of events (i.e., crop domestication and sedentary lifestyles) occurred by around 4500 BC, but possibly as early as 11,000–10,000 BC. Neolithic_sentence_71

These cultures are usually not referred to as belonging to the Neolithic; in America different terms are used such as Formative stage instead of mid-late Neolithic, Archaic Era instead of Early Neolithic, and Paleo-Indian for the preceding period. Neolithic_sentence_72

The Formative stage is equivalent to the Neolithic Revolution period in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Neolithic_sentence_73

In the southwestern United States it occurred from 500 to 1200 AD when there was a dramatic increase in population and development of large villages supported by agriculture based on dryland farming of maize, and later, beans, squash, and domesticated turkeys. Neolithic_sentence_74

During this period the bow and arrow and ceramic pottery were also introduced. Neolithic_sentence_75

In later periods cities of considerable size developed, and some metallurgy by 700 BC. Neolithic_sentence_76

Australia Neolithic_section_11

Australia, in contrast to New Guinea, has generally been held not to have had a Neolithic period, with a hunter-gatherer lifestyle continuing until the arrival of Europeans. Neolithic_sentence_77

This view can be challenged in terms of the definition of agriculture, but "Neolithic" remains a rarely used and not very useful concept in discussing Australian prehistory. Neolithic_sentence_78

Cultural characteristics Neolithic_section_12

Social organization Neolithic_section_13

During most of the Neolithic age of Eurasia, people lived in small tribes composed of multiple bands or lineages. Neolithic_sentence_79

There is little scientific evidence of developed social stratification in most Neolithic societies; social stratification is more associated with the later Bronze Age. Neolithic_sentence_80

Although some late Eurasian Neolithic societies formed complex stratified chiefdoms or even states, generally states evolved in Eurasia only with the rise of metallurgy, and most Neolithic societies on the whole were relatively simple and egalitarian. Neolithic_sentence_81

Beyond Eurasia, however, states were formed during the local Neolithic in three areas, namely in the Preceramic Andes with the Norte Chico Civilization, Formative Mesoamerica and Ancient Hawaiʻi. Neolithic_sentence_82

However, most Neolithic societies were noticeably more hierarchical than the Upper Paleolithic cultures that preceded them and hunter-gatherer cultures in general. Neolithic_sentence_83

The domestication of large animals (c. 8000 BC) resulted in a dramatic increase in social inequality in most of the areas where it occurred; New Guinea being a notable exception. Neolithic_sentence_84

Possession of livestock allowed competition between households and resulted in inherited inequalities of wealth. Neolithic_sentence_85

Neolithic pastoralists who controlled large herds gradually acquired more livestock, and this made economic inequalities more pronounced. Neolithic_sentence_86

However, evidence of social inequality is still disputed, as settlements such as Catal Huyuk reveal a striking lack of difference in the size of homes and burial sites, suggesting a more egalitarian society with no evidence of the concept of capital, although some homes do appear slightly larger or more elaborately decorated than others. Neolithic_sentence_87

Families and households were still largely independent economically, and the household was probably the center of life. Neolithic_sentence_88

However, excavations in Central Europe have revealed that early Neolithic Linear Ceramic cultures ("Linearbandkeramik") were building large arrangements of circular ditches between 4800 and 4600 BC. Neolithic_sentence_89

These structures (and their later counterparts such as causewayed enclosures, burial mounds, and henge) required considerable time and labour to construct, which suggests that some influential individuals were able to organise and direct human labour — though non-hierarchical and voluntary work remain possibilities. Neolithic_sentence_90

There is a large body of evidence for fortified settlements at Linearbandkeramik sites along the Rhine, as at least some villages were fortified for some time with a palisade and an outer ditch. Neolithic_sentence_91

Settlements with palisades and weapon-traumatized bones, such as those found at the Talheim Death Pit, have been discovered and demonstrate that "...systematic violence between groups" and warfare was probably much more common during the Neolithic than in the preceding Paleolithic period. Neolithic_sentence_92

This supplanted an earlier view of the Linear Pottery Culture as living a "peaceful, unfortified lifestyle". Neolithic_sentence_93

Control of labour and inter-group conflict is characteristic of tribal groups with social rank that are headed by a charismatic individual — either a 'big man' or a proto-chief — functioning as a lineage-group head. Neolithic_sentence_94

Whether a non-hierarchical system of organization existed is debatable, and there is no evidence that explicitly suggests that Neolithic societies functioned under any dominating class or individual, as was the case in the chiefdoms of the European Early Bronze Age. Neolithic_sentence_95

Theories to explain the apparent implied egalitarianism of Neolithic (and Paleolithic) societies have arisen, notably the Marxist concept of primitive communism. Neolithic_sentence_96

Shelter and sedentism Neolithic_section_14

The shelter of the early people changed dramatically from the Upper Paleolithic to the Neolithic era. Neolithic_sentence_97

In the Paleolithic, people did not normally live in permanent constructions. Neolithic_sentence_98

In the Neolithic, mud brick houses started appearing that were coated with plaster. Neolithic_sentence_99

The growth of agriculture made permanent houses possible. Neolithic_sentence_100

Doorways were made on the roof, with ladders positioned both on the inside and outside of the houses. Neolithic_sentence_101

The roof was supported by beams from the inside. Neolithic_sentence_102

The rough ground was covered by platforms, mats, and skins on which residents slept. Neolithic_sentence_103

Stilt-houses settlements were common in the Alpine and Pianura Padana (Terramare) region. Neolithic_sentence_104

Remains have been found at the Ljubljana Marshes in Slovenia and at the Mondsee and Attersee lakes in Upper Austria, for example. Neolithic_sentence_105

Agriculture Neolithic_section_15

Main article: Neolithic Revolution Neolithic_sentence_106

A significant and far-reaching shift in human subsistence and lifestyle was to be brought about in areas where crop farming and cultivation were first developed: the previous reliance on an essentially nomadic hunter-gatherer subsistence technique or pastoral transhumance was at first supplemented, and then increasingly replaced by, a reliance upon the foods produced from cultivated lands. Neolithic_sentence_107

These developments are also believed to have greatly encouraged the growth of settlements, since it may be supposed that the increased need to spend more time and labor in tending crop fields required more localized dwellings. Neolithic_sentence_108

This trend would continue into the Bronze Age, eventually giving rise to permanently settled farming towns, and later cities and states whose larger populations could be sustained by the increased productivity from cultivated lands. Neolithic_sentence_109

The profound differences in human interactions and subsistence methods associated with the onset of early agricultural practices in the Neolithic have been called the Neolithic Revolution, a term coined in the 1920s by the Australian archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe. Neolithic_sentence_110

One potential benefit of the development and increasing sophistication of farming technology was the possibility of producing surplus crop yields, in other words, food supplies in excess of the immediate needs of the community. Neolithic_sentence_111

Surpluses could be stored for later use, or possibly traded for other necessities or luxuries. Neolithic_sentence_112

Agricultural life afforded securities that nomadic life could not, and sedentary farming populations grew faster than nomadic. Neolithic_sentence_113

However, early farmers were also adversely affected in times of famine, such as may be caused by drought or pests. Neolithic_sentence_114

In instances where agriculture had become the predominant way of life, the sensitivity to these shortages could be particularly acute, affecting agrarian populations to an extent that otherwise may not have been routinely experienced by prior hunter-gatherer communities. Neolithic_sentence_115

Nevertheless, agrarian communities generally proved successful, and their growth and the expansion of territory under cultivation continued. Neolithic_sentence_116

Another significant change undergone by many of these newly agrarian communities was one of diet. Neolithic_sentence_117

Pre-agrarian diets varied by region, season, available local plant and animal resources and degree of pastoralism and hunting. Neolithic_sentence_118

Post-agrarian diet was restricted to a limited package of successfully cultivated cereal grains, plants and to a variable extent domesticated animals and animal products. Neolithic_sentence_119

Supplementation of diet by hunting and gathering was to variable degrees precluded by the increase in population above the carrying capacity of the land and a high sedentary local population concentration. Neolithic_sentence_120

In some cultures, there would have been a significant shift toward increased starch and plant protein. Neolithic_sentence_121

The relative nutritional benefits and drawbacks of these dietary changes and their overall impact on early societal development are still debated. Neolithic_sentence_122

In addition, increased population density, decreased population mobility, increased continuous proximity to domesticated animals, and continuous occupation of comparatively population-dense sites would have altered sanitation needs and patterns of disease. Neolithic_sentence_123

Lithic technology Neolithic_section_16

Main article: Stone tool § Neolithic industries Neolithic_sentence_124

The identifying characteristic of Neolithic technology is the use of polished or ground stone tools, in contrast to the flaked stone tools used during the Paleolithic era. Neolithic_sentence_125

Neolithic people were skilled farmers, manufacturing a range of tools necessary for the tending, harvesting and processing of crops (such as sickle blades and grinding stones) and food production (e.g. pottery, bone implements). Neolithic_sentence_126

They were also skilled manufacturers of a range of other types of stone tools and ornaments, including projectile points, beads, and statuettes. Neolithic_sentence_127

But what allowed forest clearance on a large scale was the polished stone axe above all other tools. Neolithic_sentence_128

Together with the adze, fashioning wood for shelter, structures and canoes for example, this enabled them to exploit their newly won farmland. Neolithic_sentence_129

Neolithic peoples in the Levant, Anatolia, Syria, northern Mesopotamia and Central Asia were also accomplished builders, utilizing mud-brick to construct houses and villages. Neolithic_sentence_130

At Çatalhöyük, houses were plastered and painted with elaborate scenes of humans and animals. Neolithic_sentence_131

In Europe, long houses built from wattle and daub were constructed. Neolithic_sentence_132

Elaborate tombs were built for the dead. Neolithic_sentence_133

These tombs are particularly numerous in Ireland, where there are many thousand still in existence. Neolithic_sentence_134

Neolithic people in the British Isles built long barrows and chamber tombs for their dead and causewayed camps, henges, flint mines and cursus monuments. Neolithic_sentence_135

It was also important to figure out ways of preserving food for future months, such as fashioning relatively airtight containers, and using substances like salt as preservatives. Neolithic_sentence_136

The peoples of the Americas and the Pacific mostly retained the Neolithic level of tool technology until the time of European contact. Neolithic_sentence_137

Exceptions include copper hatchets and spearheads in the Great Lakes region. Neolithic_sentence_138

Clothing Neolithic_section_17

Most clothing appears to have been made of animal skins, as indicated by finds of large numbers of bone and antler pins that are ideal for fastening leather. Neolithic_sentence_139

Wool cloth and linen might have become available during the later Neolithic, as suggested by finds of perforated stones that (depending on size) may have served as spindle whorls or loom weights. Neolithic_sentence_140

The clothing worn in the Neolithic Age might be similar to that worn by Ötzi the Iceman, although he was not Neolithic (since he belonged to the later Copper Age). Neolithic_sentence_141

List of early settlements Neolithic_section_18

Main article: List of Neolithic settlements Neolithic_sentence_142

Neolithic human settlements include: Neolithic_sentence_143

The world's oldest known engineered roadway, the Sweet Track in England, dates from 3800 BC and the world's oldest freestanding structure is the Neolithic temple of Ġgantija in Gozo, Malta. Neolithic_sentence_144

List of cultures and sites Neolithic_section_19


The Neolithic

This box:Neolithic_header_cell_1_0_0

Note: Dates are very approximate, and are only given for a rough estimate; consult each culture for specific time periods. Neolithic_sentence_145

Early Neolithic Periodization: The Levant: 9500–8000 BC; Europe: 5000–4000 BC; Elsewhere: varies greatly, depending on region. Neolithic_sentence_146


Middle Neolithic Periodization: The Levant: 8000–6000 BC; Europe: 4000–3500 BC; Elsewhere: varies greatly, depending on region. Neolithic_sentence_147

Later Neolithic Periodization: 6500–4500 BC; Europe: 3500–3000 BC; Elsewhere: varies greatly, depending on region. Neolithic_sentence_148



Main article: Eneolithic Neolithic_sentence_149

Periodization: Near East: 4500–3300 BC; Europe: 3000–1700 BC; Elsewhere: varies greatly, depending on region. Neolithic_sentence_150

In the Americas, the Eneolithic ended as late as the 19th century AD for some peoples. Neolithic_sentence_151


Comparative chronology Neolithic_section_20

See also Neolithic_section_21

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