New England

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This article is about the region in North America. New England_sentence_0

For the region in Australia, see New England (New South Wales). New England_sentence_1

For other uses, see New England (disambiguation). New England_sentence_2

New England_table_infobox_0

New EnglandNew England_header_cell_0_0_0
CompositionNew England_header_cell_0_1_0 New England_cell_0_1_1
Largest metropolitan areaNew England_header_cell_0_2_0 New England_cell_0_2_1
Largest cityNew England_header_cell_0_3_0 BostonNew England_cell_0_3_1
AreaNew England_header_cell_0_4_0
TotalNew England_header_cell_0_5_0 71,991.8 sq mi (186,458 km)New England_cell_0_5_1
LandNew England_header_cell_0_6_0 62,688.4 sq mi (162,362 km)New England_cell_0_6_1
Population (2019 est.)New England_header_cell_0_7_0
TotalNew England_header_cell_0_8_0 14,845,063New England_cell_0_8_1
DensityNew England_header_cell_0_9_0 210/sq mi (80/km)New England_cell_0_9_1
Demonym(s)New England_header_cell_0_10_0 New Englander, YankeeNew England_cell_0_10_1
GDP (nominal)New England_header_cell_0_11_0
TotalNew England_header_cell_0_12_0 $1.148 trillion (2019)New England_cell_0_12_1
per capitaNew England_header_cell_0_13_0 $77,000 (2019)New England_cell_0_13_1
DialectsNew England_header_cell_0_14_0 New England English, New England FrenchNew England_cell_0_14_1

New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. New England_sentence_3

It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick to the northeast and Quebec to the north. New England_sentence_4

The Atlantic Ocean is to the east and southeast, and Long Island Sound is to the southwest. New England_sentence_5

Boston is New England's largest city, as well as the capital of Massachusetts. New England_sentence_6

Greater Boston is the largest metropolitan area, with nearly a third of New England's population; this area includes Worcester, Massachusetts (the second-largest city in New England), Manchester, New Hampshire (the largest city in New Hampshire), and Providence, Rhode Island (the capital of and largest city in Rhode Island). New England_sentence_7

In 1620, Puritan Separatist Pilgrims from England established Plymouth Colony, the second successful English settlement in America, following the Jamestown Settlement in Virginia founded in 1607. New England_sentence_8

Ten years later, more Puritans established Massachusetts Bay Colony north of Plymouth Colony. New England_sentence_9

Over the next 126 years, people in the region fought in four French and Indian Wars, until the English colonists and their Iroquois allies defeated the French and their Algonquian allies in America. New England_sentence_10

In 1692, the town of Salem, Massachusetts, and surrounding areas experienced the Salem witch trials, one of the most infamous cases of mass hysteria in history. New England_sentence_11

In the late 18th century, political leaders from the New England colonies initiated resistance to Britain's taxes without the consent of the colonists. New England_sentence_12

Residents of Rhode Island captured and burned a British ship which was enforcing unpopular trade restrictions, and residents of Boston threw British tea into the harbor. New England_sentence_13

Britain responded with a series of punitive laws stripping Massachusetts of self-government which the colonists called the "Intolerable Acts". New England_sentence_14

These confrontations led to the first battles of the American Revolutionary War in 1775 and the expulsion of the British authorities from the region in spring 1776. New England_sentence_15

The region played a prominent role in the movement to abolish slavery in the United States, and it was the first region of the U.S. transformed by the Industrial Revolution, centered on the Blackstone and Merrimack river valleys. New England_sentence_16

The physical geography of New England is diverse for such a small area. New England_sentence_17

Southeastern New England is covered by a narrow coastal plain, while the western and northern regions are dominated by the rolling hills and worn-down peaks of the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains. New England_sentence_18

The Atlantic fall line lies close to the coast, which enabled numerous cities to take advantage of water power along the many rivers, such as the Connecticut River, which bisects the region from north to south. New England_sentence_19

Each state is subdivided into small incorporated municipalities known as towns, many of which are governed by town meetings. New England_sentence_20

The only unincorporated areas exist in the sparsely populated northern regions of Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. New England_sentence_21

New England is one of the Census Bureau's nine regional divisions and the only multi-state region with clear, consistent boundaries. New England_sentence_22

It maintains a strong sense of cultural identity, although the terms of this identity are often contrasted, combining Puritanism with liberalism, agrarian life with industry, and isolation with immigration. New England_sentence_23

History New England_section_0

Main article: History of New England New England_sentence_24

The earliest known inhabitants of New England were American Indians who spoke a variety of the Eastern Algonquian languages. New England_sentence_25

Prominent tribes included the Abenakis, Mi'kmaq, Penobscot, Pequots, Mohegans, Narragansetts, Pocumtucks, and Wampanoag. New England_sentence_26

Prior to the arrival of European colonists, the Western Abenakis inhabited what is modern New Hampshire, New York and Vermont, as well as parts of Quebec and western Maine. New England_sentence_27

Their principal town was Norridgewock in present-day Maine. New England_sentence_28

The Penobscot lived along the Penobscot River in modern Maine. New England_sentence_29

The Narragansetts and smaller tribes under their sovereignty lived in what is known today as Rhode Island, west of Narragansett Bay, including Block Island. New England_sentence_30

The Wampanoag occupied the regions of modern southeastern Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. New England_sentence_31

The Pocumtucks lived in what is now Western Massachusetts, and the Mohegan and Pequot tribes lived in the current Connecticut region. New England_sentence_32

The Connecticut River Valley linked numerous tribes culturally, linguistically, and politically. New England_sentence_33

As early as 1600, French, Dutch, and English traders began exploring the New World, trading metal, glass, and cloth for local beaver pelts. New England_sentence_34

Colonial period New England_section_1

Main articles: New England Colonies, Plymouth Council for New England, Connecticut Colony, and Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations New England_sentence_35

On April 10, 1606, King James I of England issued a charter for the Virginia Company, which comprised the London Company and the Plymouth Company. New England_sentence_36

These two privately funded ventures were intended to claim land for England, to conduct trade, and to return a profit. New England_sentence_37

In 1620, the Pilgrims arrived on the Mayflower and established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, beginning the history of permanent European colonization in New England. New England_sentence_38

With the arrival of colonists, many Native Americans were kidnapped for enslavement. New England_sentence_39

English sailors— like George Waymouth in 1605 and Harlow in 1611—captured and enslaved Native peoples. New England_sentence_40

Up until 1700, Native American servitude comprised a majority of the nonwhite labor present in New England. New England_sentence_41

In 1616, English explorer John Smith named the region "New England". New England_sentence_42

The name was officially sanctioned on November 3, 1620, when the charter of the Virginia Company of Plymouth was replaced by a royal charter for the Plymouth Council for New England, a joint-stock company established to colonize and govern the region. New England_sentence_43

The Pilgrims wrote and signed the Mayflower Compact before leaving the ship, and it became their first governing document. New England_sentence_44

The Massachusetts Bay Colony came to dominate the area and was established by royal charter in 1629 with its major town and port of Boston established in 1630. New England_sentence_45

Massachusetts Puritans began to establish themselves in Connecticut as early as 1633. New England_sentence_46

Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for heresy, led a group south, and founded Providence Plantation in the area that became the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations in 1636. New England_sentence_47

At this time, Vermont was uncolonized, and the territories of New Hampshire and Maine were claimed and governed by Massachusetts. New England_sentence_48

As the region grew, it received many emigrants from Europe due to its religious toleration, economy, and longer life expectancy. New England_sentence_49

On October 19, 1652, the Massachusetts General Court decreed that "for the prevention of clipping of all such pieces of money as shall be coined with-in this jurisdiction, it is ordered by this Courte and the authorite thereof, that henceforth all pieces of money coined shall have a double ring on either side, with this inscription, Massachusetts, and a tree in the center on one side, and New England and the yeare of our Lord on the other side. New England_sentence_50

"These coins were the famous "tree" pieces. New England_sentence_51

There were Willow Tree Shillings, Oak Tree Shillings, and Pine Tree Shillings" minted by John Hull and Robert Sanderson in the "Hull Mint" on Summer Street in Boston, Massachusetts. New England_sentence_52

"The Pine Tree was the last to be coined, and today there are specimens in existence, which is probably why all of these early coins are referred to as Pine Tree shillings." New England_sentence_53

The "Hull Mint" was forced to close in 1683. New England_sentence_54

In 1684 the charter of Massachusetts was revoked by the king Charles II. New England_sentence_55

French and Indian Wars New England_section_2

Relationships between colonists and local Indian tribes alternated between peace and armed skirmishes, the bloodiest of which was the Pequot War in 1637 which resulted in the Mystic massacre. New England_sentence_56

On May 19, 1643, the colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, New Haven, and Connecticut joined together in a loose compact called the New England Confederation (officially "The United Colonies of New England"). New England_sentence_57

The confederation was designed largely to coordinate mutual defense, and it gained some importance during King Philip's War which pitted the colonists and their Indian allies against a widespread Indian uprising from June 1675 through April 1678, resulting in killings and massacres on both sides. New England_sentence_58

During the next 74 years, there were six colonial wars that took place primarily between New England and New France, during which New England was allied with the Iroquois Confederacy and New France was allied with the Wabanaki Confederacy. New England_sentence_59

Mainland Nova Scotia came under the control of New England after the Siege of Port Royal (1710), but both New Brunswick and most of Maine remained contested territory between New England and New France. New England_sentence_60

The British eventually defeated the French in 1763, opening the Connecticut River Valley for British settlement into western New Hampshire and Vermont. New England_sentence_61

The New England Colonies were settled primarily by farmers who became relatively self-sufficient. New England_sentence_62

Later, New England's economy began to focus on crafts and trade, aided by the Puritan work ethic, in contrast to the Southern colonies which focused on agricultural production while importing finished goods from England. New England_sentence_63

Dominion of New England New England_section_3

Main articles: Dominion of New England, American Revolutionary War, American Revolution, and Boston campaign New England_sentence_64

By 1686, King James II had become concerned about the increasingly independent ways of the colonies, including their self-governing charters, their open flouting of the Navigation Acts, and their growing military power. New England_sentence_65

He therefore established the Dominion of New England, an administrative union comprising all of the New England colonies. New England_sentence_66

In 1688, the former Dutch colonies of New York, East New Jersey and West New Jersey were added to the Dominion. New England_sentence_67

The union was imposed from the outside and contrary to the rooted democratic tradition of the region and it was highly unpopular among the colonists. New England_sentence_68

The Dominion significantly modified the charters of the colonies, including the appointment of Royal Governors to nearly all of them. New England_sentence_69

There was an uneasy tension between the Royal Governors, their officers, and the elected governing bodies of the colonies. New England_sentence_70

The governors wanted unlimited authority, and the different layers of locally elected officials would often resist them. New England_sentence_71

In most cases, the local town governments continued operating as self-governing bodies, just as they had before the appointment of the governors. New England_sentence_72

After the Glorious Revolution in 1689, Bostonians overthrew royal governor Sir Edmund Andros. New England_sentence_73

They seized dominion officials and adherents to the Church of England during a popular and bloodless uprising. New England_sentence_74

These tensions eventually culminated in the American Revolution, boiling over with the outbreak of the War of American Independence in 1775. New England_sentence_75

The first battles of the war were fought in Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts, later leading to the Siege of Boston by continental troops. New England_sentence_76

In March 1776, British forces were compelled to retreat from Boston. New England_sentence_77

New England in the new nation New England_section_4

After the dissolution of the Dominion of New England, the colonies of New England ceased to function as a unified political unit but remained a defined cultural region. New England_sentence_78

There were often disputes over territorial jurisdiction, leading to land exchanges such as those regarding the Equivalent Lands and New Hampshire Grants. New England_sentence_79

By 1784, all of the states in the region had taken steps towards the abolition of slavery, with Vermont and Massachusetts introducing total abolition in 1777 and 1783, respectively. New England_sentence_80

The nickname "Yankeeland" was sometimes used to denote the New England area, especially among Southerners and the British. New England_sentence_81

Vermont was admitted to statehood in 1791 after settling a dispute with New York. New England_sentence_82

The territory of Maine had been a part of Massachusetts, but it was granted statehood on March 15, 1820, as part of the Missouri Compromise. New England_sentence_83

Today, New England is defined as the six states of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut. New England_sentence_84

New England's economic growth relied heavily on trade with the British Empire, and the region's merchants and politicians strongly opposed trade restrictions. New England_sentence_85

As the United States and the United Kingdom fought the War of 1812, New England Federalists organized the Hartford Convention in the winter of 1814 to discuss the region's grievances concerning the war, and to propose changes to the Constitution to protect the region's interests and maintain its political power. New England_sentence_86

Radical delegates within the convention proposed the region's secession from the United States, but they were outnumbered by moderates who opposed the idea. New England_sentence_87

Politically, the region often disagreed with the rest of the country. New England_sentence_88

Massachusetts and Connecticut were among the last refuges of the Federalist Party, and New England became the strongest bastion of the new Whig Party when the Second Party System began in the 1830s. New England_sentence_89

The Whigs were usually dominant throughout New England, except in the more Democratic Maine and New Hampshire. New England_sentence_90

Leading statesmen hailed from the region, including Daniel Webster. New England_sentence_91

Many notable literary and intellectual figures were New Englanders, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, John Greenleaf Whittier, George Bancroft, and William H. Prescott. New England_sentence_92

Industrial Revolution New England_section_5

New England was key to the industrial revolution in the United States. New England_sentence_93

The Blackstone Valley running through Massachusetts and Rhode Island has been called the birthplace of America's industrial revolution. New England_sentence_94

In 1787, the first cotton mill in America was founded in the North Shore seaport of Beverly, Massachusetts, as the Beverly Cotton Manufactory. New England_sentence_95

The Manufactory was also considered the largest cotton mill of its time. New England_sentence_96

Technological developments and achievements from the Manufactory led to the development of more advanced cotton mills, including Slater Mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. New England_sentence_97

Towns such as Lawrence, Massachusetts, Lowell, Massachusetts, Woonsocket, Rhode Island, and Lewiston, Maine, became centers of the textile industry following the innovations at Slater Mill and the Beverly Cotton Manufactory. New England_sentence_98

The Connecticut River Valley became a crucible for industrial innovation, particularly the Springfield Armory, pioneering such advances as interchangeable parts and the assembly line which influenced manufacturing processes all around the world. New England_sentence_99

From early in the nineteenth century until the mid-twentieth, the region surrounding Springfield, Massachusetts and Hartford, Connecticut served as the United States' epicenter for advanced manufacturing, drawing skilled workers from all over the world. New England_sentence_100

The rapid growth of textile manufacturing in New England between 1815 and 1860 caused a shortage of workers. New England_sentence_101

Recruiters were hired by mill agents to bring young women and children from the countryside to work in the factories. New England_sentence_102

Between 1830 and 1860, thousands of farm girls moved from rural areas where there was no paid employment to work in the nearby mills, such as the famous Lowell Mill Girls. New England_sentence_103

As the textile industry grew, immigration also grew. New England_sentence_104

By the 1850s, immigrants began working in the mills, especially French Canadians and Irish. New England_sentence_105

New England as a whole was the most industrialized part of the U.S. By 1850, the region accounted for well over a quarter of all manufacturing value in the country and over a third of its industrial workforce. New England_sentence_106

It was also the most literate and most educated region in the country. New England_sentence_107

During the same period, New England and areas settled by New Englanders (upstate New York, Ohio's Western Reserve, and the upper midwestern states of Michigan and Wisconsin) were the center of the strongest abolitionist and anti-slavery movements in the United States, coinciding with the Protestant Great Awakening in the region. New England_sentence_108

Abolitionists who demanded immediate emancipation such as William Lloyd Garrison, John Greenleaf Whittier and Wendell Phillips had their base in the region. New England_sentence_109

So too did anti-slavery politicians who wanted to limit the growth of slavery, such as John Quincy Adams, Charles Sumner, and John P. Hale. New England_sentence_110

When the anti-slavery Republican Party was formed in the 1850s, all of New England, including areas that had previously been strongholds for both the Whig and the Democratic Parties, became strongly Republican. New England_sentence_111

New England remained solidly Republican until Catholics began to mobilize behind the Democrats, especially in 1928, and up until the Republican party realigned its politics in a shift known as the Southern strategy. New England_sentence_112

This led to the end of "Yankee Republicanism" and began New England's relatively swift transition into a consistently Democratic stronghold. New England_sentence_113

20th century and beyond New England_section_6

The flow of immigrants continued at a steady pace from the 1840s until cut off by World War I. New England_sentence_114

The largest numbers came from Ireland and Britain before 1890, and after that from Quebec, Italy, and Southern Europe. New England_sentence_115

The immigrants filled the ranks of factory workers, craftsmen, and unskilled laborers. New England_sentence_116

The Irish assumed a larger and larger role in the Democratic Party in the cities and statewide, while the rural areas remained Republican. New England_sentence_117

Yankees left the farms, which never were highly productive; many headed west, while others became professionals and businessmen in the New England cities. New England_sentence_118

The Great Depression in the United States of the 1930s hit the region hard, with high unemployment in the industrial cities. New England_sentence_119

The Boston Stock Exchange rivaled the New York Stock Exchange in 1930. New England_sentence_120

In the beginning of 1930, another John Hull helped Massachusetts out. New England_sentence_121

John C. Hull first Securities Director of Massachusetts (1930-36) in response to October 1929, the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression. New England_sentence_122

He was helpful in the passing of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 with his war on "unlisted securities". New England_sentence_123

Hull gave testimony to the US Senate (Sen. Duncan Upshaw Fletcher) for work on the Pecora Commission. New England_sentence_124

The Pecora Commission revealed that neither Albert H. Wiggin (born Medfield MA) nor J. New England_sentence_125 P. Morgan Jr. paid any income taxes in 1931 and 1932; a public outcry ensued. New England_sentence_126

The Democrats appealed to factory workers and especially Catholics, pulling them into the New Deal coalition and making the once-Republican region into one that was closely divided. New England_sentence_127

However, the enormous spending on munitions, ships, electronics, and uniforms during World War II caused a burst of prosperity in every sector. New England_sentence_128

The region lost most of its factories starting with the loss of textiles in the 1930s and getting worse after 1960. New England_sentence_129

The New England economy was radically transformed after World War II. New England_sentence_130

The factory economy practically disappeared. New England_sentence_131

Like urban centers in the Rust Belt, once-bustling New England communities fell into economic decay following the flight of the region's industrial base. New England_sentence_132

The textile mills one by one went out of business from the 1920s to the 1970s. New England_sentence_133

For example, the Crompton Company, after 178 years in business, went bankrupt in 1984, costing the jobs of 2,450 workers in five states. New England_sentence_134

The major reasons were cheap imports, the strong dollar, declining exports, and a failure to diversify. New England_sentence_135

The shoe industry subsequently left the region as well. New England_sentence_136

What remains is very high technology manufacturing, such as jet engines, nuclear submarines, pharmaceuticals, robotics, scientific instruments, and medical devices. New England_sentence_137

MIT (the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) invented the format for university-industry relations in high tech fields and spawned many software and hardware firms, some of which grew rapidly. New England_sentence_138

By the 21st century, the region had become famous for its leadership roles in the fields of education, medicine, medical research, high-technology, finance, and tourism. New England_sentence_139

Some industrial areas were slow in adjusting to the new service economy. New England_sentence_140

In 2000, New England had two of the ten poorest cities in the U.S. (by percentage living below the poverty line): the state capitals of Providence, Rhode Island and Hartford, Connecticut. New England_sentence_141

They were no longer in the bottom ten by 2010; Connecticut, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire remain among the ten wealthiest states in the United States in terms of median household income and per capita income. New England_sentence_142

Geography New England_section_7

Main articles: Geography of Connecticut, Geography of Maine, Geography of Massachusetts, Geography of New Hampshire, Geography of Rhode Island, and Geography of Vermont New England_sentence_143

The states of New England have a combined area of 71,991.8 square miles (186,458 km), making the region slightly larger than the state of Washington and slightly smaller than Great Britain. New England_sentence_144

Maine alone constitutes nearly one-half of the total area of New England, yet is only the 39th-largest state, slightly smaller than Indiana. New England_sentence_145

The remaining states are among the smallest in the U.S., including the smallest state—Rhode Island. New England_sentence_146

Geology New England_section_8

Main article: Geology of New England New England_sentence_147

New England's long rolling hills, mountains, and jagged coastline are glacial landforms resulting from the retreat of ice sheets approximately 18,000 years ago, during the last glacial period. New England_sentence_148

New England is geologically a part of the New England province, an exotic terrane region consisting of the Appalachian Mountains, the New England highlands and the seaboard lowlands. New England_sentence_149

The Appalachian Mountains roughly follow the border between New England and New York. New England_sentence_150

The Berkshires in Massachusetts and Connecticut, and the Green Mountains in Vermont, as well as the Taconic Mountains, form a spine of Precambrian rock. New England_sentence_151

The Appalachians extend northwards into New Hampshire as the White Mountains, and then into Maine and Canada. New England_sentence_152

Mount Washington in New Hampshire is the highest peak in the Northeast, although it is not among the ten highest peaks in the eastern United States. New England_sentence_153

It is the site of the second highest recorded wind speed on Earth, and has the reputation of having the world's most severe weather. New England_sentence_154

The coast of the region, extending from southwestern Connecticut to northeastern Maine, is dotted with lakes, hills, marshes and wetlands, and sandy beaches. New England_sentence_155

Important valleys in the region include the Champlain Valley, the Connecticut River Valley and the Merrimack Valley. New England_sentence_156

The longest river is the Connecticut River, which flows from northeastern New Hampshire for 407 mi (655 km), emptying into Long Island Sound, roughly bisecting the region. New England_sentence_157

Lake Champlain, which forms part of the border between Vermont and New York, is the largest lake in the region, followed by Moosehead Lake in Maine and Lake Winnipesaukee in New Hampshire. New England_sentence_158

Climate New England_section_9

Main article: Climate of New England New England_sentence_159

The climate of New England varies greatly across its 500 miles (800 km) span from northern Maine to southern Connecticut: New England_sentence_160

Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and western Massachusetts have a humid continental climate (Dfb in Köppen climate classification). New England_sentence_161

In this region the winters are long and cold, and heavy snow is common (most locations receive 60 to 120 inches (1,500 to 3,000 mm) of snow annually in this region). New England_sentence_162

The summer's months are moderately warm, though summer is rather short and rainfall is spread through the year. New England_sentence_163

In central and eastern Massachusetts, northern Rhode Island, and northern Connecticut, the same humid continental prevails (Dfa), though summers are warm to hot, winters are shorter, and there is less snowfall (especially in the coastal areas where it is often warmer). New England_sentence_164

Southern and coastal Connecticut is the broad transition zone from the cold continental climates of the north to the milder subtropical climates to the south. New England_sentence_165

The frost free season is greater than 180 days across far southern/coastal Connecticut, coastal Rhode Island, and the islands (Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard). New England_sentence_166

Winters also tend to be much sunnier in southern Connecticut and southern Rhode Island compared to the rest of New England. New England_sentence_167

Regions New England_section_10

Demographics New England_section_11

Main article: Demographics of New England New England_sentence_168

In 2010, New England had a population of 14,444,865, a growth of 3.8% from 2000. New England_sentence_169

This grew to an estimated 14,727,584 by 2015. New England_sentence_170

Massachusetts is the most populous state with 6,794,422 residents, while Vermont is the least populous state with 626,042 residents. New England_sentence_171

Boston is by far the region's most populous city and metropolitan area. New England_sentence_172

Although a great disparity exists between New England's northern and southern portions, the region's average population density is 234.93 inhabitants/sq mi (90.7/km). New England_sentence_173

New England has a significantly higher population density than that of the U.S. as a whole (79.56/sq mi), or even just the contiguous 48 states (94.48/sq mi). New England_sentence_174

Three-quarters of the population of New England, and most of the major cities, are in the states of Connecticut, Massachusetts and Rhode Island. New England_sentence_175

The combined population density of these states is 786.83/sq mi, compared to northern New England's 63.56/sq mi (2000 census). New England_sentence_176

According to the 2006–08 American Community Survey, 48.7% of New Englanders were male and 51.3% were female. New England_sentence_177

Approximately 22.4% of the population were under 18 years of age; 13.5% were over 65 years of age. New England_sentence_178

The six states of New England have the lowest birth rate in the U.S. New England_sentence_179

White Americans make up the majority of New England's population at 83.4% of the total population, Hispanic and Latino Americans are New England's largest minority, and they are the second-largest group in the region behind non-Hispanic European Americans. New England_sentence_180

As of 2014, Hispanics and Latinos of any race made up 10.2% of New England's population. New England_sentence_181

Connecticut had the highest proportion at 13.9%, while Vermont had the lowest at 1.3%. New England_sentence_182

There were nearly 1.5 million Hispanic and Latino individuals reported in New England in 2014. New England_sentence_183

Puerto Ricans were the most numerous of the Hispanic and Latino subgroups. New England_sentence_184

Over 660,000 Puerto Ricans lived in New England in 2014, forming 4.5% of the population. New England_sentence_185

The Dominican population is over 200,000, and the Mexican and Guatemalan populations are each over 100,000. New England_sentence_186

Americans of Cuban descent are scant in number; there were roughly 26,000 Cuban Americans in the region in 2014. New England_sentence_187

People of all other Hispanic and Latino ancestries, including Salvadoran, Colombian and Bolivian, formed 2.5% of New England's population and numbered over 361,000 combined. New England_sentence_188

According to the 2014 American Community Survey, the top ten largest reported European ancestries were the following: New England_sentence_189

New England_unordered_list_0

  • Irish: 19.2% (2.8 million)New England_item_0_0
  • Italian: 13.6% (2.0 million)New England_item_0_1
  • French and French Canadian: 13.1% (1.9 million)New England_item_0_2
  • English: 11.9% (1.7 million)New England_item_0_3
  • German: 7.4% (1.1 million)New England_item_0_4
  • Polish: 4.9% (roughly 715,000)New England_item_0_5
  • Portuguese: 3.2% (467,000)New England_item_0_6
  • Scottish: 2.5% (370,000)New England_item_0_7
  • Russian: 1.4% (206,000)New England_item_0_8
  • Greek: 1.0% (152,000)New England_item_0_9

English is, by far, the most common language spoken at home. New England_sentence_190

Approximately 81.3% of all residents (11.3 million people) over the age of five spoke only English at home. New England_sentence_191

Roughly 1,085,000 people (7.8% of the population) spoke Spanish at home, and roughly 970,000 people (7.0% of the population) spoke other Indo-European languages at home. New England_sentence_192

Over 403,000 people (2.9% of the population) spoke an Asian or Pacific Island language at home. New England_sentence_193

Slightly fewer (about 1%) spoke French at home, although this figure is above 20% in northern New England, which borders francophone Québec. New England_sentence_194

Roughly 99,000 people (0.7% of the population) spoke languages other than these at home. New England_sentence_195

As of 2014, approximately 87% of New England's inhabitants were born in the U.S., while over 12% were foreign-born. New England_sentence_196

35.8% of foreign-born residents were born in Latin America, 28.6% were born in Asia, 22.9% were born in Europe, and 8.5% were born in Africa. New England_sentence_197

Southern New England forms an integral part of the BosWash megalopolis, a conglomeration of urban centers that spans from Boston to Washington, D.C. New England_sentence_198

The region includes three of the four most densely populated states in the U.S.; only New Jersey has a higher population density than the states of Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. New England_sentence_199

Greater Boston, which includes parts of southern New Hampshire, has a total population of approximately 4.8 million, while over half the population of New England falls inside Boston's Combined Statistical Area of over 8.2 million. New England_sentence_200

Largest cities New England_section_12

Main article: List of cities by population in New England New England_sentence_201

The most populous cities as of the Census Bureau's 2014 estimates were (metropolitan areas in parentheses): New England_sentence_202

New England_ordered_list_1

  1. Massachusetts Boston, Massachusetts: 655,884 (4,739,385)New England_item_1_10
  2. Worcester, Massachusetts: 183,016 (931,802)New England_item_1_11
  3. Rhode_Island Providence, Rhode Island: 179,154 (1,609,533)New England_item_1_12
  4. Springfield, Massachusetts: 153,991 (630,672)New England_item_1_13
  5. Connecticut Bridgeport, Connecticut: 147,612 (945,816)New England_item_1_14
  6. New Haven, Connecticut: 130,282 (861,238)New England_item_1_15
  7. Stamford, Connecticut: 128,278 (part of Bridgeport's MSA)New England_item_1_16
  8. Hartford, Connecticut: 124,705 (1,213,225)New England_item_1_17
  9. New_Hampshire Manchester, New Hampshire: 110,448 (405,339)New England_item_1_18
  10. Lowell, Massachusetts: 109,945 (part of Greater Boston)New England_item_1_19

During the 20th century, urban expansion in regions surrounding New York City has become an important economic influence on neighboring Connecticut, parts of which belong to the New York metropolitan area. New England_sentence_203

The U.S. Census Bureau groups Fairfield, New Haven and Litchfield counties in western Connecticut together with New York City and other parts of New York and New Jersey as a combined statistical area. New England_sentence_204

New England_unordered_list_2

  • Major cities of New EnglandNew England_item_2_20
  • New England_item_2_21
  • New England_item_2_22
  • New England_item_2_23
  • New England_item_2_24
  • New England_item_2_25
  • New England_item_2_26
  • New England_item_2_27
  • New England_item_2_28
  • New England_item_2_29
  • New England_item_2_30

Cities and urban areas New England_section_13

Metropolitan areas New England_section_14

The following are metropolitan statistical areas as defined by the United States Census Bureau. New England_sentence_205

New England_unordered_list_3

State capitals New England_section_15

New England_unordered_list_4

Economy New England_section_16

Main article: Economy of New England New England_sentence_206

Several factors combine to make the New England economy unique. New England_sentence_207

The region is distant from the geographic center of the country, and it is a relatively small region but densely populated. New England_sentence_208

It historically has been an important center of industry and manufacturing and a supplier of natural resource products, such as granite, lobster, and codfish. New England_sentence_209

The service industry is important, including tourism, education, financial and insurance services, and architectural, building and construction services. New England_sentence_210

The U.S. New England_sentence_211 Department of Commerce has called the New England economy a microcosm for the entire U.S. economy. New England_sentence_212

The region underwent a long period of deindustrialization in the first half of the 20th century, as traditional manufacturing companies relocated to the Midwest, with textile and furniture manufacturing migrating to the South. New England_sentence_213

In the late-20th century, an increasing portion of the regional economy included high technology, military defense industry, finance and insurance services, and education and health services. New England_sentence_214

As of 2018, the GDP of New England was $1.1 trillion. New England_sentence_215

New England exports food products ranging from fish to lobster, cranberries, potatoes, and maple syrup. New England_sentence_216

About half of the region's exports consist of industrial and commercial machinery, such as computers and electronic and electrical equipment. New England_sentence_217

Granite is quarried at Barre, Vermont, guns made at Springfield, Massachusetts, and Saco, Maine, submarines at Groton, Connecticut, surface naval vessels at Bath, Maine, and hand tools at Turners Falls, Massachusetts. New England_sentence_218

Urban centers New England_section_17

In 2017, Boston was ranked as having the ninth-most competitive financial center in the world and the fourth-most competitive in the United States. New England_sentence_219

Boston-based Fidelity Investments helped popularize the mutual fund in the 1980s and has made Boston one of the top financial centers in the United States. New England_sentence_220

The city is home to the headquarters of Santander Bank and a center for venture capital firms. New England_sentence_221

State Street Corporation specializes in asset management and custody services and is based in the city. New England_sentence_222

Boston is also a printing and publishing center. New England_sentence_223

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt is headquartered there, along with Bedford-St. Martin's and Beacon Press. New England_sentence_224

The city is also home to the Hynes Convention Center in the Back Bay and the Seaport Hotel and Seaport World Trade Center and Boston Convention and Exhibition Center on the South Boston waterfront. New England_sentence_225

The General Electric Corporation announced its decision to move the company's global headquarters to the Boston Seaport District from Fairfield, Connecticut, in 2016, citing factors including Boston's preeminence in the realm of higher education. New England_sentence_226

The city also holds the headquarters to several major athletic and footwear companies, including Converse, New Balance and Reebok. New England_sentence_227

Rockport, Puma and Wolverine World Wide have headquarters or regional offices just outside the city. New England_sentence_228

Hartford is the historic international center of the insurance industry, with companies such as Aetna, Conning & Company, The Hartford, Harvard Pilgrim Health Care, The Phoenix Companies and Hartford Steam Boiler based in the city, and The Travelers Companies and Lincoln National Corporation have major operations in the city. New England_sentence_229

It is also home to the corporate headquarters of U.S. New England_sentence_230 Fire Arms Mfg. New England_sentence_231 Co., United Technologies, and Virtus Investment Partners. New England_sentence_232

Fairfield County, Connecticut, has a large concentration of investment management firms in the area, most notably Bridgewater Associates (one of the world's largest hedge fund companies), Aladdin Capital Management and Point72 Asset Management. New England_sentence_233

Moreover, many international banks have their North American headquarters in Fairfield County, such as NatWest Group and UBS. New England_sentence_234

Agriculture New England_section_18

Agriculture is limited by the area's rocky soil, cool climate, and small area. New England_sentence_235

Some New England states, however, are ranked highly among U.S. states for particular areas of production. New England_sentence_236

Maine is ranked ninth for aquaculture, and has abundant potato fields in its northeast part. New England_sentence_237

Vermont is fifteenth for dairy products, and Connecticut and Massachusetts seventh and eleventh for tobacco, respectively. New England_sentence_238

Cranberries are grown in Massachusetts' Cape Cod-Plymouth-South Shore area, and blueberries in Maine. New England_sentence_239

Energy New England_section_19

The region is mostly energy-efficient compared to the U.S. at large, with every state but Maine ranking within the ten most energy-efficient states; every state in New England also ranks within the ten most expensive states for electricity prices. New England_sentence_240

Wind power, mainly from offshore sources, is expected to gain market share in the 2020s. New England_sentence_241

Employment New England_section_20

New England_table_general_1

Unemployment rates in New EnglandNew England_table_caption_1
Employment areaNew England_header_cell_1_0_0 October 2010New England_header_cell_1_0_1 October 2011New England_header_cell_1_0_2 October 2012New England_header_cell_1_0_3 October 2013New England_header_cell_1_0_4 December 2014New England_header_cell_1_0_5 December 2015New England_header_cell_1_0_6 December 2016New England_header_cell_1_0_7 Net changeNew England_header_cell_1_0_8
United StatesNew England_cell_1_1_0 9.7New England_cell_1_1_1 9.0New England_cell_1_1_2 7.9New England_cell_1_1_3 7.2New England_cell_1_1_4 5.6New England_cell_1_1_5 5.0New England_cell_1_1_6 4.7New England_cell_1_1_7 −5.0New England_cell_1_1_8
New EnglandNew England_cell_1_2_0 8.3New England_cell_1_2_1 7.6New England_cell_1_2_2 7.4New England_cell_1_2_3 7.1New England_cell_1_2_4 5.4New England_cell_1_2_5 4.3New England_cell_1_2_6 3.5New England_cell_1_2_7 −4.7New England_cell_1_2_8
ConnecticutNew England_cell_1_3_0 9.1New England_cell_1_3_1 8.7New England_cell_1_3_2 9.0New England_cell_1_3_3 7.6New England_cell_1_3_4 6.4New England_cell_1_3_5 5.2New England_cell_1_3_6 4.4New England_cell_1_3_7 −4.7New England_cell_1_3_8
MaineNew England_cell_1_4_0 7.6New England_cell_1_4_1 7.3New England_cell_1_4_2 7.4New England_cell_1_4_3 6.5New England_cell_1_4_4 5.5New England_cell_1_4_5 4.0New England_cell_1_4_6 3.8New England_cell_1_4_7 −3.8New England_cell_1_4_8
MassachusettsNew England_cell_1_5_0 8.3New England_cell_1_5_1 7.3New England_cell_1_5_2 6.6New England_cell_1_5_3 7.2New England_cell_1_5_4 5.5New England_cell_1_5_5 4.7New England_cell_1_5_6 2.8New England_cell_1_5_7 −5.5New England_cell_1_5_8
New HampshireNew England_cell_1_6_0 5.7New England_cell_1_6_1 5.3New England_cell_1_6_2 5.7New England_cell_1_6_3 5.2New England_cell_1_6_4 4.0New England_cell_1_6_5 3.1New England_cell_1_6_6 2.6New England_cell_1_6_7 −3.1New England_cell_1_6_8
Rhode IslandNew England_cell_1_7_0 11.5New England_cell_1_7_1 10.4New England_cell_1_7_2 10.4New England_cell_1_7_3 9.4New England_cell_1_7_4 6.8New England_cell_1_7_5 5.1New England_cell_1_7_6 5.0New England_cell_1_7_7 −6.5New England_cell_1_7_8
VermontNew England_cell_1_8_0 5.9New England_cell_1_8_1 5.6New England_cell_1_8_2 5.5New England_cell_1_8_3 4.4New England_cell_1_8_4 4.2New England_cell_1_8_5 3.6New England_cell_1_8_6 3.1New England_cell_1_8_7 −2.8New England_cell_1_8_8

As of January 2017, employment is stronger in New England than in the rest of the United States. New England_sentence_242

During the Great Recession, unemployment rates ballooned across New England as elsewhere; however, in the years that followed, these rates declined steadily, with New Hampshire and Massachusetts having the lowest unemployment rates in the country, respectively. New England_sentence_243

The most extreme swing was in Rhode Island, which had an unemployment rate above 10% following the recession, but which saw this rate decline by over 6% in six years. New England_sentence_244

As of December 2016, the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) with the lowest unemployment rate, 2.1%, was Burlington-South Burlington, Vermont; the MSA with the highest rate, 4.9%, was Waterbury, Connecticut. New England_sentence_245

Overall tax burden New England_section_21

In 2018, four of the six New England states were among the top ten states in the country in terms of taxes paid per taxpayer. New England_sentence_246

The rankings included #3 Maine (11.02%), #4 Vermont (10.94%), #6 Connecticut (10.19%) and #7 Rhode Island (10.14%). New England_sentence_247

Additionally New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine and Rhode Island took four of the top five spots for "Highest Property Tax as a Percentage of Personal Income". New England_sentence_248

Government New England_section_22

Main articles: Government of Vermont, Government of New Hampshire, Government of Maine, Government of Massachusetts, Government of Connecticut, and Government of Rhode Island New England_sentence_249

Town meetings New England_section_23

Main articles: Town meeting and New England town New England_sentence_250

New England town meetings were derived from meetings held by church elders, and are still an integral part of government in many New England towns. New England_sentence_251

At such meetings, any citizen of the town may discuss issues with other members of the community and vote on them. New England_sentence_252

This is the strongest example of direct democracy in the U.S. today, and the strong democratic tradition was even apparent in the early 19th century, when Alexis de Tocqueville wrote in Democracy in America: New England_sentence_253

By contrast, James Madison wrote in Federalist No. New England_sentence_254 55 that, regardless of the assembly, "passion never fails to wrest the scepter from reason. New England_sentence_255

Had every Athenian citizen been a Socrates, every Athenian assembly would still have been a mob." New England_sentence_256

The use and effectiveness of town meetings is still discussed by scholars, as well as the possible application of the format to other regions and countries. New England_sentence_257

Politics New England_section_24

Main article: Politics of New England New England_sentence_258

Elections New England_section_25

Main article: Elections in New England New England_sentence_259

State and national elected officials in New England recently have been elected mainly from the Democratic Party. New England_sentence_260

The region is generally considered to be the most liberal in the United States, with more New Englanders identifying as liberals than Americans elsewhere. New England_sentence_261

In 2010, four of six of the New England states were polled as the most liberal in the United States. New England_sentence_262

The six states of New England voted for the Democratic presidential nominee in the 1992, 1996, 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2016 elections, and every New England state other than New Hampshire voted for Al Gore in the presidential election of 2000. New England_sentence_263

As of the 116th Congress, all members of the House of Representatives from New England are members of the Democratic Party, and all but one of its senators caucus with the Democrats. New England_sentence_264

Two of those senators, although caucusing with Democrats, are the only two independents currently serving in the Senate: Bernie Sanders, a self-described democratic socialist, representing Vermont and Angus King, an Independent representing Maine. New England_sentence_265

In the 2008 presidential election, Barack Obama carried all six New England states by 9 percentage points or more. New England_sentence_266

He carried every county in New England except for Piscataquis County, Maine, which he lost by 4% to Senator John McCain (R-AZ). New England_sentence_267

Pursuant to the reapportionment following the 2010 census, New England collectively has 33 electoral votes. New England_sentence_268

The following table presents the vote percentage for the popular-vote winner for each New England state, New England as a whole, and the United States as a whole, in each presidential election from 1900 to 2016, with the vote percentage for the Republican candidate shaded in red and the vote percentage for the Democratic candidate shaded in blue: New England_sentence_269

New England_table_general_2

YearNew England_header_cell_2_0_0 ConnecticutNew England_header_cell_2_0_1 MaineNew England_header_cell_2_0_2 MassachusettsNew England_header_cell_2_0_3 New HampshireNew England_header_cell_2_0_4 Rhode IslandNew England_header_cell_2_0_5 VermontNew England_header_cell_2_0_6 New EnglandNew England_header_cell_2_0_7 United StatesNew England_header_cell_2_0_8
2016New England_cell_2_1_0 54.6%New England_cell_2_1_1 47.8%New England_cell_2_1_2 60.0%New England_cell_2_1_3 46.8%New England_cell_2_1_4 54.4%New England_cell_2_1_5 56.7%New England_cell_2_1_6 55.3%New England_cell_2_1_7 48.2%New England_cell_2_1_8
2012New England_cell_2_2_0 58.1%New England_cell_2_2_1 56.3%New England_cell_2_2_2 60.7%New England_cell_2_2_3 52.0%New England_cell_2_2_4 62.7%New England_cell_2_2_5 66.6%New England_cell_2_2_6 59.1%New England_cell_2_2_7 51.1%New England_cell_2_2_8
2008New England_cell_2_3_0 60.6%New England_cell_2_3_1 57.7%New England_cell_2_3_2 61.8%New England_cell_2_3_3 54.1%New England_cell_2_3_4 62.9%New England_cell_2_3_5 67.5%New England_cell_2_3_6 60.6%New England_cell_2_3_7 52.9%New England_cell_2_3_8
2004New England_cell_2_4_0 54.3%New England_cell_2_4_1 53.6%New England_cell_2_4_2 61.9%New England_cell_2_4_3 50.2%New England_cell_2_4_4 59.4%New England_cell_2_4_5 58.9%New England_cell_2_4_6 57.7%New England_cell_2_4_7 50.7%New England_cell_2_4_8
2000New England_cell_2_5_0 55.9%New England_cell_2_5_1 49.1%New England_cell_2_5_2 59.8%New England_cell_2_5_3 48.1%New England_cell_2_5_4 61.0%New England_cell_2_5_5 50.6%New England_cell_2_5_6 56.1%New England_cell_2_5_7 48.4%New England_cell_2_5_8
1996New England_cell_2_6_0 52.8%New England_cell_2_6_1 51.6%New England_cell_2_6_2 61.5%New England_cell_2_6_3 49.3%New England_cell_2_6_4 59.7%New England_cell_2_6_5 53.4%New England_cell_2_6_6 56.8%New England_cell_2_6_7 49.2%New England_cell_2_6_8
1992New England_cell_2_7_0 42.2%New England_cell_2_7_1 38.8%New England_cell_2_7_2 47.5%New England_cell_2_7_3 38.9%New England_cell_2_7_4 47.0%New England_cell_2_7_5 46.1%New England_cell_2_7_6 44.4%New England_cell_2_7_7 43.0%New England_cell_2_7_8
1988New England_cell_2_8_0 52.0%New England_cell_2_8_1 55.3%New England_cell_2_8_2 53.2%New England_cell_2_8_3 62.5%New England_cell_2_8_4 55.6%New England_cell_2_8_5 51.1%New England_cell_2_8_6 49.5%New England_cell_2_8_7 53.4%New England_cell_2_8_8
1984New England_cell_2_9_0 60.7%New England_cell_2_9_1 60.8%New England_cell_2_9_2 51.2%New England_cell_2_9_3 68.7%New England_cell_2_9_4 51.7%New England_cell_2_9_5 57.9%New England_cell_2_9_6 56.2%New England_cell_2_9_7 58.8%New England_cell_2_9_8
1980New England_cell_2_10_0 48.2%New England_cell_2_10_1 45.6%New England_cell_2_10_2 41.9%New England_cell_2_10_3 57.7%New England_cell_2_10_4 47.7%New England_cell_2_10_5 44.4%New England_cell_2_10_6 44.7%New England_cell_2_10_7 50.8%New England_cell_2_10_8
1976New England_cell_2_11_0 52.1%New England_cell_2_11_1 48.9%New England_cell_2_11_2 56.1%New England_cell_2_11_3 54.7%New England_cell_2_11_4 55.4%New England_cell_2_11_5 54.3%New England_cell_2_11_6 51.7%New England_cell_2_11_7 50.1%New England_cell_2_11_8
1972New England_cell_2_12_0 58.6%New England_cell_2_12_1 61.5%New England_cell_2_12_2 54.2%New England_cell_2_12_3 64.0%New England_cell_2_12_4 53.0%New England_cell_2_12_5 62.7%New England_cell_2_12_6 52.5%New England_cell_2_12_7 60.7%New England_cell_2_12_8
1968New England_cell_2_13_0 49.5%New England_cell_2_13_1 55.3%New England_cell_2_13_2 63.0%New England_cell_2_13_3 52.1%New England_cell_2_13_4 64.0%New England_cell_2_13_5 52.8%New England_cell_2_13_6 56.1%New England_cell_2_13_7 43.4%New England_cell_2_13_8
1964New England_cell_2_14_0 67.8%New England_cell_2_14_1 68.8%New England_cell_2_14_2 76.2%New England_cell_2_14_3 63.9%New England_cell_2_14_4 80.9%New England_cell_2_14_5 66.3%New England_cell_2_14_6 72.8%New England_cell_2_14_7 61.1%New England_cell_2_14_8
1960New England_cell_2_15_0 53.7%New England_cell_2_15_1 57.0%New England_cell_2_15_2 60.2%New England_cell_2_15_3 53.4%New England_cell_2_15_4 63.6%New England_cell_2_15_5 58.6%New England_cell_2_15_6 56.0%New England_cell_2_15_7 49.7%New England_cell_2_15_8
1956New England_cell_2_16_0 63.7%New England_cell_2_16_1 70.9%New England_cell_2_16_2 59.3%New England_cell_2_16_3 66.1%New England_cell_2_16_4 58.3%New England_cell_2_16_5 72.2%New England_cell_2_16_6 62.0%New England_cell_2_16_7 57.4%New England_cell_2_16_8
1952New England_cell_2_17_0 55.7%New England_cell_2_17_1 66.0%New England_cell_2_17_2 54.2%New England_cell_2_17_3 60.9%New England_cell_2_17_4 50.9%New England_cell_2_17_5 71.5%New England_cell_2_17_6 56.1%New England_cell_2_17_7 55.2%New England_cell_2_17_8
1948New England_cell_2_18_0 49.5%New England_cell_2_18_1 56.7%New England_cell_2_18_2 54.7%New England_cell_2_18_3 52.4%New England_cell_2_18_4 57.6%New England_cell_2_18_5 61.5%New England_cell_2_18_6 51.5%New England_cell_2_18_7 49.6%New England_cell_2_18_8
1944New England_cell_2_19_0 52.3%New England_cell_2_19_1 52.4%New England_cell_2_19_2 52.8%New England_cell_2_19_3 52.1%New England_cell_2_19_4 58.6%New England_cell_2_19_5 57.1%New England_cell_2_19_6 52.4%New England_cell_2_19_7 53.4%New England_cell_2_19_8
1940New England_cell_2_20_0 53.4%New England_cell_2_20_1 51.1%New England_cell_2_20_2 53.1%New England_cell_2_20_3 53.2%New England_cell_2_20_4 56.7%New England_cell_2_20_5 54.8%New England_cell_2_20_6 52.8%New England_cell_2_20_7 54.7%New England_cell_2_20_8
1936New England_cell_2_21_0 55.3%New England_cell_2_21_1 55.5%New England_cell_2_21_2 51.2%New England_cell_2_21_3 49.7%New England_cell_2_21_4 53.1%New England_cell_2_21_5 56.4%New England_cell_2_21_6 50.9%New England_cell_2_21_7 60.8%New England_cell_2_21_8
1932New England_cell_2_22_0 48.5%New England_cell_2_22_1 55.8%New England_cell_2_22_2 50.6%New England_cell_2_22_3 50.4%New England_cell_2_22_4 55.1%New England_cell_2_22_5 57.7%New England_cell_2_22_6 49.1%New England_cell_2_22_7 57.4%New England_cell_2_22_8
1928New England_cell_2_23_0 53.6%New England_cell_2_23_1 68.6%New England_cell_2_23_2 50.2%New England_cell_2_23_3 58.7%New England_cell_2_23_4 50.2%New England_cell_2_23_5 66.9%New England_cell_2_23_6 53.2%New England_cell_2_23_7 58.2%New England_cell_2_23_8
1924New England_cell_2_24_0 61.5%New England_cell_2_24_1 72.0%New England_cell_2_24_2 62.3%New England_cell_2_24_3 59.8%New England_cell_2_24_4 59.6%New England_cell_2_24_5 78.2%New England_cell_2_24_6 63.3%New England_cell_2_24_7 54.0%New England_cell_2_24_8
1920New England_cell_2_25_0 62.7%New England_cell_2_25_1 68.9%New England_cell_2_25_2 68.5%New England_cell_2_25_3 59.8%New England_cell_2_25_4 64.0%New England_cell_2_25_5 75.8%New England_cell_2_25_6 66.7%New England_cell_2_25_7 60.3%New England_cell_2_25_8
1916New England_cell_2_26_0 49.8%New England_cell_2_26_1 51.0%New England_cell_2_26_2 50.5%New England_cell_2_26_3 49.1%New England_cell_2_26_4 51.1%New England_cell_2_26_5 62.4%New England_cell_2_26_6 51.1%New England_cell_2_26_7 49.2%New England_cell_2_26_8
1912New England_cell_2_27_0 39.2%New England_cell_2_27_1 39.4%New England_cell_2_27_2 35.5%New England_cell_2_27_3 39.5%New England_cell_2_27_4 39.0%New England_cell_2_27_5 37.1%New England_cell_2_27_6 36.6%New England_cell_2_27_7 41.8%New England_cell_2_27_8
1908New England_cell_2_28_0 59.4%New England_cell_2_28_1 63.0%New England_cell_2_28_2 58.2%New England_cell_2_28_3 59.3%New England_cell_2_28_4 60.8%New England_cell_2_28_5 75.1%New England_cell_2_28_6 60.2%New England_cell_2_28_7 51.6%New England_cell_2_28_8
1904New England_cell_2_29_0 58.1%New England_cell_2_29_1 67.4%New England_cell_2_29_2 57.9%New England_cell_2_29_3 60.1%New England_cell_2_29_4 60.6%New England_cell_2_29_5 78.0%New England_cell_2_29_6 60.4%New England_cell_2_29_7 56.4%New England_cell_2_29_8
1900New England_cell_2_30_0 56.9%New England_cell_2_30_1 61.9%New England_cell_2_30_2 57.6%New England_cell_2_30_3 59.3%New England_cell_2_30_4 59.7%New England_cell_2_30_5 75.7%New England_cell_2_30_6 59.4%New England_cell_2_30_7 51.6%New England_cell_2_30_8

Political party strength New England_section_26

Judging purely by party registration rather than voting patterns, New England today is one of the most Democratic regions in the U.S. New England_sentence_270

According to Gallup, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Vermont are "solidly Democratic", Maine "leans Democratic", and New Hampshire is a swing state. New England_sentence_271

Though New England is today considered a Democratic Party stronghold, much of the region was staunchly Republican before the mid-twentieth century. New England_sentence_272

This changed in the late 20th century, in large part due to demographic shifts and the Republican Party's adoption of socially conservative platforms as part of their strategic shift towards the South. New England_sentence_273

For example, Vermont voted Republican in every presidential election but one from 1856 through 1988 with the exception of 1964, and has voted Democratic every election since. New England_sentence_274

Maine and Vermont were the only two states in the nation to vote against Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt all four times he ran for president. New England_sentence_275

Republicans in New England are today considered by both liberals and conservatives to be more moderate (socially liberal) compared to Republicans in other parts of the U.S. New England_sentence_276

New England_description_list_5

  • #ref_independent† Elected as an independent, but caucuses with the Democratic Party.New England_item_5_52

New England_table_general_3

StateNew England_header_cell_3_0_0 GovernorNew England_header_cell_3_0_1 Senior U.S. SenatorNew England_header_cell_3_0_2 Junior U.S. SenatorNew England_header_cell_3_0_3 U.S. House DelegationNew England_header_cell_3_0_4 Upper House MajorityNew England_header_cell_3_0_5 Lower House MajorityNew England_header_cell_3_0_6
CTNew England_cell_3_1_0 N. LamontNew England_cell_3_1_1 R. BlumenthalNew England_cell_3_1_2 C. MurphyNew England_cell_3_1_3 Democratic 5–0New England_cell_3_1_4 Democratic 21–13New England_cell_3_1_5 Democratic 92–59New England_cell_3_1_6
MENew England_cell_3_2_0 J. MillsNew England_cell_3_2_1 S. CollinsNew England_cell_3_2_2 A. KingNew England_cell_3_2_3 Democratic 2-0New England_cell_3_2_4 Democratic 21–14New England_cell_3_2_5 Democratic 88–56–6New England_cell_3_2_6
MANew England_cell_3_3_0 C. BakerNew England_cell_3_3_1 E. WarrenNew England_cell_3_3_2 E. MarkeyNew England_cell_3_3_3 Democratic 9–0New England_cell_3_3_4 Democratic 34–6New England_cell_3_3_5 Democratic 127–32New England_cell_3_3_6
NHNew England_cell_3_4_0 C. SununuNew England_cell_3_4_1 J. ShaheenNew England_cell_3_4_2 M. HassanNew England_cell_3_4_3 Democratic 2-0New England_cell_3_4_4 Democratic 14–10New England_cell_3_4_5 Democratic 233-167New England_cell_3_4_6
RINew England_cell_3_5_0 G. RaimondoNew England_cell_3_5_1 J. ReedNew England_cell_3_5_2 S. WhitehouseNew England_cell_3_5_3 Democratic 2–0New England_cell_3_5_4 Democratic 33–5New England_cell_3_5_5 Democratic 66-9New England_cell_3_5_6
VTNew England_cell_3_6_0 P. ScottNew England_cell_3_6_1 P. LeahyNew England_cell_3_6_2 B. SandersNew England_cell_3_6_3 Democratic 1–0New England_cell_3_6_4 Democratic 21–7–2New England_cell_3_6_5 Democratic 83–53–7–7New England_cell_3_6_6

New Hampshire primary New England_section_27

Main article: New Hampshire primary New England_sentence_277

Historically, the New Hampshire primary has been the first in a series of nationwide political party primary elections held in the United States every four years. New England_sentence_278

Held in the state of New Hampshire, it usually marks the beginning of the U.S. New England_sentence_279 presidential election process. New England_sentence_280

Even though few delegates are chosen from New Hampshire, the primary has always been pivotal to both New England and American politics. New England_sentence_281

One college in particular, Saint Anselm College, has been home to numerous national presidential debates and visits by candidates to its campus. New England_sentence_282

Education New England_section_28

Colleges and universities New England_section_29

New England contains some of the oldest and most renowned institutions of higher learning in the United States and the world. New England_sentence_283

Harvard College was the first such institution, founded in 1636 at Cambridge, Massachusetts, to train preachers. New England_sentence_284

Yale University was founded in Saybrook, Connecticut, in 1701, and awarded the nation's first doctoral (PhD) degree in 1861. New England_sentence_285

Yale moved to New Haven, Connecticut, in 1718, where it has remained to the present day. New England_sentence_286

Brown University was the first college in the nation to accept students of all religious affiliations, and is the seventh oldest U.S. institution of higher learning. New England_sentence_287

It was founded in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1764. New England_sentence_288

Dartmouth College was founded five years later in Hanover, New Hampshire, with the mission of educating the local American Indian population as well as English youth. New England_sentence_289

The University of Vermont, the fifth oldest university in New England, was founded in 1791, the same year that Vermont joined the Union. New England_sentence_290

In addition to four out of eight Ivy League schools, New England contains the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the bulk of educational institutions that are identified as the "Little Ivies", four of the original Seven Sisters, one of the eight original Public Ivies, the Colleges of Worcester Consortium in central Massachusetts, and the Five Colleges consortium in western Massachusetts. New England_sentence_291

The University of Maine, the University of New Hampshire, the University of Connecticut, the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, the University of Rhode Island, and the University of Vermont are the flagship state universities in the region. New England_sentence_292

See also: List of colleges and universities in Connecticut, List of colleges and universities in Maine, List of colleges and universities in Massachusetts, List of colleges and universities in New Hampshire, List of colleges and universities in Rhode Island, and List of colleges and universities in Vermont New England_sentence_293

Private and independent secondary schools New England_section_30

At the pre-college level, New England is home to a number of American independent schools (also known as private schools). New England_sentence_294

The concept of the elite "New England prep school" (preparatory school) and the "preppy" lifestyle is an iconic part of the region's image. New England_sentence_295

New England_description_list_6

Public education New England_section_31

New England is home to some of the oldest public schools in the nation. New England_sentence_296

Boston Latin School is the oldest public school in America and was attended by several signatories of the Declaration of Independence. New England_sentence_297

Hartford Public High School is the second oldest operating high school in the U.S. New England_sentence_298

As of 2005, the National Education Association ranked Connecticut as having the highest-paid teachers in the country. New England_sentence_299

Massachusetts and Rhode Island ranked eighth and ninth, respectively. New England_sentence_300

New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont have cooperated in developing a New England Common Assessment Program test under the No Child Left Behind guidelines. New England_sentence_301

These states can compare the resultant scores with each other. New England_sentence_302

The Maine Learning Technology Initiative program supplies all students with Apple MacBook laptops. New England_sentence_303

Academic journals and press New England_section_32

There are several academic journals and publishing companies in the region, including The New England Journal of Medicine, Harvard University Press and Yale University Press. New England_sentence_304

Some of its institutions lead the open access alternative to conventional academic publication, including MIT, the University of Connecticut, and the University of Maine. New England_sentence_305

The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston publishes the New England Economic Review. New England_sentence_306

Culture New England_section_33

New England has a shared heritage and culture primarily shaped by waves of immigration from Europe. New England_sentence_307

In contrast to other American regions, many of New England's earliest Puritan settlers came from eastern England, contributing to New England's distinctive accents, foods, customs, and social structures. New England_sentence_308

Within modern New England a cultural divide exists between urban New Englanders living along the densely populated coastline, and rural New Englanders in western Massachusetts, northwestern and northeastern Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine, where population density is low. New England_sentence_309

Religion New England_section_34

Today, New England is the least religious region of the U.S. New England_sentence_310

In 2009, less than half of those polled in Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Vermont claimed that religion was an important part of their daily lives. New England_sentence_311

Connecticut and Rhode Island are among the ten least religious states, where 55% and 53% of those polled (respectively) claimed that it was important. New England_sentence_312

According to the American Religious Identification Survey, 34% of Vermonters claimed to have no religion; nearly one out of every four New Englanders identifies as having no religion, more than in any other part of the U.S. New England had one of the highest percentages of Catholics in the U.S. New England_sentence_313

This number declined from 50% in 1990 to 36% in 2008. New England_sentence_314

Cultural roots New England_section_35

Many of the first European colonists of New England had a maritime orientation toward whaling (first noted about 1650) and fishing, in addition to farming. New England_sentence_315

New England has developed a distinct cuisine, dialect, architecture, and government. New England_sentence_316

New England cuisine has a reputation for its emphasis on seafood and dairy; clam chowder, lobster, and other products of the sea are among some of the region's most popular foods. New England_sentence_317

New England has largely preserved its regional character, especially in its historic places. New England_sentence_318

The region has become more ethnically diverse, having seen waves of immigration from Ireland, Quebec, Italy, Portugal, Germany, Poland, Scandinavia, Asia, Latin America, Africa, other parts of the U.S., and elsewhere. New England_sentence_319

The enduring European influence can be seen in the region in the use of traffic rotaries, the bilingual French and English towns of northern Vermont, Maine, and New Hampshire, the region's heavy prevalence of English town- and county-names, and its unique, often non-rhotic coastal dialect reminiscent of southeastern England. New England_sentence_320

Within New England, many names of towns (and a few counties) repeat from state to state, primarily due to settlers throughout the region having named their new towns after their old ones. New England_sentence_321

For example, the town of North Yarmouth, Maine, was named by settlers from Yarmouth, Massachusetts, which was in turn named for Great Yarmouth in England. New England_sentence_322

As another example, every New England state has a town named Warren, and every state except Rhode Island has a city or town named Andover, Bridgewater, Chester, Franklin, Manchester, Plymouth, Washington, and Windsor; in addition, every state except Connecticut has a Lincoln and a Richmond, and Massachusetts, Vermont, and Maine each contains a Franklin County. New England_sentence_323

Cuisine New England_section_36

See also: Cuisine of New England New England_sentence_324

New England maintains a distinct cuisine and food culture. New England_sentence_325

Early foods in the region were influenced by Indian and English cuisines. New England_sentence_326

The early colonists often adapted their original cuisine to fit with the available foods of the region. New England_sentence_327

New England staples reflect the convergence of Indian and Pilgrim cuisine, such as johnnycakes, succotash, cornbread and various seafood recipes. New England_sentence_328

New England also has a distinct food language. New England_sentence_329

A few of the unique regional terms include "grinders" for submarine sandwiches and "frappes" for thick milkshakes, referred to as "Cabinets" in Rhode Island. New England_sentence_330

Other foods native to the region include steak tips (marinated sirloin steak), bulkie rolls, maple syrup, cranberry recipes and clam chowder. New England_sentence_331

A version of India pale ale has recently become popular known as the "New England India Pale Ale" (NEIPA), developed in Vermont in the 2010s. New England_sentence_332

Other regional beverages include Moxie, one of the first mass-produced soft drinks in the United States, introduced in Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1876; it remains popular in New England, particularly in Maine today. New England_sentence_333

Coffee milk is associated with Rhode Island as the official state drink. New England_sentence_334

Portuguese cuisine is an important element in the annual Feast of the Blessed Sacrament in New Bedford, Massachusetts, the largest ethnic heritage festival in New England. New England_sentence_335

Accents and dialects New England_section_37

Main article: New England English New England_sentence_336

There are several American English dialects spoken in the region, most famously the Boston accent, which is native to the northeastern coastal regions of New England. New England_sentence_337

The most identifiable features of the Boston accent are believed to have originated from England's Received Pronunciation, which shares features such as the broad A and dropping the final R. New England_sentence_338

Another source was 17th century speech in East Anglia and Lincolnshire, where many of the Puritan immigrants had originated. New England_sentence_339

The East Anglian "whine" developed into the Yankee "twang". New England_sentence_340

Boston accents were most strongly associated at one point with the so-called "Eastern Establishment" and Boston's upper class, although today the accent is predominantly associated with blue-collar natives, as exemplified by movies such as Good Will Hunting and The Departed. New England_sentence_341

The Boston accent and those accents closely related to it cover eastern Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Maine. New England_sentence_342

Some Rhode Islanders speak with a non-rhotic accent that many compare to a "Brooklyn" accent or a cross between a New York and Boston accent, where "water" becomes "wata". New England_sentence_343

Many Rhode Islanders distinguish the aw sound ɔː, as one might hear in New Jersey; e.g., the word "coffee" is pronounced /ˈkɔːfi/ KAW-fee. New England_sentence_344

This type of accent was brought to the region by early settlers from eastern England in the Puritan migration in the mid-seventeenth century. New England_sentence_345

Social activities and music New England_section_38

Acadian and Québécois culture are included in music and dance in much of rural New England, particularly Maine. New England_sentence_346

Contra dancing and country square dancing are popular throughout New England, usually backed by live Irish, Acadian or other folk music. New England_sentence_347

Fife and drum corps are common, especially in southern New England and more specifically Connecticut, with music of mostly Celtic, English, and local origin. New England_sentence_348

New England leads the U.S. in ice cream consumption per capita. New England_sentence_349

Candlepin bowling is essentially confined to New England, where it was invented in the 19th century. New England_sentence_350

New England was an important center of American classical music for some time. New England_sentence_351

The First New England School of composers was active between 1770 and 1820, and the Second New England School about a century later. New England_sentence_352

Prominent modernist composers also come from the region, including Charles Ives and John Adams. New England_sentence_353

Boston is the site of the New England Conservatory, Boston Conservatory at Berklee, and the Boston Symphony Orchestra. New England_sentence_354

In popular music, the region has produced Donna Summer, JoJo, New Edition, Bobby Brown, Passion Pit, Meghan Trainor, New Kids on the Block, Rachel Platten and John Mayer. New England_sentence_355

In rock music, the region has produced Rob Zombie, Aerosmith, The Modern Lovers, Phish, the Pixies, Grace Potter, GG Allin, the Dropkick Murphys and Boston. New England_sentence_356

Quincy, Massachusetts native Dick Dale helped popularize surf rock. New England_sentence_357

Media New England_section_39

The leading U.S. cable TV sports broadcaster ESPN is headquartered in Bristol, Connecticut. New England_sentence_358

New England has several regional cable networks, including New England Cable News (NECN) and the New England Sports Network (NESN). New England_sentence_359

New England Cable News is the largest regional 24-hour cable news network in the U.S., broadcasting to more than 3.2 million homes in all of the New England states. New England_sentence_360

Its studios are located in Newton, Massachusetts, outside of Boston, and it maintains bureaus in Manchester, New Hampshire; Hartford, Connecticut; Worcester, Massachusetts; Portland, Maine; and Burlington, Vermont. New England_sentence_361

In Connecticut, Litchfield, Fairfield, and New Haven counties it also broadcasts New York based news programs—this is due in part to the immense influence New York has on this region's economy and culture, and also to give Connecticut broadcasters the ability to compete with overlapping media coverage from New York-area broadcasters. New England_sentence_362

NESN broadcasts the Boston Red Sox baseball and Boston Bruins hockey throughout the region, save for Fairfield County, Connecticut. New England_sentence_363

Connecticut also receives the YES Network, which broadcasts the games of the New York Yankees and Brooklyn Nets as well as SportsNet New York (SNY), which broadcasts New York Mets games. New England_sentence_364

Comcast SportsNet New England broadcasts the games of the Boston Celtics, New England Revolution and Boston Cannons to all of New England except Fairfield County. New England_sentence_365

While most New England cities have daily newspapers, The Boston Globe and The New York Times are distributed widely throughout the region. New England_sentence_366

Major newspapers also include The Providence Journal, Portland Press Herald, and Hartford Courant, the oldest continuously published newspaper in the U.S. New England_sentence_367

Comedy New England_section_40

New Englanders are well represented in American comedy. New England_sentence_368

Writers for The Simpsons and late-night television programs often come by way of the Harvard Lampoon. New England_sentence_369

A number of Saturday Night Live (SNL) cast members have roots in New England, from Adam Sandler to Amy Poehler, who also starred in the NBC television series Parks and Recreation. New England_sentence_370

Former Daily Show correspondents John Hodgman, Rob Corddry and Steve Carell are from Massachusetts. New England_sentence_371

Carell was also involved in film and the American adaptation of The Office, which features Dunder-Mifflin branches set in Stamford, Connecticut and Nashua, New Hampshire. New England_sentence_372

Late-night television hosts Jay Leno and Conan O'Brien have roots in the Boston area. New England_sentence_373

Notable stand-up comedians are also from the region, including Bill Burr, Steve Sweeney, Steven Wright, Sarah Silverman, Lisa Lampanelli, Denis Leary, Lenny Clarke, Patrice O'Neal and Louis CK. New England_sentence_374

SNL cast member Seth Meyers once attributed the region's imprint on American humor to its "sort of wry New England sense of pointing out anyone who's trying to make a big deal of himself", with the Boston Globe suggesting that irony and sarcasm are its trademarks, as well as Irish influences. New England_sentence_375

Literature New England_section_41

Main article: Literature of New England New England_sentence_376

New Englanders have made significant contributions to literature. New England_sentence_377

The first printing press in America was set up in Cambridge, Massachusetts, by Stephen Daye in the 17th century. New England_sentence_378

Writers in New England produced many works on religious subjects, particularly on Puritan theology and poetry during colonial times and on Enlightenment ideas during the American Revolution. New England_sentence_379

The literature of New England has had an enduring influence on American literature in general, with themes that are emblematic of the larger concerns of American letters, such as religion, race, the individual versus society, social repression and nature. New England_sentence_380

19th century New England was a center for progressive ideals, and many abolitionist and transcendentalist tracts were produced. New England_sentence_381

Leading transcendentalists were from New England, such as Henry David Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Frederic Henry Hedge. New England_sentence_382

Hartford, Connecticut resident Harriet Beecher Stowe's novel Uncle Tom's Cabin was an influential book in the spread of abolitionist ideas and is said to have "laid the groundwork for the Civil War". New England_sentence_383

Other prominent New England novelists include John Irving, Edgar Allan Poe, Louisa May Alcott, Sarah Orne Jewett, H. New England_sentence_384 P. Lovecraft, Annie Proulx, Stephen King, Jack Kerouac, George V. Higgins, and Nathaniel Hawthorne. New England_sentence_385

Boston was the center of the American publishing industry for some years, largely on the strength of its local writers and before it was overtaken by New York in the middle of the nineteenth century. New England_sentence_386

Boston remains the home of publishers Houghton Mifflin and Pearson Education, and it was the longtime home of literary magazine The Atlantic Monthly. New England_sentence_387

Merriam-Webster is based in Springfield, Massachusetts. New England_sentence_388

Yankee is a magazine for New Englanders based in Dublin, New Hampshire. New England_sentence_389

Many New Englander poets have also been preeminent in American poetry. New England_sentence_390

Prominent poets include Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, David Lindsay-Abaire, Annie Proulx, Edwin Arlington Robinson, Amy Lowell, John Cheever, Emily Dickinson, Elizabeth Bishop, Stanley Kunitz, E. New England_sentence_391 E. Cummings, Edna St. Vincent Millay, Robert P. T. Coffin and Richard Wilbur. New England_sentence_392

Robert Frost who was descibred as an "artistic institution" frequently wrote about rural New England life. New England_sentence_393

The Confessional poetry movement features prominent New England writers including Robert Lowell, Anne Sexton and Sylvia Plath. New England_sentence_394

Film, television, and acting New England_section_42

New England has a rich history in filmmaking dating back to the dawn of the motion picture era at the turn of the 20th century, sometimes dubbed Hollywood East by film critics. New England_sentence_395

A theater at 547 Washington Street in Boston was the second location to debut a picture projected by the Vitascope, and shortly thereafter several novels were being adapted for the screen and set in New England, including The Scarlet Letter and The House of Seven Gables. New England_sentence_396

The New England region continued to churn out films at a pace above the national average for the duration of the 20th century, including blockbuster hits such as Jaws, Good Will Hunting and The Departed, all of which won Academy Awards. New England_sentence_397

The New England area became known for a number of themes that recurred in films made during this era, including the development of yankee characters, smalltown life contrasted with city values, seafaring tales, family secrets and haunted New England. New England_sentence_398

These themes are rooted in centuries of New England culture and are complemented by the region's diverse natural landscape and architecture, from the Atlantic Ocean and brilliant fall foliage to church steeples and skyscrapers. New England_sentence_399

Since the turn of the millennium, Boston and the greater New England region have been home to the production of numerous films and television series, thanks in part to tax incentive programs put in place by local governments to attract filmmakers to the region. New England_sentence_400

Notable actors and actresses that have come from the New England area include Ben Affleck, Matt Damon, Amy Poehler, Elizabeth Banks, Steve Carell, Ruth Gordon, John Krasinski, Edward Norton, Mark Wahlberg and Matthew Perry. New England_sentence_401

A full list of those from Massachusetts can be found here, and a listing of notable films and television series produced in the area here. New England_sentence_402

Museums, historical societies, and libraries New England_section_43

There are many museums located throughout New England, especially in the Greater Boston area. New England_sentence_403

These museums include privately held collections as well as public institutions. New England_sentence_404

Most notable of these museums are the Museum of Fine Arts, the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston, the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Worcester Art Museum, and the Peabody Essex Museum. New England_sentence_405

The oldest public museum in continuous operation in the United States is the Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth, Massachusetts, which opened in 1824. New England_sentence_406

The Boston Public Library is the largest public library in the region with over 8 million materials in its collection. New England_sentence_407

The largest academic research library in the world is the Harvard Library in Cambridge, Massachusetts. New England_sentence_408

The W. New England_sentence_409 E. B. New England_sentence_410 Du Bois Library of the University of Massachusetts Amherst is the tallest academic library in the world. New England_sentence_411

There are also many historical societies in the region. New England_sentence_412

Historic New England operates museums and historic sites in the name of historical preservation. New England_sentence_413

Many properties belonging to HNE include preserved house museums of prominent figures in New England and American history. New England_sentence_414

Other societies include the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Essex Institute, the American Antiquarian Society, and The Bostonian Society. New England_sentence_415

The Massachusetts Historical Society, founded in 1791, is the oldest operating in the United States. New England_sentence_416

Many cities and towns across New England operate their own historical societies focused on historical preservation of local sites and the recording of local history. New England_sentence_417

Sports New England_section_44

Main article: Sports in New England New England_sentence_418

New England has a strong heritage of athletics, and many internationally popular sports were invented and codified in the region, including basketball, volleyball, and American football. New England_sentence_419

Football is the most popular sport in the region and was developed by Walter Camp in New Haven, Connecticut, in the 1870s and 1880s. New England_sentence_420

The New England Patriots are based in Foxborough, Massachusetts, and are the most popular professional sports team in New England. New England_sentence_421

The Patriots have won six Super Bowl championships and are one of the most winning teams in the National Football League. New England_sentence_422

There are also high-profile collegiate and high school football rivalries in New England. New England_sentence_423

These games are most often played on Thanksgiving Day and are some of the oldest sports rivalries in the United States. New England_sentence_424

The high school rivalry between Wellesley High School and Needham High School in Massachusetts is considered to be the nation's oldest football rivalry, having started in 1882. New England_sentence_425

Before the advent of modern rules of baseball, a different form was played called the Massachusetts Game. New England_sentence_426

This version of baseball was an early rival of the Knickerbocker Rules of New York and was played throughout New England. New England_sentence_427

In 1869, there were 59 teams throughout the region which played according to the Massachusetts rules. New England_sentence_428

The New York rules gradually became more popular throughout the United States, and professional and semi-professional clubs began to appear. New England_sentence_429

Early teams included the Providence Grays, the Worcester Worcesters and the Hartford Dark Blues; these did not last long, but other teams grew to renown, such as the Boston Braves and the Boston Red Sox. New England_sentence_430

Fenway Park was built in 1912 and is the oldest ballpark still in use in Major League Baseball. New England_sentence_431

Other professional baseball teams in the region include the Hartford Yard Goats, Lowell Spinners, New Hampshire Fisher Cats, Vermont Lake Monsters, Portland Sea Dogs, Bridgeport Bluefish, New Britain Bees and the Pawtucket Red Sox. New England_sentence_432

Basketball was developed in Springfield, Massachusetts, by James Naismith in 1891. New England_sentence_433

Naismith was attempting to create a game which could be played indoors so that athletes could keep fit during New England winters. New England_sentence_434

The Boston Celtics were founded in 1946 and are one of the most successful NBA teams, winning 17 titles. New England_sentence_435

The NBA G League team the Maine Red Claws is based in Portland, Maine. New England_sentence_436

The Women's National Basketball Association's Connecticut Sun is based in Uncasville, Connecticut. New England_sentence_437

The UConn Huskies women's basketball team is the most successful women's collegiate team in the nation, winning 11 NCAA Division I titles. New England_sentence_438

The Basketball Hall of Fame is located in Springfield, Massachusetts. New England_sentence_439

Winter sports are extremely popular and have a long history in the region, including alpine skiing, snowboarding, and Nordic skiing. New England_sentence_440

Ice hockey is also a popular sport. New England_sentence_441

The Boston Bruins were founded in 1924 as an Original Six team, and they have a historic rivalry with the Montreal Canadiens. New England_sentence_442

The Bruins play in the TD Garden, a venue that they share with the Boston Celtics. New England_sentence_443

College hockey is also a popular spectator sport, with Boston's annual Beanpot tournament between Northeastern University, Boston University, Harvard University and Boston College. New England_sentence_444

Other hockey teams include the Maine Mariners, Providence Bruins, Springfield Thunderbirds, Worcester Railers, Bridgeport Sound Tigers and the Hartford Wolf Pack. New England_sentence_445

The Connecticut Whale hockey team and the Boston Pride are two of the four teams of the National Women's Hockey League. New England_sentence_446

The region's largest ice hockey and skating facility is the New England Sports Center in Marlborough, Massachusetts, home to the Skating Club of Boston, one of the oldest ice skating clubs in the United States. New England_sentence_447

Volleyball was invented in Holyoke, Massachusetts, in 1895 by William G. Morgan. New England_sentence_448

Morgan was an instructor at a YMCA and wanted to create an indoor game for his athletes. New England_sentence_449

The game was based on badminton and was spread as a sport through YMCA facilities. New England_sentence_450

The international Volleyball Hall of Fame is located in Holyoke. New England_sentence_451

Rowing, sailing, and yacht racing are also popular events in New England. New England_sentence_452

The Head of the Charles race is held on the Charles River in October every year and attracts over 10,000 athletes and over 200,000 spectators each year. New England_sentence_453

Sailing regattas include the Newport Bermuda Race, the Marblehead to Halifax Ocean Race, and the Single-Handed Trans-Atlantic Race. New England_sentence_454

The New York Times considers the Newport and Marblehead races to be among the most prestigious in the world. New England_sentence_455

The Boston Marathon is run on Patriots' Day every year and was first run in 1897. New England_sentence_456

It is a World Marathon Major and is operated by the Boston Athletic Association. New England_sentence_457

The race route goes from Hopkinton, Massachusetts through Greater Boston, finishing at Copley Square in Boston. New England_sentence_458

The race offers far less prize money than many other marathons, but its difficulty and long history make it one of the world's most prestigious marathons. New England_sentence_459

It is New England's largest sporting event with nearly 500,000 spectators each year. New England_sentence_460

New England is represented in professional soccer by the New England Revolution, an inaugural team of the Major League Soccer founded in 1994 and playing in Gillette Stadium which it shares with the New England Patriots. New England_sentence_461

The Revolution have won a U.S. New England_sentence_462 Open Cup and a SuperLiga Championship, and they have appeared in five MLS finals. New England_sentence_463

New England_unordered_list_7

  • New England_item_7_54
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Transportation New England_section_45

Main article: Transportation in New England New England_sentence_464

Each of the New England states has its own Department of Transportation which plans and develops systems for transport, though some transportation authorities operate across state and municipal lines. New England_sentence_465

The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) oversees public transportation in the Greater Boston area. New England_sentence_466

It is the largest such agency and operates throughout eastern Massachusetts and into Rhode Island. New England_sentence_467

The MBTA oversees the oldest subway system (the Tremont Street subway) and the second most-used light rail line (the Green Line) in the United States, as well as one of five remaining trolleybus systems nationwide. New England_sentence_468

Coastal Connecticut makes use of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority of New York due to the connection of that region to New York's economy. New England_sentence_469

The MTA operates the Metro-North Railroad in coordination with the Connecticut Department of Transportation. New England_sentence_470

CTrail is a division of the Connecticut Department of Transportation which operates the Shore Line East along its southern coast, terminating in Old Saybrook and New London. New England_sentence_471

It also operates the Hartford Line, leading south to New Haven and north to Springfield. New England_sentence_472

Commuter rail service is provided north of Springfield to Greenfield, Massachusetts, as part of the Valley Flyer Amtrak route. New England_sentence_473

Amtrak provides interstate rail service throughout New England. New England_sentence_474

Boston is the northern terminus of the Northeast Corridor. New England_sentence_475

The Vermonter connects Vermont to Massachusetts and Connecticut, while the Downeaster links Maine to Boston. New England_sentence_476

The long-distance Lake Shore Limited train has two eastern termini after splitting in Albany, one of which is Boston. New England_sentence_477

This provides rail service on the former Boston and Albany Railroad which runs between its namesake cities. New England_sentence_478

The rest of the Lake Shore Limited continues to New York City. New England_sentence_479

Bus transportation is available in most urban areas and is governed by regional and local authorities. New England_sentence_480

The Pioneer Valley Transit Authority and the MetroWest Regional Transit Authority are examples of public bus transportation which support more suburban and rural communities. New England_sentence_481

South Station in Boston is a major center for bus, rail, and light rail lines. New England_sentence_482

Major interstate highways traversing the region include I-95, I-93, I-91, I-89, I-84, and I-90 (the Massachusetts Turnpike). New England_sentence_483

Logan Airport is the busiest transportation hub in the region in terms of number of passengers and total cargo, opened in 1923 and located in East Boston and Winthrop, Massachusetts. New England_sentence_484

It is a hub for Cape Air and Delta Air Lines, and a focus city for JetBlue. New England_sentence_485

It is the 16th busiest airport in the United States. New England_sentence_486

Other airports in the region include Burlington International Airport, Bradley International Airport, T. New England_sentence_487 F. Green Airport, Manchester–Boston Regional Airport, and Portland International Jetport. New England_sentence_488

See also New England_section_46

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: England.