New Guinea

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

For other uses, see Guinea (disambiguation) and Papua. New Guinea_sentence_0

"Irian" redirects here. New Guinea_sentence_1

For the horse, see Irian (racehorse). New Guinea_sentence_2

For the Nicaraguan municipality, see Nueva Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_3

New Guinea_table_infobox_0

New GuineaNew Guinea_table_caption_0
Native name: Papua, Niugini, Niu GiniNew Guinea_header_cell_0_0_0
GeographyNew Guinea_header_cell_0_1_0
LocationNew Guinea_header_cell_0_2_0 Oceania (Melanesia)New Guinea_cell_0_2_1
CoordinatesNew Guinea_header_cell_0_3_0 New Guinea_cell_0_3_1
ArchipelagoNew Guinea_header_cell_0_4_0 Malay ArchipelagoNew Guinea_cell_0_4_1
AreaNew Guinea_header_cell_0_5_0 785,753 km (303,381 sq mi)New Guinea_cell_0_5_1
Area rankNew Guinea_header_cell_0_6_0 2ndNew Guinea_cell_0_6_1
Highest elevationNew Guinea_header_cell_0_7_0 4,884 m (16024 ft)New Guinea_cell_0_7_1
Highest pointNew Guinea_header_cell_0_8_0 Puncak JayaNew Guinea_cell_0_8_1
AdministrationNew Guinea_header_cell_0_9_0
ProvincesNew Guinea_header_cell_0_10_0 Papua

West PapuaNew Guinea_cell_0_10_1

Largest settlementNew Guinea_header_cell_0_11_0 JayapuraNew Guinea_cell_0_11_1
ProvincesNew Guinea_header_cell_0_12_0 New Guinea_cell_0_12_1
Largest settlementNew Guinea_header_cell_0_13_0 Port MoresbyNew Guinea_cell_0_13_1
DemographicsNew Guinea_header_cell_0_14_0
PopulationNew Guinea_header_cell_0_15_0 ~ 11,306,940 (2014)New Guinea_cell_0_15_1
Pop. densityNew Guinea_header_cell_0_16_0 14/km (36/sq mi)New Guinea_cell_0_16_1
Ethnic groupsNew Guinea_header_cell_0_17_0 Papuan and other MelanesiansNew Guinea_cell_0_17_1

New Guinea (Tok Pisin: Niugini; Hiri Motu: Niu Gini; Indonesian: Papua, historically Irian) is the world's second-largest island and, with an area of 785,753 km (303,381 sq mi), the largest island wholly or partly within the Southern Hemisphere and Oceania. New Guinea_sentence_4

Located in Melanesia in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, it is separated by the 150-kilometre (81 nmi; 93 mi) wide Torres Strait from the Australian continent. New Guinea_sentence_5

Numerous smaller islands are located to the west and east. New Guinea_sentence_6

The eastern half of the island is the major land mass of the independent state of Papua New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_7

The western half, known as Western New Guinea or West Papua, forms a part of Indonesia and is organized as the provinces of Papua and West Papua. New Guinea_sentence_8

Names New Guinea_section_0

The island has been known by various names: New Guinea_sentence_9

The name Papua was used to refer to parts of the island before contact with the West. New Guinea_sentence_10

Its etymology is unclear; one theory states that it derived from Tidore, the language used by the Sultanate of Tidore, which controlled parts of the island's coastal region. New Guinea_sentence_11

The name appears to come from the words papo (to unite) and ua (negation), which means "not united" or, "territory that geographically is far away (and thus not united)". New Guinea_sentence_12

Ploeg reports that the word papua is often said to be derived from the Malay word papua or pua-pua, meaning "frizzly-haired", referring to the highly curly hair of the inhabitants of these areas. New Guinea_sentence_13

Another possibility, put forward by Sollewijn Gelpke in 1993, is that it comes from the Biak phrase sup i papwa, which means 'the land below [the sunset]', and refers to the islands west of the Bird's Head, as far as Halmahera. New Guinea_sentence_14

The name Papua came to be associated with this area, and more especially with Halmahera, which was known to the Portuguese by this name during the era of their colonization in this part of the world. New Guinea_sentence_15

When the Portuguese and Spanish explorers arrived in the island via the Spice Islands, they also referred to the island as Papua. New Guinea_sentence_16

However, Westerners, beginning with Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez in 1545, used the name New Guinea, referring to the similarities of the features of the indigenous peoples to those of native Africans of the Guinea region of the continent. New Guinea_sentence_17

The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies, ultimately meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. New Guinea_sentence_18

The Dutch, who arrived later under Jacob Le Maire and Willem Schouten, called it Schouten island. New Guinea_sentence_19

They later used this name only to refer to islands off the north coast of Papua proper, the Schouten Islands or Biak Island. New Guinea_sentence_20

When the Dutch colonized this island as part of the Dutch East Indies, they called it Nieuw Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_21

The name Irian was used in the Indonesian language to refer to the island and Indonesian province, as Irian Barat (West Irian) Province and later Irian Jaya Province. New Guinea_sentence_22

The name was promoted in 1945 by Marcus Kaisiepo, brother of the future governor Frans Kaisiepo. New Guinea_sentence_23

It is taken from the Biak language of Biak Island, and means "to rise", or "rising spirit". New Guinea_sentence_24

Irian is the name used in the Biak language and other languages such as Serui, Merauke and Waropen. New Guinea_sentence_25

The name was used until 2001, when Papua was again used for the island and the province. New Guinea_sentence_26

The name Irian, which was originally favored by natives, is now considered to be a name imposed by the authority of Jakarta. New Guinea_sentence_27

Geography New Guinea_section_1

See also: List of highest mountains of New Guinea New Guinea_sentence_28

New Guinea is an island to the north of the Australian mainland, south of the equator. New Guinea_sentence_29

It is isolated by the Arafura Sea to the west, and the Torres Strait and Coral Sea to the east. New Guinea_sentence_30

Sometimes considered to be the easternmost island of the Indonesian archipelago, it lies north of Australia's Top End, the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape York Peninsula, and west of the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands archipelago. New Guinea_sentence_31

Politically, the western half of the island comprises two provinces of Indonesia: Papua and West Papua. New Guinea_sentence_32

The eastern half forms the mainland of the country of Papua New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_33

The shape of New Guinea is often compared to that of a bird-of-paradise (indigenous to the island), and this results in the usual names for the two extremes of the island: the Bird's Head Peninsula in the northwest (Vogelkop in Dutch, Kepala Burung in Indonesian; also known as the Doberai Peninsula), and the Bird's Tail Peninsula in the southeast (also known as the Papuan Peninsula). New Guinea_sentence_34

A spine of east–west mountains, the New Guinea Highlands, dominates the geography of New Guinea, stretching over 1,600 km (1,000 mi) across the island, with many mountains over 4,000 m (13,100 ft). New Guinea_sentence_35

The western half of the island contains the highest mountains in Oceania, with its highest point, Puncak Jaya, reaching an elevation of 4,884 m (16,023 ft). New Guinea_sentence_36

The tree line is around 4,000 m (13,100 ft) elevation, and the tallest peaks contain equatorial glaciers—which have been retreating since at least 1936. New Guinea_sentence_37

Various other smaller mountain ranges occur both north and west of the central ranges. New Guinea_sentence_38

Except in high elevations, most areas possess a warm humid climate throughout the year, with some seasonal variation associated with the northeast monsoon season. New Guinea_sentence_39

Another major habitat feature is the vast southern and northern lowlands. New Guinea_sentence_40

Stretching for hundreds of kilometres, these include lowland rainforests, extensive wetlands, savanna grasslands, and some of the largest expanses of mangrove forest in the world. New Guinea_sentence_41

The southern lowlands are the site of Lorentz National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. New Guinea_sentence_42

The northern lowlands are drained principally by the Mamberamo River and its tributaries on the western side, and by the Sepik on the eastern side. New Guinea_sentence_43

The more extensive southern lowlands are drained by a larger number of rivers, principally the Digul in the west and the Fly in the east. New Guinea_sentence_44

The largest island offshore, Dolak, lies near the Digul estuary, separated by a strait so narrow it has been named a "creek". New Guinea_sentence_45

New Guinea contains many of the world's ecosystem types: glacial, alpine tundra, savanna, montane and lowland rainforest, mangroves, wetlands, lake and river ecosystems, seagrasses, and some of the richest coral reefs on the planet. New Guinea_sentence_46

Relation to surroundings New Guinea_section_2

The island of New Guinea lies to the east of the Malay Archipelago, with which it is sometimes included as part of a greater Indo-Australian Archipelago. New Guinea_sentence_47

Geologically it is a part of the same tectonic plate as Australia. New Guinea_sentence_48

When world sea levels were low, the two shared shorelines (which now lie 100 to 140 metres below sea level), and combined with lands now inundated into the tectonic continent of Sahul, also known as Greater Australia. New Guinea_sentence_49

The two landmasses became separated when the area now known as the Torres Strait flooded after the end of the last glacial period. New Guinea_sentence_50

Anthropologically, New Guinea is considered part of Melanesia. New Guinea_sentence_51

New Guinea is differentiated from its drier, flatter, and less fertile southern counterpart, Australia, by its much higher rainfall and its active volcanic geology. New Guinea_sentence_52

Yet the two land masses share a similar animal fauna, with marsupials, including wallabies and possums, and the egg-laying monotreme, the echidna. New Guinea_sentence_53

Other than bats and some two dozen indigenous rodent genera, there are no pre-human indigenous placental mammals. New Guinea_sentence_54

Pigs, several additional species of rats, and the ancestor of the New Guinea singing dog were introduced with human colonization. New Guinea_sentence_55

Prior to the 1970s, archaeologists called the single Pleistocene landmass by the name Australasia, although this word is most often used for a wider region that includes lands, such as New Zealand, which are not on the same continental shelf. New Guinea_sentence_56

In the early 1970s, they introduced the term Greater Australia for the Pleistocene continent. New Guinea_sentence_57

Then, at a 1975 conference and consequent publication, they extended the name Sahul from its previous use for just the Sahul Shelf to cover the continent. New Guinea_sentence_58

Political divisions New Guinea_section_3

The island of New Guinea is divided politically into roughly equal halves across a north-south line: New Guinea_sentence_59

New Guinea_unordered_list_0

People New Guinea_section_4

See also: People of New Guinea New Guinea_sentence_60

The current population of the island of New Guinea is about eleven million. New Guinea_sentence_61

Many believe human habitation on the island dates to as early as 50,000 BC, and first settlement possibly dating back to 60,000 years ago has been proposed. New Guinea_sentence_62

The island is presently populated by almost a thousand different tribal groups and a near-equivalent number of separate languages, which makes New Guinea the most linguistically diverse area in the world. New Guinea_sentence_63

Ethnologue's 14th edition lists 826 languages of Papua New Guinea and 257 languages of Western New Guinea, total 1073 languages, with 12 languages overlapping. New Guinea_sentence_64

They can be divided into two groups, the Austronesian languages, and all the others, called Papuan languages for convenience. New Guinea_sentence_65

The term Papuan languages refers to an areal grouping, rather than a linguistic one, since so-called Papuan languages comprise hundreds of different languages, most of which are not related. New Guinea_sentence_66

The separation is not merely linguistic; warfare among societies was a factor in the evolution of the men's house: separate housing of groups of adult men, from the single-family houses of the women and children, for mutual protection from other tribal groups. New Guinea_sentence_67

Pig-based trade between the groups and pig-based feasts are a common theme with the other peoples of southeast Asia and Oceania. New Guinea_sentence_68

Most societies practice agriculture, supplemented by hunting and gathering. New Guinea_sentence_69

Current evidence indicates that the Papuans (who constitute the majority of the island's peoples) are descended from the earliest human inhabitants of New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_70

These original inhabitants first arrived in New Guinea at a time (either side of the Last Glacial Maximum, approx 21,000 years ago) when the island was connected to the Australian continent via a land bridge, forming the landmass of Sahul. New Guinea_sentence_71

These peoples had made the (shortened) sea-crossing from the islands of Wallacea and Sundaland (the present Malay Archipelago) by at least 40,000 years ago. New Guinea_sentence_72

The ancestral Austronesian peoples are believed to have arrived considerably later, approximately 3,500 years ago, as part of a gradual seafaring migration from Southeast Asia, possibly originating in Taiwan. New Guinea_sentence_73

Austronesian-speaking peoples colonized many of the offshore islands to the north and east of New Guinea, such as New Ireland and New Britain, with settlements also on the coastal fringes of the main island in places. New Guinea_sentence_74

Human habitation of New Guinea over tens of thousands of years has led to a great deal of diversity, which was further increased by the later arrival of the Austronesians and the more recent history of European and Asian settlement through events like transmigration. New Guinea_sentence_75

About half of the 2.4 million inhabitants of Indonesian Papua are Javanese migrants. New Guinea_sentence_76

Large areas of New Guinea are yet to be explored by scientists and anthropologists. New Guinea_sentence_77

The Indonesian province of West Papua is home to an estimated 44 uncontacted tribal groups. New Guinea_sentence_78

Biodiversity and ecology New Guinea_section_5

Main article: Fauna of New Guinea New Guinea_sentence_79

With some 786,000 km of tropical land—less than one-half of one percent (0.5%) of the Earth's surface—New Guinea has an immense biodiversity, containing between 5 and 10 percent of the total species on the planet. New Guinea_sentence_80

This percentage is about the same amount as that found in the United States or Australia. New Guinea_sentence_81

A high percentage of New Guinea's species are endemic, and thousands are still unknown to science: probably well over 200,000 species of insect, between 11,000 and 20,000 plant species, and over 650 resident bird species. New Guinea_sentence_82

Most of these species are shared, at least in their origin, with the continent of Australia, which was until fairly recent geological times part of the same landmass (see Australia-New Guinea for an overview). New Guinea_sentence_83

The island is so large that it is considered 'nearly a continent' in terms of its biological distinctiveness. New Guinea_sentence_84

In the period from 1998 to 2008, conservationists identified 1,060 new species in New Guinea, including 218 plants, 43 reptiles, 12 mammals, 580 invertebrates, 134 amphibians, 2 birds and 71 fish. New Guinea_sentence_85

Between 2011 and 2017, researchers described 465 previously undocumented plant species in New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_86

As of 2019, the Indonesian portion of New Guinea and the Maluku Islands is estimated to have 9,518 species of vascular plants, of which 4,380 are endemic. New Guinea_sentence_87

In 2020, an international study conducted by a team of 99 experts cataloged 13,634 species representing 1,742 genera and 264 families of vascular plants for New Guinea and its associated islands (Aru Is. New Guinea_sentence_88 , Bismarck Arch. New Guinea_sentence_89 , D'Entrecasteaux Is. New Guinea_sentence_90 , Louisiade Arch. New Guinea_sentence_91 ), making it the world's most floristically diverse island, surpassing Madagascar (11,488), Borneo (11,165), Java (4,598), and the Philippines (9,432). New Guinea_sentence_92

Biogeographically, New Guinea is part of Australasia rather than the Indomalayan realm, although New Guinea's flora has many more affinities with Asia than its fauna, which is overwhelmingly Australian. New Guinea_sentence_93

Botanically, New Guinea is considered part of Malesia, a floristic region that extends from the Malay Peninsula across Indonesia to New Guinea and the East Melanesian Islands. New Guinea_sentence_94

The flora of New Guinea is a mixture of many tropical rainforest species with origins in Asia, together with typically Australasian flora. New Guinea_sentence_95

Typical Southern Hemisphere flora include the conifers Podocarpus and the rainforest emergents Araucaria and Agathis, as well as tree ferns and several species of Eucalyptus. New Guinea_sentence_96

New Guinea has 284 species and six orders of mammals: monotremes, three orders of marsupials, rodents and bats; 195 of the mammal species (69%) are endemic. New Guinea_sentence_97

New Guinea has 578 species of breeding birds, of which 324 species are endemic. New Guinea_sentence_98

The island's frogs are one of the most poorly known vertebrate groups, totalling 282 species, but this number is expected to double or even triple when all species have been documented. New Guinea_sentence_99

New Guinea has a rich diversity of coral life and 1,200 species of fish have been found. New Guinea_sentence_100

Also about 600 species of reef-building coral—the latter equal to 75 percent of the world's known total. New Guinea_sentence_101

The entire coral area covers 18 million hectares off a peninsula in northwest New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_102

As of 2020, the Western portion of New Guinea, Papua and West Papua, accounts for 54% of the island's primary forest and about 51% of the island's total tree cover, according to satellite data. New Guinea_sentence_103

Ecoregions New Guinea_section_6

Main article: Ecoregions of New Guinea New Guinea_sentence_104

Terrestrial New Guinea_section_7

According to the WWF, New Guinea can be divided into twelve terrestrial ecoregions: New Guinea_sentence_105

New Guinea_unordered_list_1

Freshwater New Guinea_section_8

The WWF and Nature Conservancy divide New Guinea into five freshwater ecoregions: New Guinea_sentence_106

New Guinea_unordered_list_2

Marine New Guinea_section_9

The WWF and Nature Conservancy identify several marine ecoregions in the seas bordering New Guinea: New Guinea_sentence_107

New Guinea_unordered_list_3

History New Guinea_section_10

See also: History of Papua New Guinea and History of Western New Guinea New Guinea_sentence_108

Early history New Guinea_section_11

The first inhabitants, from whom the Papuan people are probably descended, adapted to the range of ecologies and, in time, developed one of the earliest known agricultures. New Guinea_sentence_109

Remains of this agricultural system, in the form of ancient irrigation systems in the highlands of Papua New Guinea, are being studied by archaeologists. New Guinea_sentence_110

Research indicates that the highlands were an early and independent center of agriculture, with evidence of irrigation going back at least 10,000 years. New Guinea_sentence_111

Sugarcane was cultivated for the first time in New Guinea around 6000 BC. New Guinea_sentence_112

The gardens of the New Guinea Highlands are ancient, intensive permacultures, adapted to high population densities, very high rainfalls (as high as 10,000 mm per year (400 in/yr)), earthquakes, hilly land, and occasional frost. New Guinea_sentence_113

Complex mulches, crop rotations and tillages are used in rotation on terraces with complex irrigation systems. New Guinea_sentence_114

Western agronomists still do not understand all of the practices, and it has been noted that native gardeners are as, or even more, successful than most scientific farmers in raising certain crops. New Guinea_sentence_115

There is evidence that New Guinea gardeners invented crop rotation well before western Europeans. New Guinea_sentence_116

A unique feature of New Guinea permaculture is the silviculture of Casuarina oligodon, a tall, sturdy native ironwood tree, suited to use for timber and fuel, with root nodules that fix nitrogen. New Guinea_sentence_117

Pollen studies show that it was adopted during an ancient period of extreme deforestation. New Guinea_sentence_118

In more recent millennia, another wave of people arrived on the shores of New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_119

These were the Austronesian people, who had spread down from Taiwan, through the South-east Asian archipelago, colonising many of the islands on the way. New Guinea_sentence_120

The Austronesian people had technology and skills extremely well adapted to ocean voyaging and Austronesian language speaking people are present along much of the coastal areas and islands of New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_121

These Austronesian migrants are considered the ancestors of most people in insular Southeast Asia, from Sumatra and Java to Borneo and Sulawesi, as well as coastal new Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_122

Precolonial history New Guinea_section_12

The western part of the island was in contact with kingdoms in other parts of modern-day Indonesia. New Guinea_sentence_123

The Negarakertagama mentioned the region of Wanin in eastern Nusantara as part of Majapahit's tributary. New Guinea_sentence_124

This has been identified with the Onin Peninsula, part of the Bomberai Peninsula near the city of Fakfak. New Guinea_sentence_125

The sultans of Tidore, in Maluku Islands, claimed sovereignty over various coastal parts of the island. New Guinea_sentence_126

During Tidore's rule, the main exports of the island during this period were resins, spices, slaves and the highly priced feathers of the bird-of-paradise. New Guinea_sentence_127

Sultan Nuku, one of the most famous Tidore sultans who rebelled against Dutch colonization, called himself "Sultan of Tidore and Papua", during his revolt in 1780s. New Guinea_sentence_128

He commanded loyalty from both Moluccan and Papuan chiefs, especially those of Raja Ampat Islands. New Guinea_sentence_129

Following Tidore's defeat, much of the territory it claimed in western part of New Guinea came under Dutch rule as part of Dutch East Indies. New Guinea_sentence_130

European contact New Guinea_section_13

The first European contact with New Guinea was by Portuguese and Spanish sailors in the 16th century. New Guinea_sentence_131

In 1526–27, Portuguese explorer Jorge de Meneses saw the western tip of New Guinea and named it ilhas dos Papuas. New Guinea_sentence_132

In 1528, the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Saavedra also recorded its sighting when trying to return from Tidore to New Spain. New Guinea_sentence_133

In 1545, Spaniard Íñigo Ortíz de Retes sailed along the north coast of New Guinea as far as the Mamberamo River, near which he landed on 20 June, naming the island 'Nueva Guinea'. New Guinea_sentence_134

The first map showing the whole island (as an island) was published in 1600 and shows it as 'Nova Guinea'. New Guinea_sentence_135

In 1606, Luís Vaz de Torres explored the southern coast of New Guinea from Milne Bay to the Gulf of Papua including Orangerie Bay, which he named Bahía de San Lorenzo. New Guinea_sentence_136

His expedition also discovered Basilaki Island naming it Tierra de San Buenaventura, which he claimed for Spain in July 1606. New Guinea_sentence_137

On 18 October, his expedition reached the western part of the island in present-day Indonesia, and also claimed the territory for the King of Spain. New Guinea_sentence_138

A successive European claim occurred in 1828, when the Netherlands formally claimed the western half of the island as Netherlands New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_139

In 1883, following a short-lived French annexation of New Ireland, the British colony of Queensland annexed south-eastern New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_140

However, the Queensland government's superiors in the United Kingdom revoked the claim, and (formally) assumed direct responsibility in 1884, when Germany claimed north-eastern New Guinea as the protectorate of German New Guinea (also called Kaiser-Wilhelmsland). New Guinea_sentence_141

The first Dutch government posts were established in 1898 and in 1902: Manokwari on the north coast, Fak-Fak in the west and Merauke in the south at the border with British New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_142

The German, Dutch and British colonial administrators each attempted to suppress the still-widespread practices of inter-village warfare and headhunting within their respective territories. New Guinea_sentence_143

In 1905, the British government transferred some administrative responsibility over southeast New Guinea to Australia (which renamed the area "Territory of Papua"); and, in 1906, transferred all remaining responsibility to Australia. New Guinea_sentence_144

During World War I, Australian forces seized German New Guinea, which in 1920 became the Territory of New Guinea, to be administered by Australia under a League of Nations mandate. New Guinea_sentence_145

The territories under Australian administration became collectively known as The Territories of Papua and New Guinea (until February 1942). New Guinea_sentence_146

Before about 1930, European maps showed the highlands as uninhabited forests. New Guinea_sentence_147

When first flown over by aircraft, numerous settlements with agricultural terraces and stockades were observed. New Guinea_sentence_148

The most startling discovery took place on 4 August 1938, when Richard Archbold discovered the Grand Valley of the Baliem River, which had 50,000 yet-undiscovered Stone Age farmers living in orderly villages. New Guinea_sentence_149

The people, known as the Dani, were the last society of its size to make first contact with the rest of the world. New Guinea_sentence_150

World War II New Guinea_section_14

Main article: New Guinea campaign New Guinea_sentence_151

Netherlands New Guinea and the Australian territories were invaded in 1942 by the Japanese. New Guinea_sentence_152

The Australian territories were put under military administration and were known simply as New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_153

The highlands, northern and eastern parts of the island became key battlefields in the South West Pacific Theatre of World War II. New Guinea_sentence_154

Papuans often gave vital assistance to the Allies, fighting alongside Australian troops, and carrying equipment and injured men across New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_155

Approximately 216,000 Japanese, Australian and U.S. soldiers, sailors and airmen died during the New Guinea Campaign. New Guinea_sentence_156

Since World War II New Guinea_section_15

Further information: Papua conflict New Guinea_sentence_157

Following the return to civil administration after World War II, the Australian section was known as the Territory of Papua-New Guinea from 1945 to 1949 and then as Territory of Papua and New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_158

Although the rest of the Dutch East Indies achieved independence as Indonesia on 27 December 1949, the Netherlands regained control of western New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_159

During the 1950s, the Dutch government began to prepare Netherlands New Guinea for full independence and allowed elections in 1959; the elected New Guinea Council took office on 5 April 1961. New Guinea_sentence_160

The Council decided on the name of West Papua for the territory, along with an emblem, flag, and anthem to complement those of the Netherlands. New Guinea_sentence_161

On 1 October 1962, the Dutch handed over the territory to the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority, until 1 May 1963, when Indonesia took control. New Guinea_sentence_162

The territory was renamed West Irian and then Irian Jaya. New Guinea_sentence_163

In 1969, Indonesia, under the 1962 New York Agreement, organised a referendum named the Act of Free Choice, in which hand picked Papuan tribal elders reached a consensus to continue the union with Indonesia. New Guinea_sentence_164

There has been resistance to Indonesian integration and occupation, both through civil disobedience (such as Morning Star flag raising ceremonies) and via the formation of the Organisasi Papua Merdeka (OPM, or Free Papua Movement) in 1965. New Guinea_sentence_165

Amnesty International has estimated more than 100,000 Papuans, one-sixth of the population, have died as a result of government-sponsored violence against West Papuans. New Guinea_sentence_166

From 1971, the name Papua New Guinea was used for the Australian territory. New Guinea_sentence_167

On 16 September 1975, Australia granted full independence to Papua New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_168

In 2000, Irian Jaya was formally renamed "The Province of Papua" and a Law on Special Autonomy was passed in 2001. New Guinea_sentence_169

The Law established a Papuan People's Assembly (MRP) with representatives of the different indigenous cultures of Papua. New Guinea_sentence_170

The MRP was empowered to protect the rights of Papuans, raise the status of women in Papua, and to ease religious tensions in Papua; block grants were given for the implementation of the Law as much as $266 million in 2004. New Guinea_sentence_171

The Indonesian courts' enforcement of the Law on Special Autonomy blocked further creation of subdivisions of Papua: although President Megawati Sukarnoputri was able to create a separate West Papua province in 2003 as a fait accompli, plans for a third province on western New Guinea were blocked by the courts. New Guinea_sentence_172

Critics argue that the Indonesian government has been reluctant to establish or issue various government implementing regulations so that the legal provisions of special autonomy could be put into practice, and as a result special autonomy in Papua has failed. New Guinea_sentence_173

The culture of inter-tribal warfare and animosity between the neighboring tribes are still present in New Guinea. New Guinea_sentence_174

See also New Guinea_section_16

New Guinea_unordered_list_4

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Guinea.