New Jersey

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is about the State of New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_0

For other uses, see New Jersey (disambiguation). New Jersey_sentence_1

"NJ" redirects here. New Jersey_sentence_2

For other uses, see NJ (disambiguation). New Jersey_sentence_3

New Jersey_table_infobox_0

New JerseyNew Jersey_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryNew Jersey_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesNew Jersey_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodNew Jersey_header_cell_0_2_0 Province of New JerseyNew Jersey_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionNew Jersey_header_cell_0_3_0 December 18, 1787 (3rd)New Jersey_cell_0_3_1
CapitalNew Jersey_header_cell_0_4_0 TrentonNew Jersey_cell_0_4_1
Largest cityNew Jersey_header_cell_0_5_0 NewarkNew Jersey_cell_0_5_1
Largest metroNew Jersey_header_cell_0_6_0 Greater New YorkNew Jersey_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentNew Jersey_header_cell_0_7_0
GovernorNew Jersey_header_cell_0_8_0 Phil Murphy (D)New Jersey_cell_0_8_1
Lieutenant GovernorNew Jersey_header_cell_0_9_0 Sheila Oliver (D)New Jersey_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureNew Jersey_header_cell_0_10_0 New Jersey LegislatureNew Jersey_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseNew Jersey_header_cell_0_11_0 SenateNew Jersey_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseNew Jersey_header_cell_0_12_0 General AssemblyNew Jersey_cell_0_12_1
JudiciaryNew Jersey_header_cell_0_13_0 Supreme Court of New JerseyNew Jersey_cell_0_13_1
U.S. senatorsNew Jersey_header_cell_0_14_0 Bob Menendez (D)

Cory Booker (D)New Jersey_cell_0_14_1

U.S. House delegationNew Jersey_header_cell_0_15_0 10 Democrats
2 Republicans (list)New Jersey_cell_0_15_1
AreaNew Jersey_header_cell_0_16_0
TotalNew Jersey_header_cell_0_17_0 8,722.58 sq mi (22,591.38 km)New Jersey_cell_0_17_1
LandNew Jersey_header_cell_0_18_0 7,354.22 sq mi (19,047.34 km)New Jersey_cell_0_18_1
WaterNew Jersey_header_cell_0_19_0 1,368.36 sq mi (3,544.04 km)  15.7%New Jersey_cell_0_19_1
Area rankNew Jersey_header_cell_0_20_0 47thNew Jersey_cell_0_20_1
DimensionsNew Jersey_header_cell_0_21_0
LengthNew Jersey_header_cell_0_22_0 170 mi (273 km)New Jersey_cell_0_22_1
WidthNew Jersey_header_cell_0_23_0 70 mi (112 km)New Jersey_cell_0_23_1
ElevationNew Jersey_header_cell_0_24_0 250 ft (80 m)New Jersey_cell_0_24_1
Highest elevation (High Point)New Jersey_header_cell_0_25_0 1,803 ft (549.6 m)New Jersey_cell_0_25_1
Lowest elevation (Atlantic Ocean)New Jersey_header_cell_0_26_0 0 ft (0 m)New Jersey_cell_0_26_1
Population (2019)New Jersey_header_cell_0_27_0
TotalNew Jersey_header_cell_0_28_0 8,882,190New Jersey_cell_0_28_1
RankNew Jersey_header_cell_0_29_0 11thNew Jersey_cell_0_29_1
DensityNew Jersey_header_cell_0_30_0 1,210.10/sq mi (467/km)New Jersey_cell_0_30_1
Density rankNew Jersey_header_cell_0_31_0 1stNew Jersey_cell_0_31_1
Median household incomeNew Jersey_header_cell_0_32_0 $79,363New Jersey_cell_0_32_1
Income rankNew Jersey_header_cell_0_33_0 3rdNew Jersey_cell_0_33_1
Demonym(s)New Jersey_header_cell_0_34_0 New Jerseyan (official), New JerseyiteNew Jersey_cell_0_34_1
LanguageNew Jersey_header_cell_0_35_0
Official languageNew Jersey_header_cell_0_36_0 NoneNew Jersey_cell_0_36_1
Spoken languageNew Jersey_header_cell_0_37_0 New Jersey_cell_0_37_1
Time zoneNew Jersey_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC−05:00 (Eastern)New Jersey_cell_0_38_1
Summer (DST)New Jersey_header_cell_0_39_0 UTC−04:00 (EDT)New Jersey_cell_0_39_1
USPS abbreviationNew Jersey_header_cell_0_40_0 NJNew Jersey_cell_0_40_1
ISO 3166 codeNew Jersey_header_cell_0_41_0 US-NJNew Jersey_cell_0_41_1
Traditional abbreviationNew Jersey_header_cell_0_42_0 N.J.New Jersey_cell_0_42_1
LatitudeNew Jersey_header_cell_0_43_0 38°56′ N to 41°21′ NNew Jersey_cell_0_43_1
LongitudeNew Jersey_header_cell_0_44_0 73°54′ W to 75°34′ WNew Jersey_cell_0_44_1
WebsiteNew Jersey_header_cell_0_45_0 New Jersey_cell_0_45_1

New Jersey_table_infobox_1

New Jersey state symbolsNew Jersey_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaNew Jersey_header_cell_1_1_0
BirdNew Jersey_header_cell_1_2_0 Eastern goldfinchNew Jersey_cell_1_2_1
FishNew Jersey_header_cell_1_3_0 Brook troutNew Jersey_cell_1_3_1
FlowerNew Jersey_header_cell_1_4_0 Viola sororiaNew Jersey_cell_1_4_1
InsectNew Jersey_header_cell_1_5_0 Western honey beeNew Jersey_cell_1_5_1
MammalNew Jersey_header_cell_1_6_0 HorseNew Jersey_cell_1_6_1
TreeNew Jersey_header_cell_1_7_0 Quercus rubra (northern red oak), dogwood (memorial tree)New Jersey_cell_1_7_1
Inanimate insigniaNew Jersey_header_cell_1_8_0
ColorsNew Jersey_header_cell_1_9_0 Buff and blueNew Jersey_cell_1_9_1
Folk danceNew Jersey_header_cell_1_10_0 Square danceNew Jersey_cell_1_10_1
FoodNew Jersey_header_cell_1_11_0 Northern highbush blueberry (state fruit)New Jersey_cell_1_11_1
FossilNew Jersey_header_cell_1_12_0 Hadrosaurus foulkiiNew Jersey_cell_1_12_1
SoilNew Jersey_header_cell_1_13_0 DownerNew Jersey_cell_1_13_1
State route markerNew Jersey_header_cell_1_14_0
State quarterNew Jersey_header_cell_1_15_0

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States. New Jersey_sentence_4

It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware River and Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by Delaware Bay and the State of Delaware. New Jersey_sentence_5

New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 8,882,190 residents as of 2019 and an area of 8,722.58 square miles, making it the most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. New Jersey_sentence_6

The capital is Trenton, while the largest city is Newark. New Jersey_sentence_7

All but one county in New Jersey lie within the combined statistical areas of New York City or Philadelphia; consequently, the state's largest metropolitan area falls within Greater New York. New Jersey_sentence_8

New Jersey was first inhabited by Native Americans for at least 2,800 years, with the Lenape being the dominant group by the time Europeans arrived in the early 17th century. New Jersey_sentence_9

Dutch and the Swedish colonists founded the first European settlements in the state. New Jersey_sentence_10

The English later seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey—after the largest of the Channel Islands, Jersey—and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton. New Jersey_sentence_11

New Jersey was the site of several important battles during the American Revolutionary War. New Jersey_sentence_12

In the 19th century, factories in the "Big Six" cities of Camden, Paterson, Newark, Trenton, Jersey City, and Elizabeth helped drive the nation's Industrial Revolution. New Jersey_sentence_13

New Jersey's central location in the Northeast megalopolis fueled its rapid growth and suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. New Jersey_sentence_14

At the turn of the 21st century, the state's economy increasingly diversified, while its multicultural populace began reverting toward more urban settings within the state, outpacing the growth in suburbs since 2008. New Jersey_sentence_15

As of 2020, New Jersey was home to the highest number of millionaires per capita of all U.S. states, with 9.76% of households—more than 323,000 of 3.3 million statewide—meeting the criteria. New Jersey_sentence_16

Based on 2017 data, it was the second-wealthiest U.S. state by median household income. New Jersey_sentence_17

New Jersey's public school system consistently ranks at or among the top among all fifty U.S. states. New Jersey_sentence_18

History New Jersey_section_0

Main article: History of New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_19

Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa. New Jersey_sentence_20

The pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains. New Jersey_sentence_21

Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers that reached New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_22

As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers, swamps, and gorges. New Jersey_sentence_23

New Jersey was originally settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. New Jersey_sentence_24

Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land that is now New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_25

The Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. New Jersey_sentence_26

The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans that were based upon common female ancestors. New Jersey_sentence_27

These clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle, Turkey, and Wolf. New Jersey_sentence_28

They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, and their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade. New Jersey_sentence_29

Colonial era New Jersey_section_1

Main articles: Colonial history of New Jersey, New Netherland, New Sweden, Province of New Jersey, East Jersey, West Jersey, and Dominion of New England New Jersey_sentence_30

The Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_31

The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. New Jersey_sentence_32

Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled. New Jersey_sentence_33

The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which eventually became the Bergen. New Jersey_sentence_34

Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden. New Jersey_sentence_35

The entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. New Jersey_sentence_36

During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King. New Jersey_sentence_37

It was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. New Jersey_sentence_38

The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York (later King James II), the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony (as opposed to a royal colony). New Jersey_sentence_39

James then granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River (the land that would become New Jersey) to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton. New Jersey_sentence_40

The area was named the Province of New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_41

Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by ethnic and religious diversity. New Jersey_sentence_42

New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. New Jersey_sentence_43

While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres (40 ha), a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. New Jersey_sentence_44

English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. New Jersey_sentence_45

Unlike Plymouth Colony, Jamestown and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey_sentence_46

New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, and commercial farming developed sporadically. New Jersey_sentence_47

Some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey_sentence_48

The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, and New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. New Jersey_sentence_49

Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill—settlers came primarily from New York and New England. New Jersey_sentence_50

On March 18, 1673, Berkeley sold his half of the colony to Quakers in England, who settled the Delaware Valley region as a Quaker colony. New Jersey_sentence_51

(William Penn acted as trustee for the lands for a time.) New Jersey_sentence_52

New Jersey was governed very briefly as two distinct provinces, East and West Jersey, for 28 years between 1674 and 1702, at times part of the Province of New York or Dominion of New England. New Jersey_sentence_53

In 1702, the two provinces were reunited under a royal governor, rather than a proprietary one. New Jersey_sentence_54

Edward Hyde, Lord Cornbury, became the first governor of the colony as a royal colony. New Jersey_sentence_55

Britain believed that he was an ineffective and corrupt ruler, taking bribes and speculating on land. New Jersey_sentence_56

In 1708 he was recalled to England. New Jersey_sentence_57

New Jersey was then ruled by the governors of New York, but this infuriated the settlers of New Jersey, who accused those governors of favoritism to New York. New Jersey_sentence_58

Judge Lewis Morris led the case for a separate governor, and was appointed governor by King George II in 1738. New Jersey_sentence_59

Revolutionary War era New Jersey_section_2

Main articles: American Revolutionary War, Northern theater of the American Revolutionary War, New Jersey in the American Revolution, Lee Resolution, United States Declaration of Independence, Philadelphia campaign, Articles of Confederation § Ratification, Treaty of Paris (1783), Constitutional Convention (United States), Admission to the Union, and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union New Jersey_sentence_60

New Jersey was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution. New Jersey_sentence_61

The was passed July 2, 1776, just two days before the Second Continental Congress declared American Independence from Great Britain. New Jersey_sentence_62

It was an act of the Provincial Congress, which made itself into the State Legislature. New Jersey_sentence_63

To reassure neutrals, it provided that it would become void if New Jersey reached reconciliation with Great Britain. New Jersey_sentence_64

New Jersey representatives Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, and Abraham Clark were among those who signed the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. New Jersey_sentence_65

During the American Revolutionary War, British and American armies crossed New Jersey numerous times, and several pivotal battles took place in the state. New Jersey_sentence_66

Because of this, New Jersey today is often referred to as "The Crossroads of the American Revolution". New Jersey_sentence_67

The winter quarters of the Continental Army were established there twice by General George Washington in Morristown, which has been called "The Military Capital of the American Revolution.“ New Jersey_sentence_68

On the night of December 25–26, 1776, the Continental Army under George Washington crossed the Delaware River. New Jersey_sentence_69

After the crossing, he surprised and defeated the Hessian troops in the Battle of Trenton. New Jersey_sentence_70

Slightly more than a week after victory at Trenton, American forces gained an important victory by stopping General Cornwallis's charges at the Second Battle of Trenton. New Jersey_sentence_71

By evading Cornwallis's army, Washington made a surprise attack on Princeton and successfully defeated the British forces there on January 3, 1777. New Jersey_sentence_72

Emanuel Leutze's painting of Washington Crossing the Delaware became an icon of the Revolution. New Jersey_sentence_73

American forces under Washington met the forces under General Henry Clinton at the Battle of Monmouth in an indecisive engagement in June 1778. New Jersey_sentence_74

Washington attempted to take the British column by surprise; when the British army attempted to flank the Americans, the Americans retreated in disorder. New Jersey_sentence_75

The ranks were later reorganized and withstood the British charges. New Jersey_sentence_76

In the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall at Princeton University, making Princeton the nation's capital for four months. New Jersey_sentence_77

It was there that the Continental Congress learned of the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1783), which ended the war. New Jersey_sentence_78

On December 18, 1787, New Jersey became the third state to ratify the United States Constitution, which was overwhelmingly popular in New Jersey, as it prevented New York and Pennsylvania from charging tariffs on goods imported from Europe. New Jersey_sentence_79

On November 20, 1789, the state became the first in the newly formed Union to ratify the Bill of Rights. New Jersey_sentence_80

The 1776 New Jersey State Constitution gave the vote to "all inhabitants" who had a certain level of wealth. New Jersey_sentence_81

This included women and blacks, but not married women, because they could not own property separately from their husbands. New Jersey_sentence_82

Both sides, in several elections, claimed that the other side had had unqualified women vote and mocked them for use of "petticoat electors", whether entitled to vote or not; on the other hand, both parties passed Voting Rights Acts. New Jersey_sentence_83

In 1807, the legislature passed a bill interpreting the constitution to mean universal white male suffrage, excluding paupers; the constitution was itself an act of the legislature and not enshrined as the modern constitution. New Jersey_sentence_84

19th century New Jersey_section_3

Main articles: New Jersey in the 19th century and New Jersey in the American Civil War New Jersey_sentence_85

On February 15, 1804, New Jersey became the last northern state to abolish new slavery and enacted legislation that slowly phased out existing slavery. New Jersey_sentence_86

This led to a gradual decrease of the slave population. New Jersey_sentence_87

By the close of the Civil War, about a dozen African Americans in New Jersey were still held in bondage. New Jersey_sentence_88

New Jersey voters initially refused to ratify the constitutional amendments banning slavery and granting rights to the United States' black population. New Jersey_sentence_89

Industrialization accelerated in the northern part of the state following completion of the Morris Canal in 1831. New Jersey_sentence_90

The canal allowed for coal to be brought from eastern Pennsylvania's Lehigh Valley to northern New Jersey's growing industries in Paterson, Newark, and Jersey City. New Jersey_sentence_91

In 1844, the second state constitution was ratified and brought into effect. New Jersey_sentence_92

Counties thereby became districts for the state senate, and some realignment of boundaries (including the creation of Mercer County) immediately followed. New Jersey_sentence_93

This provision was retained in the 1947 Constitution, but was overturned by the Supreme Court of the United States in 1962 by the decision Baker v. Carr. New Jersey_sentence_94

While the Governorship was stronger than under the 1776 constitution, the constitution of 1844 created many offices that were not responsible to him, or to the people, and it gave him a three-year term, but he could not succeed himself. New Jersey_sentence_95

New Jersey was one of the few Union states (the others being Delaware and Kentucky) to select a candidate other than Abraham Lincoln twice in national elections, and sided with Stephen Douglas (1860) and George B. McClellan (1864) during their campaigns. New Jersey_sentence_96

McClellan, a native Philadelphian, had New Jersey ties and formally resided in New Jersey at the time; he later became Governor of New Jersey (1878–81). New Jersey_sentence_97

(In New Jersey, the factions of the Democratic party managed an effective coalition in 1860.) New Jersey_sentence_98

During the American Civil War, the state was led first by Republican governor Charles Smith Olden, then by Democrat Joel Parker. New Jersey_sentence_99

During the course of the war, over 80,000 from the state enlisted in the Northern army; unlike many states, including some Northern ones, no battle was fought there. New Jersey_sentence_100

In the Industrial Revolution, cities like Paterson grew and prospered. New Jersey_sentence_101

Previously, the economy had been largely agrarian, which was problematically subject to crop failures and poor soil. New Jersey_sentence_102

This caused a shift to a more industrialized economy, one based on manufactured commodities such as textiles and silk. New Jersey_sentence_103

Inventor Thomas Edison also became an important figure of the Industrial Revolution, having been granted 1,093 patents, many of which for inventions he developed while working in New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_104

Edison's facilities, first at Menlo Park and then in West Orange, are considered perhaps the first research centers in the United States. New Jersey_sentence_105

Christie Street in Menlo Park was the first thoroughfare in the world to have electric lighting. New Jersey_sentence_106

Transportation was greatly improved as locomotion and steamboats were introduced to New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_107

Iron mining was also a leading industry during the middle to late 19th century. New Jersey_sentence_108

Bog iron pits in the southern New Jersey Pinelands were among the first sources of iron for the new nation. New Jersey_sentence_109

Mines such as Mt. New Jersey_sentence_110

Hope, Mine Hill and the Rockaway Valley Mines created a thriving industry. New Jersey_sentence_111

Mining generated the impetus for new towns and was one of the driving forces behind the need for the Morris Canal. New Jersey_sentence_112

Zinc mines were also a major industry, especially the Sterling Hill Mine. New Jersey_sentence_113

20th century New Jersey_section_4

Main article: New Jersey in the 20th century New Jersey_sentence_114

New Jersey prospered through the Roaring Twenties. New Jersey_sentence_115

The first Miss America Pageant was held in 1921 in Atlantic City, the Holland Tunnel connecting Jersey City to Manhattan opened in 1927, and the first drive-in movie was shown in 1933 in Camden. New Jersey_sentence_116

During the Great Depression of the 1930s, the state offered begging licenses to unemployed residents, the zeppelin airship Hindenburg crashed in flames over Lakehurst, and the SS Morro Castle beached itself near Asbury Park after going up in flames while at sea. New Jersey_sentence_117

Through both World Wars, New Jersey was a center for war production, especially naval construction. New Jersey_sentence_118

The Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company yards in Kearny and Newark and the New York Shipbuilding Corporation yard in Camden produced aircraft carriers, battleships, cruisers, and destroyers. New Jersey_sentence_119

New Jersey manufactured 6.8 percent of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking fifth among the 48 states. New Jersey_sentence_120

In addition, Fort Dix (1917) (originally called "Camp Dix"), Camp Merritt (1917) and Camp Kilmer (1941) were all constructed to house and train American soldiers through both World Wars. New Jersey_sentence_121

New Jersey also became a principal location for defense in the Cold War. New Jersey_sentence_122

Fourteen Nike missile stations were constructed for the defense of the New York City and Philadelphia areas. New Jersey_sentence_123

PT-109, a motor torpedo boat commanded by Lt. New Jersey_sentence_124

(j.g.) New Jersey_sentence_125

John F. Kennedy in World War II, was built at the Elco Boatworks in Bayonne. New Jersey_sentence_126

The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise (CV-6) was briefly docked at the Military Ocean Terminal in Bayonne in the 1950s before she was sent to Kearney to be scrapped. New Jersey_sentence_127

In 1962, the world's first nuclear-powered cargo ship, the NS Savannah, was launched at Camden. New Jersey_sentence_128

In 1951, the New Jersey Turnpike opened, permitting fast travel by car and truck between North Jersey (and metropolitan New York) and South Jersey (and metropolitan Philadelphia). New Jersey_sentence_129

In 1959, Air Defense Command deployed the CIM-10 Bomarc surface-to-air missile to McGuire Air Force Base. New Jersey_sentence_130

On June 7, 1960, an explosion in a CIM-10 Bomarc missile fuel tank caused the accident and subsequent plutonium contamination. New Jersey_sentence_131

In the 1960s, race riots erupted in many of the industrial cities of North Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_132

The first race riots in New Jersey occurred in Jersey City on August 2, 1964. New Jersey_sentence_133

Several others ensued in 1967, in Newark and Plainfield. New Jersey_sentence_134

Other riots followed the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. in April 1968, just as in the rest of the country. New Jersey_sentence_135

A riot occurred in Camden in 1971. New Jersey_sentence_136

As a result of an order from the New Jersey Supreme Court to fund schools equitably, the New Jersey legislature passed an income tax bill in 1976. New Jersey_sentence_137

Prior to this bill, the state had no income tax. New Jersey_sentence_138

21st century New Jersey_section_5

Main article: New Jersey in the 21st century New Jersey_sentence_139

In the early part of the 2000s, two light rail systems were opened: the Hudson–Bergen Light Rail in Hudson County and the River Line between Camden and Trenton. New Jersey_sentence_140

The intent of these projects was to encourage transit-oriented development in North Jersey and South Jersey, respectively. New Jersey_sentence_141

The HBLR in particular was credited with a revitalization of Hudson County and Jersey City in particular. New Jersey_sentence_142

Urban revitalization has continued in North Jersey in the 21st century. New Jersey_sentence_143

As of 2014, Jersey City's Census-estimated population was 262,146, with the largest population increase of any municipality in New Jersey since 2010, representing an increase of 5.9% from the 2010 United States Census, when the city's population was enumerated at 247,597. New Jersey_sentence_144

Between 2000 and 2010, Newark experienced its first population increase since the 1950s. New Jersey_sentence_145

Geography New Jersey_section_6

Main article: Geography of New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_146

See also: List of counties in New Jersey and Metropolitan Statistical Areas of New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_147

New Jersey is bordered on the north and northeast by New York (parts of which are across the Hudson River, Upper New York Bay, the Kill Van Kull, Newark Bay, and the Arthur Kill); on the east by the Atlantic Ocean; on the southwest by Delaware across Delaware Bay; and on the west by Pennsylvania across the Delaware River. New Jersey_sentence_148

This is New Jersey's only straight border. New Jersey_sentence_149

New Jersey is often broadly divided into three geographic regions: North Jersey, Central Jersey, and South Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_150

Some New Jersey residents do not consider Central Jersey a region in its own right, but others believe it is a separate geographic and cultural area from the North and South. New Jersey_sentence_151

Within those regions are five distinct areas, based upon natural geography and population concentration. New Jersey_sentence_152

Northeastern New Jersey lies closest to Manhattan in New York City, and up to a million residents commute daily into the city for work, often via public transportation. New Jersey_sentence_153

Northwestern New Jersey is more wooded, rural, and mountainous. New Jersey_sentence_154

The Jersey shore, along the Atlantic Coast in Central and South Jersey, has its own unique natural, residential, and cultural characteristics owing to its location by the ocean. New Jersey_sentence_155

The Delaware Valley includes the southwestern counties of the state, which reside within the Philadelphia Metropolitan Area. New Jersey_sentence_156

The Pine Barrens region is in the southern interior of New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_157

Covered rather extensively by mixed pine and oak forest, it has a much lower population density than much of the rest of the state. New Jersey_sentence_158

The federal Office of Management and Budget divides New Jersey's counties into seven Metropolitan Statistical Areas, with 16 counties included in either the New York City or Philadelphia metro areas. New Jersey_sentence_159

Four counties have independent metro areas, and Warren County is part of the Pennsylvania-based Lehigh Valley metro area. New Jersey_sentence_160

New Jersey is also at the center of the Northeast megalopolis. New Jersey_sentence_161

High Point, in Montague Township, Sussex County, is the state's highest elevation, at 1,803 feet (550 m) above sea level. New Jersey_sentence_162

The state's highest prominence is Kitty Ann Mountain in Morris County, rising 892 feet. New Jersey_sentence_163

The Palisades are a line of steep cliffs on the west side of the Hudson River, in Bergen and Hudson Counties. New Jersey_sentence_164

Major New Jersey rivers include the Hudson, Delaware, Raritan, Passaic, Hackensack, Rahway, Musconetcong, Mullica, Rancocas, Manasquan, Maurice, and Toms rivers. New Jersey_sentence_165

Due to New Jersey's peninsular geography, both sunrise and sunset are visible over water from different points on the Jersey Shore. New Jersey_sentence_166

Prominent geographic features New Jersey_section_7

New Jersey_unordered_list_0

Climate New Jersey_section_8

Main article: Climate of New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_167

There are two climatic conditions in the state. New Jersey_sentence_168

The south, central, and northeast parts of the state have a humid subtropical climate, while the northwest has a humid continental climate (microthermal), with much cooler temperatures due to higher elevation. New Jersey_sentence_169

New Jersey receives between 2,400 and 2,800 hours of sunshine annually. New Jersey_sentence_170

Climate change is affecting New Jersey faster than much of the rest of the United States. New Jersey_sentence_171

As of 2019, New Jersey was one of the fastest-warming states in the nation. New Jersey_sentence_172

Since 1895, average temperatures have climbed by almost 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit, double the average for the other Lower 48 states. New Jersey_sentence_173

Summers are typically hot and humid, with statewide average high temperatures of 82–87 °F (28–31 °C) and lows of 60–69 °F (16–21 °C); however, temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average 25 days each summer, exceeding 100 °F (38 °C) in some years. New Jersey_sentence_174

Winters are usually cold, with average high temperatures of 34–43 °F (1–6 °C) and lows of 16 to 28 °F (−9 to −2 °C) for most of the state, but temperatures can, for brief periods, fall below 10 °F (−12 °C) and sometimes rise above 50 °F (10 °C). New Jersey_sentence_175

Northwestern parts of the state have significantly colder winters with sub-0 °F (−18 °C) being an almost annual occurrence. New Jersey_sentence_176

Spring and autumn may feature wide temperature variations, with lower humidity than summer. New Jersey_sentence_177

The USDA Plant Hardiness Zone classification ranges from 6 in the northwest of the state, to 7B near Cape May. New Jersey_sentence_178

All-time temperature extremes recorded in New Jersey include 110 °F (43 °C) on July 10, 1936, in Runyon, Middlesex County and −34 °F (−37 °C) on January 5, 1904, in River Vale, Bergen County. New Jersey_sentence_179

Average annual precipitation ranges from 43 to 51 inches (1,100 to 1,300 mm), uniformly spread through the year. New Jersey_sentence_180

Average snowfall per winter season ranges from 10–15 inches (25–38 cm) in the south and near the seacoast, 15–30 inches (38–76 cm) in the northeast and central part of the state, to about 40–50 inches (1.0–1.3 m) in the northwestern highlands, but this often varies considerably from year to year. New Jersey_sentence_181

Precipitation falls on an average of 120 days a year, with 25 to 30 thunderstorms, most of which occur during the summer. New Jersey_sentence_182

During winter and early spring, New Jersey can experience "nor'easters", which are capable of causing blizzards or flooding throughout the northeastern United States. New Jersey_sentence_183

Hurricanes and tropical storms (such as Tropical Storm Floyd in 1999), tornadoes, and earthquakes are rare, although New Jersey was impacted by a hurricane in 1903, and Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012 with the storm making landfall in the state with top winds of 90 mph (145 km/h). New Jersey_sentence_184

New Jersey_table_general_2

Average high and low temperatures in various cities of New Jersey °C (°F)New Jersey_cell_2_0_0
CityNew Jersey_cell_2_1_0 JanNew Jersey_cell_2_1_1 FebNew Jersey_cell_2_1_2 MarNew Jersey_cell_2_1_3 AprNew Jersey_cell_2_1_4 MayNew Jersey_cell_2_1_5 JunNew Jersey_cell_2_1_6 JulNew Jersey_cell_2_1_7 AugNew Jersey_cell_2_1_8 SepNew Jersey_cell_2_1_9 OctNew Jersey_cell_2_1_10 NovNew Jersey_cell_2_1_11 DecNew Jersey_cell_2_1_12 New Jersey_cell_2_1_13
SussexNew Jersey_cell_2_2_0 1/−9 (34/16)New Jersey_cell_2_2_1 3/−8 (38/18)New Jersey_cell_2_2_2 8/−4 (47/26)New Jersey_cell_2_2_3 15/2 (59/36)New Jersey_cell_2_2_4 21/7 (70/45)New Jersey_cell_2_2_5 25/12 (78/55)New Jersey_cell_2_2_6 28/16 (82/60)New Jersey_cell_2_2_7 27/14 (81/58)New Jersey_cell_2_2_8 23/10 (73/50)New Jersey_cell_2_2_9 17/4 (62/38)New Jersey_cell_2_2_10 11/−1 (51/31)New Jersey_cell_2_2_11 4/−6 (39/22)New Jersey_cell_2_2_12 New Jersey_cell_2_2_13
NewarkNew Jersey_cell_2_3_0 4/−4 (39/24)New Jersey_cell_2_3_1 6/−3 (42/27)New Jersey_cell_2_3_2 10/1 (51/34)New Jersey_cell_2_3_3 17/7 (62/44)New Jersey_cell_2_3_4 22/12 (72/53)New Jersey_cell_2_3_5 28/17 (82/63)New Jersey_cell_2_3_6 30/20 (86/69)New Jersey_cell_2_3_7 29/20 (84/68)New Jersey_cell_2_3_8 25/15 (77/60)New Jersey_cell_2_3_9 18/9 (65/48)New Jersey_cell_2_3_10 13/4 (55/39)New Jersey_cell_2_3_11 6/−1 (44/30)New Jersey_cell_2_3_12 New Jersey_cell_2_3_13
Atlantic CityNew Jersey_cell_2_4_0 5/−2 (42/29)New Jersey_cell_2_4_1 6/−1 (44/31)New Jersey_cell_2_4_2 10/3 (50/37)New Jersey_cell_2_4_3 14/8 (58/46)New Jersey_cell_2_4_4 19/13 (67/55)New Jersey_cell_2_4_5 24/18 (76/64)New Jersey_cell_2_4_6 27/21 (81/70)New Jersey_cell_2_4_7 27/21 (80/70)New Jersey_cell_2_4_8 24/18 (75/64)New Jersey_cell_2_4_9 18/11 (65/53)New Jersey_cell_2_4_10 13/6 (56/43)New Jersey_cell_2_4_11 8/1 (46/34)New Jersey_cell_2_4_12 New Jersey_cell_2_4_13
Cape MayNew Jersey_cell_2_5_0 6/−2 (42/28)New Jersey_cell_2_5_1 7/−2 (44/29)New Jersey_cell_2_5_2 11/2 (51/35)New Jersey_cell_2_5_3 16/7 (61/44)New Jersey_cell_2_5_4 21/12 (70/53)New Jersey_cell_2_5_5 26/17 (79/63)New Jersey_cell_2_5_6 29/20 (85/68)New Jersey_cell_2_5_7 29/19 (83/67)New Jersey_cell_2_5_8 25/16 (78/61)New Jersey_cell_2_5_9 19/9 (67/50)New Jersey_cell_2_5_10 14/4 (57/41)New Jersey_cell_2_5_11 8/0 (47/32)New Jersey_cell_2_5_12 New Jersey_cell_2_5_13

Demographics New Jersey_section_9

State population New Jersey_section_10

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of New Jersey was 8,882,190 on July 1, 2019, a 1.03% increase since the 2010 United States Census. New Jersey_sentence_185

Residents of New Jersey are most commonly referred to as "New Jerseyans" or, less commonly, as "New Jerseyites". New Jersey_sentence_186

As of the 2010 census, there were 8,791,894 people living in the state. New Jersey_sentence_187

The racial makeup of the state was: New Jersey_sentence_188

New Jersey_unordered_list_1

17.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino (of any race). New Jersey_sentence_189

New Jersey_table_general_3

New Jersey racial breakdown of populationNew Jersey_table_caption_3
Racial compositionNew Jersey_header_cell_3_0_0 1970New Jersey_header_cell_3_0_1 1990New Jersey_header_cell_3_0_2 2000New Jersey_header_cell_3_0_3 2010New Jersey_header_cell_3_0_4
WhiteNew Jersey_cell_3_1_0 88.6%New Jersey_cell_3_1_1 79.3%New Jersey_cell_3_1_2 72.5%New Jersey_cell_3_1_3 68.6%New Jersey_cell_3_1_4
BlackNew Jersey_cell_3_2_0 10.7%New Jersey_cell_3_2_1 13.4%New Jersey_cell_3_2_2 13.6%New Jersey_cell_3_2_3 13.7%New Jersey_cell_3_2_4
AsianNew Jersey_cell_3_3_0 0.3%New Jersey_cell_3_3_1 3.5%New Jersey_cell_3_3_2 5.7%New Jersey_cell_3_3_3 8.3%New Jersey_cell_3_3_4
NativeNew Jersey_cell_3_4_0 0.1%New Jersey_cell_3_4_1 0.2%New Jersey_cell_3_4_2 0.2%New Jersey_cell_3_4_3 0.3%New Jersey_cell_3_4_4
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderNew Jersey_cell_3_5_0

New Jersey_cell_3_5_1 New Jersey_cell_3_5_2 New Jersey_cell_3_5_3 New Jersey_cell_3_5_4
Other raceNew Jersey_cell_3_6_0 0.3%New Jersey_cell_3_6_1 3.6%New Jersey_cell_3_6_2 5.4%New Jersey_cell_3_6_3 6.4%New Jersey_cell_3_6_4
Two or more racesNew Jersey_cell_3_7_0 New Jersey_cell_3_7_1 New Jersey_cell_3_7_2 2.5%New Jersey_cell_3_7_3 2.7%New Jersey_cell_3_7_4

Non-Hispanic Whites were 58.9% of the population in 2011, down from 85% in 1970. New Jersey_sentence_190

In 2010, unauthorized immigrants constituted an estimated 6.2% of the population. New Jersey_sentence_191

This was the fourth-highest percentage of any state in the country. New Jersey_sentence_192

There were an estimated 550,000 illegal immigrants in the state in 2010. New Jersey_sentence_193

Among the municipalities which are considered sanctuary cities are Camden, Jersey City and Newark. New Jersey_sentence_194

As of 2010, New Jersey was the eleventh-most populous state in the United States, and the most densely populated, at 1,185 residents per square mile (458 per km), with most of the population residing in the counties surrounding New York City, Philadelphia, and along the eastern Jersey Shore, while the extreme southern and northwestern counties are relatively less dense overall. New Jersey_sentence_195

It is also the second wealthiest state according to the U.S. Census Bureau. New Jersey_sentence_196

The center of population for New Jersey is located in Middlesex County, in the town of Milltown, just east of the New Jersey Turnpike. New Jersey_sentence_197

New Jersey is home to more scientists and engineers per square mile than anywhere else in the world. New Jersey_sentence_198

On October 21, 2013, same-sex marriages commenced in New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_199

New Jersey is one of the most ethnically and religiously diverse states in the United States. New Jersey_sentence_200

As of 2011, 56.4% of New Jersey's children under the age of one belonged to racial or ethnic minority groups, meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white. New Jersey_sentence_201

The state has the second largest Jewish population by percentage (after New York); the second largest Muslim population by percentage (after Michigan); the largest population of Peruvians in the United States; the largest population of Cubans outside of Florida; the third highest Asian population by percentage; and the second highest Italian population, according to the 2000 Census. New Jersey_sentence_202

African Americans, Hispanics (Puerto Ricans and Dominicans), West Indians, Arabs, and Brazilian and Portuguese Americans are also high in number. New Jersey_sentence_203

New Jersey has the third highest Asian Indian population of any state by absolute numbers and the highest by percentage, with Bergen County home to America's largest Malayali community. New Jersey_sentence_204

Overall, New Jersey has the third largest Korean population, with Bergen County home to the highest Korean concentration per capita of any U.S. county (6.9% in 2011). New Jersey_sentence_205

New Jersey also has the fourth largest Filipino population, and fourth largest Chinese population, per the 2010 U.S. Census. New Jersey_sentence_206

The five largest ethnic groups in 2000 were: Italian (17.9%), Irish (15.9%), African (13.6%), German (12.6%), Polish (6.9%). New Jersey_sentence_207

India Square, in Bombay, Jersey City, Hudson County, is home to the highest concentration of Asian Indians in the Western Hemisphere. New Jersey_sentence_208

Meanwhile, Central New Jersey, particularly Edison and surrounding Middlesex County, is prominently known for its significant concentration of Asian Indians. New Jersey_sentence_209

The world's largest Hindu temple was inaugurated in Robbinsville in 2014, a BAPS temple. New Jersey_sentence_210

The growing Little India is a South Asian-focused commercial strip in Middlesex County, the U.S. New Jersey_sentence_211

county with the highest concentration of Asian Indians. New Jersey_sentence_212

The Oak Tree Road strip runs for about one-and-a-half miles through Edison and neighboring Iselin in Woodbridge Township, near the area's sprawling Chinatown and Koreatown, running along New Jersey Route 27. New Jersey_sentence_213

It is the largest and most diverse South Asian cultural hub in the United States. New Jersey_sentence_214

Carteret's Punjabi Sikh community, variously estimated at upwards of 3,000, is the largest concentration of Sikhs in the state. New Jersey_sentence_215

Monroe Township in Middlesex County has experienced a particularly rapid growth rate in its Indian American population, with an estimated 5,943 (13.6%) as of 2017, which was 23 times the 256 (0.9%) counted as of the 2000 Census; and Diwali is celebrated by the township as a Hindu holiday. New Jersey_sentence_216

In Middlesex County, election ballots are printed in English, Spanish, Gujarati, Hindi, and Punjabi. New Jersey_sentence_217

Newark was the fourth poorest of U.S. cities with over 250,000 residents in 2008, but New Jersey as a whole had the second-highest median household income as of 2014. New Jersey_sentence_218

This is largely because so much of New Jersey consists of suburbs, most of them affluent, of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey_sentence_219

New Jersey is also the most densely populated state, and the only state that has had every one of its counties deemed "urban" as defined by the Census Bureau's Combined Statistical Area. New Jersey_sentence_220

In 2010, 6.2% of its population was reported as under age 5, 23.5% under 18, and 13.5% were 65 or older; and females made up approximately 51.3% of the population. New Jersey_sentence_221

A study by the Pew Research Center found that in 2013, New Jersey was the only U.S. state in which immigrants born in India constituted the largest foreign-born nationality, representing roughly 10% of all foreign-born residents in the state. New Jersey_sentence_222

For further information on various ethnoracial groups and neighborhoods prominently featured within New Jersey, see the following articles: New Jersey_sentence_223

New Jersey_unordered_list_2

Birth data New Jersey_section_11

As of 2011, 56.4% of New Jersey's population younger than age 1 were minorities (meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white). New Jersey_sentence_224

Note: Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. New Jersey_sentence_225

New Jersey_table_general_4

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of MotherNew Jersey_table_caption_4
RaceNew Jersey_header_cell_4_0_0 2014New Jersey_header_cell_4_0_1 2015New Jersey_header_cell_4_0_2 2016New Jersey_header_cell_4_0_3 2017New Jersey_header_cell_4_0_4 2018New Jersey_header_cell_4_0_5
White:New Jersey_cell_4_1_0 71,033 (68.8%)New Jersey_cell_4_1_1 72,400 (70.2%)New Jersey_cell_4_1_2 ...New Jersey_cell_4_1_3 ...New Jersey_cell_4_1_4 ...New Jersey_cell_4_1_5
> Non-Hispanic WhiteNew Jersey_cell_4_2_0 48,196 (46.6%)New Jersey_cell_4_2_1 47,425 (46.0%)New Jersey_cell_4_2_2 46,076 (44.9%)New Jersey_cell_4_2_3 45,825 (45.3%)New Jersey_cell_4_2_4 45,500 (44.9%)New Jersey_cell_4_2_5
BlackNew Jersey_cell_4_3_0 20,102 (19.4%)New Jersey_cell_4_3_1 18,363 (17.8%)New Jersey_cell_4_3_2 13,870 (13.5%)New Jersey_cell_4_3_3 13,684 (13.5%)New Jersey_cell_4_3_4 13,886 (13.7%)New Jersey_cell_4_3_5
AsianNew Jersey_cell_4_4_0 11,977 (11.6%)New Jersey_cell_4_4_1 12,192 (11.8%)New Jersey_cell_4_4_2 12,053 (11.7%)New Jersey_cell_4_4_3 11,691 (11.5%)New Jersey_cell_4_4_4 11,452 (11.3%)New Jersey_cell_4_4_5
American IndianNew Jersey_cell_4_5_0 193 (0.2%)New Jersey_cell_4_5_1 172 (0.2%)New Jersey_cell_4_5_2 62 (0.0%)New Jersey_cell_4_5_3 72 (0.1%)New Jersey_cell_4_5_4 67 (0.1%)New Jersey_cell_4_5_5
Hispanic (of any race)New Jersey_cell_4_6_0 27,267 (26.4%)New Jersey_cell_4_6_1 27,919 (27.1%)New Jersey_cell_4_6_2 28,083 (27.3%)New Jersey_cell_4_6_3 27,354 (27.0%)New Jersey_cell_4_6_4 27,597 (27.3%)New Jersey_cell_4_6_5
Total New JerseyNew Jersey_cell_4_7_0 103,305 (100%)New Jersey_cell_4_7_1 103,127 (100%)New Jersey_cell_4_7_2 102,647 (100%)New Jersey_cell_4_7_3 101,250 (100%)New Jersey_cell_4_7_4 101,223 (100%)New Jersey_cell_4_7_5

New Jersey_unordered_list_3

  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.New Jersey_item_3_35

Languages New Jersey_section_12

New Jersey_table_general_5

Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in New JerseyNew Jersey_table_caption_5
LanguageNew Jersey_header_cell_5_0_0 Percentage of population

(as of 2010)New Jersey_header_cell_5_0_1

SpanishNew Jersey_cell_5_1_0 14.59%New Jersey_cell_5_1_1
Chinese (including Cantonese and Mandarin)New Jersey_cell_5_2_0 1.23%New Jersey_cell_5_2_1
ItalianNew Jersey_cell_5_3_0 1.06%New Jersey_cell_5_3_1
PortugueseNew Jersey_cell_5_4_0 1.06%New Jersey_cell_5_4_1
FilipinoNew Jersey_cell_5_5_0 0.96%New Jersey_cell_5_5_1
KoreanNew Jersey_cell_5_6_0 0.89%New Jersey_cell_5_6_1
GujaratiNew Jersey_cell_5_7_0 0.83%New Jersey_cell_5_7_1
PolishNew Jersey_cell_5_8_0 0.79%New Jersey_cell_5_8_1
HindiNew Jersey_cell_5_9_0 0.71%New Jersey_cell_5_9_1
ArabicNew Jersey_cell_5_10_0 0.62%New Jersey_cell_5_10_1
RussianNew Jersey_cell_5_11_0 0.56%New Jersey_cell_5_11_1

As of 2010, 71.31% (5,830,812) of New Jersey residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 14.59% (1,193,261) spoke Spanish, 1.23% (100,217) Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin), 1.06% (86,849) Italian, 1.06% (86,486) Portuguese, 0.96% (78,627) Tagalog, and Korean was spoken as a main language by 0.89% (73,057) of the population over the age of five. New Jersey_sentence_226

In total, 28.69% (2,345,644) of New Jersey's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English. New Jersey_sentence_227

A diverse collection of languages has since evolved amongst the state's population, given that New Jersey has become cosmopolitan and is home to ethnic enclaves of non-English-speaking communities: New Jersey_sentence_228

New Jersey_unordered_list_4

  • New Jersey_item_4_36
  • New Jersey_item_4_37
  • New Jersey_item_4_38
  • New Jersey_item_4_39

Religion New Jersey_section_13

By number of adherents, the largest denominations in New Jersey, according to the Association of Religion Data Archives in 2010, were the Roman Catholic Church with 3,235,290; Islam with 160,666; and the United Methodist Church with 138,052. New Jersey_sentence_229

The world's largest Hindu temple was inaugurated in Robbinsville, Mercer County, in central New Jersey during 2014, a BAPS temple. New Jersey_sentence_230

In January 2018, Gurbir Grewal became the first Sikh American state attorney general in the United States. New Jersey_sentence_231

In January 2019, Sadaf Jaffer became the first female Muslim American mayor, first female South Asian mayor, and first female Pakistani-American mayor in the United States, of Montgomery in Somerset County. New Jersey_sentence_232

New Jersey_unordered_list_5

  • New Jersey_item_5_40
  • New Jersey_item_5_41
  • New Jersey_item_5_42

Settlements New Jersey_section_14

See also: List of counties in New Jersey and List of municipalities in New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_233

New Jersey_ordered_list_6

  1. Bergen County: 936,692New Jersey_item_6_43
  2. Middlesex County: 829,685New Jersey_item_6_44
  3. Essex County: 799,767New Jersey_item_6_45
  4. Hudson County: 676,061New Jersey_item_6_46
  5. Monmouth County: 621,354New Jersey_item_6_47
  6. Ocean County: 601,651New Jersey_item_6_48
  7. Union County: 558,067New Jersey_item_6_49
  8. Camden County: 507,078New Jersey_item_6_50
  9. Passaic County: 503,310New Jersey_item_6_51
  10. Morris County: 494,228New Jersey_item_6_52
  11. Burlington County: 445,384New Jersey_item_6_53
  12. Mercer County: 369,811New Jersey_item_6_54
  13. Somerset County: 331,164New Jersey_item_6_55
  14. Gloucester County: 291,408New Jersey_item_6_56
  15. Atlantic County: 265,429New Jersey_item_6_57
  16. Cumberland County: 150,972New Jersey_item_6_58
  17. Sussex County: 140,799New Jersey_item_6_59
  18. Hunterdon County: 124,714New Jersey_item_6_60
  19. Warren County: 105,779New Jersey_item_6_61
  20. Cape May County: 92,560New Jersey_item_6_62
  21. Salem County: 62,607New Jersey_item_6_63

For its overall population and nation-leading population density, New Jersey has a relative paucity of classic large cities. New Jersey_sentence_234

This paradox is most pronounced in Bergen County, New Jersey's most populous county, whose more than 930,000 residents in 2019 inhabited 70 municipalities, the most populous being Hackensack, with 44,522 residents estimated in 2018. New Jersey_sentence_235

Many urban areas extend far beyond the limits of a single large city, as New Jersey cities (and indeed municipalities in general) tend to be geographically small; three of the four largest cities in New Jersey by population have under 20 square miles (52 km) of land area, and eight of the top ten, including all of the top five have land area under 30 square miles (78 km). New Jersey_sentence_236

As of the 2010 United States Census, only four municipalities had populations in excess of 100,000, although Edison and Woodbridge came very close. New Jersey_sentence_237

New Jersey_table_general_6

Largest municipalities in New Jersey in terms of areaNew Jersey_table_caption_6
RankNew Jersey_header_cell_6_0_0 NameNew Jersey_header_cell_6_0_1 Area (sq.mi.)New Jersey_header_cell_6_0_2 Area (km)New Jersey_header_cell_6_0_3 CountyNew Jersey_header_cell_6_0_4
1New Jersey_cell_6_1_0 Galloway TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_1_1 115.2New Jersey_cell_6_1_2 298New Jersey_cell_6_1_3 Atlantic CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_1_4
2New Jersey_cell_6_2_0 Hamilton TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_2_1 113.0New Jersey_cell_6_2_2 293New Jersey_cell_6_2_3 Atlantic CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_2_4
3New Jersey_cell_6_3_0 Washington TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_3_1 102.9New Jersey_cell_6_3_2 267New Jersey_cell_6_3_3 Burlington CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_3_4
4New Jersey_cell_6_4_0 Jackson TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_4_1 100.1New Jersey_cell_6_4_2 259New Jersey_cell_6_4_3 Ocean CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_4_4
5New Jersey_cell_6_5_0 Lacey TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_5_1 98.5New Jersey_cell_6_5_2 255New Jersey_cell_6_5_3 Ocean CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_5_4
6New Jersey_cell_6_6_0 Woodland TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_6_1 96.4New Jersey_cell_6_6_2 250New Jersey_cell_6_6_3 Burlington CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_6_4
7New Jersey_cell_6_7_0 Maurice River TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_7_1 95.7New Jersey_cell_6_7_2 248New Jersey_cell_6_7_3 Cumberland CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_7_4
8New Jersey_cell_6_8_0 Middle TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_8_1 83.1New Jersey_cell_6_8_2 215New Jersey_cell_6_8_3 Cape May CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_8_4
9New Jersey_cell_6_9_0 Manchester TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_9_1 82.9New Jersey_cell_6_9_2 215New Jersey_cell_6_9_3 Ocean CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_9_4
10New Jersey_cell_6_10_0 West MilfordNew Jersey_cell_6_10_1 80.4New Jersey_cell_6_10_2 208New Jersey_cell_6_10_3 Passaic CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_10_4
11New Jersey_cell_6_11_0 Bass River TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_11_1 78.2New Jersey_cell_6_11_2 203New Jersey_cell_6_11_3 Burlington CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_11_4
12New Jersey_cell_6_12_0 Egg Harbor TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_12_1 75.0New Jersey_cell_6_12_2 194New Jersey_cell_6_12_3 Atlantic CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_12_4
13New Jersey_cell_6_13_0 Little Egg Harbor TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_13_1 73.2New Jersey_cell_6_13_2 190New Jersey_cell_6_13_3 Ocean CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_13_4
14New Jersey_cell_6_14_0 Lower Alloways Creek TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_14_1 72.6New Jersey_cell_6_14_2 188New Jersey_cell_6_14_3 Salem CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_14_4
15New Jersey_cell_6_15_0 Vernon TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_15_1 70.5New Jersey_cell_6_15_2 183New Jersey_cell_6_15_3 Sussex CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_15_4
16New Jersey_cell_6_16_0 Upper TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_16_1 68.5New Jersey_cell_6_16_2 177New Jersey_cell_6_16_3 Cape May CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_16_4
17New Jersey_cell_6_17_0 Wantage TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_17_1 67.5New Jersey_cell_6_17_2 175New Jersey_cell_6_17_3 Sussex CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_17_4
18New Jersey_cell_6_18_0 Dennis TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_18_1 64.3New Jersey_cell_6_18_2 167New Jersey_cell_6_18_3 Cape May CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_18_4
19New Jersey_cell_6_19_0 Pemberton TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_19_1 62.5New Jersey_cell_6_19_2 162New Jersey_cell_6_19_3 Burlington CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_19_4
20New Jersey_cell_6_20_0 Howell TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_20_1 61.0New Jersey_cell_6_20_2 158New Jersey_cell_6_20_3 Monmouth CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_20_4
21New Jersey_cell_6_21_0 Middletown TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_21_1 59.3New Jersey_cell_6_21_2 154New Jersey_cell_6_21_3 Monmouth CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_21_4
22New Jersey_cell_6_22_0 Hopewell TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_22_1 58.7New Jersey_cell_6_22_2 152New Jersey_cell_6_22_3 Mercer CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_22_4
23New Jersey_cell_6_23_0 Winslow TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_23_1 58.1New Jersey_cell_6_23_2 150New Jersey_cell_6_23_3 Camden CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_23_4
24New Jersey_cell_6_24_0 Mullica TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_24_1 56.9New Jersey_cell_6_24_2 147New Jersey_cell_6_24_3 Atlantic CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_24_4
25New Jersey_cell_6_25_0 Berkeley TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_25_1 55.8New Jersey_cell_6_25_2 145New Jersey_cell_6_25_3 Ocean CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_25_4
26New Jersey_cell_6_26_0 Hillsborough TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_26_1 54.8New Jersey_cell_6_26_2 142New Jersey_cell_6_26_3 Somerset CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_26_4
26New Jersey_cell_6_27_0 Stafford TownshipNew Jersey_cell_6_27_1 54.8New Jersey_cell_6_27_2 142New Jersey_cell_6_27_3 Ocean CountyNew Jersey_cell_6_27_4

Wealth New Jersey_section_15

Main article: New Jersey locations by per capita income New Jersey_sentence_238

Economy New Jersey_section_16

See also: New Jersey locations by per capita income New Jersey_sentence_239

The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that New Jersey's gross state product in the fourth quarter of 2018 was $639.8 billion. New Jersey_sentence_240

New Jersey's estimated taxpayer burden in 2015 was $59,400 per taxpayer. New Jersey_sentence_241

New Jersey is nearly $239 billion in debt. New Jersey_sentence_242

Affluence New Jersey_section_17

New Jersey's per capita gross state product in 2008 was $54,699, second in the U.S. and above the national per capita gross domestic product of $46,588. New Jersey_sentence_243

Its per capita income was the third highest in the nation with $51,358. New Jersey_sentence_244

In 2020, New Jersey had the highest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, approximately 9.76% of households. New Jersey_sentence_245

The state is ranked second in the nation by the number of places with per capita incomes above national average with 76.4%. New Jersey_sentence_246

Nine of New Jersey's counties are among the 100 wealthiest U.S. counties. New Jersey_sentence_247

Fiscal policy New Jersey_section_18

New Jersey has seven tax brackets that determine state income tax rates, which range from 1.4% (for income below $20,000) to 8.97% (for income above $500,000). New Jersey_sentence_248

The standard sales tax rate as of January 1, 2018, is 6.625%, applicable to all retail sales unless specifically exempt by law. New Jersey_sentence_249

This rate, which is comparably lower than that of New York City, often attracts numerous shoppers from New York City, often to suburban Paramus, New Jersey, which has five malls, one of which (the Garden State Plaza) has over two million square feet of retail space. New Jersey_sentence_250

Tax exemptions include most food items for at-home preparation, medications, most clothing, footwear and disposable paper products for use in the home. New Jersey_sentence_251

There are 27 Urban Enterprise Zone statewide, including sections of Paterson, Elizabeth, and Jersey City. New Jersey_sentence_252

In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3.3125% sales tax rate (half the rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants. New Jersey_sentence_253

New Jersey has the highest cumulative tax rate of all 50 states with residents paying a total of $68 billion in state and local taxes annually with a per capita burden of $7,816 at a rate of 12.9% of income. New Jersey_sentence_254

All real property located in the state is subject to property tax unless specifically exempted by statute. New Jersey_sentence_255

New Jersey does not assess an intangible personal property tax, but it does impose an inheritance tax. New Jersey_sentence_256

Federal taxation disparity New Jersey_section_19

New Jersey consistently ranks as having one of the highest proportional levels of disparity of any state in the United States, based upon what it receives from the federal government relative to what it gives. New Jersey_sentence_257

In 2015, WalletHub ranked New Jersey the state least dependent upon federal government aid overall and having the fourth lowest return on taxpayer investment from the federal government, at 48 cents per dollar. New Jersey_sentence_258

New Jersey has one of the highest tax burdens in the nation. New Jersey_sentence_259

Factors for this include the large federal tax liability which is not adjusted for New Jersey's higher cost of living and Medicaid funding formulas. New Jersey_sentence_260

Industries New Jersey_section_20

Further information: Biotech and pharmaceutical companies in New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_261

New Jersey's economy is multifaceted, but is centered on the pharmaceutical industry, biotechnology, information technology, the financial industry, chemical development, telecommunications, food processing, electric equipment, printing, publishing, and tourism. New Jersey_sentence_262

New Jersey's agricultural outputs are nursery stock, horses, vegetables, fruits and nuts, seafood, and dairy products. New Jersey_sentence_263

New Jersey ranks second among states in blueberry production, third in cranberries and spinach, and fourth in bell peppers, peaches, and head lettuce. New Jersey_sentence_264

The state harvests the fourth-largest number of acres planted with asparagus. New Jersey_sentence_265

Although New Jersey is home to many energy-intensive industries, its energy consumption is only 2.7% of the U.S. total, and its carbon dioxide emissions are 0.8% of the U.S. total. New Jersey_sentence_266

Its comparatively low greenhouse gas emissions can be attributed to the state's use of nuclear power. New Jersey_sentence_267

According to the Energy Information Administration, nuclear power dominates New Jersey's electricity market, typically supplying more than one-half of state generation. New Jersey_sentence_268

New Jersey has three nuclear power plants, including the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, which came online in 1969 and is the oldest operating nuclear plant in the country. New Jersey_sentence_269

New Jersey has a strong scientific economy and is home to major pharmaceutical and telecommunications firms, drawing on the state's large and well-educated labor pool. New Jersey_sentence_270

There is also a strong service economy in retail sales, education, and real estate, serving residents who work in New York City or Philadelphia. New Jersey_sentence_271

Shipping is a key industry in New Jersey because of the state's strategic geographic location, the Port of New York and New Jersey being the busiest port on the East Coast. New Jersey_sentence_272

The Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal was the world's first container port and today is one of the world's largest. New Jersey_sentence_273

New Jersey hosts several business headquarters, including twenty-four Fortune 500 companies. New Jersey_sentence_274

Paramus in Bergen County has become the top retail ZIP code (07652) in the United States, with the municipality generating over US$6 billion in annual retail sales. New Jersey_sentence_275

Several New Jersey counties, including Somerset (7), Morris (10), Hunterdon (13), Bergen (21), and Monmouth (42), have been ranked among the highest-income counties in the United States. New Jersey_sentence_276

Tourism New Jersey_section_21

New Jersey's location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis and its extensive transportation system have put over one-third of all United States residents and many Canadian residents within overnight distance by land. New Jersey_sentence_277

This accessibility to consumer revenue has enabled seaside resorts such as Atlantic City and the remainder of the Jersey Shore, as well as the state's other natural and cultural attractions, to contribute significantly to the record 111 million tourist visits to New Jersey in 2018, providing US$44.7 billion in tourism revenue, directly supporting 333,860 jobs, sustaining more than 531,000 jobs overall including peripheral impacts, and generating US$5 billion in state and local tax revenue. New Jersey_sentence_278

Gambling New Jersey_section_22

Main article: Gambling in New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_279

In 1976, a referendum of New Jersey voters approved casino gambling in Atlantic City, where the first legalized casino opened in 1978. New Jersey_sentence_280

At that time, Las Vegas was the only other casino resort in the country. New Jersey_sentence_281

Today, several casinos lie along the Atlantic City Boardwalk, the first and longest boardwalk in the world. New Jersey_sentence_282

Atlantic City experienced a dramatic contraction in its stature as a gambling destination after 2010, including the closure of multiple casinos since 2014, spurred by competition from the advent of legalized gambling in other northeastern U.S. states. New Jersey_sentence_283

On February 26, 2013, Governor Chris Christie signed online gambling into law. New Jersey_sentence_284

Sports betting has become a growing source of gambling revenue in New Jersey since being legalized across the nation by the U.S. New Jersey_sentence_285

Supreme Court on May 14, 2018. New Jersey_sentence_286

Natural resources New Jersey_section_23

Forests cover 45%, or approximately 2.1 million acres, of New Jersey's land area. New Jersey_sentence_287

The chief tree of the northern forests is the oak. New Jersey_sentence_288

The Pine Barrens, consisting of pine forests, is in the southern part of the state. New Jersey_sentence_289

Some mining activity of zinc, iron, and manganese still takes place in the area in and around the Franklin Furnace. New Jersey_sentence_290

New Jersey is second in the nation in solar power installations, enabled by one of the country's most favorable net metering policies, and the renewable energy certificates program. New Jersey_sentence_291

The state has more than 10,000 solar installations. New Jersey_sentence_292

Education New Jersey_section_24

See also: Post-secondary education in New Jersey, Primary education in the United States, Secondary education in the United States, Higher education in the United States, and Education in the United States New Jersey_sentence_293

As of 2010, there were 605 school districts in the state. New Jersey_sentence_294

Secretary of Education Rick Rosenberg, appointed by Governor Jon Corzine, created the Education Advancement Initiative (EAI) to increase college admission rates by 10% for New Jersey's high school students, decrease dropout rates by 15%, and increase the amount of money devoted to schools by 10%. New Jersey_sentence_295

Rosenberg retracted this plan when criticized for taking the money out of healthcare to fund this initiative. New Jersey_sentence_296

In 2010, the state government paid all teachers' premiums for health insurance, but currently all NJ public teachers pay a portion of their own health insurance premiums. New Jersey_sentence_297

New Jersey is known for the quality of its education. New Jersey_sentence_298

In 2015, the state spent more per each public school student than any other U.S. state except New York, Alaska, and Connecticut, amounting to $18,235 spent per pupil; over 50% of the expenditure was allocated to student instruction. New Jersey_sentence_299

According to 2011 Newsweek statistics, students of High Technology High School in Lincroft, Monmouth County and Bergen County Academies in Hackensack, Bergen County registered average SAT scores of 2145 and 2100, respectively, representing the second- and third-highest scores, respectively, of all listed U.S. high schools. New Jersey_sentence_300

Princeton University in Princeton, Mercer County, one of the world's most prominent research universities, is often featured at or near the top of various national and global university rankings, topping the 2020 list of U.S. New Jersey_sentence_301

News & World Report. New Jersey_sentence_302

In 2013, Rutgers University, headquartered in New Brunswick, Middlesex County as the flagship institution of higher education in New Jersey, regained medical and dental schools, augmenting its profile as a national research university as well. New Jersey_sentence_303

In 2014, New Jersey's school systems were ranked at the top of all fifty U.S. states by financial website Wallethub.com. New Jersey_sentence_304

In 2018, New Jersey's overall educational system was ranked second among all states to Massachusetts by U.S. News & World Report. New Jersey_sentence_305

In both 2019 and 2020, Education Week also ranked New Jersey public schools the best of all U.S. states. New Jersey_sentence_306

Nine New Jersey high schools were ranked among the top 25 in the U.S. on the Newsweek "America's Top High Schools 2016" list, more than from any other state. New Jersey_sentence_307

A 2017 UCLA Civil Rights project found that New Jersey has the sixth-most segregated classrooms in the United States. New Jersey_sentence_308

Culture New Jersey_section_25

General New Jersey_section_26

New Jersey has continued to play a prominent role as a U.S. cultural nexus. New Jersey_sentence_309

Like every state, New Jersey has its own cuisine, religious communities, museums, and halls of fame. New Jersey_sentence_310

New Jersey is the birthplace of modern inventions such as: FM radio, the motion picture camera, the lithium battery, the light bulb, transistors, and the electric train. New Jersey_sentence_311

Other New Jersey creations include: the drive-in movie, the cultivated blueberry, cranberry sauce, the postcard, the boardwalk, the zipper, the phonograph, saltwater taffy, the dirigible, the seedless watermelon, the first use of a submarine in warfare, and the ice cream cone. New Jersey_sentence_312

Diners are iconic to New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_313

The state is home to many diner manufacturers and has over 600 diners, more than any other place in the world. New Jersey_sentence_314

New Jersey is the only state without a state song. New Jersey_sentence_315

I'm From New Jersey is incorrectly listed on many websites as being the New Jersey state song, but it was not even a contender when in 1996 the New Jersey Arts Council submitted their suggestions to the New Jersey Legislature. New Jersey_sentence_316

New Jersey is frequently the target of jokes in American culture, especially from New York City-based television shows, such as Saturday Night Live. New Jersey_sentence_317

Academic Michael Aaron Rockland attributes this to New Yorkers' view that New Jersey is the beginning of Middle America. New Jersey_sentence_318

The New Jersey Turnpike, which runs between two major East Coast cities, New York City and Philadelphia, is also cited as a reason, as people who traverse through the state may only see its industrial zones. New Jersey_sentence_319

Reality television shows like Jersey Shore and The Real Housewives of New Jersey have reinforced stereotypical views of New Jersey culture, but Rockland cited The Sopranos and the music of Bruce Springsteen as exporting a more positive image. New Jersey_sentence_320

Cuisine New Jersey_section_27

Main article: Cuisine of New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_321

New Jersey is known for several foods developed within the region, including Taylor Ham (also known as pork roll), cheesesteaks, and scrapple. New Jersey_sentence_322

Several states with substantial Italian American populations take credit for the development of submarine sandwiches, including New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_323

Music New Jersey_section_28

Main article: Music of New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_324

New Jersey has long been an important origin for both rock and rap music. New Jersey_sentence_325

Prominent musicians from or with significant connections to New Jersey include: New Jersey_sentence_326

New Jersey_unordered_list_7

In comics and video games New Jersey_section_29

New Jersey_unordered_list_8

Sports New Jersey_section_30

Main article: Sports in New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_327

New Jersey currently has six teams from major professional sports leagues playing in the state, although one Major League Soccer team and two National Football League teams identify themselves as being from the New York metropolitan area. New Jersey_sentence_328

Professional sports New Jersey_section_31

The National Hockey League's New Jersey Devils, based in Newark at the Prudential Center, is the only major league sports franchise to bear the state's name. New Jersey_sentence_329

Founded in 1974 in Kansas City, Missouri, as the Kansas City Scouts, the team played in Denver, Colorado, as the Colorado Rockies from 1976 until the spring of 1982 when naval architect, businessman, and Jersey City native John J. McMullen purchased, renamed, and moved the franchise to Brendan Byrne Arena in East Rutherford's Meadowlands Sports Complex. New Jersey_sentence_330

While the team had mostly losing records in Kansas City, Denver, and its first years in New Jersey, the Devils began to improve in the late 1980s and early 1990s under Hall of Fame president and general manager Lou Lamoriello. New Jersey_sentence_331

The team made the playoffs for the Stanley Cup in 2001 and 2012, and won it in 1995, 2000, and 2003. New Jersey_sentence_332

The organization is the youngest of the nine major league teams in the New York metropolitan area. New Jersey_sentence_333

The Devils have established a following throughout the northern and central portions of the state, carving a place in a media market once dominated by the New York Rangers and Islanders. New Jersey_sentence_334

In 2018, the Philadelphia Flyers renovated and expanded their training facility, the Virtua Center Flyers Skate Zone, in Voorhees Township in the southern portion of the state. New Jersey_sentence_335

The New York Metropolitan Area's two National Football League teams, the New York Giants and the New York Jets, play at MetLife Stadium in East Rutherford's Meadowlands Sports Complex. New Jersey_sentence_336

Built for about $1.6 billion, the venue is the most expensive stadium ever built. New Jersey_sentence_337

On February 2, 2014, MetLife Stadium hosted Super Bowl XLVIII. New Jersey_sentence_338

The New York Red Bulls of Major League Soccer play in Red Bull Arena, a soccer-specific stadium in Harrison across the Passaic River from downtown Newark. New Jersey_sentence_339

On July 27, 2011, Red Bull Arena hosted the 2011 MLS All-Star Game. New Jersey_sentence_340

From 1977 to 2012, New Jersey had a National Basketball Association team, the New Jersey Nets. New Jersey_sentence_341

WNBA's New York Liberty played in New Jersey from 2011 to 2013 while their primary home arena, Madison Square Garden was undergoing renovations. New Jersey_sentence_342

In 2016, the Philadelphia 76ers of the NBA opened their new headquarters and training facility, the Philadelphia 76ers Training Complex, in Camden. New Jersey_sentence_343

The Meadowlands Sports Complex is home to the Meadowlands Racetrack, one of three major harness racing tracks in the state. New Jersey_sentence_344

The Meadowlands Racetrack and Freehold Raceway in Freehold are two of the major harness racing tracks in North America. New Jersey_sentence_345

Monmouth Park Racetrack in Oceanport is a popular spot for thoroughbred racing in New Jersey and the northeast. New Jersey_sentence_346

It hosted the Breeders' Cup in 2007, and its turf course was renovated in preparation. New Jersey_sentence_347

Major league sports New Jersey_section_32

New Jersey teams New Jersey_section_33

New Jersey_table_general_7

ClubNew Jersey_header_cell_7_0_0 SportNew Jersey_header_cell_7_0_1 LeagueNew Jersey_header_cell_7_0_2 Stadium (capacity)New Jersey_header_cell_7_0_3 EstablishedNew Jersey_header_cell_7_0_4 TitlesNew Jersey_header_cell_7_0_5
New Jersey DevilsNew Jersey_cell_7_1_0 Ice hockeyNew Jersey_cell_7_1_1 NHLNew Jersey_cell_7_1_2 Prudential Center (16,514)New Jersey_cell_7_1_3 1974New Jersey_cell_7_1_4 3New Jersey_cell_7_1_5
Metropolitan RivetersNew Jersey_cell_7_2_0 NWHLNew Jersey_cell_7_2_1 Barnabas Health Hockey House at the Prudential Center (5,000)New Jersey_cell_7_2_2 2015New Jersey_cell_7_2_3 1New Jersey_cell_7_2_4
Sky Blue FCNew Jersey_cell_7_3_0 SoccerNew Jersey_cell_7_3_1 NWSLNew Jersey_cell_7_3_2 Red Bull Arena (25,000)New Jersey_cell_7_3_3 2007New Jersey_cell_7_3_4 1New Jersey_cell_7_3_5

New York teams that play in New Jersey New Jersey_section_34

New Jersey_table_general_8

ClubNew Jersey_header_cell_8_0_0 SportNew Jersey_header_cell_8_0_1 LeagueNew Jersey_header_cell_8_0_2 Stadium (capacity)New Jersey_header_cell_8_0_3 EstablishedNew Jersey_header_cell_8_0_4 TitlesNew Jersey_header_cell_8_0_5
New York GiantsNew Jersey_cell_8_1_0 FootballNew Jersey_cell_8_1_1 NFLNew Jersey_cell_8_1_2 MetLife Stadium (82,500)New Jersey_cell_8_1_3 1925New Jersey_cell_8_1_4 8New Jersey_cell_8_1_5
New York JetsNew Jersey_cell_8_2_0 1959New Jersey_cell_8_2_1 1New Jersey_cell_8_2_2
New York Red BullsNew Jersey_cell_8_3_0 SoccerNew Jersey_cell_8_3_1 MLSNew Jersey_cell_8_3_2 Red Bull Arena (25,000)New Jersey_cell_8_3_3 1994New Jersey_cell_8_3_4 0New Jersey_cell_8_3_5

Semi-pro and minor league sports New Jersey_section_35

New Jersey teams New Jersey_section_36

New Jersey_table_general_9

ClubNew Jersey_header_cell_9_0_0 SportNew Jersey_header_cell_9_0_1 LeagueNew Jersey_header_cell_9_0_2 Stadium (capacity)New Jersey_header_cell_9_0_3 EstablishedNew Jersey_header_cell_9_0_4 TitlesNew Jersey_header_cell_9_0_5
Trenton ThunderNew Jersey_cell_9_1_0 BaseballNew Jersey_cell_9_1_1 MiLB (AA-EL)New Jersey_cell_9_1_2 Arm & Hammer Park (6,150)New Jersey_cell_9_1_3 1980New Jersey_cell_9_1_4 3New Jersey_cell_9_1_5
Jersey Shore BlueClawsNew Jersey_cell_9_2_0 MiLB (A-SAL)New Jersey_cell_9_2_1 FirstEnergy Park (8,000)New Jersey_cell_9_2_2 1987New Jersey_cell_9_2_3 3New Jersey_cell_9_2_4
Somerset PatriotsNew Jersey_cell_9_3_0 ALPBNew Jersey_cell_9_3_1 TD Bank Ballpark (6,100)New Jersey_cell_9_3_2 1997New Jersey_cell_9_3_3 6New Jersey_cell_9_3_4
New Jersey JackalsNew Jersey_cell_9_4_0 Frontier LeagueNew Jersey_cell_9_4_1 Yogi Berra Stadium (5,000)New Jersey_cell_9_4_2 1998New Jersey_cell_9_4_3 5New Jersey_cell_9_4_4
Sussex County MinersNew Jersey_cell_9_5_0 Skylands Stadium (4,200)New Jersey_cell_9_5_1 2015New Jersey_cell_9_5_2 1New Jersey_cell_9_5_3
Jersey ExpressNew Jersey_cell_9_6_0 BasketballNew Jersey_cell_9_6_1 ABANew Jersey_cell_9_6_2 Wayne YMCANew Jersey_cell_9_6_3 2005New Jersey_cell_9_6_4 0New Jersey_cell_9_6_5

New York minor league teams that play in New Jersey New Jersey_section_37

New Jersey_table_general_10

ClubNew Jersey_header_cell_10_0_0 SportNew Jersey_header_cell_10_0_1 LeagueNew Jersey_header_cell_10_0_2 Stadium (capacity)New Jersey_header_cell_10_0_3 EstablishedNew Jersey_header_cell_10_0_4 TitlesNew Jersey_header_cell_10_0_5
New York Red Bulls IINew Jersey_cell_10_1_0 SoccerNew Jersey_cell_10_1_1 USLNew Jersey_cell_10_1_2 MSU Soccer Park at Pittser Field (5,000)New Jersey_cell_10_1_3 2015New Jersey_cell_10_1_4 1New Jersey_cell_10_1_5

College sports New Jersey_section_38

See also: List of college athletic programs in New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_348

Major schools New Jersey_section_39

New Jerseyans' collegiate allegiances are predominantly split among the three major NCAA Division I programs in the state: the Rutgers University (New Jersey's flagship state university) Scarlet Knights, members of the Big Ten Conference; the Seton Hall University (the state's largest Catholic university) Pirates, members of the Big East Conference; and the Princeton University (the state's Ivy League university) Tigers. New Jersey_sentence_349

The intense rivalry between Rutgers and Princeton athletics began with the first intercollegiate football game in 1869. New Jersey_sentence_350

The schools have not met on the football field since 1980, but they continue to play each other annually in all other sports offered by the two universities. New Jersey_sentence_351

Rutgers, which fields 24 teams in various sports, is nationally known for its football program, with a 6–4 all-time bowl record; and its women's basketball programs, which appeared in a National Final in 2007. New Jersey_sentence_352

In 2008 and 2009, Rutgers expanded their football home, Rutgers Stadium, now called SHI Stadium, on the Busch Campus. New Jersey_sentence_353

The basketball teams play at the Rutgers Athletic Center on Livingston Campus. New Jersey_sentence_354

Both venues and campuses are in Piscataway, across the Raritan River from New Brunswick. New Jersey_sentence_355

The university also fields men's basketball and baseball programs. New Jersey_sentence_356

Rutgers' fans live mostly in the western parts of the state and Middlesex County; its alumni base is the largest in the state. New Jersey_sentence_357

Rutgers' satellite campuses in Camden and Newark each field their own athletic programs—the Rutgers–Camden Scarlet Raptors and the Rutgers–Newark Scarlet Raiders—which both compete in NCAA Division III. New Jersey_sentence_358

Seton Hall fields no football team, but its men's basketball team is one of the Big East's storied programs. New Jersey_sentence_359

No New Jersey team has won more games in the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament, and it is the state's only men's basketball program to reach a modern National Final. New Jersey_sentence_360

The Pirates play their home games at Prudential Center in downtown Newark, about four miles from the university's South Orange campus. New Jersey_sentence_361

Their fans hail largely from in the predominantly Roman Catholic areas of the northern part of the state and the Jersey Shore. New Jersey_sentence_362

The annual inter-conference rivalry game between Seton Hall and Rutgers, whose venue alternates between Newark and Piscataway, the Garden State Hardwood Classic, is planned through 2026. New Jersey_sentence_363

Other schools New Jersey_section_40

The state's other Division I schools include the Monmouth University Hawks (West Long Branch), the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) Highlanders (Newark), the Rider University Broncs (Lawrenceville), and the Saint Peter's University Peacocks and Peahens (Jersey City). New Jersey_sentence_364

Fairleigh Dickinson University competes in both Division I and Division III. New Jersey_sentence_365

It has two campuses, each with its own sports teams. New Jersey_sentence_366

The teams at the Metropolitan Campus are known as the FDU Knights, and compete in the Northeast Conference and NCAA Division I. New Jersey_sentence_367

The college at Florham (FDU-Florham) teams are known as the FDU-Florham Devils and compete in the Middle Atlantic Conferences' Freedom Conference and NCAA Division III. New Jersey_sentence_368

Among the various Division III schools in the state, the Stevens Institute of Technology Ducks have fielded the longest continuously running collegiate men's lacrosse program in the country. New Jersey_sentence_369

2009 marked the 125th season. New Jersey_sentence_370

High school New Jersey_section_41

New Jersey high schools are divided into divisions under the New Jersey State Interscholastic Athletic Association (NJSIAA).' New Jersey_sentence_371

Founded in 1918, the NJSIAA currently represents 22,000 schools, 330,000 coaches, and almost 4.5 million athletes. New Jersey_sentence_372

Stadiums and arenas New Jersey_section_42

New Jersey_table_general_11

VenueNew Jersey_header_cell_11_0_0 CityNew Jersey_header_cell_11_0_1 CapacityNew Jersey_header_cell_11_0_2 TypeNew Jersey_header_cell_11_0_3 TenantsNew Jersey_header_cell_11_0_4 OpenedNew Jersey_header_cell_11_0_5
SHI StadiumNew Jersey_cell_11_1_0 PiscatawayNew Jersey_cell_11_1_1 52,454New Jersey_cell_11_1_2 StadiumNew Jersey_cell_11_1_3 Rutgers Scarlet KnightsNew Jersey_cell_11_1_4 1994New Jersey_cell_11_1_5
Jadwin GymnasiumNew Jersey_cell_11_2_0 PrincetonNew Jersey_cell_11_2_1 6,854New Jersey_cell_11_2_2 ArenaNew Jersey_cell_11_2_3 Princeton TigersNew Jersey_cell_11_2_4 1969New Jersey_cell_11_2_5
Rutgers Athletic CenterNew Jersey_cell_11_3_0 PiscatawayNew Jersey_cell_11_3_1 8,000New Jersey_cell_11_3_2 ArenaNew Jersey_cell_11_3_3 Rutgers Scarlet KnightsNew Jersey_cell_11_3_4 1977New Jersey_cell_11_3_5
MetLife StadiumNew Jersey_cell_11_4_0 East RutherfordNew Jersey_cell_11_4_1 82,500New Jersey_cell_11_4_2 StadiumNew Jersey_cell_11_4_3 New York Giants, New York JetsNew Jersey_cell_11_4_4 2010New Jersey_cell_11_4_5
Princeton StadiumNew Jersey_cell_11_5_0 PrincetonNew Jersey_cell_11_5_1 27,800New Jersey_cell_11_5_2 StadiumNew Jersey_cell_11_5_3 Princeton TigersNew Jersey_cell_11_5_4 1998New Jersey_cell_11_5_5
Prudential CenterNew Jersey_cell_11_6_0 NewarkNew Jersey_cell_11_6_1 18,711New Jersey_cell_11_6_2 ArenaNew Jersey_cell_11_6_3 New Jersey Devils, Seton Hall PiratesNew Jersey_cell_11_6_4 2007New Jersey_cell_11_6_5
Red Bull ArenaNew Jersey_cell_11_7_0 HarrisonNew Jersey_cell_11_7_1 25,189New Jersey_cell_11_7_2 StadiumNew Jersey_cell_11_7_3 New York Red BullsNew Jersey_cell_11_7_4 2010New Jersey_cell_11_7_5

Other notable sports venues New Jersey_section_43

New Jersey_unordered_list_9

Media New Jersey_section_44

Newspapers New Jersey_section_45

Radio stations New Jersey_section_46

Main article: List of radio stations in New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_373

Television and film New Jersey_section_47

Main article: Television and film of New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_374

Motion picture technology was developed by Thomas Edison, with much of his early work done at his West Orange laboratory. New Jersey_sentence_375

Edison's Black Maria was the first motion picture studio. New Jersey_sentence_376

America's first motion picture industry started in 1907 in Fort Lee and the first studio was constructed there in 1909. New Jersey_sentence_377

DuMont Laboratories in Passaic developed early sets and made the first broadcast to the private home. New Jersey_sentence_378

A number of television shows and films have been filmed in New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_379

Since 1978, the state has maintained a Motion Picture and Television Commission to encourage filming in-state. New Jersey_sentence_380

New Jersey has long offered tax credits to television producers. New Jersey_sentence_381

Governor Chris Christie suspended the credits in 2010, but the New Jersey State Legislature in 2011 approved the restoration and expansion of the tax credit program. New Jersey_sentence_382

Under bills passed by both the state Senate and Assembly, the program offers 20 percent tax credits (22% in urban enterprise zones) to television and film productions that shoot in the state and meet set standards for hiring and local spending. New Jersey_sentence_383

Transportation New Jersey_section_48

Main article: Transportation in New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_384

Roadways New Jersey_section_49

See also: List of New Jersey State Highways New Jersey_sentence_385

The New Jersey Turnpike is one of the most prominent and heavily trafficked roadways in the United States. New Jersey_sentence_386

This toll road, which overlaps with Interstate 95 for much of its length, carries traffic between Delaware and New York, and up and down the East Coast in general. New Jersey_sentence_387

Commonly referred to as simply "the Turnpike", it is known for its numerous rest areas named after prominent New Jerseyans. New Jersey_sentence_388

The Garden State Parkway, or simply "the Parkway", carries relatively more in-state traffic than interstate traffic and runs from New Jersey's northern border to its southernmost tip at Cape May. New Jersey_sentence_389

It is the main route that connects the New York metropolitan area to the Jersey Shore. New Jersey_sentence_390

With a total of fifteen travel and six shoulder lanes, the Driscoll Bridge on the Parkway, spanning the Raritan River in Middlesex County, is the widest motor vehicle bridge in the world by number of lanes as well as one of the busiest. New Jersey_sentence_391

New Jersey is connected to New York City via various key bridges and tunnels. New Jersey_sentence_392

The double-decked George Washington Bridge carries the heaviest load of motor vehicle traffic of any bridge in the world, at 102 million vehicles per year, across fourteen lanes. New Jersey_sentence_393

It connects Fort Lee, New Jersey to the Washington Heights neighborhood of Upper Manhattan, and carries Interstate 95 and U.S. New Jersey_sentence_394 Route 1/9 across the Hudson River. New Jersey_sentence_395

The Lincoln Tunnel connects to Midtown Manhattan carrying New Jersey Route 495, and the Holland Tunnel connects to Lower Manhattan carrying Interstate 78. New Jersey_sentence_396

New Jersey is also connected to Staten Island by three bridges—from north to south, the Bayonne Bridge, the Goethals Bridge, and the Outerbridge Crossing. New Jersey_sentence_397

New Jersey has interstate compacts with all three of its neighboring states. New Jersey_sentence_398

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the Delaware River Port Authority (with Pennsylvania), the Delaware River Joint Toll Bridge Commission (with Pennsylvania), and the Delaware River and Bay Authority (with Delaware) operate most of the major transportation routes in and out of the state. New Jersey_sentence_399

Bridge tolls are collected only from traffic exiting the state, with the exception of the private Dingman's Ferry Bridge over the Delaware River, which charges a toll in both directions. New Jersey_sentence_400

It is unlawful for a customer to serve themselves gasoline in New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_401

It became the last remaining U.S. state where all gas stations are required to sell full-service gasoline to customers at all times in 2016, after Oregon's introduction of restricted self-service gasoline availability took effect. New Jersey_sentence_402

Airports New Jersey_section_50

Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) is one of the busiest airports in the United States. New Jersey_sentence_403

Operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, it is one of the three main airports serving the New York metropolitan area. New Jersey_sentence_404

United Airlines is the airport's largest tenant, operating an entire terminal there, which it uses as one of its primary hubs. New Jersey_sentence_405

FedEx Express operates a large cargo terminal at EWR as well. New Jersey_sentence_406

The adjacent Newark Airport railroad station provides access to Amtrak and NJ Transit trains along the Northeast Corridor Line. New Jersey_sentence_407

Two smaller commercial airports, Atlantic City International Airport and rapidly growing Trenton-Mercer Airport, also operate in other parts of the state. New Jersey_sentence_408

Teterboro Airport in Bergen County, and Millville Municipal Airport in Cumberland County, are general aviation airports popular with private and corporate aircraft due to their proximity to New York City and the Jersey Shore, respectively. New Jersey_sentence_409

Rail and bus New Jersey_section_51

Main article: New Jersey Transit New Jersey_sentence_410

Further information: New Jersey Transit Bus Operations, New Jersey Transit Rail Operations, Port Authority Trans-Hudson, and PATCO Speedline New Jersey_sentence_411

NJ Transit operates extensive rail and bus service throughout the state. New Jersey_sentence_412

A state-run corporation, it began with the consolidation of several private bus companies in North Jersey in 1979. New Jersey_sentence_413

In the early 1980s, it acquired Conrail's commuter train operations that connected suburban towns to New York City. New Jersey_sentence_414

Today, NJ Transit has eleven commuter rail lines that run through different parts of the state. New Jersey_sentence_415

Most of the lines end at either Penn Station in New York City or Hoboken Terminal in Hoboken. New Jersey_sentence_416

One line provides service between Atlantic City and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. New Jersey_sentence_417

NJ Transit also operates three light rail systems in the state. New Jersey_sentence_418

The Hudson-Bergen Light Rail connects Bayonne to North Bergen, through Hoboken and Jersey City. New Jersey_sentence_419

The Newark Light Rail is partially underground, and connects downtown Newark with other parts of the city and its suburbs, Belleville and Bloomfield. New Jersey_sentence_420

The River Line connects Trenton and Camden. New Jersey_sentence_421

The PATH is a rapid transit system consisting of four lines operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_422

It links Hoboken, Jersey City, Harrison and Newark with New York City. New Jersey_sentence_423

The PATCO Speedline is a rapid transit system that links Camden County to Philadelphia. New Jersey_sentence_424

Both the PATCO and the PATH are two of only five rapid transit systems in the United States to operate 24 hours a day. New Jersey_sentence_425

Amtrak operates numerous long-distance passenger trains in New Jersey, both to and from neighboring states and around the country. New Jersey_sentence_426

In addition to the Newark Airport connection, other major Amtrak railway stations include Trenton Transit Center, Metropark, and the historic Newark Penn Station. New Jersey_sentence_427

The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, or SEPTA, has two commuter rail lines that operate into New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_428

The Trenton Line terminates at the Trenton Transit Center, and the West Trenton Line terminates at the West Trenton Rail Station in Ewing. New Jersey_sentence_429

AirTrain Newark is a monorail connecting the Amtrak/NJ Transit station on the Northeast Corridor to the airport's terminals and parking lots. New Jersey_sentence_430

Some private bus carriers still remain in New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_431

Most of these carriers operate with state funding to offset losses and state owned buses are provided to these carriers, of which Coach USA companies make up the bulk. New Jersey_sentence_432

Other carriers include private charter and tour bus operators that take gamblers from other parts of New Jersey, New York City, Philadelphia, and Delaware to the casino resorts of Atlantic City. New Jersey_sentence_433

Ferries New Jersey_section_52

New York Waterway has ferry terminals at Belford, Jersey City, Hoboken, Weehawken, and Edgewater, with service to different parts of Manhattan. New Jersey_sentence_434

Liberty Water Taxi in Jersey City has ferries from Paulus Hook and Liberty State Park to Battery Park City in Manhattan. New Jersey_sentence_435

Statue Cruises offers service from Liberty State Park to the Statue of Liberty National Monument, including Ellis Island. New Jersey_sentence_436

SeaStreak offers services from the Raritan Bayshore to Manhattan, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket. New Jersey_sentence_437

The Delaware River and Bay Authority operates the Cape May–Lewes Ferry on Delaware Bay, carrying both passengers and vehicles between New Jersey and Delaware. New Jersey_sentence_438

The agency also operates the Forts Ferry Crossing for passengers across the Delaware River. New Jersey_sentence_439

The Delaware River Port Authority operates the RiverLink Ferry between the Camden waterfront and Penn's Landing in Philadelphia. New Jersey_sentence_440

Government and politics New Jersey_section_53

Main article: Government of New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_441

Executive New Jersey_section_54

Further information: Governor of New Jersey and Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_442

The position of Governor of New Jersey has been considered one of the most powerful in the nation. New Jersey_sentence_443

Until 2010, the governor was the only statewide elected executive official in the state and appointed numerous government officials. New Jersey_sentence_444

Formerly, an acting governor was even more powerful as he simultaneously served as president of the New Jersey State Senate, thus directing half of the legislative and all of the executive process. New Jersey_sentence_445

In 2002 and 2007, president of the state senate Richard Codey held the position of acting governor for a short time, and from 2004 to 2006 Codey became a long-term acting governor due to Jim McGreevey's resignation. New Jersey_sentence_446

A 2005 amendment to the state Constitution prevents the Senate President from becoming acting governor in the event of a permanent gubernatorial vacancy without giving up her or his seat in the state Senate. New Jersey_sentence_447

Phil Murphy (D) is the governor. New Jersey_sentence_448

The governor's mansion is Drumthwacket, located in Princeton. New Jersey_sentence_449

Before 2010, New Jersey was one of the few states without a lieutenant governor. New Jersey_sentence_450

Republican Kim Guadagno was elected the first lieutenant governor of New Jersey and took office on January 19, 2010. New Jersey_sentence_451

She was elected on the Republican ticket with Governor-Elect Chris Christie in the November 2009 NJ gubernatorial election. New Jersey_sentence_452

The position was created as the result of a Constitutional amendment to the New Jersey State Constitution passed by the voters on November 8, 2005, and effective as of January 17, 2006. New Jersey_sentence_453

Legislative New Jersey_section_55

Main articles: New Jersey Legislature and 2006 New Jersey State Government Shutdown New Jersey_sentence_454

The current version of the New Jersey State Constitution was adopted in 1947. New Jersey_sentence_455

It provides for a bicameral New Jersey Legislature, consisting of an upper house Senate of 40 members and a lower house General Assembly of 80 members. New Jersey_sentence_456

Each of the 40 legislative districts elects one state senator and two Assembly members. New Jersey_sentence_457

Assembly members are elected for a two-year term in all odd-numbered years; state senators are elected in the years ending in 1, 3, and 7 and thus serve either four- or two-year terms. New Jersey_sentence_458

New Jersey is one of only five states that elects its state officials in odd-numbered years. New Jersey_sentence_459

(The others are Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Virginia.) New Jersey_sentence_460

New Jersey holds elections for these offices every four years, in the year following each federal Presidential election year. New Jersey_sentence_461

Thus, the last year when New Jersey elected a governor was 2017; the next gubernatorial election will occur in 2021. New Jersey_sentence_462

Judicial New Jersey_section_56

Main article: Judiciary of New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_463

The New Jersey Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and six associate justices. New Jersey_sentence_464

All are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of a majority of the membership of the state senate. New Jersey_sentence_465

Justices serve an initial seven-year term, after which they can be reappointed to serve until age 70. New Jersey_sentence_466

Most of the day-to-day work in the New Jersey courts is carried out in the Municipal Court, where simple traffic tickets, minor criminal offenses, and small civil matters are heard. New Jersey_sentence_467

More serious criminal and civil cases are handled by the Superior Court for each county. New Jersey_sentence_468

All Superior Court judges are appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of a majority of the membership of the state senate. New Jersey_sentence_469

Each judge serves an initial seven-year term, after which he or she can be reappointed to serve until age 70. New Jersey_sentence_470

New Jersey's judiciary is unusual in that it still has separate courts of law and equity, like its neighbor Delaware but unlike most other U.S. states. New Jersey_sentence_471

The New Jersey Superior Court is divided into Law and Chancery Divisions at the trial level; the Law Division hears both criminal cases and civil lawsuits where the plaintiff's primary remedy is damages, while the Chancery Division hears family cases, civil suits where the plaintiff's primary remedy is equitable relief, and probate trials. New Jersey_sentence_472

The Superior Court also has an Appellate Division, which functions as the state's intermediate appellate court. New Jersey_sentence_473

Superior Court judges are assigned to the Appellate Division by the Chief Justice. New Jersey_sentence_474

There is also a Tax Court, which is a court of limited jurisdiction. New Jersey_sentence_475

Tax Court judges hear appeals of tax decisions made by County Boards of Taxation. New Jersey_sentence_476

They also hear appeals on decisions made by the director of the Division of Taxation on such matters as state income, sales and business taxes, and homestead rebates. New Jersey_sentence_477

Appeals from Tax Court decisions are heard in the Appellate Division of Superior Court. New Jersey_sentence_478

Tax Court judges are appointed by the governor for initial terms of seven years, and upon reappointment are granted tenure until they reach the mandatory retirement age of 70. New Jersey_sentence_479

There are 12 Tax Court judgeships. New Jersey_sentence_480

Counties New Jersey_section_57

Further information: List of New Jersey counties New Jersey_sentence_481

New Jersey is divided into 21 counties; 13 date from the colonial era. New Jersey_sentence_482

New Jersey was completely divided into counties by 1692; the present counties were created by dividing the existing ones; most recently Union County in 1857. New Jersey_sentence_483

New Jersey is the only state in the nation where elected county officials are called "Freeholders", governing each county as part of its own Board of Chosen Freeholders. New Jersey_sentence_484

The number of freeholders in each county is determined by referendum, and must consist of three, five, seven or nine members. New Jersey_sentence_485

Depending on the county, the executive and legislative functions may be performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders or split into separate branches of government. New Jersey_sentence_486

In 16 counties, members of the Board of Chosen Freeholders perform both legislative and executive functions on a commission basis, with each freeholder assigned responsibility for a department or group of departments. New Jersey_sentence_487

In the other five counties (Atlantic, Bergen, Essex, Hudson and Mercer), there is a directly elected County Executive who performs the executive functions while the Board of Chosen Freeholders retains a legislative and oversight role. New Jersey_sentence_488

In counties without an Executive, a County Administrator (or County Manager) may be hired to perform day-to-day administration of county functions. New Jersey_sentence_489

Municipalities New Jersey_section_58

New Jersey currently has 565 municipalities; the number was 566 before Princeton Township and Princeton Borough merged to form the municipality of Princeton on January 1, 2013. New Jersey_sentence_490

Unlike other states, all New Jersey land is part of a municipality. New Jersey_sentence_491

In 2008, Governor Jon Corzine proposed cutting state aid to all towns under 10,000 people, to encourage mergers to reduce administrative costs. New Jersey_sentence_492

In May 2009, the Local Unit Alignment Reorganization and Consolidation Commission began a study of about 40 small communities in South Jersey to decide which ones might be good candidates for consolidation. New Jersey_sentence_493

Forms of municipal government New Jersey_section_59

Starting in the 20th century, largely driven by reform-minded goals, a series of six modern forms of government was implemented. New Jersey_sentence_494

This began with the Walsh Act, enacted in 1911 by the New Jersey Legislature, which provided for a three- or five-member commission elected on a non-partisan basis. New Jersey_sentence_495

This was followed by the 1923 Municipal Manager Law, which offered a non-partisan council, provided for a weak mayor elected by and from the members of the council, and introduced a Council-manager government structure with an appointed manager responsible for day-to-day administration of municipal affairs. New Jersey_sentence_496

The Faulkner Act, originally enacted in 1950 and substantially amended in 1981, offers four basic plans: Mayor-Council, Council-Manager, Small Municipality, and Mayor-Council-Administrator. New Jersey_sentence_497

The act provides many choices for communities with a preference for a strong executive and professional management of municipal affairs and offers great flexibility in allowing municipalities to select the characteristics of its government: the number of seats on the council; seats selected at-large, by wards, or through a combination of both; staggered or concurrent terms of office; and a mayor chosen by the council or elected directly by voters. New Jersey_sentence_498

Most large municipalities and a majority of New Jersey's residents are governed by municipalities with Faulkner Act charters. New Jersey_sentence_499

Municipalities can also formulate their own unique form of government and operate under a Special Charter with the approval of the New Jersey Legislature. New Jersey_sentence_500

While municipalities retain their names derived from types of government, they may have changed to one of the modern forms of government, or further in the past to one of the other traditional forms, leading to municipalities with formal names quite baffling to the general public. New Jersey_sentence_501

For example, though there are four municipalities that are officially of the village type, Loch Arbour is the only one remaining with the village form of government. New Jersey_sentence_502

The other three villages—Ridgefield Park (now with a Walsh Act form), Ridgewood (now with a Faulkner Act Council-Manager charter) and South Orange (now operates under a Special Charter)—have all migrated to other non-village forms. New Jersey_sentence_503

Politics New Jersey_section_60

Main article: Politics of New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_504

Social attitudes and issues New Jersey_section_61

Socially, New Jersey is considered one of the more liberal states in the nation. New Jersey_sentence_505

Polls indicate that 60% of the population are self-described as pro-choice, although a majority are opposed to late trimester and intact dilation and extraction and public funding of abortion. New Jersey_sentence_506

In a 2009 Quinnipiac University Polling Institute poll, a plurality supported same-sex marriage 49% to 43% opposed, On October 18, 2013, the New Jersey Supreme Court rendered a provisional, unanimous (7–0) order authorizing same-sex marriage in the state, pending a legal appeal by Governor Chris Christie, who then withdrew this appeal hours after the inaugural same-sex marriages took place on October 21, 2013. New Jersey_sentence_507

See also: LGBT rights in New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_508

New Jersey also has some of the most stringent gun control laws in the U.S. New Jersey_sentence_509

These include bans on assault firearms, hollow-nose bullets and slingshots. New Jersey_sentence_510

No gun offense in New Jersey is graded less than a felony. New Jersey_sentence_511

BB guns and black-powder guns are all treated as modern firearms. New Jersey_sentence_512

New Jersey does not recognize out-of-state gun licenses and aggressively enforces its own gun laws. New Jersey_sentence_513

Elections New Jersey_section_62

Main article: Elections in New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_514

See also: Political party strength in New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_515

In past elections, New Jersey was a Republican bastion, but recently has become a Democratic stronghold. New Jersey_sentence_516

Currently, New Jersey Democrats have majority control of both houses of the New Jersey Legislature (Senate, 26–14, and Assembly, 54–26), a 10–2 split of the state's twelve seats in the U.S. New Jersey_sentence_517 House of Representatives, and both U.S. New Jersey_sentence_518 Senate seats. New Jersey_sentence_519

Although the Democratic Party is very successful statewide, the state has had Republican governors; from 1994 to 2002, Christine Todd Whitman won twice with 47% and 49% of the votes, respectively, and in the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie defeated incumbent Democrat Jon Corzine with 48% of the vote. New Jersey_sentence_520

In the 2013 gubernatorial election, Christie won reelection with over 60% of the votes. New Jersey_sentence_521

Because each candidate for lieutenant governor runs on the same ticket as the party's candidate for governor, the current governor and lieutenant governor are members of the Democratic Party. New Jersey_sentence_522

The governor's appointments to cabinet and non-cabinet positions may be from either party; for instance, the attorney general is a Democrat. New Jersey_sentence_523

In federal elections, the state leans heavily towards the Democratic Party. New Jersey_sentence_524

For many years in the past, however, it was a Republican stronghold, having given comfortable margins of victory to the Republican candidate in the close elections of 1948, 1968, and 1976. New Jersey_sentence_525

New Jersey was a crucial swing state in the elections of 1960, 1968, and 1992. New Jersey_sentence_526

The last elected Republican to hold a Senate seat from New Jersey was Clifford P. Case in 1979. New Jersey_sentence_527

Newark Mayor Cory Booker was elected in October 2013 to join Robert Menendez to make New Jersey the first state with concurrent serving black and Latino U.S. senators. New Jersey_sentence_528

The state's Democratic strongholds include Camden County, Essex County (typically the state's most Democratic county—it includes Newark, the state's largest city), Hudson County (the second-strongest Democratic county, including Jersey City, the state's second-largest city); Mercer County (especially around Trenton and Princeton), Middlesex County, and Union County (including Elizabeth, the state's fourth-largest city). New Jersey_sentence_529

The suburban northwestern and southeastern counties of the state are reliably Republican: Republicans have support along the coast in Ocean County and in the mountainous northwestern part of the state, especially Morris County, Sussex County, and Warren County. New Jersey_sentence_530

Other suburban counties, especially Bergen County and Burlington County had the majority of votes go to the Democratic Party. New Jersey_sentence_531

In the 2008 election, President Barack Obama won New Jersey with approximately fifty-seven percent of the vote, compared to McCain's forty-one percent. New Jersey_sentence_532

Independent candidate Ralph Nader garnered less than one percent of the vote. New Jersey_sentence_533

About one-third of the state's counties are considered "swing" counties, but some go more one way than others. New Jersey_sentence_534

For example, Salem County, the same is true with Passaic County, with a highly populated Hispanic Democratic south (including Paterson, the state's third-largest city) and a rural, Republican north; with the "swing" township of Wayne in the middle. New Jersey_sentence_535

Other "swing" counties like Monmouth County, Somerset County, and Cape May County tend to go Republican, as they also have population in conservative areas, although Somerset has recently trended Democratic. New Jersey_sentence_536

To be eligible to vote in a U.S. election, all New Jerseyans are required to start their residency in the state 30 days prior to an election and register 21 days prior to election day. New Jersey_sentence_537

Capital punishment New Jersey_section_63

Main article: Capital punishment in New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_538

On December 17, 2007, Governor Jon Corzine signed into law a bill that would eliminate the death penalty in New Jersey. New Jersey_sentence_539

New Jersey is the first state to pass such legislation since Iowa and West Virginia eliminated executions in 1965. New Jersey_sentence_540

Corzine also signed a bill that would downgrade the Death Row prisoners' sentences from "Death" to "Life in Prison with No Parole". New Jersey_sentence_541

Points of interest New Jersey_section_64

Museums New Jersey_section_65

See also: List of museums in New Jersey New Jersey_sentence_542

New Jersey_table_general_12

MuseumNew Jersey_header_cell_12_0_0 LocationNew Jersey_header_cell_12_0_1 Year openedNew Jersey_header_cell_12_0_2 TypeNew Jersey_header_cell_12_0_3
New Jersey State MuseumNew Jersey_cell_12_1_0 TrentonNew Jersey_cell_12_1_1 1895New Jersey_cell_12_1_2 General educationNew Jersey_cell_12_1_3
Franklin Mineral MuseumNew Jersey_cell_12_2_0 Franklin, Sussex CountyNew Jersey_cell_12_2_1 1964New Jersey_cell_12_2_2 Mineral museumNew Jersey_cell_12_2_3
Liberty Science CenterNew Jersey_cell_12_3_0 Liberty State Park, Jersey CityNew Jersey_cell_12_3_1 1993New Jersey_cell_12_3_2 Science museumNew Jersey_cell_12_3_3
Maywood Station MuseumNew Jersey_cell_12_4_0 MaywoodNew Jersey_cell_12_4_1 2004New Jersey_cell_12_4_2 Railroad museumNew Jersey_cell_12_4_3
Montclair Art MuseumNew Jersey_cell_12_5_0 MontclairNew Jersey_cell_12_5_1 1914New Jersey_cell_12_5_2 Art museumNew Jersey_cell_12_5_3
Newark MuseumNew Jersey_cell_12_6_0 NewarkNew Jersey_cell_12_6_1 1909New Jersey_cell_12_6_2 Natural science and art museumNew Jersey_cell_12_6_3
Princeton University Art MuseumNew Jersey_cell_12_7_0 PrincetonNew Jersey_cell_12_7_1 1884New Jersey_cell_12_7_2 Art museumNew Jersey_cell_12_7_3
Thomas Edison MuseumNew Jersey_cell_12_8_0 Menlo ParkNew Jersey_cell_12_8_1 1938New Jersey_cell_12_8_2 Thomas Edison museumNew Jersey_cell_12_8_3

There is also a mineral museum Ogdensburg in Sussex County. New Jersey_sentence_543

National Parks, Monuments, Reserves, and Trails New Jersey_section_66

See also: List of National Historic Landmarks in New Jersey and List of New Jersey state parks New Jersey_sentence_544

New Jersey_unordered_list_10

Entertainment and concert venues New Jersey_section_67

Visitors and residents take advantage of and contribute to performances at the numerous music, theater, and dance companies and venues located throughout the state, including: New Jersey_sentence_545

New Jersey_table_general_13

VenueNew Jersey_header_cell_13_0_0 TypeNew Jersey_header_cell_13_0_1 LocationNew Jersey_header_cell_13_0_2 Year openedNew Jersey_header_cell_13_0_3
Prudential CenterNew Jersey_cell_13_1_0 ArenaNew Jersey_cell_13_1_1 NewarkNew Jersey_cell_13_1_2 2007New Jersey_cell_13_1_3
Meadowlands ArenaNew Jersey_cell_13_2_0 ArenaNew Jersey_cell_13_2_1 Meadowlands Sports ComplexNew Jersey_cell_13_2_2 1981New Jersey_cell_13_2_3
PNC Bank Arts CenterNew Jersey_cell_13_3_0 AmphitheaterNew Jersey_cell_13_3_1 HolmdelNew Jersey_cell_13_3_2 1977New Jersey_cell_13_3_3
NJPACNew Jersey_cell_13_4_0 Concert HallNew Jersey_cell_13_4_1 NewarkNew Jersey_cell_13_4_2 1997New Jersey_cell_13_4_3
Paper Mill PlayhouseNew Jersey_cell_13_5_0 Regional TheaterNew Jersey_cell_13_5_1 MillburnNew Jersey_cell_13_5_2 1968New Jersey_cell_13_5_3
State TheaterNew Jersey_cell_13_6_0 Regional TheaterNew Jersey_cell_13_6_1 New BrunswickNew Jersey_cell_13_6_2 1921New Jersey_cell_13_6_3
Boardwalk HallNew Jersey_cell_13_7_0 ArenaNew Jersey_cell_13_7_1 Atlantic CityNew Jersey_cell_13_7_2 1926New Jersey_cell_13_7_3
Susquehanna Bank CenterNew Jersey_cell_13_8_0 AmphitheaterNew Jersey_cell_13_8_1 CamdenNew Jersey_cell_13_8_2 1995New Jersey_cell_13_8_3
Sun National Bank CenterNew Jersey_cell_13_9_0 ArenaNew Jersey_cell_13_9_1 TrentonNew Jersey_cell_13_9_2 1999New Jersey_cell_13_9_3

Boardwalks New Jersey_section_68

New Jersey is the location of most of the boardwalks in the U.S., with nearly every town and city along the Jersey Shore area each having a boardwalk with various attractions, entertainment, shopping, dining, miniature golf, arcades, water parks with various water rides, including water slides, lazy rivers, wave pools, etc., and amusement parks hosting rides and attractions including roller coasters, carousels, Ferris wheels, bumper cars, teacups, etc. New Jersey_sentence_546

New Jersey_table_general_14

VenueNew Jersey_header_cell_14_0_0 Amusement ParkNew Jersey_header_cell_14_0_1 LocationNew Jersey_header_cell_14_0_2 Year openedNew Jersey_header_cell_14_0_3
Asbury Park BoardwalkNew Jersey_cell_14_1_0 Asbury Splash ParkNew Jersey_cell_14_1_1 Asbury ParkNew Jersey_cell_14_1_2 1871New Jersey_cell_14_1_3
Atlantic City BoardwalkNew Jersey_cell_14_2_0 Steel PierNew Jersey_cell_14_2_1 Atlantic CityNew Jersey_cell_14_2_2 1870New Jersey_cell_14_2_3
Jenkinson's BoardwalkNew Jersey_cell_14_3_0 NoneNew Jersey_cell_14_3_1 Point Pleasant BeachNew Jersey_cell_14_3_2 1928New Jersey_cell_14_3_3
Ocean City BoardwalkNew Jersey_cell_14_4_0 Gillian's Wonderland PierNew Jersey_cell_14_4_1 Ocean CityNew Jersey_cell_14_4_2 1929New Jersey_cell_14_4_3
Pier VillageNew Jersey_cell_14_5_0 NoneNew Jersey_cell_14_5_1 Long BranchNew Jersey_cell_14_5_2 2005New Jersey_cell_14_5_3
Seaside Heights BoardwalkNew Jersey_cell_14_6_0 Casino PierNew Jersey_cell_14_6_1 Seaside HeightsNew Jersey_cell_14_6_2 1932New Jersey_cell_14_6_3
Wildwood BoardwalkNew Jersey_cell_14_7_0 Morey's PiersNew Jersey_cell_14_7_1 The WildwoodsNew Jersey_cell_14_7_2 1969New Jersey_cell_14_7_3

Theme parks New Jersey_section_69

New Jersey_table_general_15

Main parkNew Jersey_header_cell_15_0_0 Other parksNew Jersey_header_cell_15_0_1 LocationNew Jersey_header_cell_15_0_2 Year openedNew Jersey_header_cell_15_0_3
Clementon Amusement ParkNew Jersey_cell_15_1_0 Splash WorldNew Jersey_cell_15_1_1 ClementonNew Jersey_cell_15_1_2 1907New Jersey_cell_15_1_3
DiggerlandNew Jersey_cell_15_2_0 Four in EnglandNew Jersey_cell_15_2_1 West BerlinNew Jersey_cell_15_2_2 2014New Jersey_cell_15_2_3
DreamWorks WaterparkNew Jersey_cell_15_3_0 NoneNew Jersey_cell_15_3_1 East RutherfordNew Jersey_cell_15_3_2 2020New Jersey_cell_15_3_3
Fantasy IslandNew Jersey_cell_15_4_0 Thundering Surf Water ParkNew Jersey_cell_15_4_1 Beach HavenNew Jersey_cell_15_4_2 1985New Jersey_cell_15_4_3
The Funplex (Mount Laurel)New Jersey_cell_15_5_0 The Funplex (East Hanover)New Jersey_cell_15_5_1 Mount LaurelNew Jersey_cell_15_5_2 New Jersey_cell_15_5_3
iPlay AmericaNew Jersey_cell_15_6_0 NoneNew Jersey_cell_15_6_1 FreeholdNew Jersey_cell_15_6_2 2011New Jersey_cell_15_6_3
Keansburg Amusement ParkNew Jersey_cell_15_7_0 Runaway RapidsNew Jersey_cell_15_7_1 KeansburgNew Jersey_cell_15_7_2 1904New Jersey_cell_15_7_3
Land of Make BelieveNew Jersey_cell_15_8_0 Pirate's CoveNew Jersey_cell_15_8_1 HopeNew Jersey_cell_15_8_2 1954New Jersey_cell_15_8_3
Mountain Creek WaterparkNew Jersey_cell_15_9_0 NoneNew Jersey_cell_15_9_1 VernonNew Jersey_cell_15_9_2 1998New Jersey_cell_15_9_3
Nickelodeon UniverseNew Jersey_cell_15_10_0 Nickelodeon Universe (Minnesota)New Jersey_cell_15_10_1 East RutherfordNew Jersey_cell_15_10_2 2019New Jersey_cell_15_10_3
Six Flags Great AdventureNew Jersey_cell_15_11_0 Six Flags Hurricane HarborNew Jersey_cell_15_11_1 JacksonNew Jersey_cell_15_11_2 1974New Jersey_cell_15_11_3
Storybook LandNew Jersey_cell_15_12_0 NoneNew Jersey_cell_15_12_1 Egg Harbor TownshipNew Jersey_cell_15_12_2 1955New Jersey_cell_15_12_3
Wild West CityNew Jersey_cell_15_13_0 NoneNew Jersey_cell_15_13_1 StanhopeNew Jersey_cell_15_13_2 1957New Jersey_cell_15_13_3

State symbols New Jersey_section_70

Main article: List of New Jersey state symbols New Jersey_sentence_547

See also New Jersey_section_71

New Jersey_unordered_list_11


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New Jersey.