New Orleans

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"The Big Easy", "NOLA", and "City of New Orleans" redirect here. New Orleans_sentence_0

For other uses, see The Big Easy (disambiguation), NOLA (disambiguation), City of New Orleans (disambiguation), and New Orleans (disambiguation). New Orleans_sentence_1

New Orleans_table_infobox_0

New Orleans, Louisiana

La Nouvelle-Orléans  (French)New Orleans_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryNew Orleans_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesNew Orleans_cell_0_1_1
StateNew Orleans_header_cell_0_2_0 LouisianaNew Orleans_cell_0_2_1
ParishNew Orleans_header_cell_0_3_0 OrleansNew Orleans_cell_0_3_1
FoundedNew Orleans_header_cell_0_4_0 1718New Orleans_cell_0_4_1
Named forNew Orleans_header_cell_0_5_0 Philippe II, Duke of Orléans (1674–1723)New Orleans_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentNew Orleans_header_cell_0_6_0
TypeNew Orleans_header_cell_0_7_0 Mayor–councilNew Orleans_cell_0_7_1
MayorNew Orleans_header_cell_0_8_0 LaToya Cantrell (D)New Orleans_cell_0_8_1
CouncilNew Orleans_header_cell_0_9_0 New Orleans City CouncilNew Orleans_cell_0_9_1
AreaNew Orleans_header_cell_0_10_0
Consolidated city-parishNew Orleans_header_cell_0_11_0 349.85 sq mi (906.10 km)New Orleans_cell_0_11_1
LandNew Orleans_header_cell_0_12_0 169.42 sq mi (438.80 km)New Orleans_cell_0_12_1
WaterNew Orleans_header_cell_0_13_0 180.43 sq mi (467.30 km)New Orleans_cell_0_13_1
MetroNew Orleans_header_cell_0_14_0 3,755.2 sq mi (9,726.6 km)New Orleans_cell_0_14_1
ElevationNew Orleans_header_cell_0_15_0 −6.5 to 20 ft (−2 to 6 m)New Orleans_cell_0_15_1
Population (2010)New Orleans_header_cell_0_16_0
Consolidated city-parishNew Orleans_header_cell_0_17_0 343,829New Orleans_cell_0_17_1
Estimate (2019)New Orleans_header_cell_0_18_0 390,144New Orleans_cell_0_18_1
DensityNew Orleans_header_cell_0_19_0 2,029/sq mi (783/km)New Orleans_cell_0_19_1
MetroNew Orleans_header_cell_0_20_0 1,270,530 (US: 45th)New Orleans_cell_0_20_1
Demonym(s)New Orleans_header_cell_0_21_0 New OrleanianNew Orleans_cell_0_21_1
Time zoneNew Orleans_header_cell_0_22_0 UTC−6 (CST)New Orleans_cell_0_22_1
Summer (DST)New Orleans_header_cell_0_23_0 UTC−5 (CDT)New Orleans_cell_0_23_1
Area code(s)New Orleans_header_cell_0_24_0 504New Orleans_cell_0_24_1
FIPS codeNew Orleans_header_cell_0_25_0 22-55000New Orleans_cell_0_25_1
GNIS feature IDNew Orleans_header_cell_0_26_0 New Orleans_cell_0_26_1
WebsiteNew Orleans_header_cell_0_27_0 New Orleans_cell_0_27_1

New Orleans (/ˈɔːrl(i)ənz, ɔːrˈliːnz/, locally /ˈɔːrlənz/; French: La Nouvelle-Orléans [la nuvɛlɔʁleɑ̃ (listen)) is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U.S. New Orleans_sentence_2 state of Louisiana. New Orleans_sentence_3

With an estimated population of 390,144 in 2019, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. New Orleans_sentence_4

Serving as a major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States. New Orleans_sentence_5

New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, and its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras. New Orleans_sentence_6

The historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. New Orleans_sentence_7

The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. New Orleans_sentence_8

Additionally, New Orleans has increasingly been known as "Hollywood South" due to its prominent role in the film industry and in pop culture. New Orleans_sentence_9

Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans_sentence_10

New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, and it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II. New Orleans_sentence_11

The city has historically been very vulnerable to flooding, due to such factors as high rainfall, low lying elevation, poor natural drainage, and location next to multiple bodies of water. New Orleans_sentence_12

State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city. New Orleans_sentence_13

New Orleans was severely affected by Hurricane Katrina in August 2005, which flooded more than 80% of the city and killed or displaced thousands of residents, causing a population decline of over 50%. New Orleans_sentence_14

Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. New Orleans_sentence_15

Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in formerly closely knit communities, and displacement of longtime residents have been expressed. New Orleans_sentence_16

The city and Orleans Parish (French: paroisse d'Orléans) are coterminous. New Orleans_sentence_17

As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish. New Orleans_sentence_18

The city and parish are bounded by St. New Orleans_sentence_19 Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. New Orleans_sentence_20 Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, and Jefferson Parish to the south and west. New Orleans_sentence_21

The city anchors the larger Greater New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,270,530 in 2019. New Orleans_sentence_22

Greater New Orleans is the most populous metropolitan statistical area in Louisiana and the 45th-most populous MSA in the United States. New Orleans_sentence_23

Etymology and nicknames New Orleans_section_0

The city is named after the Duke of Orleans, who reigned as Regent for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723. New Orleans_sentence_24

It has several nicknames: New Orleans_sentence_25

New Orleans_unordered_list_0

  • Crescent City, alluding to the course of the Lower Mississippi River around and through the city.New Orleans_item_0_0
  • The Big Easy, possibly a reference by musicians in the early 20th century to the relative ease of finding work there.New Orleans_item_0_1
  • The City that Care Forgot, used since at least 1938, and refers to the outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of the residents.New Orleans_item_0_2

History New Orleans_section_1

Main articles: History of New Orleans and Timeline of New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_26

French-Spanish colonial era New Orleans_section_2

Main article: la Luisiana New Orleans_sentence_27

La Nouvelle-Orléans (New Orleans) was founded in the spring of 1718 (May 7 has become the traditional date to mark the anniversary, but the actual day is unknown) by the French Mississippi Company, under the direction of Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville, on land inhabited by the Chitimacha. New Orleans_sentence_28

It was named for Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, who was Regent of the Kingdom of France at the time. New Orleans_sentence_29

His title came from the French city of Orléans. New Orleans_sentence_30

The French colony of Louisiana was ceded to the Spanish Empire in the 1763 Treaty of Paris, following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. New Orleans_sentence_31

During the American Revolutionary War, New Orleans was an important port for smuggling aid to the American revolutionaries, and transporting military equipment and supplies up the Mississippi River. New Orleans_sentence_32

Beginning in the 1760s, Filipinos began to settle in and around New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_33

Bernardo de Gálvez y Madrid, Count of Gálvez successfully directed a southern campaign against the British from the city in 1779. New Orleans_sentence_34

Nueva Orleans (the name of New Orleans in Spanish) remained under Spanish control until 1803, when it reverted briefly to French rule. New Orleans_sentence_35

Nearly all of the surviving 18th-century architecture of the Vieux Carré (French Quarter) dates from the Spanish period, notably excepting the Old Ursuline Convent. New Orleans_sentence_36

As a French colony, Louisiana faced struggles with numerous Native American tribes, one of which was the Natchez in southern Mississippi. New Orleans_sentence_37

In the 1720s trouble developed between the French and the Natchez Indians that would be called the Natchez War or Natchez Revolt. New Orleans_sentence_38

Approximately 230 French colonists were killed and the young colony was burnt to the ground. New Orleans_sentence_39

The conflict between the two parties was a direct result of Lieutenant d’Etcheparre (more commonly known as Sieur de Chépart), the commandant at the settlement near the Natchez, decided in 1729 that the Natchez Indians should surrender both their cultivated crop lands and their town of White Apple to the French. New Orleans_sentence_40

The Natchez pretended to surrender and actually worked for the French in the hunting game, but as soon as they were weaponized, they struck back and killed several men, resulting in the colonists fleeing downriver to New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_41

The fleeing colonists sought protection from what they feared might be a colony-wide Indian raid. New Orleans_sentence_42

The Natchez, however, did not press on after their surprise attack, leaving them vulnerable enough for King Louis XV's appointed governor Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville to reclaim the settlement. New Orleans_sentence_43

Relations with Louisiana's Indians, a problem inherited from Bienville, remained a concern for the next governor, Marquis de Vaudreuil. New Orleans_sentence_44

In the early 1740s traders from the Thirteen Colonies crossed into the Appalachian Mountains. New Orleans_sentence_45

The Native American tribes would now operate dependent on which of various European colonists would most benefit them. New Orleans_sentence_46

Several of these tribes and especially the Chickasaw and Choctaw would trade goods and gifts for their loyalty. New Orleans_sentence_47

The economic issued in the colony, which continued under Vaudreuil, resulted in many raids by Native American tribes, taking advantage of the French weakness. New Orleans_sentence_48

In 1747 and 1748, the Chickasaw would raid along the east bank of the Mississippi all the way south to Baton Rouge. New Orleans_sentence_49

These raids would often force residents of French Louisiana to take refuge in New Orleans proper. New Orleans_sentence_50

Inability to find labor was the most pressing issue in the young colony. New Orleans_sentence_51

The colonists turned to African slaves to make their investments in Louisiana profitable. New Orleans_sentence_52

In the late 1710s the transatlantic slave trade imported enslaved Africans into the colony. New Orleans_sentence_53

This led to the biggest shipment in 1716 where several trading ships appeared with slaves as cargo to the local residents in a one-year span. New Orleans_sentence_54

By 1724, the large number of blacks in Louisiana prompted the institutionalizing of laws governing slavery within the colony. New Orleans_sentence_55

These laws required that slaves be baptized in the Roman Catholic faith, slaves be married in the church, and gave slaves no legal rights. New Orleans_sentence_56

The slave law formed in the 1720s is known as the Code Noir, which would bleed into the antebellum period of the American South as well. New Orleans_sentence_57

Louisiana slave culture had its own distinct Afro-Creole society that called on past cultures and the situation for slaves in the New World. New Orleans_sentence_58

Afro-Creole was present in religious beliefs and the Louisiana Creole dialect. New Orleans_sentence_59

The religion most associated with this period for was called Voodoo. New Orleans_sentence_60

In the city of New Orleans an inspiring mixture of foreign influences created a melting pot of culture that is still celebrated today. New Orleans_sentence_61

By the end of French colonization in Louisiana, New Orleans was recognized commercially in the Atlantic world. New Orleans_sentence_62

Its inhabitants traded across the French commercial system. New Orleans_sentence_63

New Orleans was a hub for this trade both physically and culturally because it served as the exit point to the rest of the globe for the interior of the North American continent. New Orleans_sentence_64

In one instance the French government established a chapter house of sisters in New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_65

The Ursuline sisters after being sponsored by the Company of the Indies, founded a convent in the city in 1727. New Orleans_sentence_66

At the end of the colonial era, the Ursuline Academy maintained a house of seventy boarding and one hundred day students. New Orleans_sentence_67

Today numerous schools in New Orleans can trace their lineage from this academy. New Orleans_sentence_68

Another notable example is the streetplan and architecture still distinguishing New Orleans today. New Orleans_sentence_69

French Louisiana had early architects in the province who were trained as military engineers and were now assigned to design government buildings. New Orleans_sentence_70

Pierre Le Blond de Tour and Adrien de Pauger, for example, planned many early fortifications, along with the street plan for the city of New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_71

After them in the 1740s, Ignace François Broutin, as engineer-in-chief of Louisiana, reworked the architecture of New Orleans with an extensive public works program. New Orleans_sentence_72

French policy-makers in Paris attempted to set political and economic norms for New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_73

It acted autonomously in much of its cultural and physical aspects, but also stayed in communication with the foreign trends as well. New Orleans_sentence_74

After the French relinquished West Louisiana to the Spanish, New Orleans merchants attempted to ignore Spanish rule and even re-institute French control on the colony. New Orleans_sentence_75

The citizens of New Orleans held a series of public meetings during 1765 to keep the populace in opposition of the establishment of Spanish rule. New Orleans_sentence_76

Anti-Spanish passions in New Orleans reached their highest level after two years of Spanish administration in Louisiana. New Orleans_sentence_77

On October 27, 1768, a mob of local residents, spiked the guns guarding New Orleans and took control of the city from the Spanish. New Orleans_sentence_78

The rebellion organized a group to sail for Paris, where it met with officials of the French government. New Orleans_sentence_79

This group brought with them a long memorial to summarize the abuses the colony had endured from the Spanish. New Orleans_sentence_80

King Louis XV and his ministers reaffirmed Spain's sovereignty over Louisiana. New Orleans_sentence_81

United States territorial era New Orleans_section_3

Napoleon sold Louisiana (New France) to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. New Orleans_sentence_82

Thereafter, the city grew rapidly with influxes of Americans, French, Creoles and Africans. New Orleans_sentence_83

Later immigrants were Irish, Germans, Poles and Italians. New Orleans_sentence_84

Major commodity crops of sugar and cotton were cultivated with slave labor on nearby large plantations. New Orleans_sentence_85

Thousands of refugees from the 1804 Haitian Revolution, both whites and free people of color (affranchis or gens de couleur libres), arrived in New Orleans; a number brought their slaves with them, many of whom were native Africans or of full-blood descent. New Orleans_sentence_86

While Governor Claiborne and other officials wanted to keep out additional free black people, the French Creoles wanted to increase the French-speaking population. New Orleans_sentence_87

As more refugees were allowed into the Territory of Orleans, Haitian émigrés who had first gone to Cuba also arrived. New Orleans_sentence_88

Many of the white Francophones had been deported by officials in Cuba in retaliation for Bonapartist schemes. New Orleans_sentence_89

Nearly 90 percent of these immigrants settled in New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_90

The 1809 migration brought 2,731 whites, 3,102 free people of color (of mixed-race European and African descent), and 3,226 slaves of primarily African descent, doubling the city's population. New Orleans_sentence_91

The city became 63 percent black, a greater proportion than Charleston, South Carolina's 53 percent. New Orleans_sentence_92

Battle of New Orleans New Orleans_section_4

Main article: Battle of New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_93

During the final campaign of the War of 1812, the British sent a force of 11,000 in an attempt to capture New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_94

Despite great challenges, General Andrew Jackson, with support from the U.S. New Orleans_sentence_95 Navy, successfully cobbled together a force of militia from Louisiana and Mississippi, including free men of color, U.S. New Orleans_sentence_96 Army regulars, a large contingent of Tennessee state militia, Kentucky riflemen, Choctaw fighters, and local privateers (the latter led by the pirate Jean Lafitte), to decisively defeat the British, led by Sir Edward Pakenham, in the Battle of New Orleans on January 8, 1815. New Orleans_sentence_97

The armies had not learned of the Treaty of Ghent, which had been signed on December 24, 1814 (however, the treaty did not call for cessation of hostilities until after both governments had ratified it. New Orleans_sentence_98

The U.S. government ratified it on February 16, 1815). New Orleans_sentence_99

The fighting in Louisiana had begun in December 1814 and did not end until late January, after the Americans held off the Royal Navy during a ten-day siege of Fort St. Philip (the Royal Navy went on to capture Fort Bowyer near Mobile, before the commanders received news of the peace treaty). New Orleans_sentence_100

Port New Orleans_section_5

As a port, New Orleans played a major role during the antebellum era in the Atlantic slave trade. New Orleans_sentence_101

The port handled commodities for export from the interior and imported goods from other countries, which were warehoused and transferred in New Orleans to smaller vessels and distributed along the Mississippi River watershed. New Orleans_sentence_102

The river was filled with steamboats, flatboats and sailing ships. New Orleans_sentence_103

Despite its role in the slave trade, New Orleans at the time also had the largest and most prosperous community of free persons of color in the nation, who were often educated, middle-class property owners. New Orleans_sentence_104

Dwarfing the other cities in the Antebellum South, New Orleans had America's largest slave market. New Orleans_sentence_105

The market expanded after the United States ended the international trade in 1808. New Orleans_sentence_106

Two-thirds of the more than one million slaves brought to the Deep South arrived via forced migration in the domestic slave trade. New Orleans_sentence_107

The money generated by the sale of slaves in the Upper South has been estimated at 15 percent of the value of the staple crop economy. New Orleans_sentence_108

The slaves were collectively valued at half a billion dollars. New Orleans_sentence_109

The trade spawned an ancillary economy—transportation, housing and clothing, fees, etc., estimated at 13.5% of the price per person, amounting to tens of billions of dollars (2005 dollars, adjusted for inflation) during the antebellum period, with New Orleans as a prime beneficiary. New Orleans_sentence_110

According to historian Paul Lachance, New Orleans_sentence_111

After the Louisiana Purchase, numerous Anglo-Americans migrated to the city. New Orleans_sentence_112

The population doubled in the 1830s and by 1840, New Orleans had become the nation's wealthiest and the third-most populous city, after New York and Baltimore. New Orleans_sentence_113

German and Irish immigrants began arriving in the 1840s, working as port laborers. New Orleans_sentence_114

In this period, the state legislature passed more restrictions on manumissions of slaves and virtually ended it in 1852. New Orleans_sentence_115

In the 1850s, white Francophones remained an intact and vibrant community in New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_116

They maintained instruction in French in two of the city's four school districts (all served white students). New Orleans_sentence_117

In 1860, the city had 13,000 free people of color (gens de couleur libres), the class of free, mostly mixed-race people that expanded in number during French and Spanish rule. New Orleans_sentence_118

They set up some private schools for their children. New Orleans_sentence_119

The census recorded 81 percent of the free people of color as mulatto, a term used to cover all degrees of mixed race. New Orleans_sentence_120

Mostly part of the Francophone group, they constituted the artisan, educated and professional class of African Americans. New Orleans_sentence_121

The mass of blacks were still enslaved, working at the port, in domestic service, in crafts, and mostly on the many large, surrounding sugarcane plantations. New Orleans_sentence_122

After growing by 45 percent in the 1850s, by 1860, the city had nearly 170,000 people. New Orleans_sentence_123

It had grown in wealth, with a "per capita income [that] was second in the nation and the highest in the South." New Orleans_sentence_124

The city had a role as the "primary commercial gateway for the nation's booming midsection." New Orleans_sentence_125

The port was the nation's third largest in terms of tonnage of imported goods, after Boston and New York, handling 659,000 tons in 1859. New Orleans_sentence_126

Civil War-Reconstruction era New Orleans_section_6

See also: New Orleans in the American Civil War New Orleans_sentence_127

As the Creole elite feared, the American Civil War changed their world. New Orleans_sentence_128

In April 1862, following the city's occupation by the Union Navy after the Battle of Forts Jackson and St. Philip, Northern forces occupied the city. New Orleans_sentence_129

Gen. New Orleans_sentence_130 Benjamin F. Butler, a respected Massachusetts lawyer serving in that state's militia, was appointed military governor. New Orleans_sentence_131

New Orleans residents supportive of the Confederacy nicknamed him "Beast" Butler, because of an order he issued. New Orleans_sentence_132

After his troops had been assaulted and harassed in the streets by women still loyal to the Confederate cause, his order warned that such future occurrences would result in his men treating such "ladies" as those "plying their avocation in the streets", implying that they would treat the women like prostitutes. New Orleans_sentence_133

Accounts of this spread widely. New Orleans_sentence_134

He also came to be called "Spoons" Butler because of the alleged looting that his troops did while occupying the city, during which time he himself supposedly pilfered silver flatware. New Orleans_sentence_135

Significantly, Butler abolished French-language instruction in city schools. New Orleans_sentence_136

Statewide measures in 1864 and, after the war, 1868 further strengthened the English-only policy imposed by federal representatives. New Orleans_sentence_137

With the predominance of English speakers, that language had already become dominant in business and government. New Orleans_sentence_138

By the end of the 19th century, French usage had faded. New Orleans_sentence_139

It was also under pressure from Irish, Italian and German immigrants. New Orleans_sentence_140

However, as late as 1902 "one-fourth of the population of the city spoke French in ordinary daily intercourse, while another two-fourths was able to understand the language perfectly," and as late as 1945, many elderly Creole women spoke no English. New Orleans_sentence_141

The last major French language newspaper, L'Abeille de la Nouvelle-Orléans (New Orleans Bee), ceased publication on December 27, 1923, after ninety-six years. New Orleans_sentence_142

According to some sources, Le Courrier de la Nouvelle Orleans continued until 1955. New Orleans_sentence_143

As the city was captured and occupied early in the war, it was spared the destruction through warfare suffered by many other cities of the American South. New Orleans_sentence_144

The Union Army eventually extended its control north along the Mississippi River and along the coastal areas. New Orleans_sentence_145

As a result, most of the southern portion of Louisiana was originally exempted from the liberating provisions of the 1863 "Emancipation Proclamation" issued by President Abraham Lincoln. New Orleans_sentence_146

Large numbers of rural ex-slaves and some free people of color from the city volunteered for the first regiments of Black troops in the War. New Orleans_sentence_147

Led by Brigadier General Daniel Ullman (1810–1892), of the 78th Regiment of New York State Volunteers Militia, they were known as the "Corps d'Afrique." New Orleans_sentence_148

While that name had been used by a militia before the war, that group was composed of free people of color. New Orleans_sentence_149

The new group was made up mostly of former slaves. New Orleans_sentence_150

They were supplemented in the last two years of the War by newly organized United States Colored Troops, who played an increasingly important part in the war. New Orleans_sentence_151

Violence throughout the South, especially the Memphis Riots of 1866 followed by the New Orleans Riot in the same year, led Congress to pass the Reconstruction Act and the Fourteenth Amendment, extending the protections of full citizenship to freedmen and free people of color. New Orleans_sentence_152

Louisiana and Texas were put under the authority of the "Fifth Military District" of the United States during Reconstruction. New Orleans_sentence_153

Louisiana was readmitted to the Union in 1868. New Orleans_sentence_154

Its Constitution of 1868 granted universal male suffrage and established universal public education. New Orleans_sentence_155

Both blacks and whites were elected to local and state offices. New Orleans_sentence_156

In 1872, lieutenant governor P.B.S. New Orleans_sentence_157 Pinchback, who was of mixed race, succeeded Henry Clay Warmouth for a brief period as Republican governor of Louisiana, becoming the first governor of African descent of an American state (the next African American to serve as governor of an American state was Douglas Wilder, elected in Virginia in 1989). New Orleans_sentence_158

New Orleans operated a racially integrated public school system during this period. New Orleans_sentence_159

Wartime damage to levees and cities along the Mississippi River adversely affected southern crops and trade. New Orleans_sentence_160

The federal government contributed to restoring infrastructure. New Orleans_sentence_161

The nationwide financial recession and Panic of 1873 adversely affected businesses and slowed economic recovery. New Orleans_sentence_162

From 1868, elections in Louisiana were marked by violence, as white insurgents tried to suppress black voting and disrupt Republican Party gatherings. New Orleans_sentence_163

The disputed 1872 gubernatorial election resulted in conflicts that ran for years. New Orleans_sentence_164

The "White League", an insurgent paramilitary group that supported the Democratic Party, was organized in 1874 and operated in the open, violently suppressing the black vote and running off Republican officeholders. New Orleans_sentence_165

In 1874, in the Battle of Liberty Place, 5,000 members of the White League fought with city police to take over the state offices for the Democratic candidate for governor, holding them for three days. New Orleans_sentence_166

By 1876, such tactics resulted in the white Democrats, the so-called Redeemers, regaining political control of the state legislature. New Orleans_sentence_167

The federal government gave up and withdrew its troops in 1877, ending Reconstruction. New Orleans_sentence_168

Jim Crow era New Orleans_section_7

White Democrats passed Jim Crow laws, establishing racial segregation in public facilities. New Orleans_sentence_169

In 1889, the legislature passed a constitutional amendment incorporating a "grandfather clause" that effectively disfranchised freedmen as well as the propertied people of color manumitted before the war. New Orleans_sentence_170

Unable to vote, African Americans could not serve on juries or in local office, and were closed out of formal politics for generations. New Orleans_sentence_171

The Southern U.S. was ruled by a white Democratic Party. New Orleans_sentence_172

Public schools were racially segregated and remained so until 1960. New Orleans_sentence_173

New Orleans' large community of well-educated, often French-speaking free persons of color (gens de couleur libres), who had been free prior to the Civil War, fought against Jim Crow. New Orleans_sentence_174

They organized the Comité des Citoyens (Citizens Committee) to work for civil rights. New Orleans_sentence_175

As part of their legal campaign, they recruited one of their own, Homer Plessy, to test whether Louisiana's newly enacted Separate Car Act was constitutional. New Orleans_sentence_176

Plessy boarded a commuter train departing New Orleans for Covington, Louisiana, sat in the car reserved for whites only, and was arrested. New Orleans_sentence_177

The case resulting from this incident, Plessy v. Ferguson, was heard by the U.S. New Orleans_sentence_178 Supreme Court in 1896. New Orleans_sentence_179

The court ruled that "separate but equal" accommodations were constitutional, effectively upholding Jim Crow measures. New Orleans_sentence_180

In practice, African American public schools and facilities were underfunded across the South. New Orleans_sentence_181

The Supreme Court ruling contributed to this period as the nadir of race relations in the United States. New Orleans_sentence_182

The rate of lynchings of black men was high across the South, as other states also disfranchised blacks and sought to impose Jim Crow. New Orleans_sentence_183

Nativist prejudices also surfaced. New Orleans_sentence_184

Anti-Italian sentiment in 1891 contributed to the lynchings of 11 Italians, some of whom had been acquitted of the murder of the police chief. New Orleans_sentence_185

Some were shot and killed in the jail where they were detained. New Orleans_sentence_186

It was the largest mass lynching in U.S. history. New Orleans_sentence_187

In July 1900 the city was swept by white mobs rioting after Robert Charles, a young African American, killed a policeman and temporarily escaped. New Orleans_sentence_188

The mob killed him and an estimated 20 other blacks; seven whites died in the days-long conflict, until a state militia suppressed it. New Orleans_sentence_189

Throughout New Orleans' history, until the early 20th century when medical and scientific advances ameliorated the situation, the city suffered repeated epidemics of yellow fever and other tropical and infectious diseases. New Orleans_sentence_190

20th century New Orleans_section_8

New Orleans' economic and population zenith in relation to other American cities occurred in the antebellum period. New Orleans_sentence_191

It was the nation's fifth-largest city in 1860 (after New York, Philadelphia, Boston and Baltimore) and was significantly larger than all other southern cities. New Orleans_sentence_192

From the mid-19th century onward rapid economic growth shifted to other areas, while New Orleans' relative importance steadily declined. New Orleans_sentence_193

The growth of railways and highways decreased river traffic, diverting goods to other transportation corridors and markets. New Orleans_sentence_194

Thousands of the most ambitious people of color left the state in the Great Migration around World War II and after, many for West Coast destinations. New Orleans_sentence_195

From the late 1800s, most censuses recorded New Orleans slipping down the ranks in the list of largest American cities (New Orleans' population still continued to increase throughout the period, but at a slower rate than before the Civil War). New Orleans_sentence_196

By the mid-20th Century, New Orleanians recognized that their city was no longer the leading urban area in the South. New Orleans_sentence_197

By 1950, Houston, Dallas, and Atlanta exceeded New Orleans in size, and in 1960 Miami eclipsed New Orleans, even as the latter's population reached its historic peak. New Orleans_sentence_198

As with other older American cities, highway construction and suburban development drew residents from the center city to newer housing outside. New Orleans_sentence_199

The 1970 census recorded the first absolute decline in population since the city became part of the United States in 1803. New Orleans_sentence_200

The Greater New Orleans metropolitan area continued expanding in population, albeit more slowly than other major Sun Belt cities. New Orleans_sentence_201

While the port remained one of the nation's largest, automation and containerization cost many jobs. New Orleans_sentence_202

The city's former role as banker to the South was supplanted by larger peer cities. New Orleans_sentence_203

New Orleans' economy had always been based more on trade and financial services than on manufacturing, but the city's relatively small manufacturing sector also shrank after World War II. New Orleans_sentence_204

Despite some economic development successes under the administrations of DeLesseps "Chep" Morrison (1946–1961) and Victor "Vic" Schiro (1961–1970), metropolitan New Orleans' growth rate consistently lagged behind more vigorous cities. New Orleans_sentence_205

Civil Rights Movement New Orleans_section_9

During the later years of Morrison's administration, and for the entirety of Schiro's, the city was a center of the Civil Rights Movement. New Orleans_sentence_206

The Southern Christian Leadership Conference was founded in New Orleans, and lunch counter sit-ins were held in Canal Street department stores. New Orleans_sentence_207

A prominent and violent series of confrontations occurred in 1960 when the city attempted school desegregation, following the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education (1954). New Orleans_sentence_208

When six-year-old Ruby Bridges integrated William Frantz Elementary School in the Ninth Ward, she was the first child of color to attend a previously all-white school in the South. New Orleans_sentence_209

The Civil Rights Movement's success in gaining federal passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 renewed constitutional rights, including voting for blacks. New Orleans_sentence_210

Together, these resulted in the most far-reaching changes in New Orleans' 20th century history. New Orleans_sentence_211

Though legal and civil equality were re-established by the end of the 1960s, a large gap in income levels and educational attainment persisted between the city's White and African American communities. New Orleans_sentence_212

As the middle class and wealthier members of both races left the center city, its population's income level dropped, and it became proportionately more African American. New Orleans_sentence_213

From 1980, the African American majority elected primarily officials from its own community. New Orleans_sentence_214

They struggled to narrow the gap by creating conditions conducive to the economic uplift of the African American community. New Orleans_sentence_215

New Orleans became increasingly dependent on tourism as an economic mainstay during the administrations of Sidney Barthelemy (1986–1994) and Marc Morial (1994–2002). New Orleans_sentence_216

Relatively low levels of educational attainment, high rates of household poverty, and rising crime threatened the city's prosperity in the later decades of the century. New Orleans_sentence_217

The negative effects of these socioeconomic conditions aligned poorly with the changes in the late-20th century to the economy of the United States, which reflected a post-industrial, knowledge-based paradigm in which mental skills and education were more important to advancement than manual skills. New Orleans_sentence_218

Drainage and flood control New Orleans_section_10

See also: Drainage in New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_219

In the 20th century, New Orleans' government and business leaders believed they needed to drain and develop outlying areas to provide for the city's expansion. New Orleans_sentence_220

The most ambitious development during this period was a drainage plan devised by engineer and inventor A. New Orleans_sentence_221 Baldwin Wood, designed to break the surrounding swamp's stranglehold on the city's geographic expansion. New Orleans_sentence_222

Until then, urban development in New Orleans was largely limited to higher ground along the natural river levees and bayous. New Orleans_sentence_223

Wood's pump system allowed the city to drain huge tracts of swamp and marshland and expand into low-lying areas. New Orleans_sentence_224

Over the 20th century, rapid subsidence, both natural and human-induced, resulted in these newly populated areas subsiding to several feet below sea level. New Orleans_sentence_225

New Orleans was vulnerable to flooding even before the city's footprint departed from the natural high ground near the Mississippi River. New Orleans_sentence_226

In the late 20th century, however, scientists and New Orleans residents gradually became aware of the city's increased vulnerability. New Orleans_sentence_227

In 1965, flooding from Hurricane Betsy killed dozens of residents, although the majority of the city remained dry. New Orleans_sentence_228

The rain-induced flood of May 8, 1995, demonstrated the weakness of the pumping system. New Orleans_sentence_229

After that event, measures were undertaken to dramatically upgrade pumping capacity. New Orleans_sentence_230

By the 1980s and 1990s, scientists observed that extensive, rapid, and ongoing erosion of the marshlands and swamp surrounding New Orleans, especially that related to the Mississippi River–Gulf Outlet Canal, had the unintended result of leaving the city more vulnerable than before to hurricane-induced catastrophic storm surges. New Orleans_sentence_231

21st century New Orleans_section_11

Hurricane Katrina New Orleans_section_12

See also: Effects of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans and Drainage in New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_232

New Orleans was catastrophically affected by what Raymond B. New Orleans_sentence_233

Seed called "the worst engineering disaster in the world since Chernobyl", when the Federal levee system failed during Hurricane Katrina on August 29, 2005. New Orleans_sentence_234

By the time the hurricane approached the city on August 29, 2005, most residents had evacuated. New Orleans_sentence_235

As the hurricane passed through the Gulf Coast region, the city's federal flood protection system failed, resulting in the worst civil engineering disaster in American history. New Orleans_sentence_236

Floodwalls and levees constructed by the United States Army Corps of Engineers failed below design specifications and 80% of the city flooded. New Orleans_sentence_237

Tens of thousands of residents who had remained were rescued or otherwise made their way to shelters of last resort at the Louisiana Superdome or the New Orleans Morial Convention Center. New Orleans_sentence_238

More than 1,500 people were recorded as having died in Louisiana, most in New Orleans, while others remain unaccounted for. New Orleans_sentence_239

Before Hurricane Katrina, the city called for the first mandatory evacuation in its history, to be followed by another mandatory evacuation three years later with Hurricane Gustav. New Orleans_sentence_240

Hurricane Rita New Orleans_section_13

Main article: Hurricane Rita New Orleans_sentence_241

The city was declared off-limits to residents while efforts to clean up after Hurricane Katrina began. New Orleans_sentence_242

The approach of Hurricane Rita in September 2005 caused repopulation efforts to be postponed, and the Lower Ninth Ward was reflooded by Rita's storm surge. New Orleans_sentence_243

Post-disaster recovery New Orleans_section_14

Main article: Reconstruction of New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_244

Because of the scale of damage, many people resettled permanently outside the area. New Orleans_sentence_245

Federal, state, and local efforts supported recovery and rebuilding in severely damaged neighborhoods. New Orleans_sentence_246

The Census Bureau in July 2006 estimated the population to be 223,000; a subsequent study estimated that 32,000 additional residents had moved to the city as of March 2007, bringing the estimated population to 255,000, approximately 56% of the pre-Katrina population level. New Orleans_sentence_247

Another estimate, based on utility usage from July 2007, estimated the population to be approximately 274,000 or 60% of the pre-Katrina population. New Orleans_sentence_248

These estimates are somewhat smaller to a third estimate, based on mail delivery records, from the Greater New Orleans Community Data Center in June 2007, which indicated that the city had regained approximately two-thirds of its pre-Katrina population. New Orleans_sentence_249

In 2008, the Census Bureau revised its population estimate for the city upward, to 336,644. New Orleans_sentence_250

Most recently, by July 2015, the population was back up to 386,617—80% of what it was in 2000. New Orleans_sentence_251

Several major tourist events and other forms of revenue for the city have returned. New Orleans_sentence_252

Large conventions returned. New Orleans_sentence_253

College bowl games returned for the 2006–2007 season. New Orleans_sentence_254

The New Orleans Saints returned that season. New Orleans_sentence_255

The New Orleans Hornets (now named the Pelicans) returned to the city for the 2007–2008 season. New Orleans_sentence_256

New Orleans hosted the 2008 NBA All-Star Game. New Orleans_sentence_257

Additionally, the city hosted Super Bowl XLVII. New Orleans_sentence_258

Major annual events such as Mardi Gras, Voodoo Experience, and the Jazz & Heritage Festival were never displaced or canceled. New Orleans_sentence_259

A new annual festival, "The Running of the Bulls New Orleans", was created in 2007. New Orleans_sentence_260

On February 7, 2017, a large EF3 wedge tornado hit parts of the eastern side of the city, damaging homes and other buildings, as well as destroying a mobile home park. New Orleans_sentence_261

At least 25 people were left injured by the event. New Orleans_sentence_262

Geography New Orleans_section_15

New Orleans is located in the Mississippi River Delta, south of Lake Pontchartrain, on the banks of the Mississippi River, approximately 105 miles (169 km) upriver from the Gulf of Mexico. New Orleans_sentence_263

According to the U.S. New Orleans_sentence_264 Census Bureau, the city's area is 350 square miles (910 km), of which 169 square miles (440 km) is land and 181 square miles (470 km) (52%) is water. New Orleans_sentence_265

The area along the river is characterized by ridges and hollows. New Orleans_sentence_266

Elevation New Orleans_section_16

See also: Drainage in New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_267

New Orleans was originally settled on the river's natural levees or high ground. New Orleans_sentence_268

After the Flood Control Act of 1965, the US Army Corps of Engineers built floodwalls and man-made levees around a much larger geographic footprint that included previous marshland and swamp. New Orleans_sentence_269

Over time, pumping of water from marshland allowed for development into lower elevation areas. New Orleans_sentence_270

Today, half of the city is at or below local mean sea level, while the other half is slightly above sea level. New Orleans_sentence_271

Evidence suggests that portions of the city may be dropping in elevation due to subsidence. New Orleans_sentence_272

A 2007 study by Tulane and Xavier University suggested that "51%... of the contiguous urbanized portions of Orleans, Jefferson, and St. Bernard parishes lie at or above sea level," with the more densely populated areas generally on higher ground. New Orleans_sentence_273

The average elevation of the city is currently between 1 foot (0.30 m) and 2 feet (0.61 m) below sea level, with some portions of the city as high as 20 feet (6 m) at the base of the river levee in Uptown and others as low as 7 feet (2 m) below sea level in the farthest reaches of Eastern New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_274

A study published by the ASCE Journal of Hydrologic Engineering in 2016, however, stated: New Orleans_sentence_275

The magnitude of subsidence potentially caused by the draining of natural marsh in the New Orleans area and southeast Louisiana is a topic of debate. New Orleans_sentence_276

A study published in Geology in 2006 by an associate professor at Tulane University claims: New Orleans_sentence_277

The study noted, however, that the results did not necessarily apply to the Mississippi River Delta, nor the New Orleans Metropolitan area proper. New Orleans_sentence_278

On the other hand, a report by the American Society of Civil Engineers claims that "New Orleans is subsiding (sinking)": New Orleans_sentence_279

In May 2016, NASA published a study which suggested that most areas were, in fact, experiencing subsidence at a "highly variable rate" which was "generally consistent with, but somewhat higher than, previous studies." New Orleans_sentence_280

Cityscape New Orleans_section_17

See also: Wards of New Orleans and Neighborhoods in New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_281

The Central Business District is located immediately north and west of the Mississippi and was historically called the "American Quarter" or "American Sector." New Orleans_sentence_282

It was developed after the heart of French and Spanish settlement. New Orleans_sentence_283

It includes Lafayette Square. New Orleans_sentence_284

Most streets in this area fan out from a central point. New Orleans_sentence_285

Major streets include Canal Street, Poydras Street, Tulane Avenue and Loyola Avenue. New Orleans_sentence_286

Canal Street divides the traditional "downtown" area from the "uptown" area. New Orleans_sentence_287

Every street crossing Canal Street between the Mississippi River and Rampart Street, which is the northern edge of the French Quarter, has a different name for the "uptown" and "downtown" portions. New Orleans_sentence_288

For example, St. New Orleans_sentence_289 Charles Avenue, known for its street car line, is called Royal Street below Canal Street, though where it traverses the Central Business District between Canal and Lee Circle, it is properly called St. Charles Street. New Orleans_sentence_290

Elsewhere in the city, Canal Street serves as the dividing point between the "South" and "North" portions of various streets. New Orleans_sentence_291

In the local downtown means "downriver from Canal Street", while uptown means "upriver from Canal Street". New Orleans_sentence_292

Downtown neighborhoods include the French Quarter, Tremé, the 7th Ward, Faubourg Marigny, Bywater (the Upper Ninth Ward), and the Lower Ninth Ward. New Orleans_sentence_293

Uptown neighborhoods include the Warehouse District, the Lower Garden District, the Garden District, the Irish Channel, the University District, Carrollton, Gert Town, Fontainebleau and Broadmoor. New Orleans_sentence_294

However, the Warehouse and the Central Business District are frequently called "Downtown" as a specific region, as in the Downtown Development District. New Orleans_sentence_295

Other major districts within the city include Bayou St. John, Mid-City, Gentilly, Lakeview, Lakefront, New Orleans East and Algiers. New Orleans_sentence_296

Historic and residential architecture New Orleans_section_18

See also: Buildings and architecture of New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_297

New Orleans is world-famous for its abundance of architectural styles that reflect the city's multicultural heritage. New Orleans_sentence_298

Though New Orleans possesses numerous structures of national architectural significance, it is equally, if not more, revered for its enormous, largely intact (even post-Katrina) historic built environment. New Orleans_sentence_299

Twenty National Register Historic Districts have been established, and fourteen local historic districts aid in preservation. New Orleans_sentence_300

Thirteen of the districts are administered by the New Orleans Historic District Landmarks Commission (HDLC), while one—the French Quarter—is administered by the Vieux Carre Commission (VCC). New Orleans_sentence_301

Additionally, both the National Park Service, via the National Register of Historic Places, and the HDLC have landmarked individual buildings, many of which lie outside the boundaries of existing historic districts. New Orleans_sentence_302

Housing styles include the shotgun house and the bungalow style. New Orleans_sentence_303

Creole cottages and townhouses, notable for their large courtyards and intricate iron balconies, line the streets of the French Quarter. New Orleans_sentence_304

American townhouses, double-gallery houses, and Raised Center-Hall Cottages are notable. New Orleans_sentence_305

St. New Orleans_sentence_306 Charles Avenue is famed for its large antebellum homes. New Orleans_sentence_307

Its mansions are in various styles, such as Greek Revival, American Colonial and the Victorian styles of Queen Anne and Italianate architecture. New Orleans_sentence_308

New Orleans is also noted for its large, European-style Catholic cemeteries. New Orleans_sentence_309

Tallest buildings New Orleans_section_19

See also: List of tallest buildings in New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_310

For much of its history, New Orleans' skyline displayed only low- and mid-rise structures. New Orleans_sentence_311

The soft soils are susceptible to subsidence, and there was doubt about the feasibility of constructing high rises. New Orleans_sentence_312

Developments in engineering throughout the 20th century eventually made it possible to build sturdy foundations in the foundations that underlie the structures. New Orleans_sentence_313

In the 1960s, the World Trade Center New Orleans and Plaza Tower demonstrated skyscrapers' viability. New Orleans_sentence_314

One Shell Square became the city's tallest building in 1972. New Orleans_sentence_315

The oil boom of the 1970s and early 1980s redefined New Orleans' skyline with the development of the Poydras Street corridor. New Orleans_sentence_316

Most are clustered along Canal Street and Poydras Street in the Central Business District. New Orleans_sentence_317

New Orleans_table_general_1

NameNew Orleans_header_cell_1_0_0 StoriesNew Orleans_header_cell_1_0_1 HeightNew Orleans_header_cell_1_0_2
One Shell SquareNew Orleans_cell_1_1_0 51New Orleans_cell_1_1_1 697 ft (212 m)New Orleans_cell_1_1_2
Place St. CharlesNew Orleans_cell_1_2_0 53New Orleans_cell_1_2_1 645 ft (197 m)New Orleans_cell_1_2_2
Plaza TowerNew Orleans_cell_1_3_0 45New Orleans_cell_1_3_1 531 ft (162 m)New Orleans_cell_1_3_2
Energy CentreNew Orleans_cell_1_4_0 39New Orleans_cell_1_4_1 530 ft (160 m)New Orleans_cell_1_4_2
First Bank and Trust TowerNew Orleans_cell_1_5_0 36New Orleans_cell_1_5_1 481 ft (147 m)New Orleans_cell_1_5_2

Climate New Orleans_section_20

See also: Hurricane preparedness for New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_318

The climate of New Orleans is humid subtropical (Köppen: Cfa), with short, generally mild winters and hot, humid summers; most suburbs and parts of Wards 9 and 15 fall in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 9a, while the city's other 15 wards are rated 9b in whole. New Orleans_sentence_319

The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 53.4 °F (11.9 °C) in January to 83.3 °F (28.5 °C) in July and August. New Orleans_sentence_320

Officially, as measured at New Orleans International Airport, temperature records range from 11 to 102 °F (−12 to 39 °C) on December 23, 1989 and August 22, 1980, respectively; Audubon Park has recorded temperatures ranging from 6 °F (−14 °C) on February 13, 1899 up to 104 °F (40 °C) on June 24, 2009. New Orleans_sentence_321

Dewpoints in the summer months (June–August) are relatively high, ranging from 71.1 to 73.4 °F (21.7 to 23.0 °C). New Orleans_sentence_322

The average precipitation is 62.5 inches (1,590 mm) annually; the summer months are the wettest, while October is the driest month. New Orleans_sentence_323

Precipitation in winter usually accompanies the passing of a cold front. New Orleans_sentence_324

On average, there are 77 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs, 8.1 days per winter where the high does not exceed 50 °F (10 °C), and 8.0 nights with freezing lows annually. New Orleans_sentence_325

It is rare for the temperature to reach 20 or 100 °F (−7 or 38 °C), with the last occurrence of each being February 5, 1996 and June 26, 2016, respectively. New Orleans_sentence_326

New Orleans experiences snowfall only on rare occasions. New Orleans_sentence_327

A small amount of snow fell during the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm and again on Christmas (December 25) when a combination of rain, sleet, and snow fell on the city, leaving some bridges icy. New Orleans_sentence_328

The New Year's Eve 1963 snowstorm affected New Orleans and brought 4.5 inches (11 cm). New Orleans_sentence_329

Snow fell again on December 22, 1989, when most of the city received 1–2 inches (2.5–5.1 cm). New Orleans_sentence_330

The last significant snowfall in New Orleans was on the morning of December 11, 2008. New Orleans_sentence_331

Threat from tropical cyclones New Orleans_section_21

Hurricanes pose a severe threat to the area, and the city is particularly at risk because of its low elevation, because it is surrounded by water from the north, east, and south and because of Louisiana's sinking coast. New Orleans_sentence_332

According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, New Orleans is the nation's most vulnerable city to hurricanes. New Orleans_sentence_333

Indeed, portions of Greater New Orleans have been flooded by the Grand Isle Hurricane of 1909, the New Orleans Hurricane of 1915, 1947 Fort Lauderdale Hurricane, Hurricane Flossy in 1956, Hurricane Betsy in 1965, Hurricane Georges in 1998, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005, Hurricane Gustav in 2008, and Hurricane Zeta in 2020 (Zeta was also the most intense hurricane to pass over New Orleans) with the flooding in Betsy being significant and in a few neighborhoods severe, and that in Katrina being disastrous in the majority of the city. New Orleans_sentence_334

On August 29, 2005, storm surge from Hurricane Katrina caused catastrophic failure of the federally designed and built levees, flooding 80% of the city. New Orleans_sentence_335

A report by the American Society of Civil Engineers says that "had the levees and floodwalls not failed and had the pump stations operated, nearly two-thirds of the deaths would not have occurred". New Orleans_sentence_336

New Orleans has always had to consider the risk of hurricanes, but the risks are dramatically greater today due to coastal erosion from human interference. New Orleans_sentence_337

Since the beginning of the 20th century, it has been estimated that Louisiana has lost 2,000 square miles (5,000 km) of coast (including many of its barrier islands), which once protected New Orleans against storm surge. New Orleans_sentence_338

Following Hurricane Katrina, the Army Corps of Engineers has instituted massive levee repair and hurricane protection measures to protect the city. New Orleans_sentence_339

In 2006, Louisiana voters overwhelmingly adopted an amendment to the state's constitution to dedicate all revenues from off-shore drilling to restore Louisiana's eroding coast line. New Orleans_sentence_340

Congress has allocated $7 billion to bolster New Orleans' flood protection. New Orleans_sentence_341

According to a study by the National Academy of Engineering and the National Research Council, levees and floodwalls surrounding New Orleans—no matter how large or sturdy—cannot provide absolute protection against overtopping or failure in extreme events. New Orleans_sentence_342

Levees and floodwalls should be viewed as a way to reduce risks from hurricanes and storm surges, not as measures that completely eliminate risk. New Orleans_sentence_343

For structures in hazardous areas and residents who do not relocate, the committee recommended major floodproofing measures—such as elevating the first floor of buildings to at least the 100-year flood level. New Orleans_sentence_344

Demographics New Orleans_section_22

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, 343,829 people and 189,896 households lived in New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_345

In 2019, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated New Orleans had 390,144 residents. New Orleans_sentence_346

Beginning in 1960, the population decreased due to factors such as the cycles of oil production and tourism, and as suburbanization increased (as with many cities), and jobs migrated to surrounding parishes. New Orleans_sentence_347

This economic and population decline resulted in high levels of poverty in the city; in 1960 it had the fifth-highest poverty rate of all US cities, and was almost twice the national average in 2005, at 24.5%. New Orleans_sentence_348

New Orleans experienced an increase in residential segregation from 1900 to 1980, leaving the disproportionately African American poor in older, low-lying locations. New Orleans_sentence_349

These areas were especially susceptible to flood and storm damage. New Orleans_sentence_350

The last population estimate before Hurricane Katrina was 454,865, as of July 1, 2005. New Orleans_sentence_351

A population analysis released in August 2007 estimated the population to be 273,000, 60% of the pre-Katrina population and an increase of about 50,000 since July 2006. New Orleans_sentence_352

A September 2007 report by The Greater New Orleans Community Data Center, which tracks population based on U.S. New Orleans_sentence_353

Postal Service figures, found that in August 2007, just over 137,000 households received mail. New Orleans_sentence_354

That compares with about 198,000 households in July 2005, representing about 70% of pre-Katrina population. New Orleans_sentence_355

More recently, the Census Bureau revised upward its 2008 population estimate for the city, to 336,644 inhabitants. New Orleans_sentence_356

In 2010, estimates showed that neighborhoods that did not flood were near or even greater than 100% of their pre-Katrina populations. New Orleans_sentence_357

Katrina displaced 800,000 people, contributing significantly to the decline. New Orleans_sentence_358

African Americans, renters, the elderly, and people with low income were disproportionately affected by Katrina, compared to affluent and white residents. New Orleans_sentence_359

In Katrina's aftermath, city government commissioned groups such as Bring New Orleans Back Commission, the New Orleans Neighborhood Rebuilding Plan, the Unified New Orleans Plan, and the Office of Recovery Management to contribute to plans addressing depopulation. New Orleans_sentence_360

Their ideas included shrinking the city's footprint from before the storm, incorporating community voices into development plans, and creating green spaces, some of which incited controversy. New Orleans_sentence_361

A 2006 study by researchers at Tulane University and the University of California, Berkeley determined that as many as 10,000 to 14,000 undocumented immigrants, many from Mexico, resided in New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_362

The New Orleans Police Department began a new policy to "no longer cooperate with federal immigration enforcement" beginning on February 28, 2016. New Orleans_sentence_363

Janet Murguía, president and chief executive officer of the National Council of La Raza, stated that up to 120,000 Hispanic workers lived in New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_364

In June 2007, one study stated that the Hispanic population had risen from 15,000, pre-Katrina, to over 50,000. New Orleans_sentence_365

From 2010 to 2014 the city grew by 12%, adding an average of more than 10,000 new residents each year following the 2010 U.S. Census. New Orleans_sentence_366

As of 2010, 90.3% of residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 4.8% spoke Spanish, 1.9% Vietnamese, and 1.1% spoke French. New Orleans_sentence_367

In total, 9.7% population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English. New Orleans_sentence_368

Race and ethnicity New Orleans_section_23

See also: Hondurans in New Orleans, Italians in New Orleans, and Vietnamese in New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_369

New Orleans_table_general_2

Racial compositionNew Orleans_header_cell_2_0_0 2010New Orleans_header_cell_2_0_1 1990New Orleans_header_cell_2_0_2 1970New Orleans_header_cell_2_0_3 1940New Orleans_header_cell_2_0_4
WhiteNew Orleans_cell_2_1_0 33.0%New Orleans_cell_2_1_1 34.9%New Orleans_cell_2_1_2 54.5%New Orleans_cell_2_1_3 69.7%New Orleans_cell_2_1_4
—Non-HispanicNew Orleans_cell_2_2_0 30.5%New Orleans_cell_2_2_1 33.1%New Orleans_cell_2_2_2 50.6%New Orleans_cell_2_2_3 n/aNew Orleans_cell_2_2_4
Black or African AmericanNew Orleans_cell_2_3_0 60.2%New Orleans_cell_2_3_1 61.9%New Orleans_cell_2_3_2 45.0%New Orleans_cell_2_3_3 30.1%New Orleans_cell_2_3_4
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)New Orleans_cell_2_4_0 5.2%New Orleans_cell_2_4_1 3.5%New Orleans_cell_2_4_2 4.4%New Orleans_cell_2_4_3 n/aNew Orleans_cell_2_4_4
AsianNew Orleans_cell_2_5_0 2.9%New Orleans_cell_2_5_1 1.9%New Orleans_cell_2_5_2 0.2%New Orleans_cell_2_5_3 0.1%New Orleans_cell_2_5_4

The racial and ethnic makeup of New Orleans was 60.2% African American, 33.0% White, 2.9% Asian (1.7% Vietnamese, 0.3% Indian, 0.3% Chinese, 0.1% Filipino, 0.1% Korean), 0.0% Pacific Islander, and 1.7% were people of two or more races in 2010. New Orleans_sentence_370

People of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 5.3% of the population; 1.3% were Mexican, 1.3% Honduran, 0.4% Cuban, 0.3% Puerto Rican, and 0.3% Nicaraguan. New Orleans_sentence_371

In 2018, the racial and ethnic makeup of the city was 30.6% non-Hispanic white, 59% Black or African American, 0.1% American Indian or Alaska Native, 2.9% Asian, <0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from some other race, and 1.5% from two or more races. New Orleans_sentence_372

Hispanics or Latinos of any race made up 5.5% of the population in 2018. New Orleans_sentence_373

As of 2011 the Hispanic and Latin American population had grown in the New Orleans area, including in Kenner, central Metairie, and Terrytown in Jefferson Parish and eastern New Orleans and Mid-City in New Orleans proper. New Orleans_sentence_374

Among the Asian American community, the earliest Filipino Americans to live within the city arrived in the early 1800s. New Orleans_sentence_375

After Katrina the small Brazilian American population expanded. New Orleans_sentence_376

Portuguese speakers were the second most numerous group to take English as a second language classes in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans, after Spanish speakers. New Orleans_sentence_377

Many Brazilians worked in skilled trades such as tile and flooring, although fewer worked as day laborers than did Latinos. New Orleans_sentence_378

Many had moved from Brazilian communities in the Northeastern United States, particularly Florida and Georgia. New Orleans_sentence_379

Brazilians settled throughout the metropolitan area. New Orleans_sentence_380

Most were undocumented. New Orleans_sentence_381

In January 2008 the New Orleans Brazilian population had a mid-range estimate of 3,000. New Orleans_sentence_382

By 2008 Brazilians had opened many small churches, shops and restaurants catering to their community. New Orleans_sentence_383

Religion New Orleans_section_24

New Orleans' colonial history of French and Spanish settlement generated a strong Roman Catholic tradition. New Orleans_sentence_384

Catholic missions ministered to slaves and free people of color and established schools for them. New Orleans_sentence_385

In addition, many late 19th and early 20th century European immigrants, such as the Irish, some Germans, and Italians were Catholic. New Orleans_sentence_386

Within the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans (which includes not only the city but the surrounding parishes as well), 40% percent of the population is Roman Catholic. New Orleans_sentence_387

Catholicism is reflected in French and Spanish cultural traditions, including its many parochial schools, street names, architecture and festivals, including Mardi Gras. New Orleans_sentence_388

Influenced by the Bible Belt's prominent Protestant population, New Orleans also has a sizable non-Catholic Christian demographic. New Orleans_sentence_389

Roughly 12.2% of the population are Baptist, followed by 5.1% from another Christian faith including Eastern Orthodox Christianity or Oriental Orthodoxy, 3.1% Methodism, 1.8% Episcopalianism, 0.9% Presbyterianism, 0.8% Lutheranism, 0.8% from the Latter-Day Saints, and 0.6% Pentecostalism. New Orleans_sentence_390

Of the Baptist population, the majority form the National Baptist Convention (USA and America), and the Southern Baptist Convention. New Orleans_sentence_391

New Orleans displays a distinctive variety of Louisiana Voodoo, due in part to syncretism with African and Afro-Caribbean Roman Catholic beliefs. New Orleans_sentence_392

The fame of voodoo practitioner Marie Laveau contributed to this, as did New Orleans' Caribbean cultural influences. New Orleans_sentence_393

Although the tourism industry strongly associated Voodoo with the city, only a small number of people are serious adherents. New Orleans_sentence_394

New Orleans was also home to the occultist Mary Oneida Toups, who was nicknamed the "Witch Queen of New Orleans". New Orleans_sentence_395

Toups' coven, The Religious Order of Witchcraft, was the first coven to be officially recognized as a religious institution by the state of Louisiana. New Orleans_sentence_396

Jewish settlers, primarily Sephardim, settled in New Orleans from the early nineteenth century. New Orleans_sentence_397

Some migrated from the communities established in the colonial years in Charleston, South Carolina and Savannah, Georgia. New Orleans_sentence_398

The merchant Abraham Cohen Labatt helped found the first Jewish congregation in New Orleans in the 1830s, which became known as the Portuguese Jewish Nefutzot Yehudah congregation (he and some other members were Sephardic Jews, whose ancestors had lived in Portugal and Spain). New Orleans_sentence_399

Ashkenazi Jews from eastern Europe immigrated in the late 19th and 20th centuries. New Orleans_sentence_400

By the 21st century, 10,000 Jews lived in New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_401

This number dropped to 7,000 after Hurricane Katrina, but rose again after efforts to incentivize the community's growth resulted in the arrival of about an additional 2,000 Jews. New Orleans_sentence_402

New Orleans synagogues lost members, but most re-opened in their original locations. New Orleans_sentence_403

The exception was Congregation Beth Israel, the oldest and most prominent Orthodox synagogue in the New Orleans region. New Orleans_sentence_404

Beth Israel's building in Lakeview was destroyed by flooding. New Orleans_sentence_405

After seven years of holding services in temporary quarters, the congregation consecrated a new synagogue on land purchased from the Reform Congregation Gates of Prayer in Metairie. New Orleans_sentence_406

A visible religious minority, Muslims constitute 0.6% of the religious population as of 2019. New Orleans_sentence_407

The Islamic demographic in New Orleans and its metropolitan area are mainly made up of Middle Eastern immigrants and African Americans. New Orleans_sentence_408

Economy New Orleans_section_25

New Orleans operates one of the world's largest and busiest ports and metropolitan New Orleans is a center of maritime industry. New Orleans_sentence_409

The region accounts for a significant portion of the nation's oil refining and petrochemical production, and serves as a white-collar corporate base for onshore and offshore petroleum and natural gas production. New Orleans_sentence_410

New Orleans is also a center for higher learning, with over 50,000 students enrolled in the region's eleven two- and four-year degree-granting institutions. New Orleans_sentence_411

Tulane University, a top-50 research university, is located in Uptown. New Orleans_sentence_412

Metropolitan New Orleans is a major regional hub for the health care industry and boasts a small, globally competitive manufacturing sector. New Orleans_sentence_413

The center city possesses a rapidly growing, entrepreneurial creative industries sector and is renowned for its cultural tourism. New Orleans_sentence_414

Greater New Orleans, Inc. (GNO, Inc.) acts as the first point-of-contact for regional economic development, coordinating between Louisiana's Department of Economic Development and the various business development agencies. New Orleans_sentence_415

Port New Orleans_section_26

New Orleans began as a strategically located trading entrepôt and it remains, above all, a crucial transportation hub and distribution center for waterborne commerce. New Orleans_sentence_416

The Port of New Orleans is the fifth-largest in the United States based on cargo volume, and second-largest in the state after the Port of South Louisiana. New Orleans_sentence_417

It is the twelfth-largest in the U.S. based on cargo value. New Orleans_sentence_418

The Port of South Louisiana, also located in the New Orleans area, is the world's busiest in terms of bulk tonnage. New Orleans_sentence_419

When combined with Port of New Orleans, it forms the 4th-largest port system in volume. New Orleans_sentence_420

Many shipbuilding, shipping, logistics, freight forwarding and commodity brokerage firms either are based in metropolitan New Orleans or maintain a local presence. New Orleans_sentence_421

Examples include Intermarine, Bisso Towboat, Northrop Grumman Ship Systems, Trinity Yachts, Expeditors International, Bollinger Shipyards, IMTT, International Coffee Corp, Boasso America, Transoceanic Shipping, Transportation Consultants Inc., Dupuy Storage & Forwarding and Silocaf. New Orleans_sentence_422

The largest coffee-roasting plant in the world, operated by Folgers, is located in New Orleans East. New Orleans_sentence_423

New Orleans is located near to the Gulf of Mexico and its many oil rigs. New Orleans_sentence_424

Louisiana ranks fifth among states in oil production and eighth in reserves. New Orleans_sentence_425

It has two of the four Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage facilities: West Hackberry in Cameron Parish and Bayou Choctaw in Iberville Parish. New Orleans_sentence_426

The area hosts 17 petroleum refineries, with a combined crude oil distillation capacity of nearly 2.8 million barrels per day (450,000 m/d), the second highest after Texas. New Orleans_sentence_427

Louisiana's numerous ports include the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), which is capable of receiving the largest oil tankers. New Orleans_sentence_428

Given the quantity of oil imports, Louisiana is home to many major pipelines: Crude Oil (Exxon, Chevron, BP, Texaco, Shell, Scurloch-Permian, Mid-Valley, Calumet, Conoco, Koch Industries, Unocal, U.S. New Orleans_sentence_429 Dept. New Orleans_sentence_430 of Energy, Locap); Product (TEPPCO Partners, Colonial, Plantation, Explorer, Texaco, Collins); and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Dixie, TEPPCO, Black Lake, Koch, Chevron, Dynegy, Kinder Morgan Energy Partners, Dow Chemical Company, Bridgeline, FMP, Tejas, Texaco, UTP). New Orleans_sentence_431

Several energy companies have regional headquarters in the area, including Royal Dutch Shell, Eni and Chevron. New Orleans_sentence_432

Other energy producers and oilfield services companies are headquartered in the city or region, and the sector supports a large professional services base of specialized engineering and design firms, as well as a term office for the federal government's Minerals Management Service. New Orleans_sentence_433

Business New Orleans_section_27

The city is the home to a single Fortune 500 company: Entergy, a power generation utility and nuclear power plant operations specialist. New Orleans_sentence_434

After Katrina, the city lost its other Fortune 500 company, Freeport-McMoRan, when it merged its copper and gold exploration unit with an Arizona company and relocated that division to Phoenix. New Orleans_sentence_435

Its McMoRan Exploration affiliate remains headquartered in New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_436

Companies with significant operations or headquarters in New Orleans include: Pan American Life Insurance, Pool Corp, Rolls-Royce, Newpark Resources, AT&T, TurboSquid, iSeatz, IBM, Navtech, Superior Energy Services, Textron Marine & Land Systems, McDermott International, Pellerin Milnor, Lockheed Martin, Imperial Trading, Laitram, Harrah's Entertainment, Stewart Enterprises, Edison Chouest Offshore, Zatarain's, Waldemar S. Nelson & Co., Whitney National Bank, Capital One, Tidewater Marine, Popeyes Chicken & Biscuits, Parsons Brinckerhoff, MWH Global, CH2M Hill, Energy Partners Ltd, The Receivables Exchange, GE Capital, and Smoothie King. New Orleans_sentence_437

Tourist and convention business New Orleans_section_28

Tourism is a staple of the city's economy. New Orleans_sentence_438

Perhaps more visible than any other sector, New Orleans' tourist and convention industry is a $5.5 billion industry that accounts for 40 percent of city tax revenues. New Orleans_sentence_439

In 2004, the hospitality industry employed 85,000 people, making it the city's top economic sector as measured by employment. New Orleans_sentence_440

New Orleans also hosts the World Cultural Economic Forum (WCEF). New Orleans_sentence_441

The forum, held annually at the New Orleans Morial Convention Center, is directed toward promoting cultural and economic development opportunities through the strategic convening of cultural ambassadors and leaders from around the world. New Orleans_sentence_442

The first WCEF took place in October 2008. New Orleans_sentence_443

Federal and military agencies New Orleans_section_29

Federal agencies and the Armed forces operate significant facilities there. New Orleans_sentence_444

The U.S. New Orleans_sentence_445 Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals operates at the US. New Orleans_sentence_446

Courthouse downtown. New Orleans_sentence_447

NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility is located in New Orleans East and has multiple tenants including Lockheed Martin and Boeing. New Orleans_sentence_448

It is a huge manufacturing complex that produced the external fuel tanks for the Space Shuttles, the Saturn V first stage, the Integrated Truss Structure of the International Space Station, and is now used for the construction of NASA's Space Launch System. New Orleans_sentence_449

The rocket factory lies within the enormous New Orleans Regional Business Park, also home to the National Finance Center, operated by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Crescent Crown distribution center. New Orleans_sentence_450

Other large governmental installations include the U.S. Navy's Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Command, located within the University of New Orleans Research and Technology Park in Gentilly, Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base New Orleans; and the headquarters for the Marine Force Reserves in Federal City in Algiers. New Orleans_sentence_451

Culture and contemporary life New Orleans_section_30

Main article: Culture of New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_452

Tourism New Orleans_section_31

See also: Culture of New Orleans § Museums and other attractions New Orleans_sentence_453

New Orleans has many visitor attractions, from the world-renowned French Quarter to St. New Orleans_sentence_454 Charles Avenue, (home of Tulane and Loyola Universities, the historic Pontchartrain Hotel and many 19th-century mansions) to Magazine Street with its boutique stores and antique shops. New Orleans_sentence_455

According to current travel guides, New Orleans is one of the top ten most-visited cities in the United States; 10.1 million visitors came to New Orleans in 2004. New Orleans_sentence_456

Prior to Katrina, 265 hotels with 38,338 rooms operated in the Greater New Orleans Area. New Orleans_sentence_457

In May 2007, that had declined to some 140 hotels and motels with over 31,000 rooms. New Orleans_sentence_458

A 2009 Travel + Leisure poll of "America's Favorite Cities" ranked New Orleans first in ten categories, the most first-place rankings of the 30 cities included. New Orleans_sentence_459

According to the poll, New Orleans was the best U.S. city as a spring break destination and for "wild weekends", stylish boutique hotels, cocktail hours, singles/bar scenes, live music/concerts and bands, antique and vintage shops, cafés/coffee bars, neighborhood restaurants, and people watching. New Orleans_sentence_460

The city ranked second for: friendliness (behind Charleston, South Carolina), gay-friendliness (behind San Francisco), bed and breakfast hotels/inns, and ethnic food. New Orleans_sentence_461

However, the city placed near the bottom in cleanliness, safety and as a family destination. New Orleans_sentence_462

The French Quarter (known locally as "the Quarter" or Vieux Carré), which was the colonial-era city and is bounded by the Mississippi River, Rampart Street, Canal Street, and Esplanade Avenue, contains popular hotels, bars and nightclubs. New Orleans_sentence_463

Notable tourist attractions in the Quarter include Bourbon Street, Jackson Square, St. Louis Cathedral, the French Market (including Café du Monde, famous for café au lait and beignets) and Preservation Hall. New Orleans_sentence_464

Also in the French Quarter is the old New Orleans Mint, a former branch of the United States Mint which now operates as a museum, and The Historic New Orleans Collection, a museum and research center housing art and artifacts relating to the history and the Gulf South. New Orleans_sentence_465

Close to the Quarter is the Tremé community, which contains the New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park and the New Orleans African American Museum—a site which is listed on the Louisiana African American Heritage Trail. New Orleans_sentence_466

The Natchez is an authentic steamboat with a calliope that cruises the length of the city twice daily. New Orleans_sentence_467

Unlike most other places in the United States, New Orleans has become widely known for its elegant decay. New Orleans_sentence_468

The city's historic cemeteries and their distinct above-ground tombs are attractions in themselves, the oldest and most famous of which, Saint Louis Cemetery, greatly resembles Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. New Orleans_sentence_469

The National WWII Museum offers a multi-building odyssey through the history of the Pacific and European theaters. New Orleans_sentence_470

Nearby, Confederate Memorial Hall Museum, the oldest continually operating museum in Louisiana (although under renovation since Hurricane Katrina), contains the second-largest collection of Confederate memorabilia. New Orleans_sentence_471

Art museums include the Contemporary Arts Center, the New Orleans Museum of Art (NOMA) in City Park, and the Ogden Museum of Southern Art. New Orleans_sentence_472

New Orleans is home to the Audubon Nature Institute (which consists of Audubon Park, the Audubon Zoo, the Aquarium of the Americas and the Audubon Insectarium), and home to gardens which include Longue Vue House and Gardens and the New Orleans Botanical Garden. New Orleans_sentence_473

City Park, one of the country's most expansive and visited urban parks, has one of the largest stands of oak trees in the world. New Orleans_sentence_474

Other points of interest can be found in the surrounding areas. New Orleans_sentence_475

Many wetlands are found nearby, including Honey Island Swamp and Barataria Preserve. New Orleans_sentence_476

Chalmette Battlefield and National Cemetery, located just south of the city, is the site of the 1815 Battle of New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_477

In 2009, New Orleans ranked No. New Orleans_sentence_478

7 on Newsmax magazine's list of the "Top 25 Most Uniquely American Cities and Towns". New Orleans_sentence_479

The piece cited the city's post-Katrina rebuilding effort as well as its efforts to become eco-friendly. New Orleans_sentence_480

Entertainment and performing arts New Orleans_section_32

Main article: Music of New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_481

The New Orleans area is home to numerous annual celebrations. New Orleans_sentence_482

The most well known is Carnival, or Mardi Gras. New Orleans_sentence_483

Carnival officially begins on the Feast of the Epiphany, also known in some Christian traditions as the "Twelfth Night" of Christams. New Orleans_sentence_484

Mardi Gras (French for "Fat Tuesday"), the final and grandest day of traditional Catholic festivities, is the last Tuesday before the Christian liturgical season of Lent, which commences on Ash Wednesday. New Orleans_sentence_485

The largest of the city's many music festivals is the New Orleans Jazz & Heritage Festival. New Orleans_sentence_486

Commonly referred to simply as "Jazz Fest", it is one of the nation's largest music festivals. New Orleans_sentence_487

The festival features a variety of music, including both native Louisiana and international artists. New Orleans_sentence_488

Along with Jazz Fest, New Orleans' Voodoo Experience ("Voodoo Fest") and the Essence Music Festival also feature local and international artists. New Orleans_sentence_489

Other major festivals include Southern Decadence, the French Quarter Festival, and the Tennessee Williams/New Orleans Literary Festival. New Orleans_sentence_490

The American playwright lived and wrote in New Orleans early in his career, and set his play, Streetcar Named Desire, there. New Orleans_sentence_491

In 2002, Louisiana began offering tax incentives for film and television production. New Orleans_sentence_492

This has resulted in a substantial increase in activity and brought the nickname of "Hollywood South" for New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_493

Films produced in and around the city include Ray, Runaway Jury, The Pelican Brief, Glory Road, All the King's Men, Déjà Vu, Last Holiday, The Curious Case of Benjamin Button and 12 Years a Slave. New Orleans_sentence_494

In 2006, work began on the Louisiana Film & Television studio complex, based in the Tremé neighborhood. New Orleans_sentence_495

Louisiana began to offer similar tax incentives for music and theater productions in 2007, and some commentators began to refer to New Orleans as "Broadway South." New Orleans_sentence_496

The first theatre in New Orleans was the French-language Theatre de la Rue Saint Pierre, which opened in 1792. New Orleans_sentence_497

The first opera in New Orleans was performed there in 1796. New Orleans_sentence_498

In the nineteenth century, the city was the home of two of America's most important venues for French opera, the Théâtre d'Orléans and later the French Opera House. New Orleans_sentence_499

Today, opera is performed by the New Orleans Opera. New Orleans_sentence_500

The Marigny Opera House is home to the Marigny Opera Ballet and also hosts opera, jazz, and classical music performances. New Orleans_sentence_501

New Orleans has long been a significant center for music, showcasing its intertwined European, African and Latin American cultures. New Orleans_sentence_502

The city's unique musical heritage was born in its colonial and early American days from a unique blending of European musical instruments with African rhythms. New Orleans_sentence_503

As the only North American city to have allowed slaves to gather in public and play their native music (largely in Congo Square, now located within Louis Armstrong Park), New Orleans gave birth in the early 20th century to an epochal indigenous music: jazz. New Orleans_sentence_504

Soon, African American brass bands formed, beginning a century-long tradition. New Orleans_sentence_505

The Louis Armstrong Park area, near the French Quarter in Tremé, contains the New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park. New Orleans_sentence_506

The city's music was later also significantly influenced by Acadiana, home of Cajun and Zydeco music, and by Delta blues. New Orleans_sentence_507

New Orleans' unique musical culture is on display in its traditional funerals. New Orleans_sentence_508

A spin on military funerals, New Orleans' traditional funerals feature sad music (mostly dirges and hymns) in processions on the way to the cemetery and happier music (hot jazz) on the way back. New Orleans_sentence_509

Until the 1990s, most locals preferred to call these "funerals with music." New Orleans_sentence_510

Visitors to the city have long dubbed them "jazz funerals." New Orleans_sentence_511

Much later in its musical development, New Orleans was home to a distinctive brand of rhythm and blues that contributed greatly to the growth of rock and roll. New Orleans_sentence_512

An example of the New Orleans' sound in the 1960s is the #1 US hit "Chapel of Love" by the Dixie Cups, a song which knocked the Beatles out of the top spot on the Billboard Hot 100. New Orleans_sentence_513

New Orleans became a hotbed for funk music in the 1960s and 1970s, and by the late 1980s, it had developed its own localized variant of hip hop, called bounce music. New Orleans_sentence_514

While not commercially successful outside of the Deep South, bounce music was immensely popular in poorer neighborhoods throughout the 1990s. New Orleans_sentence_515

A cousin of bounce, New Orleans hip hop achieved commercial success locally and internationally, producing Lil Wayne, Master P, Birdman, Juvenile, Cash Money Records and No Limit Records. New Orleans_sentence_516

Additionally, the popularity of cowpunk, a fast form of southern rock, originated with the help of several local bands, such as The Radiators, Better Than Ezra, Cowboy Mouth and Dash Rip Rock. New Orleans_sentence_517

Throughout the 1990s, many sludge metal bands started. New Orleans_sentence_518

New Orleans' heavy metal bands such as Eyehategod, Soilent Green, Crowbar, and Down incorporated styles such as hardcore punk, doom metal, and southern rock to create an original and heady brew of swampy and aggravated metal that has largely avoided standardization. New Orleans_sentence_519

New Orleans is the southern terminus of the famed Highway 61, made musically famous by musician Bob Dylan in his song, "Highway 61 Revisited". New Orleans_sentence_520

Cuisine New Orleans_section_33

Main articles: Cuisine of New Orleans, Louisiana Creole cuisine, and Cajun cuisine New Orleans_sentence_521

New Orleans is world-famous for its cuisine. New Orleans_sentence_522

The indigenous cuisine is distinctive and influential. New Orleans_sentence_523

New Orleans food combined local Creole, haute Creole and New Orleans French cuisines. New Orleans_sentence_524

Local ingredients, French, Spanish, Italian, African, Native American, Cajun, Chinese, and a hint of Cuban traditions combine to produce a truly unique and easily recognizable New Orleans flavor. New Orleans_sentence_525

New Orleans is known for specialties including beignets (locally pronounced like "ben-yays"), square-shaped fried dough that could be called "French doughnuts" (served with café au lait made with a blend of coffee and chicory rather than only coffee); and po' boy and Italian muffuletta sandwiches; Gulf oysters on the half-shell, fried oysters, boiled crawfish and other seafood; étouffée, jambalaya, gumbo and other Creole dishes; and the Monday favorite of red beans and rice (Louis Armstrong often signed his letters, "Red beans and ricely yours"). New Orleans_sentence_526

Another New Orleans specialty is the praline locally /ˈprɑːliːn/, a candy made with brown sugar, granulated sugar, cream, butter, and pecans. New Orleans_sentence_527

The city offers notable street food including the Asian inspired beef Yaka mein. New Orleans_sentence_528

Dialect New Orleans_section_34

Main article: New Orleans English New Orleans_sentence_529

See also: Culture of New Orleans § Language New Orleans_sentence_530

New Orleans developed a distinctive local dialect that is neither Cajun English nor the stereotypical Southern accent that is often misportrayed by film and television actors. New Orleans_sentence_531

Like earlier Southern Englishes, it features frequent deletion of the pre-consonantal "r", though the local white dialect also came to be quite similar to New York accents. New Orleans_sentence_532

No consensus describes how this happened, but it likely resulted from New Orleans' geographic isolation by water and the fact that the city was a major immigration port throughout the 19th century and early 20th century. New Orleans_sentence_533

Specifically, many members of European immigrant families originally raised in the cities of the Northeast, namely New York, moved to New Orleans during this time frame, bringing their Northeastern accents along with their Irish, Italian (especially Sicilian), German, and Jewish culture. New Orleans_sentence_534

One of the strongest varieties of the New Orleans accent is sometimes identified as the Yat dialect, from the greeting "Where y'at?" New Orleans_sentence_535

This distinctive accent is dying out in the city, but remains strong in the surrounding parishes. New Orleans_sentence_536

Less visibly, various ethnic groups throughout the area have retained distinct language traditions. New Orleans_sentence_537

Although rare, languages still spoken include Cajun, the Kreyol Lwiziyen spoken by the Creoles and an archaic Louisiana-Canarian Spanish dialect spoken by the Isleño people and older members of the population. New Orleans_sentence_538

Sports New Orleans_section_35

Main article: Sports in New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_539

New Orleans_table_general_3

ClubNew Orleans_header_cell_3_0_0 SportNew Orleans_header_cell_3_0_1 LeagueNew Orleans_header_cell_3_0_2 Venue (capacity)New Orleans_header_cell_3_0_3 FoundedNew Orleans_header_cell_3_0_4 TitlesNew Orleans_header_cell_3_0_5 Record attendanceNew Orleans_header_cell_3_0_6
New Orleans SaintsNew Orleans_cell_3_1_0 American footballNew Orleans_cell_3_1_1 NFLNew Orleans_cell_3_1_2 Mercedes-Benz Superdome (73,208)New Orleans_cell_3_1_3 1967New Orleans_cell_3_1_4 1New Orleans_cell_3_1_5 73,373New Orleans_cell_3_1_6
New Orleans PelicansNew Orleans_cell_3_2_0 BasketballNew Orleans_cell_3_2_1 NBANew Orleans_cell_3_2_2 Smoothie King Center (16,867)New Orleans_cell_3_2_3 2002New Orleans_cell_3_2_4 0New Orleans_cell_3_2_5 18,444New Orleans_cell_3_2_6
New Orleans JestersNew Orleans_cell_3_3_0 SoccerNew Orleans_cell_3_3_1 NPSLNew Orleans_cell_3_3_2 Pan American Stadium (5,000)New Orleans_cell_3_3_3 2003New Orleans_cell_3_3_4 0New Orleans_cell_3_3_5 5,000New Orleans_cell_3_3_6

New Orleans' professional sports teams include the 2009 Super Bowl XLIV champion New Orleans Saints (NFL) and the New Orleans Pelicans (NBA). New Orleans_sentence_540

It is also home to the Big Easy Rollergirls, an all-female flat track roller derby team, and the New Orleans Blaze, a women's football team. New Orleans_sentence_541

New Orleans is also home to two NCAA Division I athletic programs, the Tulane Green Wave of the American Athletic Conference and the UNO Privateers of the Southland Conference. New Orleans_sentence_542

The Mercedes-Benz Superdome is the home of the Saints, the Sugar Bowl, and other prominent events. New Orleans_sentence_543

It has hosted the Super Bowl a record seven times (1978, 1981, 1986, 1990, 1997, 2002, and 2013). New Orleans_sentence_544

The Smoothie King Center is the home of the Pelicans, VooDoo, and many events that are not large enough to need the Superdome. New Orleans_sentence_545

New Orleans is also home to the Fair Grounds Race Course, the nation's third-oldest thoroughbred track. New Orleans_sentence_546

The city's Lakefront Arena has also been home to sporting events. New Orleans_sentence_547

Each year New Orleans plays host to the Sugar Bowl, the New Orleans Bowl and the Zurich Classic, a golf tournament on the PGA Tour. New Orleans_sentence_548

In addition, it has often hosted major sporting events that have no permanent home, such as the Super Bowl, ArenaBowl, NBA All-Star Game, BCS National Championship Game, and the NCAA Final Four. New Orleans_sentence_549

The Rock 'n' Roll Mardi Gras Marathon and the Crescent City Classic are two annual road running events. New Orleans_sentence_550

National protected areas New Orleans_section_36

New Orleans_unordered_list_1

Government New Orleans_section_37

See also: List of mayors of New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_551

The city is a political subdivision of the state of Louisiana. New Orleans_sentence_552

It has a mayor-council government, following a Home Rule Charter adopted in 1954, as later amended. New Orleans_sentence_553

The city council consists of seven members, who are elected by single-member districts and two members elected at-large, that is, across the city-parish. New Orleans_sentence_554

LaToya Cantrell assumed the mayor's office in 2018. New Orleans_sentence_555

Cantrell is the first female mayor of New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_556

The Orleans Parish Civil Sheriff's Office serves papers involving lawsuits and provides security for the Civil District Court and Juvenile Courts. New Orleans_sentence_557

The criminal sheriff, Marlin Gusman, maintains the parish prison system, provides security for the Criminal District Court, and provides backup for the New Orleans Police Department on an as-needed basis. New Orleans_sentence_558

An ordinance in 2006 established an Office of Inspector General to review city government activities. New Orleans_sentence_559

The city and the parish of Orleans operate as a merged city-parish government. New Orleans_sentence_560

The original city was composed of what are now the 1st through 9th wards. New Orleans_sentence_561

The city of Lafayette (including the Garden District) was added in 1852 as the 10th and 11th wards. New Orleans_sentence_562

In 1870, Jefferson City, including Faubourg Bouligny and much of the Audubon and University areas, was annexed as the 12th, 13th, and 14th wards. New Orleans_sentence_563

Algiers, on the west bank of the Mississippi, was also annexed in 1870, becoming the 15th ward. New Orleans_sentence_564

New Orleans' government is largely centralized in the city council and mayor's office, but it maintains earlier systems from when various sections of the city managed their affairs separately. New Orleans_sentence_565

For example, New Orleans had seven elected tax assessors, each with their own staff, representing various districts of the city, rather than one centralized office. New Orleans_sentence_566

A constitutional amendment passed on November 7, 2006 consolidated the seven assessors into one in 2010. New Orleans_sentence_567

The New Orleans government operates both a fire department and the New Orleans Emergency Medical Services. New Orleans_sentence_568

Crime New Orleans_section_38

See also: New Orleans Police Department and Culture of New Orleans § Crime New Orleans_sentence_569

Crime is an ongoing problem in New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_570

As in comparable US cities, the incidence of homicide and other violent crimes is highly concentrated in certain impoverished neighborhoods. New Orleans_sentence_571

Arrested offenders in New Orleans are almost exclusively black males from impoverished communities: in 2011, 97% were black and 95% were male. New Orleans_sentence_572

91% of victims were black as well. New Orleans_sentence_573

The city's murder rate has been historically high and consistently among the highest rates nationwide. New Orleans_sentence_574

From 1994 to 2013, New Orleans was the country's "Murder Capital", averaging over 250-300 murders annually. New Orleans_sentence_575

The first record was broken in 1979 when the city reached 242 homicides. New Orleans_sentence_576

The record was broken again reaching 250 by 1989 to 345 by the end of 1991. New Orleans_sentence_577

By 1993 New Orleans had 395 murders: 80.5 for every 100,000 residents. New Orleans_sentence_578

In 1994, the city was officially named the "Murder Capital of America", hitting a historic peak of 424 murders. New Orleans_sentence_579

The murder count surpassed that of such cities as Gary, Indiana, Washington D.C., Chicago, Baltimore and Miami. New Orleans_sentence_580

In 2003 the homicide rate for New Orleans was nearly eight times the national average and the city had the highest per capita city murder rate of any city in the United States, with 274 homicides, up from the previous year. New Orleans_sentence_581

In 2006, with nearly half the population gone and widespread disruption and dislocation because of deaths and refugee relocations from Hurricane Katrina, the city hit another record of homicides. New Orleans_sentence_582

It was ranked as the most dangerous city in the country. New Orleans_sentence_583

By 2009, there was a 17% decrease in violent crime, a decrease seen in other cities across the country. New Orleans_sentence_584

But the homicide rate remained among the highest in the United States, at between 55 and 64 per 100,000 residents. New Orleans_sentence_585

In 2010, New Orleans' homicide rate dropped to 49.1 per 100,000, but increased again in 2012, to 53.2, the highest rate among cities of 250,000 population or larger. New Orleans_sentence_586

The violent crime rate was a key issue in the 2010 mayoral race. New Orleans_sentence_587

In January 2007, several thousand New Orleans residents marched to City Hall for a rally demanding police and city leaders tackle the crime problem. New Orleans_sentence_588

Then-Mayor Ray Nagin said he was "totally and solely focused" on addressing the problem. New Orleans_sentence_589

Later, the city implemented checkpoints during late night hours in problem areas. New Orleans_sentence_590

The murder rate climbed 14% in 2011 to 57.88 per 100,000 rising to #21 in the world. New Orleans_sentence_591

In 2016, according to annual crime statistics released by the New Orleans Police Department, 176 were murdered. New Orleans_sentence_592

In 2017, New Orleans had the highest rate of gun violence, surpassing the more populated Chicago and Detroit. New Orleans_sentence_593

Education New Orleans_section_39

Colleges and universities New Orleans_section_40

New Orleans has the highest concentration of colleges and universities in Louisiana and one of the highest in the Southern United States. New Orleans_sentence_594

New Orleans also has the third highest concentration of historically black collegiate institutions in the nation. New Orleans_sentence_595

Colleges and universities based within the city include: New Orleans_sentence_596

New Orleans_unordered_list_2

Primary and secondary schools New Orleans_section_41

See also: List of schools in New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_597

New Orleans Public Schools (NOPS) is the city's public school system. New Orleans_sentence_598

Katrina was a watershed moment for the school system. New Orleans_sentence_599

Pre-Katrina, NOPS was one of the area's largest systems (along with the Jefferson Parish public school system). New Orleans_sentence_600

It was also the lowest-performing school district in Louisiana. New Orleans_sentence_601

According to researchers Carl L. Bankston and Stephen J. Caldas, only 12 of the 103 public schools within the city limits showed reasonably good performance. New Orleans_sentence_602

Following Hurricane Katrina, the state of Louisiana took over most of the schools within the system (all schools that matched a nominal "worst-performing" metric). New Orleans_sentence_603

Many of these schools (and others) were subsequently granted operating charters giving them administrative independence from the Orleans Parish School Board, the Recovery School District and/or the Louisiana Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE). New Orleans_sentence_604

At the start of the 2014 school year, all public school students in the NOPS system attended these independent public charter schools, the nation's first to do so. New Orleans_sentence_605

The charter schools made significant and sustained gains in student achievement, led by outside operators such as KIPP, the Algiers Charter School Network, and the Capital One – University of New Orleans Charter School Network. New Orleans_sentence_606

An October 2009 assessment demonstrated continued growth in the academic performance of public schools. New Orleans_sentence_607

Considering the scores of all public schools in New Orleans gives an overall school district performance score of 70.6. New Orleans_sentence_608

This score represents a 24% improvement over an equivalent pre-Katrina (2004) metric, when a district score of 56.9 was posted. New Orleans_sentence_609

Notably, this score of 70.6 approaches the score (78.4) posted in 2009 by the adjacent, suburban Jefferson Parish public school system, though that system's performance score is itself below the state average of 91. New Orleans_sentence_610

One particular change was that parents could choose which school to enroll their children in, rather than attending the school nearest them. New Orleans_sentence_611

Libraries New Orleans_section_42

Academic and public libraries as well as archives in New Orleans include Monroe Library at Loyola University, Howard-Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University, the Law Library of Louisiana, and the Earl K. Long Library at the University of New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_612

The New Orleans Public Library operates in 13 locations. New Orleans_sentence_613

The main library includes a Louisiana Division that houses city archives and special collections. New Orleans_sentence_614

Other research archives are located at the Historic New Orleans Collection and the Old U.S. Mint. New Orleans_sentence_615

An independently operated lending library called Iron Rail Book Collective specializes in radical and hard-to-find books. New Orleans_sentence_616

The library contains over 8,000 titles and is open to the public. New Orleans_sentence_617

The Louisiana Historical Association was founded in New Orleans in 1889. New Orleans_sentence_618

It operated first at Howard Memorial Library. New Orleans_sentence_619

A separate Memorial Hall for it was later added to Howard Library, designed by New Orleans architect Thomas Sully. New Orleans_sentence_620

Media New Orleans_section_43

Main article: Media of New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_621

See also: Culture of New Orleans § News & entertainment media New Orleans_sentence_622

Historically, the major newspaper in the area was The Times-Picayune. New Orleans_sentence_623

The paper made headlines of its own in 2012 when owner Advance Publications cut its print schedule to three days each week, instead focusing its efforts on its website, New Orleans_sentence_624

That action briefly made New Orleans the largest city in the country without a daily newspaper, until the Baton Rouge newspaper The Advocate began a New Orleans edition in September 2012. New Orleans_sentence_625

In June 2013, the Times-Picayune resumed daily printing with a condensed newsstand tabloid edition, nicknamed TP Street, which is published on the three days each week that its namesake broadsheet edition is not printed (the Picayune has not returned to daily delivery). New Orleans_sentence_626

With the resumption of daily print editions from the Times-Picayune and the launch of the New Orleans edition of The Advocate, now The New Orleans Advocate, the city had two daily newspapers for the first time since the afternoon States-Item ceased publication on May 31, 1980. New Orleans_sentence_627

In 2019, the papers merged to form The Times-Picayune | The New Orleans Advocate. New Orleans_sentence_628

In addition to the daily newspaper, weekly publications include The Louisiana Weekly and Gambit Weekly. New Orleans_sentence_629

Also in wide circulation is the Clarion Herald, the newspaper of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans. New Orleans_sentence_630

Greater New Orleans is the 54th largest Designated Market Area (DMA) in the U.S., serving 566,960 homes. New Orleans_sentence_631

Major television network affiliates serving the area include: New Orleans_sentence_632

WWOZ, the New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Station, broadcasts modern and traditional jazz, blues, rhythm and blues, brass band, gospel, cajun, zydeco, Caribbean, Latin, Brazilian, African and bluegrass 24 hours per day. New Orleans_sentence_633

WTUL is Tulane University's radio station. New Orleans_sentence_634

Its programming includes 20th century classical, reggae, jazz, showtunes, indie rock, electronic music, soul/funk, goth, punk, hip hop, New Orleans music, opera, folk, hardcore, Americana, country, blues, Latin, cheese, techno, local, world, ska, swing and big band, kids' shows, and news programming. New Orleans_sentence_635

WTUL is listener-supported and non-commercial. New Orleans_sentence_636

The disc jockeys are volunteers, many of them college students. New Orleans_sentence_637

Louisiana's film and television tax credits spurred growth in the television industry, although to a lesser degree than in the film industry. New Orleans_sentence_638

Many films and advertisements were set there, along with television programs such as The Real World: New Orleans in 2000, The Real World: Back to New Orleans in 2009 and 2010 and Bad Girls Club: New Orleans in 2011. New Orleans_sentence_639

Two radio stations that were influential in promoting New Orleans-based bands and singers were 50,000-watt WNOE-AM (1060) and 10,000-watt WTIX (690 AM). New Orleans_sentence_640

These two stations competed head-to-head from the late 1950s to the late 1970s. New Orleans_sentence_641

Transportation New Orleans_section_44

Public transportation New Orleans_section_45

Hurricane Katrina devastated transit service in 2005. New Orleans_sentence_642

The New Orleans Regional Transit Authority (RTA) was quicker to restore the streetcars to service, while bus service had only been restored to 35% of pre-Katrina levels as recently as the end of 2013. New Orleans_sentence_643

During the same period, streetcars arrived at an average of once every seventeen minutes, compared to bus frequencies of once every thirty-eight minutes. New Orleans_sentence_644

The same priority was demonstrated in RTA's spending, increasing the proportion of its budget devoted to streetcars to more than three times compared to its pre-Katrina budget. New Orleans_sentence_645

Through the end of 2017, counting both streetcar and bus trips, only 51% of service had been restored to pre-Katrina levels. New Orleans_sentence_646

In 2017, the New Orleans Regional Transit Authority began operation on the extension of the Rampart–St. New Orleans_sentence_647

Claude streetcar line. New Orleans_sentence_648

Another change to transit service that year was the re-routing of the 15 Freret and 28 Martin Luther King bus routes to Canal Street. New Orleans_sentence_649

These increased the number of jobs accessible by a thirty-minute walk or transit ride: from 83,722 in 2016 to 89,216 in 2017. New Orleans_sentence_650

This resulted in a regional increase in such job access by more than a full percentage point. New Orleans_sentence_651

Streetcars New Orleans_section_46

Main article: Streetcars in New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_652

New Orleans has four active streetcar lines: New Orleans_sentence_653

New Orleans_unordered_list_3

  • The St. Charles Streetcar Line is the oldest continuously operating streetcar line in America. The line first operated as local rail service in 1835 between Carrollton and downtown New Orleans. Operated by the Carrollton & New Orleans R.R. Co., the locomotives were then powered by steam engines, and a one-way fare cost 25 cents. Each car is a historic landmark. It runs from Canal Street to the other end of St. Charles Avenue, then turns right into South Carrollton Avenue to its terminal at Carrollton and Claiborne.New Orleans_item_3_20
  • The Riverfront Streetcar Line runs parallel to the river from Esplanade Street through the French Quarter to Canal Street to the Convention Center above Julia Street in the Arts District.New Orleans_item_3_21
  • The Canal Streetcar Line uses the Riverfront line tracks from the intersection of Canal Street and Poydras Street, down Canal Street, then branches off and ends at the cemeteries at City Park Avenue, with a spur running from the intersection of Canal and Carrollton Avenue to the entrance of City Park at Esplanade, near the entrance to the New Orleans Museum of Art.New Orleans_item_3_22
  • The Rampart–St. Claude Streetcar Line opened on January 28, 2013 as the Loyola-UPT Line running along Loyola Avenue from New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal to Canal Street, then continuing along Canal Street to the river, and on weekends on the Riverfront line tracks to French Market. The French Quarter Rail Expansion extended the line from the Loyola Avenue/Canal Street intersection along Rampart Street and St. Claude Avenue to Elysian Fields Avenue. It no longer runs along Canal Street to the river, or on weekends on the Riverfront line tracks to French Market.New Orleans_item_3_23

The city's streetcars were featured in the Tennessee Williams play A Streetcar Named Desire. New Orleans_sentence_654

The streetcar line to Desire Street became a bus line in 1948. New Orleans_sentence_655

Buses New Orleans_section_47

Public transportation is operated by the New Orleans Regional Transit Authority ("RTA"). New Orleans_sentence_656

Many bus routes connect the city and suburban areas. New Orleans_sentence_657

The RTA lost 200+ buses in the flood. New Orleans_sentence_658

Some of the replacement buses operate on biodiesel. New Orleans_sentence_659

The Jefferson Parish Department of Transit Administration operates Jefferson Transit, which provides service between the city and its suburbs. New Orleans_sentence_660

Ferries New Orleans_section_48

New Orleans has had continuous ferry service since 1827, operating three routes as of 2017. New Orleans_sentence_661

The Canal Street Ferry (or Algiers Ferry) connects downtown New Orleans at the foot of Canal Street with the National Historic Landmark District of Algiers Point across the Mississippi ("West Bank" in local parlance). New Orleans_sentence_662

It services passenger vehicles, bicycles and pedestrians. New Orleans_sentence_663

This same terminal also serves the Canal Street/Gretna Ferry, connecting Gretna, Louisiana for pedestrians and bicyclists only. New Orleans_sentence_664

A third auto/bicycle/pedestrian connects Chalmette, Louisiana and Lower Algiers. New Orleans_sentence_665

Bicycling New Orleans_section_49

The city's flat landscape, simple street grid and mild winters facilitate bicycle ridership, helping to make New Orleans eighth among U.S. cities in its rate of bicycle and pedestrian transportation as of 2010, and sixth in terms of the percentage of bicycling commuters. New Orleans_sentence_666

New Orleans is located at the start of the Mississippi River Trail, a 3,000-mile (4,800 km) bicycle path that stretches from the city's Audubon Park to Minnesota. New Orleans_sentence_667

Since Katrina the city has actively sought to promote bicycling by constructing a $1.5 million bike trail from Mid-City to Lake Pontchartrain, and by adding over 37 miles (60 km) of bicycle lanes to various streets, including St. New Orleans_sentence_668 Charles Avenue. New Orleans_sentence_669

In 2009, Tulane University contributed to these efforts by converting the main street through its Uptown campus, McAlister Place, into a pedestrian mall open to bicycle traffic. New Orleans_sentence_670

A 3.1-mile (5.0 km) bicycle corridor stretches from the French Quarter to Lakeview, and 14 miles (23 km) of additional bike lanes on existing streets. New Orleans_sentence_671

New Orleans has been recognized for its abundance of uniquely decorated and uniquely designed bicycles. New Orleans_sentence_672

Roads New Orleans_section_50

See also: List of streets of New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_673

New Orleans is served by Interstate 10, Interstate 610 and Interstate 510. New Orleans_sentence_674

I-10 travels east–west through the city as the Pontchartrain Expressway. New Orleans_sentence_675

In New Orleans East it is known as the Eastern Expressway. New Orleans_sentence_676

I-610 provides a direct shortcut for traffic passing through New Orleans via I-10, allowing that traffic to bypass I-10's southward curve. New Orleans_sentence_677

In addition to the interstates, U.S. New Orleans_sentence_678 90 travels through the city, while U.S. New Orleans_sentence_679 61 terminates downtown. New Orleans_sentence_680

In addition, U.S. New Orleans_sentence_681 11 terminates in the eastern portion of the city. New Orleans_sentence_682

New Orleans is home to many bridges; Crescent City Connection is perhaps the most notable. New Orleans_sentence_683

It serves as New Orleans' major bridge across the Mississippi, providing a connection between the city's downtown on the eastbank and its westbank suburbs. New Orleans_sentence_684

Other Mississippi crossings are the Huey P. Long Bridge, carrying U.S. 90 and the Hale Boggs Memorial Bridge, carrying Interstate 310. New Orleans_sentence_685

The Twin Span Bridge, a five-mile (8 km) causeway in eastern New Orleans, carries I-10 across Lake Pontchartrain. New Orleans_sentence_686

Also in eastern New Orleans, Interstate 510/LA 47 travels across the Intracoastal Waterway/Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet Canal via the Paris Road Bridge, connecting New Orleans East and suburban Chalmette. New Orleans_sentence_687

The tolled Lake Pontchartrain Causeway, consisting of two parallel bridges are, at 24 miles (39 km) long, the longest bridges in the world. New Orleans_sentence_688

Built in the 1950s (southbound span) and 1960s (northbound span), the bridges connect New Orleans with its suburbs on the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain via Metairie. New Orleans_sentence_689

Taxi service New Orleans_section_51

United Cab is the city's largest taxi service, with a fleet of over 300 cabs. New Orleans_sentence_690

It has operated 365 days a year since its establishment in 1938, with the exception of the month after Hurricane Katrina, in which operations were temporarily shut down due to disruptions in radio service. New Orleans_sentence_691

United Cab's fleet was once larger than 450 cabs, but has been reduced in recent years due to competition from services like Uber and Lyft, according to owner Syed Kazmi. New Orleans_sentence_692

In January 2016, New Orleans-based sweet shop Sucré approached United Cab with to deliver its king cakes locally on-demand. New Orleans_sentence_693

Sucré saw this partnership as a way to alleviate some of the financial pressure being placed on taxi services due to Uber's presence in the city. New Orleans_sentence_694

Airports New Orleans_section_52

The metropolitan area is served by the Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport, located in the suburb of Kenner. New Orleans_sentence_695

Regional airports include the Lakefront Airport, Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base New Orleans (Callender Field) in the suburb of Belle Chasse and Southern Seaplane Airport, also located in Belle Chasse. New Orleans_sentence_696

Southern Seaplane has a 3,200-foot (980 m) runway for wheeled planes and a 5,000-foot (1,500 m) water runway for seaplanes. New Orleans_sentence_697

Armstrong International is the busiest airport in Louisiana and the only to handle scheduled international passenger flights. New Orleans_sentence_698

As of 2018, more than 13 million passengers passed through Armstrong, on nonstops flights from more than 57 destinations, including foreign nonstops from the United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Mexico, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. New Orleans_sentence_699

Rail New Orleans_section_53

The city is served by Amtrak. New Orleans_sentence_700

The New Orleans Union Passenger Terminal is the central rail depot and is served by the Crescent, operating between New Orleans and New York City; the City of New Orleans, operating between New Orleans and Chicago and the Sunset Limited, operating between New Orleans and Los Angeles. New Orleans_sentence_701

Up until August 2005 (when Hurricane Katrina struck), the Sunset Limited's route continued east to Orlando. New Orleans_sentence_702

With the strategic benefits of both the port and its double-track Mississippi River crossings, the city attracted six of the seven Class I railroads in North America: Union Pacific Railroad, BNSF Railway, Norfolk Southern Railway, Kansas City Southern Railway, CSX Transportation and Canadian National Railway. New Orleans_sentence_703

The New Orleans Public Belt Railroad provides interchange services between the railroads. New Orleans_sentence_704

Modal characteristics New Orleans_section_54

According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 67.4% of working city of New Orleans residents commuted by driving alone, 9.7% carpooled, 7.3% used public transportation, and 4.9% walked. New Orleans_sentence_705

About 5% used all other forms of transportation, including taxicab, motorcycle, and bicycle. New Orleans_sentence_706

About 5.7% of working New Orleans residents worked at home. New Orleans_sentence_707

Many city of New Orleans households own no personal automobiles. New Orleans_sentence_708

In 2015, 18.8% of New Orleans households were without a car, which increased to 20.2% in 2016. New Orleans_sentence_709

The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. New Orleans_sentence_710

New Orleans averaged 1.26 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8 per household. New Orleans_sentence_711

New Orleans ranks high among cities in terms of the percentage of working residents who commute by walking or bicycling. New Orleans_sentence_712

In 2013, 5% of working people from New Orleans commuted by walking and 2.8% commuted by cycling. New Orleans_sentence_713

During the same period, New Orleans ranked thirteenth for percentage of workers who commuted by walking or biking among cities not included within the fifty most populous cities. New Orleans_sentence_714

Only nine of the most fifty most populous cities had a higher percentage of commuters who walked or biked than did New Orleans in 2013. New Orleans_sentence_715

Notable people New Orleans_section_55

Main article: List of people from New Orleans New Orleans_sentence_716

Sister cities New Orleans_section_56

New Orleans has eleven sister cities: New Orleans_sentence_717

New Orleans_unordered_list_4

Twinnings and partnerships New Orleans_section_57

New Orleans_unordered_list_5

See also New Orleans_section_58

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Orleans.