New York (state)

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New York (state)_table_infobox_0

New YorkNew York (state)_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryNew York (state)_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesNew York (state)_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodNew York (state)_header_cell_0_2_0 Province of New YorkNew York (state)_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionNew York (state)_header_cell_0_3_0 July 26, 1788 (11th)New York (state)_cell_0_3_1
CapitalNew York (state)_header_cell_0_4_0 AlbanyNew York (state)_cell_0_4_1
Largest cityNew York (state)_header_cell_0_5_0 New York CityNew York (state)_cell_0_5_1
Largest metroNew York (state)_header_cell_0_6_0 New York metropolitan areaNew York (state)_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentNew York (state)_header_cell_0_7_0
GovernorNew York (state)_header_cell_0_8_0 Andrew Cuomo (D)New York (state)_cell_0_8_1
Lieutenant GovernorNew York (state)_header_cell_0_9_0 Kathy Hochul (D)New York (state)_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureNew York (state)_header_cell_0_10_0 State LegislatureNew York (state)_cell_0_10_1
Upper houseNew York (state)_header_cell_0_11_0 State SenateNew York (state)_cell_0_11_1
Lower houseNew York (state)_header_cell_0_12_0 State AssemblyNew York (state)_cell_0_12_1
JudiciaryNew York (state)_header_cell_0_13_0 New York Court of AppealsNew York (state)_cell_0_13_1
U.S. senatorsNew York (state)_header_cell_0_14_0 New York (state)_cell_0_14_1
U.S. House delegationNew York (state)_header_cell_0_15_0 (list)New York (state)_cell_0_15_1
AreaNew York (state)_header_cell_0_16_0
TotalNew York (state)_header_cell_0_17_0 54,555 sq mi (141,300 km)New York (state)_cell_0_17_1
Area rankNew York (state)_header_cell_0_18_0 27thNew York (state)_cell_0_18_1
DimensionsNew York (state)_header_cell_0_19_0
LengthNew York (state)_header_cell_0_20_0 330 mi (530 km)New York (state)_cell_0_20_1
WidthNew York (state)_header_cell_0_21_0 285 mi (455 km)New York (state)_cell_0_21_1
ElevationNew York (state)_header_cell_0_22_0 1,000 ft (300 m)New York (state)_cell_0_22_1
Highest elevation (Mount Marcy)New York (state)_header_cell_0_23_0 5,344 ft (1,629 m)New York (state)_cell_0_23_1
Lowest elevation (Atlantic Ocean)New York (state)_header_cell_0_24_0 0 ft (0 m)New York (state)_cell_0_24_1
Population (2019)New York (state)_header_cell_0_25_0
TotalNew York (state)_header_cell_0_26_0 19,453,561New York (state)_cell_0_26_1
RankNew York (state)_header_cell_0_27_0 4thNew York (state)_cell_0_27_1
DensityNew York (state)_header_cell_0_28_0 416.42/sq mi (159/km)New York (state)_cell_0_28_1
Density rankNew York (state)_header_cell_0_29_0 7thNew York (state)_cell_0_29_1
Median household incomeNew York (state)_header_cell_0_30_0 $64,894New York (state)_cell_0_30_1
Income rankNew York (state)_header_cell_0_31_0 15thNew York (state)_cell_0_31_1
Demonym(s)New York (state)_header_cell_0_32_0 New YorkerNew York (state)_cell_0_32_1
LanguageNew York (state)_header_cell_0_33_0
Official languageNew York (state)_header_cell_0_34_0 NoneNew York (state)_cell_0_34_1
Spoken languageNew York (state)_header_cell_0_35_0 New York (state)_cell_0_35_1
Time zoneNew York (state)_header_cell_0_36_0 UTC−05:00 (Eastern)New York (state)_cell_0_36_1
Summer (DST)New York (state)_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC−04:00 (EDT)New York (state)_cell_0_37_1
USPS abbreviationNew York (state)_header_cell_0_38_0 NYNew York (state)_cell_0_38_1
ISO 3166 codeNew York (state)_header_cell_0_39_0 US-NYNew York (state)_cell_0_39_1
Traditional abbreviationNew York (state)_header_cell_0_40_0 N.Y.New York (state)_cell_0_40_1
LatitudeNew York (state)_header_cell_0_41_0 40° 30′ N to 45° 1′ NNew York (state)_cell_0_41_1
LongitudeNew York (state)_header_cell_0_42_0 71° 51′ W to 79° 46′ WNew York (state)_cell_0_42_1
WebsiteNew York (state)_header_cell_0_43_0 New York (state)_cell_0_43_1

New York (state)_table_infobox_1

New York state symbolsNew York (state)_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaNew York (state)_header_cell_1_1_0
BirdNew York (state)_header_cell_1_2_0 Eastern bluebirdNew York (state)_cell_1_2_1
FishNew York (state)_header_cell_1_3_0 Brook trout (fresh water), Striped bass (salt water)New York (state)_cell_1_3_1
FlowerNew York (state)_header_cell_1_4_0 RoseNew York (state)_cell_1_4_1
InsectNew York (state)_header_cell_1_5_0 Nine-spotted ladybugNew York (state)_cell_1_5_1
MammalNew York (state)_header_cell_1_6_0 North American beaverNew York (state)_cell_1_6_1
ReptileNew York (state)_header_cell_1_7_0 Common snapping turtleNew York (state)_cell_1_7_1
TreeNew York (state)_header_cell_1_8_0 Sugar mapleNew York (state)_cell_1_8_1
Inanimate insigniaNew York (state)_header_cell_1_9_0
BeverageNew York (state)_header_cell_1_10_0 MilkNew York (state)_cell_1_10_1
FoodNew York (state)_header_cell_1_11_0 New York (state)_cell_1_11_1
FossilNew York (state)_header_cell_1_12_0 Eurypterus remipesNew York (state)_cell_1_12_1
GemstoneNew York (state)_header_cell_1_13_0 GarnetNew York (state)_cell_1_13_1
ShellNew York (state)_header_cell_1_14_0 Bay scallopNew York (state)_cell_1_14_1
SloganNew York (state)_header_cell_1_15_0 I Love New YorkNew York (state)_cell_1_15_1
OtherNew York (state)_header_cell_1_16_0 Bush: Lilac bushNew York (state)_cell_1_16_1
State route markerNew York (state)_header_cell_1_17_0
State quarterNew York (state)_header_cell_1_18_0

New York is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States. New York (state)_sentence_0

New York was one of the original thirteen colonies that formed the United States. New York (state)_sentence_1

With more than 19 million residents in 2019, it is the fourth-most-populous state. New York (state)_sentence_2

To distinguish it from New York City, which is the largest city in the state, it is sometimes referred to as New York State. New York (state)_sentence_3

Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area (including nearly forty percent on Long Island). New York (state)_sentence_4

The state and city were named for the 17th-century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. New York (state)_sentence_5

With an estimated population of 8.34 million in 2019, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for immigration to the United States. New York (state)_sentence_6

The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York (state)_sentence_7

A global city, NYC is home to the United Nations Headquarters, and has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city. New York (state)_sentence_8

The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. New York (state)_sentence_9

The 27th largest U.S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. New York (state)_sentence_10

The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont to the east. New York (state)_sentence_11

The state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. New York (state)_sentence_12

The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley. New York (state)_sentence_13

The large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, and the Adirondack Mountains in the northeastern lobe of the state. New York (state)_sentence_14

The north–south Hudson River Valley and the east–west Mohawk River Valley bisect these more mountainous regions. New York (state)_sentence_15

Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders on Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, and Niagara Falls. New York (state)_sentence_16

The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York (state)_sentence_17

New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. New York (state)_sentence_18

French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. New York (state)_sentence_19

In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company. New York (state)_sentence_20

The Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany later developed. New York (state)_sentence_21

The Dutch soon also settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. New York (state)_sentence_22

England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. New York (state)_sentence_23

During the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and eventually succeeded in establishing independence. New York (state)_sentence_24

In the 19th century, New York's development of the interior, beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the east coast and built its political and cultural ascendancy. New York (state)_sentence_25

Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, and Grand Central Terminal. New York (state)_sentence_26

New York is home to the Statue of Liberty. New York (state)_sentence_27

In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, and environmental sustainability. New York (state)_sentence_28

New York has approximately 200 colleges and universities, including the State University of New York. New York (state)_sentence_29

Several have been ranked among the top 100 in the nation and world. New York (state)_sentence_30

History New York (state)_section_0

Main article: History of New York (state) New York (state)_sentence_31

Native American history New York (state)_section_1

The tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Haudenosaunee and Algonquian. New York (state)_sentence_32

Long Island was divided roughly in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape. New York (state)_sentence_33

The Lenape also controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor. New York (state)_sentence_34

North of the Lenape was a third Algonquian nation, the Mohicans. New York (state)_sentence_35

Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. New York (state)_sentence_36

South of them, divided roughly along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. New York (state)_sentence_37

Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. New York (state)_sentence_38

After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. New York (state)_sentence_39

Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time. New York (state)_sentence_40

They may have merged with the Shawnee. New York (state)_sentence_41

The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. New York (state)_sentence_42

Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes. New York (state)_sentence_43

The Mohawk were also known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. New York (state)_sentence_44

They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock briefly conquered the Lenape in the 1600s. New York (state)_sentence_45

The most devastating event of the century, however, was the Beaver Wars. New York (state)_sentence_46

From approximately 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other. New York (state)_sentence_47

The aim was to control more land for animal trapping, a career most natives had turned to in hopes of trading with whites first. New York (state)_sentence_48

This completely changed the ethnography of the region, and most large game was hunted out before whites ever fully explored the land. New York (state)_sentence_49

Still, afterward, the Iroquois Confederacy offered shelter to refugees of the Mascouten, Erie, Chonnonton, Tutelo, Saponi, and Tuscarora nations. New York (state)_sentence_50

In the 1700s, they would also merge with the Mohawk during the French-Indian War and take in the remaining Susquehannock of Pennsylvania after they were decimated in war. New York (state)_sentence_51

Most of these other groups blended in until they ceased to exist. New York (state)_sentence_52

Then, after the Revolution, a large group of them split off and returned to Ohio, becoming known as the Mingo Seneca. New York (state)_sentence_53

The current six tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy are the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Tuscarora and Mohawk. New York (state)_sentence_54

The Iroquois fought for both sides during the Revolutionary War; afterwards many pro-British Iroquois migrated to Canada. New York (state)_sentence_55

Today, the Iroquois still live in several reservations in upstate New York. New York (state)_sentence_56

Meanwhile, the Lenape formed a close relationship with William Penn. New York (state)_sentence_57

However, upon Penn's death, his sons managed to take over much of their lands and banish them to Ohio. New York (state)_sentence_58

When the U.S. drafted the Indian Removal Act, the Lenape were further moved to Missouri, whereas their cousins, the Mohicans, were sent to Wisconsin. New York (state)_sentence_59

Also, in 1778, the United States relocated the Nanticoke from the Delmarva Peninsula to the former Iroquois lands south of Lake Ontario, though they did not stay long. New York (state)_sentence_60

Mostly, they chose to migrate into Canada and merge with the Iroquois, although some moved west and merged with the Lenape. New York (state)_sentence_61

16th century New York (state)_section_2

In 1524, Giovanni da Verrazzano, an Italian explorer in the service of the French crown, explored the Atlantic coast of North America between the Carolinas and Newfoundland, including New York Harbor and Narragansett Bay. New York (state)_sentence_62

On April 17, 1524, Verrazzano entered New York Bay, by way of the strait now called the Narrows into the northern bay which he named Santa Margherita, in honor of the King of France's sister. New York (state)_sentence_63

Verrazzano described it as "a vast coastline with a deep delta in which every kind of ship could pass" and he adds: "that it extends inland for a league and opens up to form a beautiful lake. New York (state)_sentence_64

This vast sheet of water swarmed with native boats." New York (state)_sentence_65

He landed on the tip of Manhattan and possibly on the furthest point of Long Island. New York (state)_sentence_66

Verrazzano's stay was interrupted by a storm which pushed him north towards Martha's Vineyard. New York (state)_sentence_67

In 1540, French traders from New France built a chateau on Castle Island, within present-day Albany; it was abandoned the following year due to flooding. New York (state)_sentence_68

In 1614, the Dutch, under the command of Hendrick Corstiaensen, rebuilt the French chateau, which they called Fort Nassau. New York (state)_sentence_69

Fort Nassau was the first Dutch settlement in North America, and was located along the Hudson River, also within present-day Albany. New York (state)_sentence_70

The small fort served as a trading post and warehouse. New York (state)_sentence_71

Located on the Hudson River flood plain, the rudimentary "fort" was washed away by flooding in 1617, and abandoned for good after Fort Orange (New Netherland) was built nearby in 1623. New York (state)_sentence_72

17th century New York (state)_section_3

Main articles: New Netherland, Province of New York, and Dominion of New England New York (state)_sentence_73

Henry Hudson's 1609 voyage marked the beginning of European involvement with the area. New York (state)_sentence_74

Sailing for the Dutch East India Company and looking for a passage to Asia, he entered the Upper New York Bay on September 11 of that year. New York (state)_sentence_75

Word of his findings encouraged Dutch merchants to explore the coast in search for profitable fur trading with local Native American tribes. New York (state)_sentence_76

During the 17th century, Dutch trading posts established for the trade of pelts from the Lenape, Iroquois, and other tribes were founded in the colony of New Netherland. New York (state)_sentence_77

The first of these trading posts were Fort Nassau (1614, near present-day Albany); Fort Orange (1624, on the Hudson River just south of the current city of Albany and created to replace Fort Nassau), developing into settlement Beverwijck (1647), and into what became Albany; Fort Amsterdam (1625, to develop into the town New Amsterdam which is present-day New York City); and Esopus, (1653, now Kingston). New York (state)_sentence_78

The success of the patroonship of Rensselaerswyck (1630), which surrounded Albany and lasted until the mid-19th century, was also a key factor in the early success of the colony. New York (state)_sentence_79

The English captured the colony during the Second Anglo-Dutch War and governed it as the Province of New York. New York (state)_sentence_80

The city of New York was recaptured by the Dutch in 1673 during the Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–1674) and renamed New Orange. New York (state)_sentence_81

It was returned to the English under the terms of the Treaty of Westminster a year later. New York (state)_sentence_82

18th century, the American Revolution, and statehood New York (state)_section_4

The Sons of Liberty were organized in New York City during the 1760s, largely in response to the oppressive Stamp Act passed by the British Parliament in 1765. New York (state)_sentence_83

The Stamp Act Congress met in the city on October 19 of that year, composed of representatives from across the Thirteen Colonies who set the stage for the Continental Congress to follow. New York (state)_sentence_84

The Stamp Act Congress resulted in the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which was the first written expression by representatives of the Americans of many of the rights and complaints later expressed in the United States Declaration of Independence. New York (state)_sentence_85

This included the right to representative government. New York (state)_sentence_86

At the same time, given strong commercial, personal and sentimental links to Britain, many New York residents were Loyalists. New York (state)_sentence_87

The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga provided the cannon and gunpowder necessary to force a British withdrawal from the Siege of Boston in 1775. New York (state)_sentence_88

New York was the only colony not to vote for independence, as the delegates were not authorized to do so. New York (state)_sentence_89

New York then endorsed the Declaration of Independence on July 9, 1776. New York (state)_sentence_90

The New York State Constitution was framed by a convention which assembled at White Plains on July 10, 1776, and after repeated adjournments and changes of location, finished its work at Kingston on Sunday evening, April 20, 1777, when the new constitution drafted by John Jay was adopted with but one dissenting vote. New York (state)_sentence_91

It was not submitted to the people for ratification. New York (state)_sentence_92

On July 30, 1777, George Clinton was inaugurated as the first Governor of New York at Kingston. New York (state)_sentence_93

About a third of the battles of the American Revolutionary War took place in New York; the first major one (and largest of the entire war) was the Battle of Long Island, a.k.a. Battle of Brooklyn, in August 1776. New York (state)_sentence_94

After their victory, the British occupied New York City, making it their military and political base of operations in North America for the duration of the conflict, and consequently the focus of General George Washington's intelligence network. New York (state)_sentence_95

On the notorious British prison ships of Wallabout Bay, more American combatants died of intentional neglect than were killed in combat in every battle of the war combined. New York (state)_sentence_96

Both sides of combatants lost more soldiers to disease than to outright wounds. New York (state)_sentence_97

The first of two major British armies were captured by the Continental Army at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777, a success that influenced France to ally with the revolutionaries.The state constitution was enacted in 1777. New York (state)_sentence_98

New York became the 11th state to ratify the United States Constitution, on July 26, 1788. New York (state)_sentence_99

In an attempt to retain their sovereignty and remain an independent nation positioned between the new United States and British North America, four of the Iroquois Nations fought on the side of the British; only the Oneida and their dependents, the Tuscarora, allied themselves with the Americans. New York (state)_sentence_100

In retaliation for attacks on the frontier led by Joseph Brant and Loyalist Mohawk forces, the Sullivan Expedition of 1779 destroyed nearly 50 Iroquois villages, adjacent croplands and winter stores, forcing many refugees to British-held Niagara. New York (state)_sentence_101

As allies of the British, the Iroquois were forced out of New York, although they had not been part of treaty negotiations. New York (state)_sentence_102

They resettled in Canada after the war and were given land grants by the Crown. New York (state)_sentence_103

In the treaty settlement, the British ceded most Indian lands to the new United States. New York (state)_sentence_104

Because New York made treaty with the Iroquois without getting Congressional approval, some of the land purchases have been subject to land claim suits since the late 20th century by the federally recognized tribes. New York (state)_sentence_105

New York put up more than 5 million acres (20,000 km) of former Iroquois territory for sale in the years after the Revolutionary War, leading to rapid development in upstate New York. New York (state)_sentence_106

As per the Treaty of Paris, the last vestige of British authority in the former Thirteen Colonies—their troops in New York City—departed in 1783, which was long afterward celebrated as Evacuation Day. New York (state)_sentence_107

New York City was the national capital under the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, the first national government. New York (state)_sentence_108

That organization was found to be insufficient, and prominent New Yorker Alexander Hamilton advocated a new government that would include an executive, national courts, and the power to tax. New York (state)_sentence_109

Hamilton led the Annapolis Convention (1786) that called for the Philadelphia Convention, which drafted the United States Constitution, in which he also took part. New York (state)_sentence_110

The new government was to be a strong federal national government to replace the relatively weaker confederation of individual states. New York (state)_sentence_111

Following heated debate, which included the publication of the now quintessential constitutional interpretation—The Federalist Papers—as a series of installments in New York City newspapers, New York was the 11th state to ratify the United States Constitution, on July 26, 1788. New York (state)_sentence_112

New York remained the national capital under the new constitution until 1790, and was the site of the inauguration of President George Washington, the drafting of the United States Bill of Rights, and the first session of the United States Supreme Court. New York (state)_sentence_113

Hamilton's revival of the heavily indebted United States economy after the war and the creation of a national bank significantly contributed to New York City becoming the financial center of the new nation. New York (state)_sentence_114

Both the Dutch and the British imported African slaves as laborers to the city and colony; New York had the second-highest population of slaves after Charleston, South Carolina. New York (state)_sentence_115

Slavery was extensive in New York City and some agricultural areas. New York (state)_sentence_116

The state passed a law for the gradual abolition of slavery soon after the Revolutionary War, but the last slave in New York was not freed until 1827. New York (state)_sentence_117

19th century New York (state)_section_5

Further information: New York in the American Civil War New York (state)_sentence_118

Transportation in western New York was by expensive wagons on muddy roads before canals opened up the rich farm lands to long-distance traffic. New York (state)_sentence_119

Governor DeWitt Clinton promoted the Erie Canal, which connected New York City to the Great Lakes by the Hudson River, the new canal, and the rivers and lakes. New York (state)_sentence_120

Work commenced in 1817, and the Erie Canal opened in 1825. New York (state)_sentence_121

Packet boats pulled by horses on tow paths traveled slowly over the canal carrying passengers and freight. New York (state)_sentence_122

Farm products came in from the Midwest, and finished manufactured goods moved west. New York (state)_sentence_123

It was an engineering marvel which opened up vast areas of New York to commerce and settlement. New York (state)_sentence_124

It enabled Great Lakes port cities such as Buffalo and Rochester to grow and prosper. New York (state)_sentence_125

It also connected the burgeoning agricultural production of the Midwest and shipping on the Great Lakes, with the port of New York City. New York (state)_sentence_126

Improving transportation, it enabled additional population migration to territories west of New York. New York (state)_sentence_127

After 1850, railroads largely replaced the canal. New York (state)_sentence_128

New York City was a major ocean port and had extensive traffic importing cotton from the South and exporting manufacturing goods. New York (state)_sentence_129

Nearly half of the state's exports were related to cotton. New York (state)_sentence_130

Southern cotton factors, planters and bankers visited so often that they had favorite hotels. New York (state)_sentence_131

At the same time, activism for abolitionism was strong upstate, where some communities provided stops on the Underground Railroad. New York (state)_sentence_132

Upstate, and New York City, gave strong support for the American Civil War, in terms of finances, volunteer soldiers, and supplies. New York (state)_sentence_133

The state provided more than 370,000 soldiers to the Union armies. New York (state)_sentence_134

Over 53,000 New Yorkers died in service, roughly one of every seven who served. New York (state)_sentence_135

However, Irish draft riots in 1862 were a significant embarrassment. New York (state)_sentence_136

Immigration New York (state)_section_6

Further information: Ellis Island New York (state)_sentence_137

Since the early 19th century, New York City has been the largest port of entry for legal immigration into the United States. New York (state)_sentence_138

In the United States, the federal government did not assume direct jurisdiction for immigration until 1890. New York (state)_sentence_139

Prior to this time, the matter was delegated to the individual states, then via contract between the states and the federal government. New York (state)_sentence_140

Most immigrants to New York would disembark at the bustling docks along the Hudson and East Rivers, in the eventual Lower Manhattan. New York (state)_sentence_141

On May 4, 1847, the New York State Legislature created the Board of Commissioners of Immigration to regulate immigration. New York (state)_sentence_142

The first permanent immigration depot in New York was established in 1855 at Castle Garden, a converted War of 1812 era fort located within what is now Battery Park, at the tip of Lower Manhattan. New York (state)_sentence_143

The first immigrants to arrive at the new depot were aboard three ships that had just been released from quarantine. New York (state)_sentence_144

Castle Garden served as New York's immigrant depot until it closed on April 18, 1890, when the federal government assumed control over immigration. New York (state)_sentence_145

During that period, more than eight million immigrants passed through its doors (two of every three U.S. immigrants). New York (state)_sentence_146

When the federal government assumed control, it established the Bureau of Immigration, which chose the three-acre Ellis Island in Upper New York Harbor for an entry depot. New York (state)_sentence_147

Already federally controlled, the island had served as an ammunition depot. New York (state)_sentence_148

It was chosen due its relative isolation with proximity to New York City and the rail lines of Jersey City, New Jersey, via a short ferry ride. New York (state)_sentence_149

While the island was being developed and expanded via land reclamation, the federal government operated a temporary depot at the Barge Office at the Battery. New York (state)_sentence_150

Ellis Island opened on January 1, 1892, and operated as a central immigration center until the National Origins Act was passed in 1924, reducing immigration. New York (state)_sentence_151

After that date, the only immigrants to pass through were displaced persons or war refugees. New York (state)_sentence_152

The island ceased all immigration processing on November 12, 1954, when the last person detained on the island, Norwegian seaman Arne Peterssen, was released. New York (state)_sentence_153

He had overstayed his shore leave and left on the 10:15 a.m. Manhattan-bound ferry to return to his ship. New York (state)_sentence_154

More than twelve million immigrants passed through Ellis Island between 1892 and 1954. New York (state)_sentence_155

More than a hundred million Americans across the United States can trace their ancestry to these immigrants. New York (state)_sentence_156

Ellis Island was the subject of a contentious and long-running border and jurisdictional dispute between New York State and the State of New Jersey, as both claimed it. New York (state)_sentence_157

The issue was settled in 1998 by the U.S. New York (state)_sentence_158

Supreme Court which ruled that the original 3.3-acre (1.3 ha) island was New York State territory and that the balance of the 27.5 acres (11 ha) added after 1834 by landfill was in New Jersey. New York (state)_sentence_159

The island was added to the National Park Service system in May 1965 by President Lyndon B. Johnson and is still owned by the federal government as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. New York (state)_sentence_160

Ellis Island was opened to the public as a museum of immigration in 1990. New York (state)_sentence_161

September 11, 2001 New York (state)_section_7

Main article: September 11 attacks New York (state)_sentence_162

On September 11, 2001, two of four hijacked planes were flown into the Twin Towers of the original World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, and the towers collapsed. New York (state)_sentence_163

7 World Trade Center also collapsed due to damage from fires. New York (state)_sentence_164

The other buildings of the World Trade Center complex were damaged beyond repair and demolished soon thereafter. New York (state)_sentence_165

The collapse of the Twin Towers caused extensive damage and resulted in the deaths of 2,753 victims, including 147 aboard the two planes. New York (state)_sentence_166

Since September 11, most of Lower Manhattan has been restored. New York (state)_sentence_167

In the years since, over 7,000 rescue workers and residents of the area have developed several life-threatening illnesses, and some have died. New York (state)_sentence_168

A memorial at the site, the National September 11 Memorial & Museum, was opened to the public on September 11, 2011. New York (state)_sentence_169

A permanent museum later opened at the site on March 21, 2014. New York (state)_sentence_170

Upon its completion in 2014, the new One World Trade Center became the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere, at 1,776 feet (541 m), meant to symbolize the year America gained its independence, 1776. New York (state)_sentence_171

From 2006 to 2018, 3 World Trade Center, 4 World Trade Center, 7 World Trade Center, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, Liberty Park, and Fiterman Hall were completed. New York (state)_sentence_172

St. New York (state)_sentence_173

Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church and Ronald O. Perelman Performing Arts Center are under construction at the World Trade Center site. New York (state)_sentence_174

Hurricane Sandy, 2012 New York (state)_section_8

Main article: Effects of Hurricane Sandy in New York New York (state)_sentence_175

On October 29 and 30, 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive destruction of the state's shorelines, ravaging portions of New York City, Long Island, and southern Westchester with record-high storm surge, with severe flooding and high winds causing power outages for hundreds of thousands of New Yorkers, and leading to gasoline shortages and disruption of mass transit systems. New York (state)_sentence_176

The storm and its profound effects have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of New York City and Long Island to minimize the risk from another such future event. New York (state)_sentence_177

Such risk is considered highly probable due to global warming and rising sea levels. New York (state)_sentence_178

COVID-19 pandemic, 2020 New York (state)_section_9

Main article: COVID-19 pandemic in New York (state) New York (state)_sentence_179

On March 1, 2020, New York had its first confirmed case of COVID-19. New York (state)_sentence_180

Since March 28, New York had the highest number of confirmed cases of any state in the United States. New York (state)_sentence_181

Nearly 50 percent of known national cases were in the state, with one-third of total known U.S. cases being in New York City. New York (state)_sentence_182

From May 19–20, Western New York and the Capital Region entered Phase 1 of reopening. New York (state)_sentence_183

On May 26, the Hudson Valley began Phase 1, and New York City partially reopened on June 8. New York (state)_sentence_184

During the pandemic, a federal judge ruled Cuomo and De Blasio exceeded authority by limiting religious gatherings to 25% when others operated at 50% capacity. New York (state)_sentence_185

New York's government released a new seal, coat of arms, and flag in April during the pandemic, adding "E pluribus unum" below the state's motto. New York (state)_sentence_186

A bill utilizing newly designed flag, arms and seal went into effect in September. New York (state)_sentence_187

Geography New York (state)_section_10

Main article: Geography of New York (state) New York (state)_sentence_188

The state of New York covers 54,555 square miles (141,300 km) and ranks as the 27th largest state by size. New York (state)_sentence_189

The highest elevation in New York is Mount Marcy in the Adirondacks, at 5,344 feet (1,629 meters) above sea level; while the state's lowest point is at sea level, on the Atlantic Ocean. New York (state)_sentence_190

In contrast with New York City's urban landscape, the vast majority of the state's geographic area is dominated by meadows, forests, rivers, farms, mountains, and lakes. New York (state)_sentence_191

Most of the southern part of the state rests on the Allegheny Plateau, which extends from the southeastern United States to the Catskill Mountains; the section in New York State is known as the Southern Tier. New York (state)_sentence_192

The rugged Adirondack Mountains, with vast tracts of wilderness, lie west of the Lake Champlain Valley. New York (state)_sentence_193

The Great Appalachian Valley dominates eastern New York and contains the Lake Champlain Valley as its northern half and the Hudson Valley as its southern half within the state. New York (state)_sentence_194

The Tug Hill region arises as a cuesta east of Lake Ontario. New York (state)_sentence_195

Upstate and downstate are often used informally to distinguish New York City or its greater metropolitan area from the rest of New York State. New York (state)_sentence_196

The placement of a boundary between the two is a matter of great contention. New York (state)_sentence_197

Unofficial and loosely defined regions of Upstate New York include the Southern Tier, which often includes the counties along the border with Pennsylvania, and the North Country, which can mean anything from the strip along the Canada–U.S. New York (state)_sentence_198

border to everything north of the Mohawk River. New York (state)_sentence_199

New York contains a part of the Marcellus shale, which extends into Ohio and Pennsylvania. New York (state)_sentence_200

Water New York (state)_section_11

Borders New York (state)_section_12

Of New York State's total area, 13.6% consists of water. New York (state)_sentence_201

Much of New York's boundaries are in water, as is true for New York City: four of its five boroughs are situated on three islands at the mouth of the Hudson River: Manhattan Island; Staten Island; and Long Island, which contains Brooklyn and Queens at its western end. New York (state)_sentence_202

The state's borders include a water boundary in (clockwise from the west) two Great Lakes (Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, which are connected by the Niagara River); the provinces of Ontario and Quebec in Canada, with New York and Ontario sharing the Thousand Islands archipelago within the Saint Lawrence River, while most of its border with Quebec is on land; it shares Lake Champlain with the New England state of Vermont; the New England state of Massachusetts has mostly a land border; New York extends into Long Island Sound and the Atlantic Ocean, sharing a water border with Rhode Island, while Connecticut has land and sea borders. New York (state)_sentence_203

Except for areas near the New York Harbor and the Upper Delaware River, New York has a mostly land border with two Mid-Atlantic states, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. New York (state)_sentence_204

New York is the only state that includes within its borders parts of the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean. New York (state)_sentence_205

Drainage New York (state)_section_13

The Hudson River begins near Lake Tear of the Clouds and flows south through the eastern part of the state, without draining Lakes George or Champlain. New York (state)_sentence_206

Lake George empties at its north end into Lake Champlain, whose northern end extends into Canada, where it drains into the Richelieu River and then ultimately the Saint Lawrence River. New York (state)_sentence_207

The western section of the state is drained by the Allegheny River and rivers of the Susquehanna and Delaware River systems. New York (state)_sentence_208

Niagara Falls is shared between New York and Ontario as it flows on the Niagara River from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. New York (state)_sentence_209

The Delaware River Basin Compact, signed in 1961 by New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and the federal government, regulates the utilization of water of the Delaware system. New York (state)_sentence_210

Climate New York (state)_section_14

Main article: Climate of New York New York (state)_sentence_211

In general, New York has a humid continental climate, though under the Köppen climate classification, New York City has a humid subtropical climate. New York (state)_sentence_212

Weather in New York is heavily influenced by two continental air masses: a warm, humid one from the southwest and a cold, dry one from the northwest. New York (state)_sentence_213

Downstate New York, comprising New York City, Long Island, and lower portions of the Hudson Valley, has rather hot summers with some periods of high humidity and cold, damp winters which are relatively mild compared to temperatures in Upstate New York due to the downstate region's lower elevation, proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, and relatively lower latitude. New York (state)_sentence_214

Upstate New York experiences warm summers, marred by only occasional, brief intervals of sultry conditions, with long and cold winters. New York (state)_sentence_215

Western New York, particularly the Tug Hill region, receives heavy lake-effect snows, especially during the earlier portions of winter, before the surface of Lake Ontario itself is covered by ice. New York (state)_sentence_216

The summer climate is cool in the Adirondacks, Catskills, and at higher elevations of the Southern Tier. New York (state)_sentence_217

Buffalo and its metropolitan area are described as climate change havens for their weather pattern in Western New York. New York (state)_sentence_218

Summer daytime temperatures range from the high 70s to low 80s (25 to 28 °C), over most of the state. New York (state)_sentence_219

In the majority of winter seasons, a temperature of −13 °F (−25 °C) or lower can be expected in the northern highlands (Northern Plateau) and 5 °F (−15 °C) or colder in the southwestern and east-central highlands of the Southern Tier. New York (state)_sentence_220

New York had a record-high temperature of 108 °F (42.2 °C) on July 22, 1926. New York (state)_sentence_221

Its record-lowest temperature during the winter was −52 °F (−46.7 °C) in 1979. New York (state)_sentence_222

New York State ranks 46th among the 50 states in the amount of greenhouse gases generated per person. New York (state)_sentence_223

This relative efficient energy usage is primarily due to the dense, compact settlement in the New York City metropolitan area, and the high rate of mass transit use in this area and between major cities. New York (state)_sentence_224

The main sources of greenhouse gases per the state government are transportation, buildings, electricity generation, waste, refrigerants, and agriculture. New York (state)_sentence_225

In 2019 the state pledged to eliminate net greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. New York (state)_sentence_226

Flora and fauna New York (state)_section_15

Some species that can be found in this state are american ginseng, starry stonewort, waterthyme, water chestnut, eastern poison ivy, poison sumac, giant hogweed, cow parsnip and common nettle. New York (state)_sentence_227

There are more than 20 mammal species, more than 20 bird species, some species of amphibians, and several reptile species. New York (state)_sentence_228

Species of mammals that are part of New York are white-footed mouse, North American least shrew, little brown bat, muskrat, eastern gray squirrel, eastern cottontail, stoat, groundhog, striped skunk, fisher, North American river otter, raccoon, bobcat, coyote, red fox, white-tailed deer, moose, and American black bear. New York (state)_sentence_229

Some species of birds in New York are the ring-necked pheasant, northern bobwhite, ruffed grouse, wild turkey, blue jay, eastern bluebird, American robin, and black-capped chickadee. New York (state)_sentence_230

Birds of prey that are present in the state are great horned owls, bald eagles, red-tailed hawks, American kestrels, and northern harriers. New York (state)_sentence_231

Waterfowl like mallards, wood ducks, canvasbacks, American black ducks, Canada geese, and blue-winged teals can be found in the region. New York (state)_sentence_232

Maritime or shore birds of New York are great blue heron, killdeers, northern cardinals, American herring gulls, and common terns. New York (state)_sentence_233

Reptiles species that can be seen in land areas of New York are queen snake, massasauga, hellbender, diamondback terrapin, spotted turtle, and Blanding's turtle. New York (state)_sentence_234

Species of turtles that can be found in the sea are green sea turtle, loggerhead sea turtle, leatherback sea turtle and Kemp's ridley sea turtle. New York (state)_sentence_235

New York Harbor and the Hudson River constitute an estuary, making New York state home to a rich array of marine life including shellfish—such as oysters and clams—as well as fish, microorganisms, and sea-birds. New York (state)_sentence_236

Regions New York (state)_section_16

Main article: List of regions of the United States § New York New York (state)_sentence_237

Due to its long history, New York has several overlapping and often conflicting definitions of regions within the state. New York (state)_sentence_238

The regions are also not fully definable due to colloquial use of regional labels. New York (state)_sentence_239

The New York State Department of Economic Development provides two distinct definitions of these regions. New York (state)_sentence_240

It divides the state into ten economic regions, which approximately correspond to terminology used by residents: New York (state)_sentence_241

The department also groups the counties into eleven regions for tourism purposes: New York (state)_sentence_242

State parks New York (state)_section_17

See also: List of New York state parks and New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation New York (state)_sentence_243

New York has many state parks and two major forest preserves. New York (state)_sentence_244

Niagara Falls State Park, established in 1885, is the oldest state park in the United States and the first to be created via eminent domain. New York (state)_sentence_245

In 1892, Adirondack Park, roughly the size of the state of Vermont and the largest state park in the United States, was established and given state constitutional protection to remain "forever wild" in 1894. New York (state)_sentence_246

The park is larger than Yellowstone, Everglades, Glacier, and Grand Canyon national parks combined. New York (state)_sentence_247

It is larger than the Yellowstone, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, Glacier, and Olympic National Parks combined. New York (state)_sentence_248

The Catskill Park was protected in legislation passed in 1885, which declared that its land was to be conserved and never put up for sale or lease. New York (state)_sentence_249

Consisting of 700,000 acres (2,800 km) of land, the park is a habitat for deer, minks, and fishers. New York (state)_sentence_250

There are some 400 black bears living in the region. New York (state)_sentence_251

The state operates numerous campgrounds, and there are over 300 miles (480 km) of multi-use trails in the Park. New York (state)_sentence_252

The 1797 Montauk Lighthouse, commissioned under President George Washington, is a major tourist attraction in Montauk State Park at the easternmost tip of Long Island. New York (state)_sentence_253

Hither Hills State Park, also on the South Fork of Long Island, offers camping and is a popular destination with surfcasting sport fishermen. New York (state)_sentence_254

National parks, monuments, and historic landmarks New York (state)_section_18

The State of New York is well represented in the National Park System with 22 national parks, which received 16,349,381 visitors in 2011. New York (state)_sentence_255

In addition, there are four National Heritage Areas, 27 National Natural Landmarks, 262 National Historic Landmarks, and 5,379 listings on the National Register of Historic Places. New York (state)_sentence_256

New York (state)_unordered_list_0

Administrative divisions New York (state)_section_19

Main article: Administrative divisions of New York New York (state)_sentence_257

New York is divided into 62 counties. New York (state)_sentence_258

Aside from the five counties of New York City, each of these counties is subdivided into towns and cities, incorporated under state law. New York (state)_sentence_259

Towns can contain incorporated villages or unincorporated hamlets. New York (state)_sentence_260

New York City is divided into five boroughs, each coterminous with a county. New York (state)_sentence_261

The major cities of the state developed along the key transportation and trade routes of the early 19th century, including the Erie Canal and railroads paralleling it. New York (state)_sentence_262

Today, the New York Thruway acts as a modern counterpart to commercial water routes. New York (state)_sentence_263

Downstate New York (New York City, Long Island, and the southern portion of the Hudson Valley) can be considered to form the central core of the Northeast megalopolis, an urbanized region stretching from New Hampshire to Virginia. New York (state)_sentence_264

Cities and towns New York (state)_section_20

Main article: List of cities in New York New York (state)_sentence_265

Further information: List of towns in New York, List of villages in New York, List of census-designated places in New York, and New York statistical areas New York (state)_sentence_266

There are 62 cities in New York. New York (state)_sentence_267

The largest city in the state and the most populous city in the United States is New York City, which comprises five counties (each coextensive with a borough): Bronx, New York County (Manhattan), Queens, Kings County (Brooklyn), and Richmond County (Staten Island). New York (state)_sentence_268

New York City is home to more than two-fifths of the state's population. New York (state)_sentence_269

Albany, the state capital, is the sixth-largest city in New York State. New York (state)_sentence_270

The smallest city is Sherrill, New York, in Oneida County. New York (state)_sentence_271

Hempstead is the most populous town in the state; if it were a city, it would be the second largest in New York State, with more than 700,000 residents. New York (state)_sentence_272

New York contains 13 metropolitan areas, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. New York (state)_sentence_273

Major metro areas include New York City, Buffalo, Rochester, the Capital District (Albany, Schenectady, and Troy), Poughkeepsie, Syracuse, Utica, and Binghamton. New York (state)_sentence_274

Demographics New York (state)_section_21

Main article: Demographics of New York New York (state)_sentence_275

Population New York (state)_section_22

The nation's most populous state until the 1960s, New York is now the fourth most-populous state. New York (state)_sentence_276

The distribution of change in population growth is uneven in New York State; the New York City metropolitan area is growing, along with Saratoga County, while cities such as Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse and several others having been losing population for decades. New York (state)_sentence_277

New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2018 (223,615) than any other U.S. city. New York (state)_sentence_278

Conversely, outside of the Ithaca area, population growth in much of Western New York is nearly stagnant. New York (state)_sentence_279

According to immigration statistics, the state is a leading recipient of migrants from around the globe. New York (state)_sentence_280

Between 2000 and 2005, immigration failed to surpass out-migration to other parts of the United States, a trend that has been reversing since 2006. New York (state)_sentence_281

New York State lost two House seats in the 2011 congressional reapportionment, secondary to relatively slow growth when compared to the rest of the United States. New York (state)_sentence_282

In 2000 and 2005, more people moved from New York to Florida than from any one state to another, contributing to New York's becoming the fourth most populous state in 2015 behind Florida, Texas, and California. New York (state)_sentence_283

However, New York State has the second-largest international immigrant population in the country among the American states, at 4.2 million as of 2008; most reside in and around New York City, due to its size, high profile, vibrant economy, and cosmopolitan culture. New York (state)_sentence_284

New York has a pro-sanctuary city law. New York (state)_sentence_285

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of New York was 19,453,561 on July 1, 2019, a 0.39% increase since the 2010 United States Census. New York (state)_sentence_286

Despite the open land in the state, New York's population is very urban, with 92% of residents living in an urban area, predominantly in the New York City metropolitan area. New York (state)_sentence_287

Two-thirds of New York State's population resides in New York City metropolitan area. New York (state)_sentence_288

New York City is the most populous city in the United States, with an estimated record high population of 8,622,698 in 2017, incorporating more immigration into the city than emigration since the 2010 United States Census. New York (state)_sentence_289

At least twice as many people live in New York City as in the second-most populous U.S. city (Los Angeles), and within a smaller area. New York (state)_sentence_290

Long Island alone accounted for a Census-estimated 7,838,722 residents in 2015, representing 39.6% of New York State's population. New York (state)_sentence_291

6.5% of New York's population were under five years of age, 24.7% under 18, and 12.9% were 65 or older. New York (state)_sentence_292

Race and ethnicity New York (state)_section_23

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17.6% of the population in 2010: 2.4% were of Mexican, 5.5% Puerto Rican, 0.4% Cuban, and 9.4% other Hispanic or Latino origin. New York (state)_sentence_293

According to the 2010–2015 American Community Survey, the largest ancestry groups were Italian (13.0%), Irish (12.1%), German (10.3%), American (5.4%), and English (5.2%). New York (state)_sentence_294

The state's most populous racial group, non-Hispanic white, has declined as a proportion of the state population from 94.6% in 1940 to 58.3% in 2010. New York (state)_sentence_295

As of 2011, 55.6% of New York's population younger than age 1 were minorities. New York (state)_sentence_296

New York's robustly increasing Jewish population, the largest outside of Israel, was the highest among states both by percentage and by absolute number in 2012. New York (state)_sentence_297

It is driven by the high reproductive rate of Orthodox Jewish families, particularly in Brooklyn and communities of the Hudson Valley. New York (state)_sentence_298

New York is home to the largest African American population and the second largest Asian-American population (after California) in the United States. New York (state)_sentence_299

New York's Black population increased by 2.0% between 2000 and 2010, to 3,073,800. New York (state)_sentence_300

The Black population is in a state of flux, as New York is the largest recipient of immigrants from Africa, while established African Americans are migrating out of New York to the southern United States. New York (state)_sentence_301

The New York City neighborhood of Harlem has historically been a major cultural capital for African-Americans of sub-Saharan descent, and Bedford-Stuyvesant in Brooklyn has the largest such population in the United States. New York (state)_sentence_302

Meanwhile, New York's Asian population increased by a notable 36% from 2000 to 2010, to 1,420,244. New York (state)_sentence_303

Queens, in New York City, is home to the state's largest Asian-American population and is the most ethnically diverse county in the United States and the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. New York (state)_sentence_304

New York's growing Hispanic-or-Latino population numbered 3,416,922 in 2010, a 19% increase from the 2,867,583 enumerated in 2000. New York (state)_sentence_305

Queens is home to the largest Andean (Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Bolivian) populations in the United States. New York (state)_sentence_306

In addition, New York has the largest Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Jamaican American populations in the continental United States. New York (state)_sentence_307

The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State, which is the top destination for new Chinese immigrants, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into the state. New York (state)_sentence_308

Multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown, in Brooklyn, and around Flushing, Queens, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves, while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County, on Long Island. New York (state)_sentence_309

Long Island, including Queens and Nassau County, is also home to several Little Indias (लघु भारत) and a large Koreatown (롱 아일랜드 코리아타운), with large and growing attendant populations of Indian Americans and Korean Americans, respectively. New York (state)_sentence_310

Brooklyn has been a destination for West Indian immigrants of African descent, as well as Asian Indian immigrants. New York (state)_sentence_311

The annual New York City India Day Parade, held on or approximately every August 15 since 1981, is the world's largest Indian Independence Day parade outside of India. New York (state)_sentence_312

In the 2000 Census, New York had the largest Italian American population, composing the largest self-identified ancestral group in Staten Island and Long Island, followed by Irish Americans. New York (state)_sentence_313

Albany and the Mohawk Valley also have large communities of ethnic Italians and Irish Americans, reflecting 19th and early 20th-century immigration. New York (state)_sentence_314

According to the American Community Survey, New York had the largest Greek American population too, which counts 148,637 people (0.7% of the state). New York (state)_sentence_315

In Buffalo and western New York, German Americans comprise the largest ancestry. New York (state)_sentence_316

In the North Country of New York, French Canadians represent the leading ethnicity, given the area's proximity to Quebec. New York (state)_sentence_317

Americans of English ancestry are present throughout all of upstate New York, reflecting early colonial and later immigrants. New York (state)_sentence_318

Languages New York (state)_section_24

New York (state)_table_general_2

Most common non-English languages (2010)New York (state)_table_caption_2
LanguageNew York (state)_header_cell_2_0_0 PopulationNew York (state)_header_cell_2_0_1
SpanishNew York (state)_cell_2_1_0 14.44%New York (state)_cell_2_1_1
Chinese (incl. Cantonese and Mandarin)New York (state)_cell_2_2_0 2.61%New York (state)_cell_2_2_1
RussianNew York (state)_cell_2_3_0 1.20%New York (state)_cell_2_3_1
ItalianNew York (state)_cell_2_4_0 1.18%New York (state)_cell_2_4_1
French CreoleNew York (state)_cell_2_5_0 0.79%New York (state)_cell_2_5_1
FrenchNew York (state)_cell_2_6_0 0.75%New York (state)_cell_2_6_1
YiddishNew York (state)_cell_2_7_0 0.67%New York (state)_cell_2_7_1
KoreanNew York (state)_cell_2_8_0 0.63%New York (state)_cell_2_8_1
PolishNew York (state)_cell_2_9_0 0.53%New York (state)_cell_2_9_1
BengaliNew York (state)_cell_2_10_0 0.43%New York (state)_cell_2_10_1

In 2010, the most common American English dialects spoken in New York, besides General American English, were the New York City area dialect (including New York Latino English and North Jersey English), the Western New England accent around Albany, and Inland Northern American English in Buffalo and western New York State. New York (state)_sentence_319

As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York City, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York (state)_sentence_320

As of 2010, 70.72% (12,788,233) of New York residents aged five and older reported speaking only English at home, while 14.44% (2,611,903) spoke Spanish, 2.61% (472,955) Chinese (which includes Cantonese and Mandarin), 1.20% (216,468) Russian, 1.18% (213,785) Italian, 0.79% (142,169) French Creole, 0.75% (135,789) French, 0.67% (121,917) Yiddish, 0.63% (114,574) Korean, and Polish was spoken by 0.53% (95,413) of the population over the age of five. New York (state)_sentence_321

In total, 29.28% (5,295,016) of New York's population aged five and older reported speaking a language other than English. New York (state)_sentence_322

At the American Community Survey's 2017 estimates, nearly six million residents spoke a language other than English. New York (state)_sentence_323

Approximately 1,249,541 New York residents spoke Spanish, 386,290 Chinese, 122,150 Russian, 63,615 Haitian Creole, 62,219 Bengali, and 60,405 Korean. New York (state)_sentence_324

In 2018, 12,756,975 aged 5 years and older spoke English alone and 10,415,395 aged 18 and older only spoke English. New York (state)_sentence_325

Spanish-speaking households by majority were not limited English-speaking. New York (state)_sentence_326

An estimated 2.7 million households with residents aged 5 and older spoke Spanish. New York (state)_sentence_327

Chinese, Slavic, and French languages were the following largest household languages spoken in 2018. New York (state)_sentence_328

Religion New York (state)_section_25

Due to British, French, and Dutch colonialism and missionary work the majority of New York's religious population are Christian (60%), followed by the irreligious (27%), Judaism (7%), Islam (2%), Buddhism and Hinduism (1% each), and other faiths (0.5%). New York (state)_sentence_329

Before the 1800s, Protestant sects dominated the religious life of New York, although religion did not play as large a role in the public life of New Netherland as it did in New England, with its Puritan population. New York (state)_sentence_330

Historically, New York served as the foundation for new Christian denominations in the Second Great Awakening. New York (state)_sentence_331

Non-Western Christian traditions and non-Christian religions did not grow for much of the state's history because immigration was predominantly from Western Europe (which at the time was dominated by Western Christianity and favored by the quotas in federal immigration law). New York (state)_sentence_332

The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 removed the quotas, allowing for the growth of other religious groups. New York (state)_sentence_333

The Roman Catholic Church is the largest Christian denomination in New York (31%). New York (state)_sentence_334

The largest Roman Catholic diocese is the Latin Church's Archdiocese of New York. New York (state)_sentence_335

The largest Eastern Catholic diocese is the Ruthenian Catholic Eparchy of Passaic of the Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church. New York (state)_sentence_336

The United Methodist Church is the largest Mainline Protestant denomination and second largest overall, followed by the Episcopal Church in the U.S. and other Continuing Anglican bodies. New York (state)_sentence_337

The Presbyterian Church (USA), Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, and American Baptist Churches USA were the following largest Mainline denominations. New York (state)_sentence_338

Mainline Protestants together make up 11% of Christians in the state. New York (state)_sentence_339

In Evangelical Protestantism the Baptists, non-denominational Protestants, and Pentecostals were the largest groups. New York (state)_sentence_340

The National Baptist Convention (USA) and Progressive National Baptist Convention were the largest historically-black Protestant churches in New York. New York (state)_sentence_341

Roughly 10% of Christians in New York are Evangelical Protestants. New York (state)_sentence_342

The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox collectively comprised 1% of the religious demographic alongside Jehovah's Witnesses and other Christians. New York (state)_sentence_343

Non-Christian faiths accounted for 12% of the religious population. New York (state)_sentence_344

Judaism is the second largest religion as of 2014. New York (state)_sentence_345

In 2010, 588,500 practiced Orthodox Judaism. New York (state)_sentence_346

A little over 392,953 professed Islam. New York (state)_sentence_347

New York is home to the oldest Zoroastrian fire temple in the United States. New York (state)_sentence_348

Less than 1% of New York's population practice New Age and contemporary paganism. New York (state)_sentence_349

Native American religions are also a prominent minority. New York (state)_sentence_350

The irreligious are a growing community in the New York City metropolitan area. New York (state)_sentence_351

Statewide, 17% practice nothing in particular and 5% each are atheists and agnostic. New York (state)_sentence_352

LGBT New York (state)_section_26

Further information: Stonewall Riots, LGBT rights in New York, Same-sex marriage in New York, LGBT culture in New York City, and List of self-identified LGBTQ New Yorkers New York (state)_sentence_353

Roughly 3.8 percent of the state's adult population self-identifies as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender. New York (state)_sentence_354

This constitutes a total LGBT adult population of 570,388 individuals. New York (state)_sentence_355

In 2010, the number of same-sex couple households stood at roughly 48,932. New York (state)_sentence_356

New York was the fifth state to license same-sex marriages, after New Hampshire. New York (state)_sentence_357

Michael Bloomberg, the Mayor of New York City, said "same-sex marriages in New York City have generated an estimated $259 million in economic impact and $16 million in City revenues" in the first year after enactment of the Marriage Equality Act. New York (state)_sentence_358

Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011, and were authorized to take place beginning thirty days thereafter. New York (state)_sentence_359

New York City is also home to the largest transgender population in the United States, estimated at 25,000 in 2016. New York (state)_sentence_360

The annual New York City Pride March (or gay pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, ending at Greenwich Village, and rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June. New York (state)_sentence_361

The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood within Lower Manhattan. New York (state)_sentence_362

They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights. New York (state)_sentence_363

In June 2017, plans were announced for the first official monument to LGBT individuals commissioned by the State of New York, in contrast to the Stonewall National Monument, which was commissioned by the U.S. federal government. New York (state)_sentence_364

The State monument is planned to be built in Hudson River Park in Manhattan, near the waterfront Hudson River piers which have served as historically significant symbols of New York's central role as a meeting place and a safe haven for LGBT communities. New York (state)_sentence_365

Also as of 2017, plans were advancing by the State of New York to host the largest international LGBT pride celebration in 2019, known as Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots. New York (state)_sentence_366

In New York City, the Stonewall 50–WorldPride NYC 2019 events produced by Heritage of Pride were enhanced through a partnership made with the I LOVE NY program's LGBT division and included a welcome center during the weeks surrounding the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events that was open to all. New York (state)_sentence_367

Additional commemorative arts, cultural, and educational programing to mark the 50th anniversary of the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn took place throughout the city and the world; Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 was the largest LGBT pride celebration held in history, drawing an estimated five million people. New York (state)_sentence_368

Brooklyn Liberation March, the largest transgender-rights demonstration in LGBTQ history, took place on June 14, 2020 stretching from Grand Army Plaza to Fort Greene, Brooklyn, focused on supporting Black transgender lives, drawing an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 participants. New York (state)_sentence_369

Economy New York (state)_section_27

Main article: Economy of New York (state) New York (state)_sentence_370

See also: New York locations by per capita income New York (state)_sentence_371

New York's gross state product in 2018 was $1.7 trillion. New York (state)_sentence_372

If New York State were an independent nation, it would rank as the 11th largest economy in the world. New York (state)_sentence_373

However, in 2013, the multi-state, New York City-centered metropolitan statistical area produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of nearly $1.4 trillion, while in 2012, the corresponding combined statistical area generated a GMP of over $1.7 trillion, both ranking first nationally by a wide margin and behind the GDP of only nine nations. New York (state)_sentence_374

Wall Street New York (state)_section_28

Main article: Wall Street New York (state)_sentence_375

Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world. New York (state)_sentence_376

Lower Manhattan is the third-largest central business district in the United States and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, as measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013. New York (state)_sentence_377

Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually. New York (state)_sentence_378

In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry generated 19% of New York State's tax revenue. New York (state)_sentence_379

New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and debt capital markets, driven in part by the size and financial development of the U.S. New York (state)_sentence_380

economy. New York (state)_sentence_381

New York also leads in hedge fund management; private equity; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions. New York (state)_sentence_382

Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers. New York (state)_sentence_383

New York is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States. New York (state)_sentence_384

Many of the world's largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. New York (state)_sentence_385

Manhattan contained approximately 520 million square feet (48.1 million m) of office space in 2013, making it the largest office market in the United States, while Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the nation. New York (state)_sentence_386

Silicon Alley New York (state)_section_29

Main article: Silicon Alley New York (state)_sentence_387

Further information: Tech:NYC, Tech companies in New York, and Biotech and pharmaceutical companies in New York New York (state)_sentence_388

Silicon Alley, centered in New York City, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high technology and entrepreneurship ecosystem; in 2015, Silicon Alley generated over $7.3 billion in venture capital investment. New York (state)_sentence_389

High tech industries including digital media, biotechnology, software development, game design, and other fields in information technology are growing, bolstered by New York City's position at the terminus of several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, its intellectual capital, as well as its growing outdoor wireless connectivity. New York (state)_sentence_390

In December 2014, New York State announced a $50 million venture-capital fund to encourage enterprises working in biotechnology and advanced materials; according to Governor Andrew Cuomo, the seed money would facilitate entrepreneurs in bringing their research into the marketplace. New York (state)_sentence_391

On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a two billion dollar graduate school of applied sciences on Roosevelt Island in Manhattan, with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital. New York (state)_sentence_392

Tech Valley New York (state)_section_30

Main article: Tech Valley New York (state)_sentence_393

Albany, Saratoga County, Rensselaer County, and the Hudson Valley, collectively recognized as eastern New York's Tech Valley, have experienced significant growth in the computer hardware side of the high-technology industry, with great strides in the nanotechnology sector, digital electronics design, and water- and electricity-dependent integrated microchip circuit manufacturing, involving companies including IBM and its Thomas J. Watson Research Center, and the three foreign-owned firms, GlobalFoundries, Samsung, and Taiwan Semiconductor, among others. New York (state)_sentence_394

The area's high technology ecosystem is supported by technologically focused academic institutions including Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and the SUNY Polytechnic Institute. New York (state)_sentence_395

In 2015, Tech Valley, straddling both sides of the Adirondack Northway and the New York Thruway, generated over $163 million in venture capital investment. New York (state)_sentence_396

The Rochester area is important in the field of photographic processing and imaging as well as incubating an increasingly diverse high technology sphere encompassing STEM fields, similarly in part the result of private startup enterprises collaborating with major academic institutions, including the University of Rochester and Cornell University. New York (state)_sentence_397

Westchester County has developed a burgeoning biotechnology sector in the 21st century, with over a billion dollars in planned private investment as of 2016. New York (state)_sentence_398

Media and entertainment New York (state)_section_31

Main article: Media in New York City New York (state)_sentence_399

Creative industries, which are concerned with generating and distributing knowledge and information, such as new media, digital media, film and television production, advertising, fashion, design, and architecture, account for a growing share of employment, with New York City possessing a strong competitive advantage in these industries. New York (state)_sentence_400

As of 2014, New York State was offering tax incentives of up to $420 million annually for filmmaking within the state, the most generous such tax rebate among the U.S. states. New York (state)_sentence_401

New York has also attracted higher-wage visual-effects employment by further augmenting its tax credit to a maximum of 35% for performing post-film production work in Upstate New York. New York (state)_sentence_402

The filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly $9 billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015. New York (state)_sentence_403

Tourism New York (state)_section_32

Main articles: Tourism in New York City, Niagara Falls, and Broadway theatre New York (state)_sentence_404

I Love New York (stylized I ❤ NY) is a slogan, a logo and state song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and has been used since 1977 to promote tourism in the state of New York, including New York City. New York (state)_sentence_405

The trademarked logo is owned by New York State Empire State Development. New York (state)_sentence_406

The Broadway League reported that Broadway shows sold approximately $1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from $1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. New York (state)_sentence_407

Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million. New York (state)_sentence_408

Exports New York (state)_section_33

New York exports a wide variety of goods such as prepared foods, computers and electronics, cut diamonds, and other commodities. New York (state)_sentence_409

In 2007, the state exported a total of $71.1 billion worth of goods, with the five largest foreign export markets being Canada ($15 billion), the United Kingdom ($6 billion), Switzerland ($5.9 billion), Israel ($4.9 billion), and Hong Kong ($3.4 billion). New York (state)_sentence_410

New York's largest imports are oil, gold, aluminum, natural gas, electricity, rough diamonds, and lumber. New York (state)_sentence_411

The state also has a large manufacturing sector that includes printing and the production of garments, mainly in New York City; and furs, railroad equipment, automobile parts, and bus line vehicles, concentrated in Upstate regions. New York (state)_sentence_412

New York is the nation's third-largest grape producing state, and second-largest wine producer by volume, behind California. New York (state)_sentence_413

The southern Finger Lakes hillsides, the Hudson Valley, the North Fork of Long Island, and the southern shore of Lake Erie are the primary grape- and wine-growing regions in New York, with many vineyards. New York (state)_sentence_414

In 2012, New York had 320 wineries and 37,000 grape bearing acres, generating full-time employment for nearly 25,000 and annual wages over $1.1 billion, and yielding $4.8 billion in direct economic impact from New York grapes, grape juice, and wine and grape products. New York (state)_sentence_415

Agriculture New York (state)_section_34

The New York Agriculture industry is a major producer overall, ranking among the top five states for agricultural products including maple syrup, apples, cherries, cabbage, dairy products, onions, and potatoes. New York (state)_sentence_416

The state is the largest producer of cabbage in the U.S. New York (state)_sentence_417

The state has about a quarter of its land in farms and produced $3.4 billion in agricultural products in 2001. New York (state)_sentence_418

The south shore of Lake Ontario provides the right mix of soils and microclimate for many apple, cherry, plum, pear and peach orchards. New York (state)_sentence_419

Apples are also grown in the Hudson Valley and near Lake Champlain. New York (state)_sentence_420

A moderately sized saltwater commercial fishery is located along the Atlantic side of Long Island. New York (state)_sentence_421

The principal catches by value are clams, lobsters, squid, and flounder. New York (state)_sentence_422

Energy New York (state)_section_35

Further information: New York energy law, Solar power in New York, and List of power stations in New York New York (state)_sentence_423

In 2017, New York State consumed 156,370-gigawatthours (GWh) of electrical energy. New York (state)_sentence_424

Downstate regions (Hudson Valley, New York City, and Long Island) consumed 66% of that amount. New York (state)_sentence_425

Upstate regions produced 50% of that amount. New York (state)_sentence_426

The peak load in 2017 was 29,699 MW. New York (state)_sentence_427

The resource capability in 2017 was 42,839 MW. New York (state)_sentence_428

The NYISO's market monitor described the average all-in wholesale electric price as a range (a single value was not provided) from $25 per MWh to $53 per MWh for 2017. New York (state)_sentence_429

Education New York (state)_section_36

Main article: Education in New York (state) New York (state)_sentence_430

At the level of post-secondary education, the statewide public university system is the State University of New York (SUNY). New York (state)_sentence_431

The SUNY system consists of 64 community colleges, technical colleges, undergraduate colleges, and doctoral-granting institutions, including several universities. New York (state)_sentence_432

New York's flagship university is the University at Buffalo, which was founded by U.S. President Millard Fillmore. New York (state)_sentence_433

Along with the University at Buffalo, Binghamton University also ranks highly in the rankings of top public universities in the United States. New York (state)_sentence_434

New York City has its own City University of New York (CUNY) system, which is funded by the city. New York (state)_sentence_435

Columbia University, Cornell University and New York University are among the most prominent of the larger higher education institutions in New York, all of them leading, world-renowned private universities and members of the Association of American Universities, the pre-eminent group of research universities in the United States. New York (state)_sentence_436

Other notable large private universities include Syracuse University and Fordham University. New York (state)_sentence_437

Smaller notable private institutions of higher education include Rockefeller University, Mercy College, New York Institute of Technology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Yeshiva University, and Hofstra University. New York (state)_sentence_438

There are also a multitude of postgraduate-level schools in New York State, including medical, law, and engineering schools. New York (state)_sentence_439

West Point, the service academy of the U.S. New York (state)_sentence_440

Army, is located just south of Newburgh, on the west bank of the Hudson River. New York (state)_sentence_441

The federal Merchant Marine Academy is at Kings Point on Long Island. New York (state)_sentence_442

A number of selective private liberal arts institutions are located in New York. New York (state)_sentence_443

Among them are Bard College, Barnard College, Colgate University, Hamilton College, Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Marist College, Sarah Lawrence College, Skidmore College, Union College, and Vassar College. New York (state)_sentence_444

Two of these schools, Barnard and Vassar, are members of the elite Seven Sisters, originally all women's colleges with ties to the Ivy League. New York (state)_sentence_445

Barnard is affiliated with Columbia University, its Manhattan neighbor, and Vassar became coeducational in 1969 after declining an offer to merge with Yale University. New York (state)_sentence_446

New York is also home to what is widely regarded as the best performing arts schools in the world. New York (state)_sentence_447

The Juilliard School, located in the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is one of the world's leading music and dance schools. New York (state)_sentence_448

The Eastman School of Music, a professional school within the University of Rochester, was ranked first among U.S. music schools by U.S. News & World Report for five consecutive years. New York (state)_sentence_449

The University of the State of New York accredits and sets standards for elementary, middle-level, and secondary education in the state, while the New York State Education Department oversees public schools and controls their standardized tests. New York (state)_sentence_450

The New York City Department of Education manages the New York City Public Schools system. New York (state)_sentence_451

In 1894, reflecting general racial discrimination then, the state passed a law that allowed communities to set up separate schools for children of African-American descent. New York (state)_sentence_452

In 1900, the state passed another law requiring integrated schools. New York (state)_sentence_453

During the 2013 fiscal year, New York spent more on public education per pupil than any other state, according to U.S. New York (state)_sentence_454

Census Bureau statistics. New York (state)_sentence_455

Transportation New York (state)_section_37

Main article: Transportation in New York New York (state)_sentence_456

New York has one of the most extensive and one of the oldest transportation infrastructures in the country. New York (state)_sentence_457

Engineering challenges posed by the complex terrain of the state and the unique infrastructural issues of New York City brought on by urban crowding have had to be overcome perennially. New York (state)_sentence_458

Population expansion of the state has followed the path of the early waterways, first the Hudson River and Mohawk River, then the Erie Canal. New York (state)_sentence_459

In the 19th century, railroads were constructed along the river valleys, followed by the New York State Thruway in the 20th century. New York (state)_sentence_460

The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) is the department of the government of New York responsible for the development and operation of highways, railroads, mass transit systems, ports, waterways, and aviation facilities within New York State. New York (state)_sentence_461

The NYSDOT is headquartered at 50 Wolf Road in Colonie, Albany County. New York (state)_sentence_462

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) is a joint venture between the States of New York and New Jersey and authorized by the US Congress, established in 1921 through an interstate compact, that oversees much of the regional transportation infrastructure, including bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports, within the geographical jurisdiction of the Port of New York and New Jersey. New York (state)_sentence_463

This 1,500 sq mi (3,900 km) port district is generally encompassed within a 25 mi (40 km) radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. New York (state)_sentence_464

The Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan. New York (state)_sentence_465

In addition to the well known New York City Subway system—which is confined within New York City—four suburban commuter railroad systems enter and leave the city: the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, Port Authority Trans-Hudson, and five of New Jersey Transit's rail lines. New York (state)_sentence_466

The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) is the agency of the government of New York City responsible for the management of much of New York City's own transportation infrastructure. New York (state)_sentence_467

Other cities and towns in New York have urban and regional public transportation. New York (state)_sentence_468

In Buffalo, the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority runs the Buffalo Metro Rail light-rail system; in Rochester, the Rochester Subway operated from 1927 until 1956, but fell into disuse as state and federal investment went to highways. New York (state)_sentence_469

The New York State Department of Motor Vehicles (NYSDMV or DMV) is the governmental agency responsible for registering and inspecting automobiles and other motor vehicles, as well as licensing drivers in the State of New York. New York (state)_sentence_470

As of 2008, the NYSDMV has 11,284,546 drivers licenses on file and 10,697,644 vehicle registrations in force. New York (state)_sentence_471

All gasoline-powered vehicles registered in New York State are required to have an emissions inspection every 12 months, in order to ensure that environmental quality controls are working to prevent air pollution. New York (state)_sentence_472

Diesel-powered vehicles with a gross weight rating over 8,500 pounds that are registered in most Downstate New York counties must get an annual emissions inspection. New York (state)_sentence_473

All vehicles registered in New York State must get an annual safety inspection. New York (state)_sentence_474

Portions of the transportation system are intermodal, allowing travelers to switch easily from one mode of transportation to another. New York (state)_sentence_475

One of the most notable examples is AirTrain JFK which allows rail passengers to travel directly to terminals at John F. Kennedy International Airport as well as to the underground New York City Subway system. New York (state)_sentence_476

Government New York (state)_section_38

Main article: Government of New York (state) New York (state)_sentence_477

See also: Law of New York (state) New York (state)_sentence_478

The Government of New York embodies the governmental structure of the State of New York as established by the New York State Constitution. New York (state)_sentence_479

It is composed of three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. New York (state)_sentence_480

The governor is the state's chief executive and is assisted by the lieutenant governor. New York (state)_sentence_481

Both are elected on the same ticket. New York (state)_sentence_482

Additional elected officers include the attorney general and the comptroller. New York (state)_sentence_483

The secretary of state, formerly an elected officer, is currently appointed by the governor. New York (state)_sentence_484

The New York State Legislature is bicameral and consists of the New York State Senate and the New York State Assembly. New York (state)_sentence_485

The Assembly consists of 150 members, while the Senate varies in its number of members, currently having 63. New York (state)_sentence_486

The Legislature is empowered to make laws, subject to the governor's power to veto a bill. New York (state)_sentence_487

However, the veto may be overridden by the legislature if there is a two-thirds majority in favor of overriding in each house. New York (state)_sentence_488

The permanent laws of a general nature are codified in the Consolidated Laws of New York. New York (state)_sentence_489

The highest court of appeal in the Unified Court System is the Court of Appeals whereas the primary felony trial court is the County Court (or the Supreme Court in New York City). New York (state)_sentence_490

The Supreme Court also acts as the intermediate appellate court for many cases, and the local courts handle a variety of other matters including small claims, traffic ticket cases, and local zoning matters, and are the starting point for all criminal cases. New York (state)_sentence_491

The New York City courts make up the largest local court system. New York (state)_sentence_492

The state is divided into counties, cities, towns, and villages, all of which are municipal corporations with respect to their own governments, as well as various corporate entities that serve single purposes that are also local governments, such as school districts, fire districts, and New York state public-benefit corporations, frequently known as authorities or development corporations. New York (state)_sentence_493

Each municipal corporation is granted varying home rule powers as provided by the New York Constitution. New York (state)_sentence_494

The state also has 10 Indian reservations. New York (state)_sentence_495

There have been several movements regarding secession from the state of New York. New York (state)_sentence_496

Proposals have included a state of Long Island, consisting of everything on the island outside New York City; a state called Niagara, the western counties of New York state; the northern counties of New York state called Upstate New York; making the city of New York a state; a proposal for a new Peconic County on eastern Long Island; and for the borough of Staten Island to secede from New York City. New York (state)_sentence_497

Capital punishment New York (state)_section_39

Main article: Capital punishment in New York New York (state)_sentence_498

Capital punishment was reintroduced in 1995 under the Pataki administration, but the statute was declared unconstitutional in 2004, when the New York Court of Appeals ruled in People v. LaValle that it violated the state constitution. New York (state)_sentence_499

The remaining death sentence was commuted by the court to life imprisonment in 2007, in People v. John Taylor, and the death row was disestablished in 2008, under executive order from Governor David Paterson. New York (state)_sentence_500

No execution has taken place in New York since 1963. New York (state)_sentence_501

Legislative efforts to amend the statute have failed, and death sentences are no longer sought at the state level, though certain crimes that fall under the jurisdiction of the federal government are subject to the federal death penalty. New York (state)_sentence_502

Federal representation New York (state)_section_40

See also: Current United States congressional delegation from New York and New York's congressional districts New York (state)_sentence_503

New York is represented by Chuck Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand in the United States Senate. New York (state)_sentence_504

There are twenty-seven congressional districts, the nation's third equal highest number of congressional districts, equal with Florida and behind California's 53 and Texas's 36. New York (state)_sentence_505

As of 2019, twenty-one districts are represented by members of the Democratic Party, while six are represented by Republicans. New York (state)_sentence_506

Representation was reduced from 29 in 2013 due to the state's slower overall population growth relative to the overall national population growth. New York (state)_sentence_507

New York has 29 electoral votes in national presidential elections, a drop from its peak of 47 votes from 1933 to 1953. New York (state)_sentence_508

The state has a strong imbalance of payments with the federal government. New York (state)_sentence_509

According to the Office of the New York State Comptroller, New York State received 91 cents in services for every $1 it sent in taxes to the U.S. federal government in the 2013 fiscal year; New York ranked in 46th place in the federal balance of payments to the state on a per capita basis. New York (state)_sentence_510

Politics New York (state)_section_41

Main article: Politics of New York (state) New York (state)_sentence_511

See also: Elections in New York (state) and Political party strength in New York New York (state)_sentence_512

As of April 2016, Democrats represented a plurality of voters in New York State, constituting more than twice as many registered voters as any other political party affiliation or lack thereof. New York (state)_sentence_513

Since the second half of the 20th century, New York has generally supported candidates belonging to the Democratic Party in national elections. New York (state)_sentence_514

Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama won New York State by over 25 percentage points in both 2012 and 2008. New York (state)_sentence_515

New York City, as well as the state's other major urban locales, including Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, Yonkers, and Syracuse, are significant Democratic strongholds, with liberal politics. New York (state)_sentence_516

Rural portions of upstate New York, however, are generally more conservative than the cities and tend to favor Republicans. New York (state)_sentence_517

Heavily populated suburban areas downstate, such as Westchester County and Long Island, have swung between the major parties since the 1980s, but more often than not support Democrats. New York (state)_sentence_518

New York City is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States for both major parties. New York (state)_sentence_519

Four of the top five zip codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. New York (state)_sentence_520

The top zip code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2000 presidential campaigns of both George W. Bush and Al Gore. New York (state)_sentence_521

The state of New York has the distinction of being the home state for both major-party nominees in three presidential elections. New York (state)_sentence_522

The 1904 presidential election saw former New York Governor and incumbent President Theodore Roosevelt face Alton B. Parker, chief judge of the New York Court of Appeals. New York (state)_sentence_523

The 1944 presidential election had Franklin D. Roosevelt, following in his cousin Theodore's footsteps as former New York Governor and incumbent president running for re-election against then-current New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey. New York (state)_sentence_524

In the 2016 presidential election, former United States Senator from New York Hillary Clinton, a resident of Chappaqua, was the Democratic Party nominee. New York (state)_sentence_525

The Republican Party nominee was businessman Donald Trump, a resident of Manhattan and a native of Queens. New York (state)_sentence_526

New York City is an important center for international diplomacy. New York (state)_sentence_527

The United Nations Headquarters has been situated on the East Side of Midtown Manhattan since 1952. New York (state)_sentence_528

Sports New York (state)_section_42

Main article: Sports in New York (state) New York (state)_sentence_529

New York State is geographically home to one National Football League team, the Buffalo Bills, based in the Buffalo suburb of Orchard Park. New York (state)_sentence_530

Although the New York Giants and New York Jets represent the New York metropolitan area and were previously located in New York City, they play in MetLife Stadium, located in East Rutherford, New Jersey. New York (state)_sentence_531

New York also has two Major League Baseball teams, the New York Yankees (based in the Bronx) and the New York Mets (based in Queens). New York (state)_sentence_532

Minor league baseball teams also play in the State of New York, including the Long Island Ducks, the Brooklyn Cyclones, and the Staten Island Yankees downstate, and the Rochester Red Wings, the Binghamton Rumble Ponies, the Syracuse Mets, the Auburn Doubledays, the Batavia Muckdogs, the Hudson Valley Renegades and the Buffalo Bisons upstate. New York (state)_sentence_533

New York is home to three National Hockey League franchises: the New York Rangers in Manhattan, the New York Islanders in Brooklyn and Nassau County in Long Island, and the Buffalo Sabres in Buffalo. New York (state)_sentence_534

New York has two National Basketball Association teams, the New York Knicks in Manhattan, and the Brooklyn Nets in Brooklyn. New York (state)_sentence_535

New York is the home of a Major League Soccer franchise, New York City FC, currently playing in the Bronx. New York (state)_sentence_536

Although the New York Red Bulls represent the New York metropolitan area, they play in Red Bull Arena in Harrison, New Jersey. New York (state)_sentence_537

New York hosted the 1932 and 1980 Winter Olympics at Lake Placid. New York (state)_sentence_538

The 1980 Games are known for the USA–USSR ice hockey match dubbed the "Miracle on Ice", in which a group of American college students and amateurs defeated the heavily favored Soviet national ice hockey team 4–3 and went on to win the gold medal against Finland. New York (state)_sentence_539

Along with St. New York (state)_sentence_540 Moritz, Switzerland and Innsbruck, Austria, Lake Placid is one of the three cities to have hosted the Winter Olympic Games twice. New York (state)_sentence_541

New York City bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics but lost to London. New York (state)_sentence_542

Several U.S. national sports halls of fame are or have been situated in New York. New York (state)_sentence_543

The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is located in Cooperstown, Otsego County. New York (state)_sentence_544

The National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County, honors achievements in the sport of thoroughbred horse racing. New York (state)_sentence_545

The physical facility of the National Soccer Hall of Fame in Oneonta, also in Otsego County, closed in 2010, although the organization itself has continued inductions. New York (state)_sentence_546

The annual United States Open Tennis Championships is one of the world's four Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in the New York City borough of Queens. New York (state)_sentence_547

New York state is also home to many intercollegiate division 1 sports programs. New York (state)_sentence_548

The State University of New York's flagship University at Buffalo are the Buffalo Bulls. New York (state)_sentence_549

Syracuse University's intercollegiate teams are the Syracuse Orange. New York (state)_sentence_550

New York (state)_table_general_3

New York State major league professional sports teamsNew York (state)_header_cell_3_0_0
ClubNew York (state)_header_cell_3_1_0 SportNew York (state)_header_cell_3_1_1 LeagueNew York (state)_header_cell_3_1_2
Buffalo BillsNew York (state)_cell_3_2_0 FootballNew York (state)_cell_3_2_1 National Football LeagueNew York (state)_cell_3_2_2
Brooklyn NetsNew York (state)_cell_3_3_0 BasketballNew York (state)_cell_3_3_1 National Basketball AssociationNew York (state)_cell_3_3_2
New York KnicksNew York (state)_cell_3_4_0 BasketballNew York (state)_cell_3_4_1 National Basketball AssociationNew York (state)_cell_3_4_2
New York City FCNew York (state)_cell_3_5_0 SoccerNew York (state)_cell_3_5_1 Major League SoccerNew York (state)_cell_3_5_2
Buffalo SabresNew York (state)_cell_3_6_0 Ice hockeyNew York (state)_cell_3_6_1 National Hockey LeagueNew York (state)_cell_3_6_2
New York IslandersNew York (state)_cell_3_7_0 Ice hockeyNew York (state)_cell_3_7_1 National Hockey LeagueNew York (state)_cell_3_7_2
New York RangersNew York (state)_cell_3_8_0 Ice hockeyNew York (state)_cell_3_8_1 National Hockey LeagueNew York (state)_cell_3_8_2
New York MetsNew York (state)_cell_3_9_0 BaseballNew York (state)_cell_3_9_1 Major League BaseballNew York (state)_cell_3_9_2
New York YankeesNew York (state)_cell_3_10_0 BaseballNew York (state)_cell_3_10_1 Major League BaseballNew York (state)_cell_3_10_2

See also New York (state)_section_43

New York (state)_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: York (state).