New York City

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"NYC" and "New York, New York" redirect here. New York City_sentence_0

For other uses, see New York City (disambiguation); NYC (disambiguation); and New York, New York (disambiguation). New York City_sentence_1

New York City_table_infobox_0

New YorkNew York City_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryNew York City_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesNew York City_cell_0_1_1
StateNew York City_header_cell_0_2_0 New YorkNew York City_cell_0_2_1
RegionNew York City_header_cell_0_3_0 Mid-AtlanticNew York City_cell_0_3_1
Constituent counties (boroughs)New York City_header_cell_0_4_0 Bronx (The Bronx)

Kings (Brooklyn) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Richmond (Staten Island)New York City_cell_0_4_1

Historic coloniesNew York City_header_cell_0_5_0 New Netherland

Province of New YorkNew York City_cell_0_5_1

SettledNew York City_header_cell_0_6_0 1624New York City_cell_0_6_1
ConsolidatedNew York City_header_cell_0_7_0 1898New York City_cell_0_7_1
Named forNew York City_header_cell_0_8_0 James, Duke of YorkNew York City_cell_0_8_1
GovernmentNew York City_header_cell_0_9_0
TypeNew York City_header_cell_0_10_0 Mayor–CouncilNew York City_cell_0_10_1
BodyNew York City_header_cell_0_11_0 New York City CouncilNew York City_cell_0_11_1
MayorNew York City_header_cell_0_12_0 Bill de Blasio (D)New York City_cell_0_12_1
AreaNew York City_header_cell_0_13_0
TotalNew York City_header_cell_0_14_0 468.19 sq mi (1,212.60 km)New York City_cell_0_14_1
LandNew York City_header_cell_0_15_0 300.37 sq mi (777.95 km)New York City_cell_0_15_1
WaterNew York City_header_cell_0_16_0 167.82 sq mi (434.65 km)New York City_cell_0_16_1
MetroNew York City_header_cell_0_17_0 13,318 sq mi (34,490 km)New York City_cell_0_17_1
ElevationNew York City_header_cell_0_18_0 33 ft (10 m)New York City_cell_0_18_1
Population (2010)New York City_header_cell_0_19_0
TotalNew York City_header_cell_0_20_0 8,175,133New York City_cell_0_20_1
Estimate (2019)New York City_header_cell_0_21_0 8,336,817New York City_cell_0_21_1
RankNew York City_header_cell_0_22_0 1st in the U.S.New York City_cell_0_22_1
DensityNew York City_header_cell_0_23_0 27,755.25/sq mi (10,716.36/km)New York City_cell_0_23_1
MSA (2018)New York City_header_cell_0_24_0 19,979,477 (1st)New York City_cell_0_24_1
CSA (2018)New York City_header_cell_0_25_0 22,679,948 (1st)New York City_cell_0_25_1
Demonym(s)New York City_header_cell_0_26_0 New YorkerNew York City_cell_0_26_1
Time zoneNew York City_header_cell_0_27_0 UTC−05:00 (EST)New York City_cell_0_27_1
Summer (DST)New York City_header_cell_0_28_0 UTC−04:00 (EDT)New York City_cell_0_28_1
ZIP CodesNew York City_header_cell_0_29_0 100xx–104xx, 11004–05, 111xx–114xx, 116xxNew York City_cell_0_29_1
Area code(s)New York City_header_cell_0_30_0 212/646/332, 718/347/929, 917New York City_cell_0_30_1
FIPS codeNew York City_header_cell_0_31_0 36-51000New York City_cell_0_31_1
GNIS feature IDNew York City_header_cell_0_32_0 975772New York City_cell_0_32_1
Major airportsNew York City_header_cell_0_33_0 JFK Airport

Newark Liberty Airport LaGuardia Airport Islip Airport White Plains Airport Stewart AirportNew York City_cell_0_33_1

Commuter railNew York City_header_cell_0_34_0 LIRR, Metro-North, NJ TransitNew York City_cell_0_34_1
Rapid transitNew York City_header_cell_0_35_0 New_York_City_Subway

Staten_Island_Railway PATH_(rail_system)New York City_cell_0_35_1

GDP (City, 2019)New York City_header_cell_0_36_0 $884 billion (1st)New York City_cell_0_36_1
GMP (Metro, 2020)New York City_header_cell_0_37_0 $1.67 trillion (1st)New York City_cell_0_37_1
Largest borough by areaNew York City_header_cell_0_38_0 Queens (109 square miles (280 km))New York City_cell_0_38_1
Largest borough by populationNew York City_header_cell_0_39_0 Brooklyn (2019 est. 2,559,903)New York City_cell_0_39_1
Largest borough by GDP (2019)New York City_header_cell_0_40_0 Manhattan ($635.3 billion)New York City_cell_0_40_1
WebsiteNew York City_header_cell_0_41_0 New York City_cell_0_41_1

New York City (NYC), often called simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. New York City_sentence_2

With an estimated 2019 population of 8,336,817 distributed over about 302.6 square miles (784 km), New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. New York City_sentence_3

Located at the southern tip of the U.S. New York City_sentence_4

state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass. New York City_sentence_5

With almost 20 million people in its metropolitan statistical area and approximately 23 million in its combined statistical area, it is one of the world's most populous megacities. New York City_sentence_6

New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, significantly influencing commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. New York City_sentence_7

Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy. New York City_sentence_8

Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City is composed of five boroughs, each of which is a county of the State of New York. New York City_sentence_9

The five boroughs—Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island—were consolidated into a single city in 1898. New York City_sentence_10

The city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. New York City_sentence_11

As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City_sentence_12

New York is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world as of 2016. New York City_sentence_13

As of 2019, the New York metropolitan area is estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of $2.0 trillion. New York City_sentence_14

If the New York metropolitan area were a sovereign state, it would have the eighth-largest economy in the world. New York City_sentence_15

New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City_sentence_16

New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan; the post was named New Amsterdam in 1626. New York City_sentence_17

The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York City_sentence_18

The city was regained by the Dutch in July 1673 and was subsequently renamed New Orange for one year and three months; the city has been continuously named New York since November 1674. New York City_sentence_19

New York City was the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, and has been the largest U.S. city since 1790. New York City_sentence_20

The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U.S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and is a symbol of the U.S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. New York City_sentence_21

In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity, entrepreneurship, and environmental sustainability, and as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. New York City_sentence_22

In 2019, New York was voted the greatest city in the world per a survey of over 30,000 people from 48 cities worldwide, citing its cultural diversity. New York City_sentence_23

Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, including three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013. New York City_sentence_24

A record 62.8 million tourists visited New York City in 2017. New York City_sentence_25

Times Square is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. New York City_sentence_26

Many of the city's landmarks, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. New York City_sentence_27

Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York City_sentence_28

Providing continuous 24/7 service and contributing to the nickname The City that Never Sleeps, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. New York City_sentence_29

The city has over 120 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, and the City University of New York system, which is the largest urban public university system in the United States. New York City_sentence_30

Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the world's leading financial center and the most financially powerful city in the world, and is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. New York City_sentence_31

Etymology New York City_section_0

In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York, who would become King James II of England. New York City_sentence_32

James's older brother, King Charles II, appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, when England seized it from the Dutch. New York City_sentence_33

History New York City_section_1

Main articles: History of New York City and Timeline of New York City New York City_sentence_34

Early history New York City_section_2

In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape. New York City_sentence_35

Their homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island, Manhattan, the Bronx, the western portion of Long Island (including the areas that would later become the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens), and the Lower Hudson Valley. New York City_sentence_36

The first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. New York City_sentence_37

He claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême (New Angoulême). New York City_sentence_38

A Spanish expedition, led by the Portuguese captain Estêvão Gomes sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio (Saint Anthony's River). New York City_sentence_39

The Padrón Real of 1527, the first scientific map to show the East Coast of North America continuously, was informed by Gomes' expedition and labeled the northeastern United States as Tierra de Esteban Gómez in his honor. New York City_sentence_40

In 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson rediscovered New York Harbor while searching for the Northwest Passage to the Orient for the Dutch East India Company. New York City_sentence_41

He proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River (now the Hudson River), named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange. New York City_sentence_42

Hudson's first mate described the harbor as "a very good Harbour for all windes" and the river as "a mile broad" and "full of fish". New York City_sentence_43

Hudson sailed roughly 150 miles (240 km) north, past the site of the present-day New York State capital city of Albany, in the belief that it might be an oceanic tributary before the river became too shallow to continue. New York City_sentence_44

He made a ten-day exploration of the area and claimed the region for the Dutch East India Company. New York City_sentence_45

In 1614, the area between Cape Cod and Delaware Bay was claimed by the Netherlands and called Nieuw-Nederland (New Netherland). New York City_sentence_46

The first non-Native American inhabitant of what would eventually become New York City was Juan Rodriguez (transliterated to Dutch as Jan Rodrigues), a merchant from Santo Domingo. New York City_sentence_47

Born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese and African descent, he arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–14, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch. New York City_sentence_48

Broadway, from 159th Street to 218th Street in Upper Manhattan, is named Juan Rodriguez Way in his honor. New York City_sentence_49

Dutch rule New York City_section_3

A permanent European presence near New York Harbor began in 1624—making New York the 12th oldest continuously occupied European-established settlement in the continental United States—with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. New York City_sentence_50

In 1625, construction was started on a citadel and Fort Amsterdam, later called Nieuw Amsterdam (New Amsterdam), on present-day Manhattan Island. New York City_sentence_51

The colony of New Amsterdam was centered on what would later be known as Lower Manhattan. New York City_sentence_52

It extended from the lower tip of Manhattan to modern day Wall Street, where a 12-foot wooden stockade was built in 1653 to protect against Native American and British raids. New York City_sentence_53

In 1626, the Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit, acting as charged by the Dutch West India Company, purchased the island of Manhattan from the Canarsie, a small Lenape band, for "the value of 60 guilders" (about $900 in 2018). New York City_sentence_54

A disproved legend claims that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads. New York City_sentence_55

Following the purchase, New Amsterdam grew slowly. New York City_sentence_56

To attract settlers, the Dutch instituted the patroon system in 1628, whereby wealthy Dutchmen (patroons, or patrons) who brought 50 colonists to New Netherland would be awarded swaths of land, along with local political autonomy and rights to participate in the lucrative fur trade. New York City_sentence_57

This program had little success. New York City_sentence_58

Since 1621, the Dutch West India Company had operated as a monopoly in New Netherland, on authority granted by the Dutch States General. New York City_sentence_59

In 1639–1640, in an effort to bolster economic growth, the Dutch West India Company relinquished its monopoly over the fur trade, leading to growth in the production and trade of food, timber, tobacco, and slaves (particularly with the Dutch West Indies). New York City_sentence_60

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant began his tenure as the last Director-General of New Netherland. New York City_sentence_61

During his tenure, the population of New Netherland grew from 2,000 to 8,000. New York City_sentence_62

Stuyvesant has been credited with improving law and order in the colony; however, he also earned a reputation as a despotic leader. New York City_sentence_63

He instituted regulations on liquor sales, attempted to assert control over the Dutch Reformed Church, and blocked other religious groups (including Quakers, Jews, and Lutherans) from establishing houses of worship. New York City_sentence_64

The Dutch West India Company would eventually attempt to ease tensions between Stuyvesant and residents of New Amsterdam. New York City_sentence_65

English rule New York City_section_4

In 1664, unable to summon any significant resistance, Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to English troops, led by Colonel Richard Nicolls, without bloodshed. New York City_sentence_66

The terms of the surrender permitted Dutch residents to remain in the colony and allowed for religious freedom. New York City_sentence_67

The fledgling settlement was promptly renamed "New York" after the Duke of York (the future King James II and IV), who would eventually be deposed in the Glorious Revolution. New York City_sentence_68

After the founding, the duke gave part of the colony to proprietors George Carteret and John Berkeley. New York City_sentence_69

Fort Orange, 150 miles (240 km) north on the Hudson River, was renamed Albany after James's Scottish title. New York City_sentence_70

The transfer was confirmed in 1667 by the Treaty of Breda, which concluded the Second Anglo-Dutch War. New York City_sentence_71

On August 24, 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, Dutch captain Anthony Colve seized the colony of New York from the English at the behest of Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and rechristened it "New Orange" after William III, the Prince of Orange. New York City_sentence_72

The Dutch would soon return the island to England under the Treaty of Westminster of November 1674. New York City_sentence_73

Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by contact with the Europeans caused sizeable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670. New York City_sentence_74

By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200. New York City_sentence_75

New York experienced several yellow fever epidemics in the 18th century, losing ten percent of its population to the disease in 1702 alone. New York City_sentence_76

Province of New York New York City_section_5

New York grew in importance as a trading port while as a part of the colony of New York in the early 1700s. New York City_sentence_77

It also became a center of slavery, with 42% of households holding slaves by 1730, the highest percentage outside Charleston, South Carolina. New York City_sentence_78

Most slaveholders held a few or several domestic slaves, but others hired them out to work at labor. New York City_sentence_79

Slavery became integrally tied to New York's economy through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banks and shipping tied to the American South. New York City_sentence_80

Discovery of the African Burying Ground in the 1990s, during construction of a new federal courthouse near Foley Square, revealed that tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the area in the colonial period. New York City_sentence_81

The 1735 trial and acquittal in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger, who had been accused of seditious libel after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby, helped to establish the freedom of the press in North America. New York City_sentence_82

In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by King George II as King's College in Lower Manhattan. New York City_sentence_83

American Revolution New York City_section_6

The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765, as the Sons of Liberty, organized in the city, skirmished over the next ten years with British troops stationed there. New York City_sentence_84

The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, was fought in August 1776 within the modern-day borough of Brooklyn. New York City_sentence_85

After the battle, in which the Americans were defeated, the British made the city their military and political base of operations in North America. New York City_sentence_86

The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters. New York City_sentence_87

As many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation. New York City_sentence_88

When the British forces evacuated at the close of the war in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen for resettlement in Nova Scotia. New York City_sentence_89

They resettled other freedmen in England and the Caribbean. New York City_sentence_90

The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776. New York City_sentence_91

Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church. New York City_sentence_92

In 1785, the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York City the national capital shortly after the war. New York City_sentence_93

New York was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States. New York City_sentence_94

New York City as the U.S. capital hosted several events of national scope in 1789—the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States each assembled for the first time; and the United States Bill of Rights was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street. New York City_sentence_95

By 1790, New York had surpassed Philadelphia to become the largest city in the United States, but by the end of that year, pursuant to the Residence Act, the national capital was moved to Philadelphia. New York City_sentence_96

Nineteenth century New York City_section_7

Over the course of the nineteenth century, New York City's population grew from 60,000 to 3.43 million. New York City_sentence_97

Under New York State's abolition act of 1799, children of slave mothers were to be eventually liberated but to be held in indentured servitude until their mid-to-late twenties. New York City_sentence_98

Together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped slaves, a significant free-Black population gradually developed in Manhattan. New York City_sentence_99

Under such influential United States founders as Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, the New York Manumission Society worked for abolition and established the African Free School to educate Black children. New York City_sentence_100

It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely abolished in the state, and free Blacks struggled afterward with discrimination. New York City_sentence_101

New York interracial abolitionist activism continued; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. New York City_sentence_102

New York city's population jumped from 123,706 in 1820 to 312,710 by 1840, 16,000 of whom were Black. New York City_sentence_103

In the 19th century, the city was transformed by development relating to its status as a national and international trading center, as well as by European immigration. New York City_sentence_104

The city adopted the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, which expanded the city street grid to encompass almost all of Manhattan. New York City_sentence_105

The 1825 completion of the Erie Canal through central New York connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River and the Great Lakes. New York City_sentence_106

Local politics became dominated by Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish and German immigrants. New York City_sentence_107

Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. New York City_sentence_108

Public-minded members of the contemporaneous business elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park in an American city. New York City_sentence_109

The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants; more than 200,000 were living in New York by 1860, upwards of a quarter of the city's population. New York City_sentence_110

There was also extensive immigration from the German provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25% of New York's population by 1860. New York City_sentence_111

Democratic Party candidates were consistently elected to local office, increasing the city's ties to the South and its dominant party. New York City_sentence_112

In 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood called upon the aldermen to declare independence from Albany and the United States after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on. New York City_sentence_113

Anger at new military conscription laws during the American Civil War (1861–1865), which spared wealthier men who could afford to pay a $300 (equivalent to $6,229 in 2019) commutation fee to hire a substitute, led to the Draft Riots of 1863, whose most visible participants were ethnic Irish working class. New York City_sentence_114

The draft riots deteriorated into attacks on New York's elite, followed by attacks on Black New Yorkers and their property after fierce competition for a decade between Irish immigrants and black people for work. New York City_sentence_115

Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground, with more than 200 children escaping harm due to efforts of the New York Police Department, which was mainly made up of Irish immigrants. New York City_sentence_116

At least 120 people were killed. New York City_sentence_117

Eleven Black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of blacks to flee the city for Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and New Jersey. New York City_sentence_118

The Black population in Manhattan fell below 10,000 by 1865, which it had last been in 1820. New York City_sentence_119

The White working class had established dominance. New York City_sentence_120

Violence by longshoremen against Black men was especially fierce in the docks area. New York City_sentence_121

It was one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history. New York City_sentence_122

Modern history New York City_section_8

In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens. New York City_sentence_123

The opening of the subway in 1904, first built as separate private systems, helped bind the new city together. New York City_sentence_124

Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication. New York City_sentence_125

In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board. New York City_sentence_126

In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city's worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and major improvements in factory safety standards. New York City_sentence_127

New York's non-white population was 36,620 in 1890. New York City_sentence_128

New York City was a prime destination in the early twentieth century for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South, and by 1916, New York City had become home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America. New York City_sentence_129

The Harlem Renaissance of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition. New York City_sentence_130

The larger economic boom generated construction of skyscrapers competing in height and creating an identifiable skyline. New York City_sentence_131

New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in the early-1920s, overtaking London. New York City_sentence_132

The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in the early-1930s, becoming the first megacity in human history. New York City_sentence_133

The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello La Guardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance. New York City_sentence_134

Returning World War II veterans created a post-war economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens and Nassau County as well as similar suburban areas in New Jersey. New York City_sentence_135

New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America's place as the world's dominant economic power. New York City_sentence_136

The United Nations Headquarters was completed in 1952, solidifying New York's global geopolitical influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York's displacement of Paris as the center of the art world. New York City_sentence_137

The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. New York City_sentence_138

They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights. New York City_sentence_139

Wayne R. Dynes, author of the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality, wrote that drag queens were the only "transgender folks around" during the June 1969 Stonewall riots. New York City_sentence_140

"None of them in fact made a major contribution to the movement." New York City_sentence_141

Others say the transgender community in New York City played a significant role in fighting for LGBT equality during the period of the Stonewall riots and thereafter. New York City_sentence_142

In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring caused New York City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. New York City_sentence_143

While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through that decade and into the beginning of the 1990s. New York City_sentence_144

By the mid 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. New York City_sentence_145

Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city's economy. New York City_sentence_146

New York's population reached all-time highs in the 2000 census and then again in the 2010 census. New York City_sentence_147

New York City suffered the bulk of the economic damage and largest loss of human life in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks. New York City_sentence_148

Two of the four airliners highjacked that day were flown into the twin towers of the World Trade Center, destroying them and killing 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers. New York City_sentence_149

The North Tower became the tallest building ever to be destroyed anywhere then or subsequently. New York City_sentence_150

The area was rebuilt with a new One World Trade Center, a 9/11 memorial and museum, and other new buildings and infrastructure. New York City_sentence_151

The World Trade Center PATH station, which had opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal, was also destroyed in the attacks. New York City_sentence_152

A temporary station was built and opened on November 23, 2003. New York City_sentence_153

An 800,000-square-foot (74,000 m) permanent rail station designed by Santiago Calatrava, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, the city's third-largest hub, was completed in 2016. New York City_sentence_154

The new One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere and the sixth-tallest building in the world by pinnacle height, with its spire reaching a symbolic 1,776 feet (541.3 m) in reference to the year of U.S. New York City_sentence_155

independence. New York City_sentence_156

The Occupy Wall Street protests in Zuccotti Park in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and popularizing the Occupy movement against social and economic inequality worldwide. New York City_sentence_157

In March 2020, the first confirmed case of COVID-19 for the city was in Manhattan. New York City_sentence_158

As of June 2020, New York City had recorded over 20,000 deaths from COVID-19-related complications. New York City_sentence_159

The city was the global epicenter of the pandemic during the early phase, before the infection spread worldwide. New York City_sentence_160

Geography New York City_section_9

Main articles: Geography of New York City and Geography of New York Harbor New York City_sentence_161

During the Wisconsin glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City area was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 2,000 feet (610 m) in depth. New York City_sentence_162

The erosive forward movement of the ice (and its subsequent retreat) contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. New York City_sentence_163

That action also left bedrock at a relatively shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. New York City_sentence_164

New York City is situated in the northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston. New York City_sentence_165

The location at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading port. New York City_sentence_166

Most of New York City is built on the three islands of Long Island, Manhattan, and Staten Island. New York City_sentence_167

The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. New York City_sentence_168

Between New York City and Troy, New York, the river is an estuary. New York City_sentence_169

The Hudson River separates the city from the U.S. state of New Jersey. New York City_sentence_170

The East River—a tidal strait—flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. New York City_sentence_171

The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson rivers, separates most of Manhattan from the Bronx. New York City_sentence_172

The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the only entirely freshwater river in the city. New York City_sentence_173

The city's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times; reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s. New York City_sentence_174

Some of the natural relief in topography has been evened out, especially in Manhattan. New York City_sentence_175

The city's total area is 468.484 square miles (1,213.37 km); 302.643 sq mi (783.84 km) of the city is land and 165.841 sq mi (429.53 km) of this is water. New York City_sentence_176

The highest point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which, at 409.8 feet (124.9 m) above sea level, is the highest point on the eastern seaboard south of Maine. New York City_sentence_177

The summit of the ridge is mostly covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt. New York City_sentence_178

Boroughs New York City_section_10

Main articles: Boroughs of New York City and Neighborhoods in New York City New York City_sentence_179

New York City_table_general_1

New York City's five boroughsNew York City_header_cell_1_0_0
JurisdictionNew York City_header_cell_1_1_0 PopulationNew York City_header_cell_1_1_2 Gross Domestic ProductNew York City_header_cell_1_1_3 Land areaNew York City_header_cell_1_1_5 DensityNew York City_header_cell_1_1_7
BoroughNew York City_header_cell_1_2_0 CountyNew York City_header_cell_1_2_1 Estimate
(2019)New York City_header_cell_1_2_2

(2012 US$)New York City_header_cell_1_2_3

per capita

(US$)New York City_header_cell_1_2_4

milesNew York City_header_cell_1_2_5

kmNew York City_header_cell_1_2_6

persons /

miNew York City_header_cell_1_2_7

persons /

kmNew York City_header_cell_1_2_8

The BronxNew York City_cell_1_3_0 BronxNew York City_cell_1_3_1 1,418,207New York City_cell_1_3_2 42.695New York City_cell_1_3_3 30,100New York City_cell_1_3_4 42.10New York City_cell_1_3_5 109.04New York City_cell_1_3_6 33,867New York City_cell_1_3_7 13,006New York City_cell_1_3_8
BrooklynNew York City_cell_1_4_0 KingsNew York City_cell_1_4_1 2,559,903New York City_cell_1_4_2 91.559New York City_cell_1_4_3 35,800New York City_cell_1_4_4 70.82New York City_cell_1_4_5 183.42New York City_cell_1_4_6 36,147New York City_cell_1_4_7 13,957New York City_cell_1_4_8
ManhattanNew York City_cell_1_5_0 New YorkNew York City_cell_1_5_1 1,628,706New York City_cell_1_5_2 600.244New York City_cell_1_5_3 368,500New York City_cell_1_5_4 22.83New York City_cell_1_5_5 59.13New York City_cell_1_5_6 71,341New York City_cell_1_5_7 27,544New York City_cell_1_5_8
QueensNew York City_cell_1_6_0 QueensNew York City_cell_1_6_1 2,253,858New York City_cell_1_6_2 93.310New York City_cell_1_6_3 41,400New York City_cell_1_6_4 108.53New York City_cell_1_6_5 281.09New York City_cell_1_6_6 20,767New York City_cell_1_6_7 8,018New York City_cell_1_6_8
Staten IslandNew York City_cell_1_7_0 RichmondNew York City_cell_1_7_1 476,143New York City_cell_1_7_2 14.514New York City_cell_1_7_3 30,500New York City_cell_1_7_4 58.37New York City_cell_1_7_5 151.18New York City_cell_1_7_6 8,157New York City_cell_1_7_7 3,150New York City_cell_1_7_8
City of New YorkNew York City_cell_1_8_0 8,336,817New York City_cell_1_8_2 842.343New York City_cell_1_8_3 101,000New York City_cell_1_8_4 302.64New York City_cell_1_8_5 783.83New York City_cell_1_8_6 27,547New York City_cell_1_8_7 10,636New York City_cell_1_8_8
State of New YorkNew York City_cell_1_9_0 19,453,561New York City_cell_1_9_2 1,731.910New York City_cell_1_9_3 89,000New York City_cell_1_9_4 47,126.40New York City_cell_1_9_5 122,056.82New York City_cell_1_9_6 412New York City_cell_1_9_7 159New York City_cell_1_9_8
Sources: and see individual borough articlesNew York City_cell_1_10_0

New York City is sometimes referred to collectively as the Five Boroughs. New York City_sentence_180

There are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods throughout the boroughs, many with a definable history and character. New York City_sentence_181

If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States (Staten Island would be ranked 37th as of 2020); these same boroughs are coterminous with the four most densely populated counties in the United States: New York (Manhattan), Kings (Brooklyn), Bronx, and Queens. New York City_sentence_182

Manhattan New York City_section_11

Manhattan (New York County) is the geographically smallest and most densely populated borough, is home to Central Park and most of the city's skyscrapers, and is sometimes locally known as The City. New York City_sentence_183

Manhattan's population density of 72,033 people per square mile (27,812/km) in 2015 makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual American city. New York City_sentence_184

Manhattan is the cultural, administrative, and financial center of New York City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporations, the United Nations Headquarters, Wall Street, and a number of important universities. New York City_sentence_185

Manhattan is often described as the financial and cultural center of the world. New York City_sentence_186

Most of the borough is situated on Manhattan Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River. New York City_sentence_187

Several small islands also compose part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. New York City_sentence_188

Manhattan Island is loosely divided into the Lower, Midtown, and Uptown regions. New York City_sentence_189

Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, and above the park is Harlem. New York City_sentence_190

Harlem was predominantly occupied by Jewish and Italian Americans in the 19th century until the Great Migration. New York City_sentence_191

It was the center of the Harlem Renaissance. New York City_sentence_192

The borough of Manhattan also includes a small neighborhood on the mainland, called Marble Hill, which is contiguous with the Bronx. New York City_sentence_193

New York City's remaining four boroughs are collectively referred to as the Outer Boroughs. New York City_sentence_194

Brooklyn New York City_section_12

Brooklyn (Kings County), on the western tip of Long Island, is the city's most populous borough. New York City_sentence_195

Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social, and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods, and a distinctive architectural heritage. New York City_sentence_196

Downtown Brooklyn is the largest central core neighborhood in the Outer Boroughs. New York City_sentence_197

The borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the U.S. Marine Park and Prospect Park are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. New York City_sentence_198

Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, and of postmodern art and design. New York City_sentence_199

Queens New York City_section_13

Queens (Queens County), on Long Island north and east of Brooklyn, is geographically the largest borough, the most ethnically diverse county in the United States, and the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. New York City_sentence_200

Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, the borough has since developed both commercial and residential prominence. New York City_sentence_201

Downtown Flushing has become one of the busiest central core neighborhoods in the outer boroughs. New York City_sentence_202

Queens is the site of Citi Field, the baseball stadium of the New York Mets, and hosts the annual U.S. Open tennis tournament at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park. New York City_sentence_203

Additionally, two of the three busiest airports serving the New York metropolitan area, John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, are located in Queens. New York City_sentence_204

The third is Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey. New York City_sentence_205

The Bronx New York City_section_14

The Bronx (Bronx County) is New York City's northernmost borough and the only New York City borough that lies mainly on the mainland United States. New York City_sentence_206

It is the location of Yankee Stadium, the baseball park of the New York Yankees, and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City. New York City_sentence_207

It is also home to the Bronx Zoo, the world's largest metropolitan zoo, which spans 265 acres (1.07 km) and houses more than 6,000 animals. New York City_sentence_208

The Bronx is also the birthplace of hip hop music and culture. New York City_sentence_209

Pelham Bay Park is the largest park in New York City, at 2,772 acres (1,122 ha). New York City_sentence_210

Staten Island New York City_section_15

Staten Island (Richmond County) is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs. New York City_sentence_211

Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, and to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry, a daily commuter ferry which provides unobstructed views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and Lower Manhattan. New York City_sentence_212

In central Staten Island, the Staten Island Greenbelt spans approximately 2,500 acres (10 km), including 28 miles (45 km) of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city. New York City_sentence_213

Designated in 1984 to protect the island's natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks. New York City_sentence_214

New York City_unordered_list_0

  • New York City_item_0_0
  • New York City_item_0_1
  • New York City_item_0_2

Architecture New York City_section_16

Further information: Architecture of New York City; List of buildings, sites, and monuments in New York City; List of tallest buildings in New York City; and List of hotels in New York City New York City_sentence_215

New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods, from the Dutch Colonial Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to 1656, to the modern One World Trade Center, the skyscraper at Ground Zero in Lower Manhattan and the most expensive office tower in the world by construction cost. New York City_sentence_216

Manhattan's skyline, with its many skyscrapers, is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. New York City_sentence_217

As of 2019, New York City had 6,455 high-rise buildings, the third most in world after Hong Kong and Seoul. New York City_sentence_218

Of these, as of 2011, 550 completed structures were at least 330 feet (100 m) high, the second most in the world after Hong Kong, with more than fifty completed skyscrapers taller than 656 feet (200 m). New York City_sentence_219

These include the Woolworth Building, an early example of Gothic Revival architecture in skyscraper design, built with massively scaled Gothic detailing; completed in 1913, for 17 years it was the world's tallest building. New York City_sentence_220

The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setbacks in new buildings and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. New York City_sentence_221

The Art Deco style of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. New York City_sentence_222

The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco style. New York City_sentence_223

A highly influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its façade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building's structure. New York City_sentence_224

The Condé Nast Building (2000) is a prominent example of green design in American skyscrapers and has received an award from the American Institute of Architects and AIA New York State for its design. New York City_sentence_225

The character of New York's large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses and townhouses and shabby tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930. New York City_sentence_226

In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. New York City_sentence_227

In neighborhoods such as Riverdale (in the Bronx), Ditmas Park (in Brooklyn), and Douglaston (in Queens), large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian. New York City_sentence_228

Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835. New York City_sentence_229

A distinctive feature of many of the city's buildings is the roof-mounted wooden water tower. New York City_sentence_230

In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes. New York City_sentence_231

Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, such as Jackson Heights. New York City_sentence_232

According to the United States Geological Survey, an updated analysis of seismic hazard in July 2014 revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in New York City than previously assessed. New York City_sentence_233

Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near the city, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city. New York City_sentence_234

Climate New York City_section_17

Main article: Climate of New York City New York City_sentence_235

Under the Köppen climate classification, using the 0 °C (32 °F) isotherm, New York City features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization. New York City_sentence_236

The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climates (Dfa). New York City_sentence_237

By the Trewartha classification, the city is defined as having an oceanic climate (Do). New York City_sentence_238

Annually, the city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine. New York City_sentence_239

The city lies in the USDA 7b plant hardiness zone. New York City_sentence_240

Winters are chilly and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow sea breezes offshore temper the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachian Mountains keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. New York City_sentence_241

The daily mean temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 32.6 °F (0.3 °C). New York City_sentence_242

Temperatures usually drop to 10 °F (−12 °C) several times per winter, yet can also reach 60 °F (16 °C) for several days even in the coldest winter month. New York City_sentence_243

Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from cool to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. New York City_sentence_244

Summers are typically hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of 76.5 °F (24.7 °C) in July. New York City_sentence_245

Nighttime temperatures are often enhanced due to the urban heat island effect. New York City_sentence_246

Daytime temperatures exceed 90 °F (32 °C) on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed 100 °F (38 °C), although this is a rare achievement, last occurring on July 23, 2011. New York City_sentence_247

Similarly, readings of 0 °F (−18 °C) are also extremely rare, last occurring on February 14, 2016. New York City_sentence_248

Extreme temperatures have ranged from −15 °F (−26 °C), recorded on February 9, 1934, up to 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936; the coldest recorded wind chill was −37 °F (−38 °C) on the same day as the all-time record low. New York City_sentence_249

The record cold daily maximum was 2 °F (−17 °C) on December 30, 1917, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum was 84 °F (29 °C), last recorded on July 22, 2011. New York City_sentence_250

The average water temperature of the nearby Atlantic Ocean ranges from 39.7 °F (4.3 °C) in February to 74.1 °F (23.4 °C) in August. New York City_sentence_251

The city receives 49.9 inches (1,270 mm) of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. New York City_sentence_252

Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been 25.8 inches (66 cm); this varies considerably between years. New York City_sentence_253

Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York area. New York City_sentence_254

Hurricane Sandy brought a destructive storm surge to New York City on the evening of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels, and subway lines in Lower Manhattan and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburbs. New York City_sentence_255

The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the city and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future. New York City_sentence_256

The coldest month on record is January 1857, with a mean temperature of 19.6 °F (−6.9 °C) whereas the warmest months on record are July 1825 and July 1999, both with a mean temperature of 81.4 °F (27.4 °C). New York City_sentence_257

The warmest year on record is 2012, with a mean temperature of 57.4 °F (14.1 °C). New York City_sentence_258

The coldest year is 1836, with a mean temperature of 47.3 °F (8.5 °C). New York City_sentence_259

The driest month on record is June 1949, with 0.02 inches (0.51 mm) of rainfall. New York City_sentence_260

The wettest month was August 2011, with 18.95 inches (481 mm) of rainfall. New York City_sentence_261

The driest year on record is 1965, with 26.09 inches (663 mm) of rainfall. New York City_sentence_262

The wettest year was 1983, with 80.56 inches (2,046 mm) of rainfall. New York City_sentence_263

The snowiest month on record is February 2010, with 36.9 inches (94 cm) of snowfall. New York City_sentence_264

The snowiest season (Jul–Jun) on record is 1995–1996, with 75.6 inches (192 cm) of snowfall. New York City_sentence_265

The least snowy season was 1972–1973, with 2.3 inches (5.8 cm) of snowfall. New York City_sentence_266

The earliest seasonal trace of snowfall occurred on October 10, in both 1979 and 1925. New York City_sentence_267

The latest seasonal trace of snowfall occurred on May 9, in both 2020 and 1977. New York City_sentence_268

New York City_table_general_2

Climate data for New YorkNew York City_header_cell_2_0_0
MonthNew York City_header_cell_2_1_0 JanNew York City_header_cell_2_1_1 FebNew York City_header_cell_2_1_2 MarNew York City_header_cell_2_1_3 AprNew York City_header_cell_2_1_4 MayNew York City_header_cell_2_1_5 JunNew York City_header_cell_2_1_6 JulNew York City_header_cell_2_1_7 AugNew York City_header_cell_2_1_8 SepNew York City_header_cell_2_1_9 OctNew York City_header_cell_2_1_10 NovNew York City_header_cell_2_1_11 DecNew York City_header_cell_2_1_12 YearNew York City_header_cell_2_1_13
Average sea temperature °F (°C)New York City_header_cell_2_2_0 41.7

(5.4)New York City_cell_2_2_1


(4.3)New York City_cell_2_2_2


(4.5)New York City_cell_2_2_3


(7.3)New York City_cell_2_2_4


(11.4)New York City_cell_2_2_5


(18.1)New York City_cell_2_2_6


(22.3)New York City_cell_2_2_7


(23.4)New York City_cell_2_2_8


(21.2)New York City_cell_2_2_9


(17.3)New York City_cell_2_2_10


(12.4)New York City_cell_2_2_11


(8.4)New York City_cell_2_2_12


(13.0)New York City_cell_2_2_13

Source: Weather AtlasNew York City_header_cell_2_3_0

See or edit . New York City_sentence_269

Parks New York City_section_18

The City of New York has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the National Park Service, the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, and the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. New York City_sentence_270

In its 2018 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that the park system in New York City was the ninth-best park system among the fifty most populous U.S. cities. New York City_sentence_271

ParkScore ranks urban park systems by a formula that analyzes median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents. New York City_sentence_272

National parks New York City_section_19

Main article: National Park Service New York City_sentence_273

Gateway National Recreation Area contains over 26,000 acres (110 km) in total, most of it surrounded by New York City, including the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge. New York City_sentence_274

In Brooklyn and Queens, the park contains over 9,000 acres (36 km) of salt marsh, wetlands, islands, and water, including most of Jamaica Bay. New York City_sentence_275

Also in Queens, the park includes a significant portion of the western Rockaway Peninsula, most notably Jacob Riis Park and Fort Tilden. New York City_sentence_276

In Staten Island, Gateway National Recreation Area includes Fort Wadsworth, with historic pre-Civil War era Battery Weed and Fort Tompkins, and Great Kills Park, with beaches, trails, and a marina. New York City_sentence_277

The Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island Immigration Museum are managed by the National Park Service and are in both the states of New York and New Jersey. New York City_sentence_278

They are joined in the harbor by Governors Island National Monument, in New York. New York City_sentence_279

Historic sites under federal management on Manhattan Island include Castle Clinton National Monument; Federal Hall National Memorial; Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site; General Grant National Memorial ("Grant's Tomb"); African Burial Ground National Monument; and Hamilton Grange National Memorial. New York City_sentence_280

Hundreds of private properties are listed on the National Register of Historic Places or as a National Historic Landmark such as, for example, the Stonewall Inn, part of the Stonewall National Monument in Greenwich Village, as the catalyst of the modern gay rights movement. New York City_sentence_281

State parks New York City_section_20

Main article: New York State Parks New York City_sentence_282

There are seven state parks within the confines of New York City, including Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve, a natural area that includes extensive riding trails, and Riverbank State Park, a 28-acre (11 ha) facility that rises 69 feet (21 m) over the Hudson River. New York City_sentence_283

City parks New York City_section_21

See also: Parks and recreation in New York City New York City_sentence_284

New York City has over 28,000 acres (110 km) of municipal parkland and 14 miles (23 km) of public beaches. New York City_sentence_285

The largest municipal park in the city is Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx, with 2,772 acres (1,122 ha). New York City_sentence_286

New York City_unordered_list_1

Military installations New York City_section_22

Brooklyn is home to Fort Hamilton, the U.S. New York City_sentence_287

military's only active duty installation within New York City, aside from Coast Guard operations. New York City_sentence_288

The facility was established in 1825 on the site of a small battery utilized during the American Revolution, and it is one of America's longest serving military forts. New York City_sentence_289

Today Fort Hamilton serves as the headquarters of the North Atlantic Division of the United States Army Corps of Engineers and for the New York City Recruiting Battalion. New York City_sentence_290

It also houses the 1179th Transportation Brigade, the 722nd Aeromedical Staging Squadron, and a military entrance processing station. New York City_sentence_291

Other formerly active military reservations still utilized for National Guard and military training or reserve operations in the city include Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island and Fort Totten in Queens. New York City_sentence_292

Demographics New York City_section_23

Main articles: Demographics of New York City, New York City ethnic enclaves, and New York City_sentence_293

New York City_table_general_3

City compared to State & U.S.New York City_header_cell_3_0_0
2010 CensusNew York City_cell_3_1_0 NY CityNew York City_cell_3_1_1 NY StateNew York City_cell_3_1_2 U.S.New York City_cell_3_1_3
Total populationNew York City_cell_3_2_0 8,175,133New York City_cell_3_2_1 19,378,102New York City_cell_3_2_2 308,745,538New York City_cell_3_2_3
Population change, 2000 to 2010New York City_cell_3_3_0 +2.1%New York City_cell_3_3_1 +2.1%New York City_cell_3_3_2 +9.7%New York City_cell_3_3_3
Population density (people/sqmi)New York City_cell_3_4_0 27,012.5New York City_cell_3_4_1 411.2New York City_cell_3_4_2 87.4New York City_cell_3_4_3
Median household income (2015)New York City_cell_3_5_0 $53,373New York City_cell_3_5_1 $59,269New York City_cell_3_5_2 $53,889New York City_cell_3_5_3
Bachelor's degree or higherNew York City_cell_3_6_0 35.7%New York City_cell_3_6_1 34.2%New York City_cell_3_6_2 29.8%New York City_cell_3_6_3
Foreign bornNew York City_cell_3_7_0 37.2%New York City_cell_3_7_1 22.5%New York City_cell_3_7_2 13.2%New York City_cell_3_7_3
White (non-Hispanic)New York City_cell_3_8_0 33.3%New York City_cell_3_8_1 65.7%New York City_cell_3_8_2 72.4%New York City_cell_3_8_3
BlackNew York City_cell_3_9_0 25.5%New York City_cell_3_9_1 15.9%New York City_cell_3_9_2 12.6%New York City_cell_3_9_3
Hispanic (any race)New York City_cell_3_10_0 28.6%New York City_cell_3_10_1 17.6%New York City_cell_3_10_2 16.3%New York City_cell_3_10_3
AsianNew York City_cell_3_11_0 12.7%New York City_cell_3_11_1 7.3%New York City_cell_3_11_2 4.8%New York City_cell_3_11_3

New York City_table_general_4

Racial compositionNew York City_header_cell_4_0_0 2010New York City_header_cell_4_0_1 1990New York City_header_cell_4_0_2 1970New York City_header_cell_4_0_3 1940New York City_header_cell_4_0_4
WhiteNew York City_cell_4_1_0 44.0%New York City_cell_4_1_1 52.3%New York City_cell_4_1_2 76.6%New York City_cell_4_1_3 93.6%New York City_cell_4_1_4
Non-HispanicNew York City_cell_4_2_0 33.3%New York City_cell_4_2_1 43.2%New York City_cell_4_2_2 62.9%New York City_cell_4_2_3 92.0%New York City_cell_4_2_4
Black or African AmericanNew York City_cell_4_3_0 25.5%New York City_cell_4_3_1 28.7%New York City_cell_4_3_2 21.1%New York City_cell_4_3_3 6.1%New York City_cell_4_3_4
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)New York City_cell_4_4_0 28.6%New York City_cell_4_4_1 24.4%New York City_cell_4_4_2 16.2%New York City_cell_4_4_3 1.6%New York City_cell_4_4_4
AsianNew York City_cell_4_5_0 12.7%New York City_cell_4_5_1 7.0%New York City_cell_4_5_2 1.2%New York City_cell_4_5_3 New York City_cell_4_5_4

New York City is the most populous city in the United States, with an estimated 8,336,817 residents as of July 2019, incorporating more immigration into the city than outmigration since the 2010 United States Census. New York City_sentence_294

More than twice as many people live in New York City as compared to Los Angeles, the second-most populous U.S. city, and within a smaller area. New York City_sentence_295

New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2014 (316,000) than any other U.S. city. New York City_sentence_296

New York City's population is about 43% of New York State's population, and about 36% of the population of the New York metropolitan area. New York City_sentence_297

Population density New York City_section_24

In 2017, the city had an estimated population density of 28,491 inhabitants per square mile (11,000/km), rendering it the nation's most densely populated of all municipalities (of more than 100,000), with several small cities (of fewer than 100,000) in adjacent Hudson County, New Jersey having greater density, as per the 2010 census. New York City_sentence_298

Geographically co-extensive with New York County, the borough of Manhattan's 2017 population density of 72,918 inhabitants per square mile (28,154/km) makes it the highest of any county in the United States and higher than the density of any individual American city. New York City_sentence_299

Race and ethnicity New York City_section_25

Further information: :Category:Ethnic groups in New York City, Bangladeshis in New York City, Caribbeans in New York City, Chinese in New York City, Filipinos in New York City, Fuzhounese in New York City, Indians in New York City, Irish in New York City, Italians in New York City, Japanese in New York City, Koreans in New York City, Puerto Ricans in New York City, Russians in New York City, and Ukrainians in New York City New York City_sentence_300

The city's population in 2010 was 44% white (33.3% non-Hispanic white), 25.5% Black or African American (23% non-Hispanic black), 0.7% Native American or Alaska Native, and 12.7% Asian. New York City_sentence_301

Hispanics or Latinos of any race represented 28.6% of the population, while Asians constituted the fastest-growing segment of the city's population between 2000 and 2010; the non-Hispanic white population declined three percent, the smallest recorded decline in decades; and for the first time since the U.S. Civil War, the number of black people declined over a decade. New York City_sentence_302

Throughout its history, New York has been a major port of entry for immigrants into the United States. New York City_sentence_303

More than 12 million European immigrants were received at Ellis Island between 1892 and 1924. New York City_sentence_304

The term "melting pot" was first coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side. New York City_sentence_305

By 1900, Germans constituted the largest immigrant group, followed by the Irish, Jews, and Italians. New York City_sentence_306

In 1940, whites represented 92% of the city's population. New York City_sentence_307

Approximately 37% of the city's population is foreign born, and more than half of all children are born to mothers who are immigrants as of 2013. New York City_sentence_308

In New York, no single country or region of origin dominates. New York City_sentence_309

The ten largest sources of foreign-born individuals in the city as of 2011 were the Dominican Republic, China, Mexico, Guyana, Jamaica, Ecuador, Haiti, India, Russia, and Trinidad and Tobago, while the Bangladeshi-born immigrant population has become one of the fastest growing in the city, counting over 74,000 by 2011. New York City_sentence_310

Asian Americans in New York City, according to the 2010 census, number more than one million, greater than the combined totals of San Francisco and Los Angeles. New York City_sentence_311

New York contains the highest total Asian population of any U.S. city proper. New York City_sentence_312

The New York City borough of Queens is home to the state's largest Asian American population and the largest Andean (Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, and Bolivian) populations in the United States, and is also the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world. New York City_sentence_313

The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State; multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown, in Brooklyn, and around Flushing, Queens, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves—while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County on Long Island, as the New York metropolitan region and New York State have become the top destinations for new Chinese immigrants, respectively, and large-scale Chinese immigration continues into New York City and surrounding areas, with the largest metropolitan Chinese diaspora outside Asia, including an estimated 812,410 individuals in 2015. New York City_sentence_314

In 2012, 6.3% of New York City was of Chinese ethnicity, with nearly three-fourths living in either Queens or Brooklyn, geographically on Long Island. New York City_sentence_315

A community numbering 20,000 Korean-Chinese (Chaoxianzu or Joseonjok) is centered in Flushing, Queens, while New York City is also home to the largest Tibetan population outside China, India, and Nepal, also centered in Queens. New York City_sentence_316

Koreans made up 1.2% of the city's population, and Japanese 0.3%. New York City_sentence_317

Filipinos were the largest Southeast Asian ethnic group at 0.8%, followed by Vietnamese, who made up 0.2% of New York City's population in 2010. New York City_sentence_318

Indians are the largest South Asian group, comprising 2.4% of the city's population, with Bangladeshis and Pakistanis at 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. New York City_sentence_319

Queens is the preferred borough of settlement for Asian Indians, Koreans, Filipinos and Malaysians, and other Southeast Asians; while Brooklyn is receiving large numbers of both West Indian and Asian Indian immigrants. New York City_sentence_320

New York City has the largest European and non-Hispanic white population of any American city. New York City_sentence_321

At 2.7 million in 2012, New York's non-Hispanic white population is larger than the non-Hispanic white populations of Los Angeles (1.1 million), Chicago (865,000), and Houston (550,000) combined. New York City_sentence_322

The non-Hispanic white population was 6.6 million in 1940. New York City_sentence_323

The non-Hispanic white population has begun to increase since 2010. New York City_sentence_324

The European diaspora residing in the city is very diverse. New York City_sentence_325

According to 2012 Census estimates, there were roughly 560,000 Italian Americans, 385,000 Irish Americans, 253,000 German Americans, 223,000 Russian Americans, 201,000 Polish Americans, and 137,000 English Americans. New York City_sentence_326

Additionally, Greek and French Americans numbered 65,000 each, with those of Hungarian descent estimated at 60,000 people. New York City_sentence_327

Ukrainian and Scottish Americans numbered 55,000 and 35,000, respectively. New York City_sentence_328

People identifying ancestry from Spain numbered 30,838 total in 2010. New York City_sentence_329

People of Norwegian and Swedish descent both stood at about 20,000 each, while people of Czech, Lithuanian, Portuguese, Scotch-Irish, and Welsh descent all numbered between 12,000 and 14,000. New York City_sentence_330

Arab Americans number over 160,000 in New York City, with the highest concentration in Brooklyn. New York City_sentence_331

Central Asians, primarily Uzbek Americans, are a rapidly growing segment of the city's non-Hispanic white population, enumerating over 30,000, and including more than half of all Central Asian immigrants to the United States, most settling in Queens or Brooklyn. New York City_sentence_332

Albanian Americans are most highly concentrated in the Bronx. New York City_sentence_333

The wider New York City metropolitan statistical area, with more than twenty million people, about fifty percent more than second-place Los Angeles, is also ethnically diverse, with the largest foreign-born population of any metropolitan region in the world. New York City_sentence_334

The New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States, substantially exceeding the combined totals of Los Angeles and Miami. New York City_sentence_335

It is home to the largest Jewish and Israeli communities outside Israel, with the Jewish population in the region numbering over 1.5 million in 2012 and including many diverse Jewish sects, predominantly from around the Middle East and Eastern Europe, and including a rapidly growing Orthodox Jewish population, the largest outside Israel. New York City_sentence_336

The metropolitan area is also home to 20% of the nation's Indian Americans and at least 20 Little India enclaves, and 15% of all Korean Americans and four Koreatowns; the largest Asian Indian population in the Western Hemisphere; the largest Russian American, Italian American, and African American populations; the largest Dominican American, Puerto Rican American, and South American and second-largest overall Hispanic population in the United States, numbering 4.8 million; and includes multiple established Chinatowns within New York City alone. New York City_sentence_337

Ecuador, Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Brazil were the top source countries from South America for legal immigrants to the New York City region in 2013; the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean; Egypt, Ghana, and Nigeria from Africa; and El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala in Central America. New York City_sentence_338

Amidst a resurgence of Puerto Rican migration to New York City, this population had increased to approximately 1.3 million in the metropolitan area as of 2013. New York City_sentence_339

Since 2010, a Little Australia has emerged and is growing rapidly representing the Australasian presence in Nolita, Manhattan. New York City_sentence_340

In 2011, there were an estimated 20,000 Australian residents of New York City, nearly quadruple the 5,537 in 2005. New York City_sentence_341

Qantas Airways of Australia and Air New Zealand have been exploring the possibilities of long-haul flights from New York to Sydney and Auckland, respectively, which would both rank among the longest non-stop flights in the world. New York City_sentence_342

A Little Sri Lanka has developed in the Tompkinsville neighborhood of Staten Island. New York City_sentence_343

Sexual orientation and gender identity New York City_section_26

Main articles: LGBT culture in New York City and List of LGBTQ people from New York City New York City_sentence_344

Further information: Stonewall riots, New York City Drag March, New York City LGBT Pride March, Queens Pride Parade, and Same-sex marriage in New York New York City_sentence_345

The New York metropolitan area is home to a prominent self-identifying gay and bisexual community estimated at nearly 570,000 individuals, the largest in the United States and one of the world's largest. New York City_sentence_346

Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, 2011 and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter. New York City_sentence_347

Charles Kaiser, author of The Gay Metropolis: The Landmark History of Gay Life in America, wrote that in the era after World War II, "New York City became the literal gay metropolis for hundreds of thousands of immigrants from within and without the United States: the place they chose to learn how to live openly, honestly and without shame." New York City_sentence_348

The annual New York City Pride March (or gay pride parade) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue and ends at Greenwich Village in Lower Manhattan; the parade rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June. New York City_sentence_349

The annual Queens Pride Parade is held in Jackson Heights and is accompanied by the ensuing Multicultural Parade. New York City_sentence_350

Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019 was the largest international Pride celebration in history, produced by Heritage of Pride and enhanced through a partnership with the I ❤ NY program's LGBT division, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall uprising, with 150,000 participants and five million spectators attending in Manhattan alone. New York City_sentence_351

New York City is also home to the largest transgender population in the world, estimated at more than 50,000 in 2018, concentrated in Manhattan and Queens; however, until the June 1969 Stonewall riots, this community had felt marginalized and neglected by the gay community. New York City_sentence_352

Brooklyn Liberation March, the largest transgender-rights demonstration in LGBTQ history, took place on June 14, 2020 stretching from Grand Army Plaza to Fort Greene, Brooklyn, focused on supporting Black transgender lives, drawing an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 participants. New York City_sentence_353

Religion New York City_section_27

The New York area is the 14th-most religious metropolis in the United States. New York City_sentence_354

Largely a result of Western European missionary work and colonialism, Christianity is the largest religion as of 2014. New York City_sentence_355

Roman Catholicism is the largest Christian denomination (33%), followed by Protestantism (23%), and other Christians (3%). New York City_sentence_356

The Roman Catholic population are primarily served by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York. New York City_sentence_357

Eastern Catholics are divided into numerous jurisdictions throughout the city. New York City_sentence_358

Evangelical Protestantism is the largest branch of Protestantism in the city (9%), followed by Mainline Protestantism (8%), while the converse is usually true for other cities and metropolitan areas. New York City_sentence_359

In Evangelicalism, Baptists are the largest group; in Mainline Protestantism, Reformed Protestants are the largest. New York City_sentence_360

The majority of historically African American churches are affiliated with the National Baptist Convention (USA) and Progressive National Baptist Convention. New York City_sentence_361

The Church of God in Christ is one of the largest predominantly-black Pentecostal denominations in the area. New York City_sentence_362

Less than 1% of the population was Mormon. New York City_sentence_363

The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America and other Orthodox Christians (mainstream and independent) were the largest Eastern Christian groups. New York City_sentence_364

The American Orthodox Catholic Church (initially led by Aftimios Ofiesh) was founded in New York City in 1927. New York City_sentence_365

Judaism, with approximately 1.1 million adherents, more than half of whom live in Brooklyn, is the second largest religion. New York City_sentence_366

The ethnoreligious population makes up 18.4% of the city and its religious demographic makes up 8%. New York City_sentence_367

The first recorded Jewish settler was Jacob Barsimson, who arrived in August 1654 on a passport from the Dutch West India Company. New York City_sentence_368

Following the assassination of Alexander II of Russia, for which many blamed "the Jews", the 36 years beginning in 1881 experienced the largest wave of Jewish immigration to the United States. New York City_sentence_369

In 2012, the largest Jewish denominations were Orthodox, Haredi, and Conservative Judaism. New York City_sentence_370

Reform Jewish communities are prevalent through the area. New York City_sentence_371

Congregation Emanu-El of New York in Manhattan is the largest Reform synagogue in the world. New York City_sentence_372

Islam ranks the third largest religion in New York City, with estimates ranging between 600,000 and 1,000,000 observers, including 10% of the city's public school children. New York City_sentence_373

Powers Street Mosque in Brooklyn is one of the oldest continuously operating mosques in the U.S., and the first Islamic organization in the city and state. New York City_sentence_374

These three largest groups are followed by Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Zoroastrianism, and a variety of other religions, as well as atheism. New York City_sentence_375

In 2014, 24% of New Yorkers self-identified with no organized religious affiliation; a little over 3% of New Yorkers were atheist. New York City_sentence_376

Wealth and income disparity New York City_section_28

New York City has a high degree of income disparity, as indicated by its Gini coefficient of 0.55 as of 2017. New York City_sentence_377

(This is not unusual, as all large cities have greater income disparities than the nation overall.) New York City_sentence_378

In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in New York County (Manhattan) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States. New York City_sentence_379

As of 2017, New York City was home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world at 103, including former Mayor Michael Bloomberg. New York City_sentence_380

New York also had the highest density of millionaires per capita among major U.S. cities in 2014, at 4.6% of residents. New York City_sentence_381

New York City is one of the relatively few American cities levying an income tax (about 3%) on its residents. New York City_sentence_382

As of 2018, there were 78,676 homeless people in New York City. New York City_sentence_383

Economy New York City_section_29

Main article: Economy of New York City New York City_sentence_384

New York City is a global hub of business and commerce, as a center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media, traditional media, advertising, legal services, accountancy, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States; while Silicon Alley, metonymous for New York's broad-spectrum high technology sphere, continues to expand. New York City_sentence_385

The Port of New York and New Jersey is also a major economic engine, handling record cargo volume in 2017, over 6.7 million TEUs. New York City_sentence_386

New York City's unemployment rate fell to its record low of 4.0% in September 2018. New York City_sentence_387

Many Fortune 500 corporations are headquartered in New York City, as are a large number of multinational corporations. New York City_sentence_388

One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company. New York City_sentence_389

New York City has been ranked first among cities across the globe in attracting capital, business, and tourists. New York City_sentence_390

New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry is metonymously reflected as "Madison Avenue". New York City_sentence_391

The city's fashion industry provides approximately 180,000 employees with $11 billion in annual wages. New York City_sentence_392

Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. New York City_sentence_393

Manufacturing accounts for a significant but declining share of employment. New York City_sentence_394

The city's apparel and garment industry, historically centered on the Garment District in Manhattan, peaked in 1950, when more than 323,000 workers were employed in the industry in New York. New York City_sentence_395

In 2015, fewer than 23,000 New York City residents were employed in the manufacture of garments, accessories, and finished textiles, although efforts to revive the industry were underway. New York City_sentence_396

Food processing is a $5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents. New York City_sentence_397

Chocolate is New York City's leading specialty-food export, with up to $234 million worth of exports each year. New York City_sentence_398

Entrepreneurs were forming a "Chocolate District" in Brooklyn as of 2014, while Godiva, one of the world's largest chocolatiers, continues to be headquartered in Manhattan. New York City_sentence_399

Wall Street New York City_section_30

Main article: Wall Street New York City_sentence_400

New York City's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. New York City_sentence_401

financial industry, metonymously known as Wall Street. New York City_sentence_402

The city's securities industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine, accounting in 2012 for 5.0 percent of the city's private sector jobs, 8.5 percent ($3.8 billion) of its tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of $360,700. New York City_sentence_403

Many large financial companies are headquartered in New York City, and the city is also home to a burgeoning number of financial startup companies. New York City_sentence_404

Lower Manhattan is home to the New York Stock Exchange, on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, at 165 Broadway, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization of their listed companies in 2013. New York City_sentence_405

Investment banking fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance functions earned as much as $324,000 annually. New York City_sentence_406

In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry generated 19% of New York State's tax revenue. New York City_sentence_407

New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity and debt capital markets, driven in part by the size and financial development of the U.S. New York City_sentence_408

economy. New York City_sentence_409

New York also leads in hedge fund management; private equity; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions. New York City_sentence_410

Several investment banks and investment managers headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers. New York City_sentence_411

New York is also the principal commercial banking center of the United States. New York City_sentence_412

Many of the world's largest media conglomerates are also based in the city. New York City_sentence_413

Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m) of office space in 2018, making it the largest office market in the United States, while Midtown Manhattan, with 400 million square feet (37.2 million m) in 2018, is the largest central business district in the world. New York City_sentence_414

Tech and biotech New York City_section_31

Further information: Tech:NYC, Tech companies in New York City, Biotech companies in New York City, and Silicon Alley New York City_sentence_415

Silicon Alley, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high technology industries involving the Internet, new media, telecommunications, digital media, software development, game design, financial technology ("FinTech"), and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem and venture capital investments. New York City_sentence_416

In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over $7.3 billion in venture capital investment across a broad spectrum of high technology enterprises, most based in Manhattan, with others in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region. New York City_sentence_417

High technology startup companies and employment are growing in New York City and the region, bolstered by the city's position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines, New York's intellectual capital, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity. New York City_sentence_418

Verizon Communications, headquartered at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a $3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications upgrade throughout New York City. New York City_sentence_419

As of 2014, New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector. New York City_sentence_420

The technology sector has been claiming a greater share of New York City's economy since 2010. New York City_sentence_421

Tech:NYC, founded in 2016, is a non-profit organization which represents New York City's technology industry with government, civic institutions, in business, and in the media, and whose primary goals are to further augment New York's substantial tech talent base and to advocate for policies that will nurture tech companies to grow in the city. New York City_sentence_422

The biotechnology sector is also growing in New York City, based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. New York City_sentence_423

On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology to build a $2 billion graduate school of applied sciences called Cornell Tech on Roosevelt Island with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital. New York City_sentence_424

By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than $30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company, Pfizer, and Johnson & Johnson, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than 700,000 square feet (65,000 m) on East 29th Street and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. New York City_sentence_425

The New York City Economic Development Corporation's Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene, General Electric Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of $100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences and biotechnology. New York City_sentence_426

Real estate New York City_section_32

Real estate is a major force in the city's economy, as the total value of all New York City property was assessed at $1.072 trillion for the 2017 fiscal year, an increase of 10.6% from the previous year, with 89% of the increase coming from market effects. New York City_sentence_427

The Time Warner Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at $1.1 billion in 2006. New York City_sentence_428

New York City is home to some of the nation's—and the world's—most valuable real estate. New York City_sentence_429

450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007 for $510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,104/m), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,887/m) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue. New York City_sentence_430

In 2014, Manhattan was home to six of the top ten ZIP codes in the United States by median housing price. New York City_sentence_431

Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan commands the highest retail rents in the world, at $3,000 per square foot ($32,000/m) in 2017. New York City_sentence_432

In 2019, the most expensive home sale ever in the United States achieved completion in Manhattan, at a selling price of $238 million, for a 24,000 square feet (2,200 m) penthouse apartment overlooking Central Park. New York City_sentence_433

Rental housing New York City_section_33

In June 2019, sweeping reforms to NYC rental properties were made. New York City_sentence_434

In January 2020, the New York State Department of State issued clarifying guidelines to the reforms that provided for the elimination of decades of broker fees, which have been unique to the NYC housing market in the United States. New York City_sentence_435

Tourism New York City_section_34

Main article: Tourism in New York City New York City_sentence_436

Tourism is a vital industry for New York City, which has witnessed a growing combined volume of international and domestic tourists, receiving an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately 62.8 million visitors in 2017. New York City_sentence_437

Tourism had generated an all-time high $61.3 billion in overall economic impact for New York City in 2014, pending 2015 statistics. New York City_sentence_438

Approximately 12 million visitors to New York City were from outside the United States, with the highest numbers from the United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil, and China. New York City_sentence_439

I Love New York (stylized I ❤ NY) is both a logo and a song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and have been used since 1977 to promote tourism in New York City, and later to promote New York State as well. New York City_sentence_440

The trademarked logo, owned by New York State Empire State Development, appears in souvenir shops and brochures throughout the city and state, some licensed, many not. New York City_sentence_441

The song is the state song of New York. New York City_sentence_442

Major tourist destinations include Times Square; Broadway theater productions; the Empire State Building; the Statue of Liberty; Ellis Island; the United Nations Headquarters; museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art; greenspaces such as Central Park and Washington Square Park; Rockefeller Center; the Manhattan Chinatown; luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues; and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village; the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade; the lighting of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree; the St. New York City_sentence_443

Patrick's Day parade; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival; and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. New York City_sentence_444

Major attractions in the boroughs outside Manhattan include Flushing Meadows-Corona Park and the Unisphere in Queens; the Bronx Zoo; Coney Island, Brooklyn; and the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx. New York City_sentence_445

The New York Wheel, a 630-foot ferris wheel, was under construction at the northern shore of Staten Island in 2015, overlooking the Statue of Liberty, New York Harbor, and the Lower Manhattan skyline. New York City_sentence_446

Manhattan was on track to have an estimated 90,000 hotel rooms at the end of 2014, a 10% increase from 2013. New York City_sentence_447

In October 2014, the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York for $1.95 billion, making it the world's most expensive hotel ever sold. New York City_sentence_448

Media and entertainment New York City_section_35

Main article: Media in New York City New York City_sentence_449

Further information: New Yorkers in journalism New York City_sentence_450

New York is a prominent location for the American entertainment industry, with many films, television series, books, and other media being set there. New York City_sentence_451

As of 2012, New York City was the second largest center for filmmaking and television production in the United States, producing about 200 feature films annually, employing 130,000 individuals. New York City_sentence_452

The filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly $9 billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015. New York City_sentence_453

By volume, New York is the world leader in independent film production—one-third of all American independent films are produced there. New York City_sentence_454

The Association of Independent Commercial Producers is also based in New York. New York City_sentence_455

In the first five months of 2014 alone, location filming for television pilots in New York City exceeded the record production levels for all of 2013, with New York surpassing Los Angeles as the top North American city for the same distinction during the 2013–2014 cycle. New York City_sentence_456

New York City is also a center for the advertising, music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America. New York City_sentence_457

Some of the city's media conglomerates and institutions include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the Associated Press, Bloomberg L.P., the News Corporation, The New York Times Company, NBCUniversal, the Hearst Corporation, AOL, and Viacom. New York City_sentence_458

Seven of the world's top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York. New York City_sentence_459

Two of the top three record labels' headquarters are in New York: Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group. New York City_sentence_460

Universal Music Group also has offices in New York. New York City_sentence_461

New media enterprises are contributing an increasingly important component to the city's central role in the media sphere. New York City_sentence_462

More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city, and the publishing industry employs about 25,000 people. New York City_sentence_463

Two of the three national daily newspapers with the largest circulations in the United States are published in New York: The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, which has won the most Pulitzer Prizes for journalism. New York City_sentence_464

Major tabloid newspapers in the city include The New York Daily News, which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson, and The New York Post, founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton. New York City_sentence_465

The city also has a comprehensive ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages. New York City_sentence_466

El Diario La Prensa is New York's largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation. New York City_sentence_467

The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African American newspaper. New York City_sentence_468

The Village Voice, historically the largest alternative newspaper in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture. New York City_sentence_469

The television and radio industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city's economy. New York City_sentence_470

The three major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: ABC, CBS, and NBC. New York City_sentence_471

Many cable networks are based in the city as well, including MTV, Fox News, HBO, Showtime, Bravo, Food Network, AMC, and Comedy Central. New York City_sentence_472

News 12 Networks operated News 12 The Bronx and News 12 Brooklyn. New York City_sentence_473

The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYC Media, that has produced several original Emmy Award-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government. New York City_sentence_474

WBAI, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist radio stations operating in the United States. New York City_sentence_475

New York is also a major center for non-commercial educational media. New York City_sentence_476

The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971. New York City_sentence_477

WNET is the city's major public television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television programming. New York City_sentence_478

WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States. New York City_sentence_479

Education and scholarly activity New York City_section_36

Main article: Education in New York City New York City_sentence_480

Primary and secondary education New York City_section_37

The New York City Public Schools system, managed by the New York City Department of Education, is the largest public school system in the United States, serving about 1.1 million students in more than 1,700 separate primary and secondary schools. New York City_sentence_481

The city's public school system includes nine specialized high schools to serve academically and artistically gifted students. New York City_sentence_482

The city government pays the Pelham Public Schools to educate a very small, detached section of the Bronx. New York City_sentence_483

The New York City Charter School Center assists the setup of new charter schools. New York City_sentence_484

There are approximately 900 additional privately run secular and religious schools in the city. New York City_sentence_485

Higher education and research New York City_section_38

More than 600,000 students are enrolled in New York City's more than 120 higher education institutions, the highest number of any city in the world, with more than half a million in the City University of New York (CUNY) system alone as of 2020, including both degree and professional programs. New York City_sentence_486

According to Academic Ranking of World Universities, New York City has, on average, the best higher education institutions of any global city. New York City_sentence_487

New York City is home to such notable private universities as Barnard College, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Fordham University, New York University, New York Institute of Technology, Rockefeller University, and Yeshiva University; several of these universities are ranked among the top universities in the world. New York City_sentence_488

The public CUNY system is one of the largest universities in the nation, comprising 24 institutions across all five boroughs: senior colleges, community colleges, and other graduate/professional schools. New York City_sentence_489

The public State University of New York (SUNY) system includes campuses in New York City, including: Downstate Health Sciences University, Fashion Institute of Technology, Maritime College, and the College of Optometry. New York City_sentence_490

The city also hosts other smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as: St. John's University, The Juilliard School, Manhattan College, The College of Mount Saint Vincent, Parsons School of Design, The New School, Pratt Institute, New York Film Academy, The School of Visual Arts, The King's College, and Wagner College. New York City_sentence_491

Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences. New York City_sentence_492

New York City has the most postgraduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, with 127 Nobel laureates having roots in local institutions as of 2005; while in 2012, 43,523 licensed physicians were practicing in New York City. New York City_sentence_493

Major biomedical research institutions include Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and Weill Cornell Medical College, being joined by the Cornell University/Technion-Israel Institute of Technology venture on Roosevelt Island. New York City_sentence_494

The graduates of SUNY Maritime College in the Bronx earned the highest average annual salary of any university graduates in the United States, $144,000 as of 2017. New York City_sentence_495

Human resources New York City_section_39

Public health New York City_section_40

Main articles: New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation and New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene New York City_sentence_496

The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) operates the public hospitals and clinics in New York City. New York City_sentence_497

A public benefit corporation with $6.7 billion in annual revenues, HHC is the largest municipal healthcare system in the United States serving 1.4 million patients, including more than 475,000 uninsured city residents. New York City_sentence_498

HHC was created in 1969 by the New York State Legislature as a public benefit corporation (Chapter 1016 of the Laws 1969). New York City_sentence_499

HHC operates 11 acute care hospitals, five nursing homes, six diagnostic and treatment centers, and more than 70 community-based primary care sites, serving primarily the poor and working class. New York City_sentence_500

HHC's MetroPlus Health Plan is one of the New York area's largest providers of government-sponsored health insurance and is the plan of choice for nearly half million New Yorkers. New York City_sentence_501

HHC's facilities annually provide millions of New Yorkers services interpreted in more than 190 languages. New York City_sentence_502

The most well-known hospital in the HHC system is Bellevue Hospital, the oldest public hospital in the United States. New York City_sentence_503

Bellevue is the designated hospital for treatment of the President of the United States and other world leaders if they become sick or injured while in New York City. New York City_sentence_504

The president of HHC is Ramanathan Raju, MD, a surgeon and former CEO of the Cook County health system in Illinois. New York City_sentence_505

In August 2017, Mayor Bill de Blasio signed legislation outlawing pharmacies from selling cigarettes once their existing licenses to do so expired, beginning in 2018. New York City_sentence_506

Public safety New York City_section_41

Police and law enforcement New York City_section_42

Main articles: New York City Police Department and Law enforcement in New York City New York City_sentence_507

Further information: Police surveillance in New York City and Crime in New York City New York City_sentence_508

The New York Police Department (NYPD) has been the largest police force in the United States by a significant margin, with more than 35,000 sworn officers. New York City_sentence_509

Members of the NYPD are frequently referred to by politicians, the media, and their own police cars by the nickname, New York's Finest. New York City_sentence_510

Crime has continued an overall downward trend in New York City since the 1990s. New York City_sentence_511

In 2012, the NYPD came under scrutiny for its use of a stop-and-frisk program, which has undergone several policy revisions since then. New York City_sentence_512

In 2014, New York City had the third lowest murder rate among the largest U.S. cities, having become significantly safer after a spike in crime in the 1970s through 1990s. New York City_sentence_513

Violent crime in New York City decreased more than 75% from 1993 to 2005, and continued decreasing during periods when the nation as a whole saw increases. New York City_sentence_514

By 2002, New York City was ranked 197th in crime among the 216 U.S. cities with populations greater than 100,000. New York City_sentence_515

In 1992, the city recorded 2,245 murders. New York City_sentence_516

In 2005, the homicide rate was at its lowest level since 1966, and in 2009, the city recorded fewer than 461 homicides for the first time ever since crime statistics were first published in 1963. New York City_sentence_517

In 2017, 60.1% of violent crime suspects were black, 29.6% Hispanic, 6.5% white, 3.6% Asian and 0.2% American Indian. New York City_sentence_518

New York City experienced 292 homicides in 2017, New York City_sentence_519

Sociologists and criminologists have not reached consensus on the explanation for the dramatic decrease in the city's crime rate. New York City_sentence_520

Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the NYPD, including its use of CompStat and the broken windows theory. New York City_sentence_521

Others cite the end of the crack epidemic and demographic changes, including from immigration. New York City_sentence_522

Another theory is that widespread exposure to lead pollution from automobile exhaust, which can lower intelligence and increase aggression levels, incited the initial crime wave in the mid-20th century, most acutely affecting heavily trafficked cities like New York. New York City_sentence_523

A strong correlation was found demonstrating that violent crime rates in New York and other big cities began to fall after lead was removed from American gasoline in the 1970s. New York City_sentence_524

Another theory cited to explain New York City's falling homicide rate is the inverse correlation between the number of murders and the increasingly wet climate in the city. New York City_sentence_525

Organized crime has long been associated with New York City, beginning with the Forty Thieves and the Roach Guards in the Five Points in the 1820s. New York City_sentence_526

The 20th century saw a rise in the Mafia, dominated by the Five Families, as well as in gangs, including the Black Spades. New York City_sentence_527

The Mafia and gang presence has declined in the city in the 21st century. New York City_sentence_528

Firefighting New York City_section_43

Main article: New York City Fire Department New York City_sentence_529

The Fire Department of New York (FDNY), provides fire protection, technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services for the five boroughs of New York City. New York City_sentence_530

The FDNY is the largest municipal fire department in the United States and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department. New York City_sentence_531

The FDNY employs approximately 11,080 uniformed firefighters and more than 3,300 uniformed EMTs and paramedics. New York City_sentence_532

The FDNY's motto is New York's Bravest. New York City_sentence_533

The fire department faces multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. New York City_sentence_534

In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures, the FDNY also responds to fires that occur in the New York City Subway. New York City_sentence_535

Secluded bridges and tunnels, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires, also present challenges. New York City_sentence_536

The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn, and the FDNY Fire Academy is located on Randalls Island. New York City_sentence_537

There are three Bureau of Fire Communications alarm offices which receive and dispatch alarms to appropriate units. New York City_sentence_538

One office, at 11 Metrotech Center in Brooklyn, houses Manhattan/Citywide, Brooklyn, and Staten Island Fire Communications; the Bronx and Queens offices are in separate buildings. New York City_sentence_539

Public library system New York City_section_44

The New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the United States, serves Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island. New York City_sentence_540

Queens is served by the Queens Borough Public Library, the nation's second largest public library system, while the Brooklyn Public Library serves Brooklyn. New York City_sentence_541

Culture and contemporary life New York City_section_45

Further information: Culture of New York City, List of nightclubs in New York City, and List of people from New York City New York City_sentence_542

New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by New York's Baruch College. New York City_sentence_543

A book containing a series of essays titled New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965 has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia. New York City_sentence_544

In describing New York, author Tom Wolfe said, "Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather." New York City_sentence_545

Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance, which established the African-American literary canon in the United States. New York City_sentence_546

The city became the center of stand-up comedy in the early 20th century, jazz in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s, and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s. New York City_sentence_547

The city's punk and hardcore scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s. New York City_sentence_548

New York has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature. New York City_sentence_549

The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism (also known as the New York School) in painting; and hip hop, punk, salsa, freestyle, Tin Pan Alley, certain forms of jazz, and (along with Philadelphia) disco in music. New York City_sentence_550

New York City has been considered the dance capital of the world. New York City_sentence_551

The city is also frequently the setting for novels, movies (see List of films set in New York City), and television programs. New York City_sentence_552

New York Fashion Week is one of the world's preeminent fashion events and is afforded extensive coverage by the media. New York City_sentence_553

New York has also frequently been ranked the top fashion capital of the world on the annual list compiled by the Global Language Monitor. New York City_sentence_554

Pace New York City_section_46

One of the most common traits attributed to New York City is its fast pace, which spawned the term . New York City_sentence_555

Journalist Walt Whitman characterized New York's streets as being traversed by "hurrying, feverish, electric crowds". New York City_sentence_556

Arts New York City_section_47

New York City has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries. New York City_sentence_557

The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts. New York City_sentence_558

Wealthy business magnates in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as Carnegie Hall and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, which have become internationally renowned. New York City_sentence_559

The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the 1880s, New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical. New York City_sentence_560

Strongly influenced by the city's immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart, George M. Cohan, and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. New York City_sentence_561

New York City itself is the subject or background of many plays and musicals. New York City_sentence_562

Performing arts New York City_section_48

Main articles: Broadway theatre and Music of New York City New York City_sentence_563

Broadway theatre is one of the premier forms of English-language theatre in the world, named after Broadway, the major thoroughfare that crosses Times Square, also sometimes referred to as "The Great White Way". New York City_sentence_564

Forty-one venues in Midtown Manhattan's Theatre District, each with at least 500 seats, are classified as Broadway theatres. New York City_sentence_565

According to The Broadway League, Broadway shows sold approximately $1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from $1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. New York City_sentence_566

Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million. New York City_sentence_567

Performance artists displaying diverse skills are ubiquitous on the streets of Manhattan. New York City_sentence_568

Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, anchoring Lincoln Square on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is home to numerous influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera, New York City Opera, New York Philharmonic, and New York City Ballet, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater, the Juilliard School, Jazz at Lincoln Center, and Alice Tully Hall. New York City_sentence_569

The Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute is in Union Square, and Tisch School of the Arts is based at New York University, while Central Park SummerStage presents free music concerts in Central Park. New York City_sentence_570

Visual arts New York City_section_49

Main article: List of museums and cultural institutions in New York City New York City_sentence_571

New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites. New York City_sentence_572

Museum Mile is the name for a section of Fifth Avenue running from 82nd to 105th streets on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, in an area sometimes called Upper Carnegie Hill. New York City_sentence_573

The Mile, which contains one of the densest displays of culture in the world, is actually three blocks longer than one mile (1.6 km). New York City_sentence_574

Ten museums occupy the length of this section of Fifth Avenue. New York City_sentence_575

The tenth museum, the Museum for African Art, joined the ensemble in 2009, although its museum at 110th Street, the first new museum constructed on the Mile since the Guggenheim in 1959, opened in late 2012. New York City_sentence_576

In addition to other programming, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation. New York City_sentence_577

Many of the world's most lucrative art auctions are held in New York City. New York City_sentence_578

Cuisine New York City_section_50

Main articles: Cuisine of New York City and List of restaurants in New York City New York City_sentence_579

New York City's food culture includes an array of international cuisines influenced by the city's immigrant history. New York City_sentence_580

Central and Eastern European immigrants, especially Jewish immigrants from those regions, brought bagels, cheesecake, hot dogs, knishes, and delicatessens (or delis) to the city. New York City_sentence_581

Italian immigrants brought New York-style pizza and Italian cuisine into the city, while Jewish immigrants and Irish immigrants brought pastrami and corned beef, respectively. New York City_sentence_582

Chinese and other Asian restaurants, sandwich joints, trattorias, diners, and coffeehouses are ubiquitous throughout the city. New York City_sentence_583

Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafel and kebabs examples of modern New York street food. New York City_sentence_584

The city is home to "nearly one thousand of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine restaurants in the world", according to Michelin. New York City_sentence_585

The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene assigns letter grades to the city's restaurants based upon their inspection results. New York City_sentence_586

As of 2019, there were 27,043 restaurants in the city, up from 24,865 in 2017. New York City_sentence_587

The Queens Night Market in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park attracts more than ten thousand people nightly to sample food from more than 85 countries. New York City_sentence_588

Parades New York City_section_51

New York City is well known for its street parades, which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. New York City_sentence_589

The majority of parades are held in Manhattan. New York City_sentence_590

The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. New York City_sentence_591

The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade is the world's largest parade, beginning alongside Central Park and processing southward to the flagship Macy's Herald Square store; the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person. New York City_sentence_592

Other notable parades including the annual St. New York City_sentence_593 Patrick's Day Parade in March, the LGBT Pride March in June, the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. New York City_sentence_594

Ticker-tape parades celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Canyon of Heroes on Broadway from Bowling Green to City Hall Park in Lower Manhattan. New York City_sentence_595

Accent and dialect New York City_section_52

Main articles: New York City English and New York accent New York City_sentence_596

The New York area is home to a distinctive regional speech pattern called the New York dialect, alternatively known as Brooklynese or New Yorkese. New York City_sentence_597

It has generally been considered one of the most recognizable accents within American English. New York City_sentence_598

The traditional New York area accent is characterized as non-rhotic, so that the sound [ɹ] does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant; therefore the pronunciation of the city name as "New Yawk." New York City_sentence_599

There is no [ɹ] in words like park [pɑək] or [pɒək] (with vowel backed and diphthongized due to the low-back chain shift), butter [bʌɾə], or here [hiə]. New York City_sentence_600

In another feature called the low back chain shift, the [ɔ] vowel sound of words like talk, law, cross, chocolate, and coffee and the often homophonous [ɔr] in core and more are tensed and usually raised more than in General American English. New York City_sentence_601

In the most old-fashioned and extreme versions of the New York dialect, the vowel sounds of words like "girl" and of words like "oil" became a diphthong [ɜɪ]. New York City_sentence_602

This is often misperceived by speakers of other accents as a reversal of the er and oy sounds, so that girl is pronounced "goil" and oil is pronounced "erl"; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like "Joizey" (Jersey), "Toidy-Toid Street" (33rd St.) and "terlet" (toilet). New York City_sentence_603

The character Archie Bunker from the 1970s television sitcom All in the Family was an example of having used this pattern of speech. New York City_sentence_604

The classic version of the New York City dialect is generally centered on middle and working-class New Yorkers. New York City_sentence_605

The influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect, and the traditional form of this speech pattern is no longer as prevalent among general New Yorkers as it has been in the past. New York City_sentence_606

Sports New York City_section_53

Main article: Sports in the New York metropolitan area New York City_sentence_607

New York City is home to the headquarters of the National Football League, Major League Baseball, the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League, and Major League Soccer. New York City_sentence_608

The New York metropolitan area hosts the most sports teams in the four major North American professional sports leagues with nine, one more than Los Angeles, and has 11 top-level professional sports teams if Major League Soccer is included, also one more than Los Angeles. New York City_sentence_609

Participation in professional sports in the city predates all professional leagues, and the city has been continuously hosting professional sports since the birth of the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1882. New York City_sentence_610

The city has played host to more than forty major professional teams in the five sports and their respective competing league. New York City_sentence_611

Four of the ten most expensive stadiums ever built worldwide (MetLife Stadium, the new Yankee Stadium, Madison Square Garden, and Citi Field) are located in the New York metropolitan area. New York City_sentence_612

Madison Square Garden, its predecessor, the original Yankee Stadium and Ebbets Field, are sporting venues located in New York City, the latter two having been commemorated on U.S. New York City_sentence_613 postage stamps. New York City_sentence_614

New York was the first of eight American cities to have won titles in all four major leagues (MLB, NHL, NFL and NBA), having done so following the Knicks' 1970 title. New York City_sentence_615

In 1972, it became the first city to win titles in five sports when the Cosmos won the NASL final. New York City_sentence_616

New York has been described as the "Capital of Baseball". New York City_sentence_617

There have been 35 Major League Baseball World Series and 73 pennants won by New York teams. New York City_sentence_618

It is one of only five metro areas (Los Angeles, Chicago, Baltimore–Washington, and the San Francisco Bay Area being the others) to have two baseball teams. New York City_sentence_619

Additionally, there have been 14 World Series in which two New York City teams played each other, known as a Subway Series and occurring most recently in 2000. New York City_sentence_620

No other metropolitan area has had this happen more than once (Chicago in 1906, St. Louis in 1944, and the San Francisco Bay Area in 1989). New York City_sentence_621

The city's two Major League Baseball teams are the New York Mets, who play at Citi Field in Queens, and the New York Yankees, who play at Yankee Stadium in the Bronx. New York City_sentence_622

These teams compete in six games of interleague play every regular season that has also come to be called the Subway Series. New York City_sentence_623

The Yankees have won a record 27 championships, while the Mets have won the World Series twice. New York City_sentence_624

The city also was once home to the Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles Dodgers), who won the World Series once, and the New York Giants (now the San Francisco Giants), who won the World Series five times. New York City_sentence_625

Both teams moved to California in 1958. New York City_sentence_626

There are also two Minor League Baseball teams in the city, the Brooklyn Cyclones and Staten Island Yankees. New York City_sentence_627

The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Giants and the New York Jets, although both teams play their home games at MetLife Stadium in nearby East Rutherford, New Jersey, which hosted Super Bowl XLVIII in 2014. New York City_sentence_628

The metropolitan area is home to three National Hockey League teams. New York City_sentence_629

The New York Rangers, the traditional representative of the city itself and one of the league's Original Six, play at Madison Square Garden in Manhattan. New York City_sentence_630

The New York Islanders, traditionally representing Nassau and Suffolk Counties of Long Island, play at Barclays Center in Brooklyn and are planning a return to Nassau County by way of a new arena just outside the border with Queens at Belmont Park. New York City_sentence_631

The New Jersey Devils play at Prudential Center in nearby Newark, New Jersey and traditionally represent the counties of neighboring New Jersey which are coextensive with the boundaries of the New York metropolitan area and media market. New York City_sentence_632

The city's National Basketball Association teams are the Brooklyn Nets, which played in and were named for New Jersey until 2012, and the New York Knicks, while the New York Liberty is the city's Women's National Basketball Association team. New York City_sentence_633

The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. New York City_sentence_634

The city is well known for its links to basketball, which is played in nearly every park in the city by local youth, many of whom have gone on to play for major college programs and in the NBA. New York City_sentence_635

In soccer, New York City is represented by New York City FC of Major League Soccer, who play their home games at Yankee Stadium and the New York Red Bulls, who play their home games at Red Bull Arena in nearby Harrison, New Jersey. New York City_sentence_636

Historically, the city is known for the New York Cosmos, the highly successful former professional soccer team which was the American home of Pelé. New York City_sentence_637

A new version of the New York Cosmos was formed in 2010, and began play in the second division North American Soccer League in 2013. New York City_sentence_638

The Cosmos play their home games at James M. Shuart Stadium on the campus of Hofstra University, just outside the New York City limits in Hempstead, New York. New York City_sentence_639

The annual United States Open Tennis Championships is one of the world's four Grand Slam tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens. New York City_sentence_640

The New York City Marathon, which courses through all five boroughs, is the world's largest running marathon, with 51,394 finishers in 2016 and 98,247 applicants for the 2017 race. New York City_sentence_641

The Millrose Games is an annual track and field meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile. New York City_sentence_642

Boxing is also a prominent part of the city's sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year. New York City_sentence_643

The city is also considered the host of the Belmont Stakes, the last, longest and oldest of horse racing's Triple Crown races, held just over the city's border at Belmont Park on the first or second Sunday of June. New York City_sentence_644

The city also hosted the 1932 U.S. Open golf tournament and the 1930 and 1939 PGA Championships, and has been host city for both events several times, most notably for nearby Winged Foot Golf Club. New York City_sentence_645

The Gaelic games are played in Riverdale, Bronx at Gaelic Park, home to the New York GAA, the only North American team to compete at the senior inter-county level. New York City_sentence_646

Transportation New York City_section_54

Main article: Transportation in New York City New York City_sentence_647

New York City's comprehensive transportation system is both complex and extensive. New York City_sentence_648

Rapid transit New York City_section_55

Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, accounts for one in every three users of mass transit in the United States, and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in the New York City Metropolitan Area. New York City_sentence_649

Rail New York City_section_56

The iconic New York City Subway system is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with 472, and by length of routes. New York City_sentence_650

Nearly all of New York's subway system is open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong, London, Paris, Seoul, and Tokyo. New York City_sentence_651

The New York City Subway is also the busiest metropolitan rail transit system in the Western Hemisphere, with 1.76 billion passenger rides in 2015, while Grand Central Terminal, also referred to as "Grand Central Station", is the world's largest railway station by number of train platforms. New York City_sentence_652

Public transport is essential in New York City. New York City_sentence_653

54.6% of New Yorkers commuted to work in 2005 using mass transit. New York City_sentence_654

This is in contrast to the rest of the United States, where 91% of commuters travel in automobiles to their workplace. New York City_sentence_655

According to the New York City Comptroller, workers in the New York City area spend an average of 6 hours and 18 minutes getting to work each week, the longest commute time in the nation among large cities. New York City_sentence_656

New York is the only U.S. city in which a majority (52%) of households do not have a car; only 22% of Manhattanites own a car. New York City_sentence_657

Due to their high usage of mass transit, New Yorkers spend less of their household income on transportation than the national average, saving $19 billion annually on transportation compared to other urban Americans. New York City_sentence_658

New York City's commuter rail network is the largest in North America. New York City_sentence_659

The rail network, connecting New York City to its suburbs, consists of the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad, and New Jersey Transit. New York City_sentence_660

The combined systems converge at Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station and contain more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines. New York City_sentence_661

In Queens, the elevated AirTrain people mover system connects JFK International Airport to the New York City Subway and the Long Island Rail Road; a separate AirTrain system is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway to connect LaGuardia Airport to these transit systems. New York City_sentence_662

For intercity rail, New York City is served by Amtrak, whose busiest station by a significant margin is Pennsylvania Station on the West Side of Manhattan, from which Amtrak provides connections to Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. along the Northeast Corridor, and long-distance train service to other North American cities. New York City_sentence_663

The Staten Island Railway rapid transit system solely serves Staten Island, operating 24 hours a day. New York City_sentence_664

The Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH train) links Midtown and Lower Manhattan to northeastern New Jersey, primarily Hoboken, Jersey City, and Newark. New York City_sentence_665

Like the New York City Subway, the PATH operates 24 hours a day; meaning three of the six rapid transit systems in the world which operate on 24-hour schedules are wholly or partly in New York (the others are a portion of the Chicago 'L', the PATCO Speedline serving Philadelphia, and the Copenhagen Metro). New York City_sentence_666

Multibillion-dollar heavy rail transit projects under construction in New York City include the Second Avenue Subway, and the East Side Access project. New York City_sentence_667

Buses New York City_section_57

New York City's public bus fleet runs 24/7 and is the largest in North America. New York City_sentence_668

The Port Authority Bus Terminal, the main intercity bus terminal of the city, serves 7,000 buses and 200,000 commuters daily, making it the busiest bus station in the world. New York City_sentence_669

Air New York City_section_58

New York's airspace is the busiest in the United States and one of the world's busiest air transportation corridors. New York City_sentence_670

The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area include John F. Kennedy International Airport, Newark Liberty International Airport, and LaGuardia Airport; 130.5 million travelers used these three airports in 2016, and the city's airspace is the busiest in the nation. New York City_sentence_671

JFK and Newark Liberty were the busiest and fourth busiest U.S. gateways for international air passengers, respectively, in 2012; as of 2011, JFK was the busiest airport for international passengers in North America. New York City_sentence_672

Plans have advanced to expand passenger volume at a fourth airport, Stewart International Airport near Newburgh, New York, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. New York City_sentence_673

Plans were announced in July 2015 to entirely rebuild LaGuardia Airport in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities. New York City_sentence_674

Other commercial airports in or serving the New York metropolitan area include Long Island MacArthur Airport, Trenton–Mercer Airport and Westchester County Airport. New York City_sentence_675

The primary general aviation airport serving the area is Teterboro Airport. New York City_sentence_676

Ferries New York City_section_59

The Staten Island Ferry is the world's busiest ferry route, carrying more than 23 million passengers from July 2015 through June 2016 on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) route between Staten Island and Lower Manhattan and running 24 hours a day. New York City_sentence_677

Other ferry systems shuttle commuters between Manhattan and other locales within the city and the metropolitan area. New York City_sentence_678

NYC Ferry, a NYCEDC initiative with routes planned to travel to all five boroughs, was launched in 2017, with second graders choosing the names of the ferries. New York City_sentence_679

Meanwhile, Seastreak ferry announced construction of a 600-passenger high-speed luxury ferry in September 2016, to shuttle riders between the Jersey Shore and Manhattan, anticipated to start service in 2017; this would be the largest vessel in its class. New York City_sentence_680

Taxis, vehicles for hire, and trams New York City_section_60

See also: Taxicabs of New York City New York City_sentence_681

Other features of the city's transportation infrastructure encompass 13,587 yellow taxicabs; other vehicle for hire companies; and the Roosevelt Island Tramway, an aerial tramway that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan Island. New York City_sentence_682

Streets and highways New York City_section_61

Despite New York's heavy reliance on its vast public transit system, streets are a defining feature of the city. New York City_sentence_683

The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 greatly influenced the city's physical development. New York City_sentence_684

Several of the city's streets and avenues, including Broadway, Wall Street, Madison Avenue, and Seventh Avenue are also used as metonyms for national industries there: the theater, finance, advertising, and fashion organizations, respectively. New York City_sentence_685

New York City also has an extensive web of freeways and parkways, which link the city's boroughs to each other and to North Jersey, Westchester County, Long Island, and southwestern Connecticut through various bridges and tunnels. New York City_sentence_686

Because these highways serve millions of outer borough and suburban residents who commute into Manhattan, it is quite common for motorists to be stranded for hours in traffic congestion that are a daily occurrence, particularly during rush hour. New York City_sentence_687

Congestion pricing in New York City will go into effect in 2022 at the earliest. New York City_sentence_688

New York City is also known for its rules regarding turning at red lights. New York City_sentence_689

Unlike the rest of the United States, New York State prohibits right or left turns on red in cities with a population greater than one million, to reduce traffic collisions and increase pedestrian safety. New York City_sentence_690

In New York City, therefore, all turns at red lights are illegal unless a sign permitting such maneuvers is present. New York City_sentence_691

River crossings New York City_section_62

New York City is located on one of the world's largest natural harbors, and the boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island are primarily coterminous with islands of the same names, while Queens and Brooklyn are located at the west end of the larger Long Island, and the Bronx is located on New York State's mainland. New York City_sentence_692

This situation of boroughs separated by water led to the development of an extensive infrastructure of bridges and tunnels. New York City_sentence_693

The George Washington Bridge is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge, connecting Manhattan to Bergen County, New Jersey. New York City_sentence_694

The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is the longest suspension bridge in the Americas and one of the world's longest. New York City_sentence_695

The Brooklyn Bridge is an icon of the city itself. New York City_sentence_696

The towers of the Brooklyn Bridge are built of limestone, granite, and Rosendale cement, and their architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. New York City_sentence_697

This bridge was also the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and is the first steel-wire suspension bridge. New York City_sentence_698

The Queensboro Bridge is an important piece of cantilever architecture. New York City_sentence_699

The Manhattan Bridge, opened in 1909, is considered to be the forerunner of modern suspension bridges, and its design served as the model for many of the long-span suspension bridges around the world; the Manhattan Bridge, Throgs Neck Bridge, Triborough Bridge, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge are all examples of Structural Expressionism. New York City_sentence_700

Manhattan Island is linked to New York City's outer boroughs and New Jersey by several tunnels as well. New York City_sentence_701

The Lincoln Tunnel, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. New York City_sentence_702

The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ships that sailed through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan's piers. New York City_sentence_703

The Holland Tunnel, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey, was the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927. New York City_sentence_704

The Queens-Midtown Tunnel, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940. New York City_sentence_705

President Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first person to drive through it. New York City_sentence_706

The Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel (officially known as the Hugh L. Carey Tunnel) runs underneath Battery Park and connects the Financial District at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook in Brooklyn. New York City_sentence_707

Cycling network New York City_section_63

Main article: Cycling in New York City New York City_sentence_708

Cycling in New York City is associated with mixed cycling conditions that include urban density, relatively flat terrain, congested roadways with "stop-and-go" traffic, and many pedestrians. New York City_sentence_709

The city's large cycling population includes utility cyclists, such as delivery and messenger services; cycling clubs for recreational cyclists; and increasingly commuters. New York City_sentence_710

Cycling is increasingly popular in New York City; in 2017 there were approximately 450,000 daily bike trips, compared with 170,000 daily bike trips in 2005. New York City_sentence_711

As of 2017, New York City had 1,333 miles (2,145 km) of bike lanes, compared to 513 miles (826 km) of bike lanes in 2006. New York City_sentence_712

As of 2019, there are 126 miles (203 km) of segregated or "protected" bike lanes citywide. New York City_sentence_713

Environment New York City_section_64

Main article: Environmental issues in New York City New York City_sentence_714

Environmental impact reduction New York City_section_65

New York City has focused on reducing its environmental impact and carbon footprint. New York City_sentence_715

Mass transit use in New York City is the highest in the United States. New York City_sentence_716

Also, by 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid taxis and other clean diesel vehicles, representing around 28% of New York's taxi fleet in service, the most of any city in North America. New York City_sentence_717

New York City is the host of Climate Week NYC, the largest Climate Week to take place globally and regarded as major annual climate summit. New York City_sentence_718

New York's high rate of public transit use, more than 200,000 daily cyclists as of 2014, and many pedestrian commuters make it the most energy-efficient major city in the United States. New York City_sentence_719

Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city; nationally the rate for metro regions is about 8%. New York City_sentence_720

In both its 2011 and 2015 rankings, Walk Score named New York City the most walkable large city in the United States, and in 2018, Stacker ranked New York the most walkable U.S. city. New York City_sentence_721

Citibank sponsored the introduction of 10,000 public bicycles for the city's bike-share project in the summer of 2013. New York City_sentence_722

New York City's numerical "in-season cycling indicator" of bicycling in the city had hit an all-time high of 437 when measured in 2014. New York City_sentence_723

The city government was a petitioner in the landmark Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency Supreme Court case forcing the EPA to regulate greenhouse gases as pollutants. New York City_sentence_724

The city is a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings, including the Hearst Tower among others. New York City_sentence_725

Mayor Bill de Blasio has committed to an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions between 2014 and 2050 to reduce the city's contributions to climate change, beginning with a comprehensive "Green Buildings" plan. New York City_sentence_726

Water purity and availability New York City_section_66

Main articles: Food and water in New York City and New York City water supply system New York City_sentence_727

New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed. New York City_sentence_728

As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants. New York City_sentence_729

The city's municipal water system is the largest in the United States, moving over one billion gallons of water per day. New York City_sentence_730

The Croton Watershed north of the city is undergoing construction of a $3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City's water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city's current availability of water. New York City_sentence_731

The ongoing expansion of New York City Water Tunnel No. New York City_sentence_732 3, an integral part of the New York City water supply system, is the largest capital construction project in the city's history, with segments serving Manhattan and the Bronx completed, and with segments serving Brooklyn and Queens planned for construction in 2020. New York City_sentence_733

In 2018, New York City announced a $1 billion investment to protect the integrity of its water system and to maintain the purity of its unfiltered water supply. New York City_sentence_734

Air quality New York City_section_67

According to the 2016 World Health Organization Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database, the annual average concentration in New York City's air of particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5) was 7.0 micrograms per cubic meter, or 3.0 micrograms below the recommended limit of the WHO Air Quality Guidelines for the annual mean PM2.5. New York City_sentence_735

The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, in partnership with Queens College, conducts the New York Community Air Survey to measure pollutants at about 150 locations. New York City_sentence_736

Environmental revitalization New York City_section_68

Newtown Creek, a 3.5-mile (6-kilometer) a long estuary that forms part of the border between the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, has been designated a Superfund site for environmental clean-up and remediation of the waterway's recreational and economic resources for many communities. New York City_sentence_737

One of the most heavily used bodies of water in the Port of New York and New Jersey, it had been one of the most contaminated industrial sites in the country, containing years of discarded toxins, an estimated 30 million US gallons (110,000 m) of spilled oil, including the Greenpoint oil spill, raw sewage from New York City's sewer system, and other accumulation. New York City_sentence_738

Government and politics New York City_section_69

Main articles: Government of New York City and Politics of New York City New York City_sentence_739

Government New York City_section_70

New York City has been a metropolitan municipality with a mayor–council form of government since its consolidation in 1898. New York City_sentence_740

In New York City, the city government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services. New York City_sentence_741

The Mayor and council members are elected to four-year terms. New York City_sentence_742

The City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries. New York City_sentence_743

Each term for the mayor and council members lasts four years and has a three consecutive-term limit, which is reset after a four-year break. New York City_sentence_744

The New York City Administrative Code, the New York City Rules, and the City Record are the code of local laws, compilation of regulations, and official journal, respectively. New York City_sentence_745

Each borough is coextensive with a judicial district of the state Unified Court System, of which the Criminal Court and the Civil Court are the local courts, while the New York Supreme Court conducts major trials and appeals. New York City_sentence_746

Manhattan hosts the First Department of the Supreme Court, Appellate Division while Brooklyn hosts the Second Department. New York City_sentence_747

There are also several extrajudicial administrative courts, which are executive agencies and not part of the state Unified Court System. New York City_sentence_748

Uniquely among major American cities, New York is divided between, and is host to the main branches of, two different U.S. New York City_sentence_749 district courts: the District Court for the Southern District of New York, whose main courthouse is on Foley Square near City Hall in Manhattan and whose jurisdiction includes Manhattan and the Bronx; and the District Court for the Eastern District of New York, whose main courthouse is in Brooklyn and whose jurisdiction includes Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. New York City_sentence_750

The U.S. New York City_sentence_751 Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit and U.S. New York City_sentence_752 Court of International Trade are also based in New York, also on Foley Square in Manhattan. New York City_sentence_753

Politics New York City_section_71

The present mayor is Bill de Blasio, the first Democrat since 1993. New York City_sentence_754

He was elected in 2013 with over 73% of the vote, and assumed office on January 1, 2014. New York City_sentence_755

The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. New York City_sentence_756

As of April 2016, 69% of registered voters in the city are Democrats and 10% are Republicans. New York City_sentence_757

New York City has not been carried by a Republican in a statewide or presidential election since President Calvin Coolidge won the five boroughs in 1924. New York City_sentence_758

In 2012, Democrat Barack Obama became the first presidential candidate of any party to receive more than 80% of the overall vote in New York City, sweeping all five boroughs. New York City_sentence_759

Party platforms center on affordable housing, education, and economic development, and labor politics are of importance in the city. New York City_sentence_760

Thirteen out of 27 U.S. New York City_sentence_761 congressional districts in the State of New York include portions of New York City. New York City_sentence_762

New York is one of the most important sources of political fundraising in the United States. New York City_sentence_763

At least four of the top five ZIP Codes in the nation for political contributions were in Manhattan for the 2004, 2006, and 2008 elections. New York City_sentence_764

The top ZIP Code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigns of George W. Bush and John Kerry. New York City_sentence_765

The city has a strong imbalance of payments with the national and state governments. New York City_sentence_766

It receives 83 cents in services for every $1 it sends to the federal government in taxes (or annually sends $11.4 billion more than it receives back). New York City_sentence_767

City residents and businesses also sent an additional $4.1 billion in the 2009–2010 fiscal year to the state of New York than the city received in return. New York City_sentence_768

Notable people New York City_section_72

Main article: List of people from New York City New York City_sentence_769

Global outreach New York City_section_73

Main article: List of sister cities of New York City New York City_sentence_770

In 2006, the Sister City Program of the City of New York, Inc. was restructured and renamed New York City Global Partners. New York City_sentence_771

Through this program, New York City has expanded its international outreach to a network of cities worldwide, promoting the exchange of ideas and innovation between their citizenry and policymakers. New York City_sentence_772

New York's historic sister cities are denoted below by the year they joined New York City's partnership network. New York City_sentence_773

New York City_table_general_5

New York City Global Partners networkNew York City_header_cell_5_0_0

Asia (East)




Europe (Central)





North America (Canada)

(Mexico, Central America, and Caribbean)

(United States)

South AmericaNew York City_cell_5_1_0

See also New York City_section_74

New York City_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: York City.