New York Philharmonic

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New York Philharmonic_table_infobox_0

New York PhilharmonicNew York Philharmonic_header_cell_0_0_0
FoundedNew York Philharmonic_header_cell_0_1_0 1842; 178 years ago (1842)New York Philharmonic_cell_0_1_1
LocationNew York Philharmonic_header_cell_0_2_0 New York, United StatesNew York Philharmonic_cell_0_2_1
Concert hallNew York Philharmonic_header_cell_0_3_0 David Geffen Hall at Lincoln CenterNew York Philharmonic_cell_0_3_1
Principal conductorNew York Philharmonic_header_cell_0_4_0 Jaap van ZwedenNew York Philharmonic_cell_0_4_1
WebsiteNew York Philharmonic_header_cell_0_5_0 New York Philharmonic_cell_0_5_1

The New York Philharmonic, officially the Philharmonic-Symphony Society of New York, Inc., globally known as New York Philharmonic Orchestra (NYPO) or New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, is a symphony orchestra based in New York City. New York Philharmonic_sentence_0

It is one of the leading American orchestras popularly referred to as the "Big Five". New York Philharmonic_sentence_1

The Philharmonic's home is David Geffen Hall, located in New York's Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts. New York Philharmonic_sentence_2

Founded in 1842, the orchestra is one of the oldest musical institutions in the United States and the oldest of the "Big Five" orchestras. New York Philharmonic_sentence_3

Its record-setting 14,000th concert was given in December 2004. New York Philharmonic_sentence_4

History New York Philharmonic_section_0

Founding and first concert, 1842 New York Philharmonic_section_1

The New York Philharmonic was founded in 1842 by the American conductor Ureli Corelli Hill, with the aid of the Irish composer William Vincent Wallace. New York Philharmonic_sentence_5

The orchestra was then called the Philharmonic Society of New York. New York Philharmonic_sentence_6

It was the third Philharmonic on American soil since 1799, and had as its intended purpose, "the advancement of instrumental music." New York Philharmonic_sentence_7

The first concert of the Philharmonic Society took place on December 7, 1842 in the Apollo Rooms on lower Broadway before an audience of 600. New York Philharmonic_sentence_8

The concert opened with Beethoven's Symphony No. New York Philharmonic_sentence_9 5, led by Hill himself. New York Philharmonic_sentence_10

Two other conductors, German-born Henry Christian Timm and French-born Denis Etienne, led parts of the eclectic, three-hour program, which included chamber music and several operatic selections with a leading singer of the day, as was the custom. New York Philharmonic_sentence_11

The musicians operated as a cooperative society, deciding by a majority vote such issues as who would become a member, which music would be performed and who among them would conduct. New York Philharmonic_sentence_12

At the end of the season, the players would divide any proceeds among themselves. New York Philharmonic_sentence_13

Beethoven's Ninth and a new home, 1846 New York Philharmonic_section_2

After only a dozen public performances and barely four years old, the Philharmonic organized a concert to raise funds to build a new music hall. New York Philharmonic_sentence_14

The centerpiece was the American premiere of Beethoven's Symphony No. New York Philharmonic_sentence_15 9, to take place at Castle Garden on the southern tip of Manhattan. New York Philharmonic_sentence_16

About 400 instrumental and vocal performers gathered for this premiere, which was conducted by George Loder. New York Philharmonic_sentence_17

The chorals were translated into what would be the first English performance anywhere in the world. New York Philharmonic_sentence_18

However, with the expensive US$2.00 ticket price and a war rally uptown, the hoped-for audience was kept away and the new hall would have to wait. New York Philharmonic_sentence_19

Although judged by some as an odd work with all those singers kept at bay until the end, the Ninth soon became the work performed most often when a grand gesture was required. New York Philharmonic_sentence_20

During the Philharmonic's first seven seasons, seven musicians alternated the conducting duties. New York Philharmonic_sentence_21

In addition to Hill, Timm and Étienne, these were William Alpers, George Loder, Louis Wiegers and Alfred Boucher. New York Philharmonic_sentence_22

This changed in 1849 when Theodore Eisfeld was installed as sole conductor for the season. New York Philharmonic_sentence_23

Eisfeld, later along with Carl Bergmann, would be the conductor until 1865. New York Philharmonic_sentence_24

That year, Eisfeld conducted the Orchestra's memorial concert for the recently assassinated Abraham Lincoln, but in a peculiar turn of events which were criticized in the New York press, the Philharmonic omitted the last movement, "Ode to Joy", as being inappropriate for the occasion. New York Philharmonic_sentence_25

That year Eisfeld returned to Europe, and Bergmann continued to conduct the Society until his death in 1876. New York Philharmonic_sentence_26

Competition, 1878 New York Philharmonic_section_3

Leopold Damrosch, Franz Liszt's former concertmaster at Weimar, served as conductor of the Philharmonic for the 1876/77 season. New York Philharmonic_sentence_27

But failing to win support from the Philharmonic's public, he left to create the rival Symphony Society of New York in 1878. New York Philharmonic_sentence_28

Upon his death in 1885, his 23-year-old son Walter took over and continued the competition with the old Philharmonic. New York Philharmonic_sentence_29

It was Walter who would convince Andrew Carnegie that New York needed a first-class concert hall and on May 5, 1891, both Walter and Russian composer Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky conducted at the inaugural concert of the city's new Music Hall, which in a few years would be renamed for its primary benefactor, Andrew Carnegie. New York Philharmonic_sentence_30

Carnegie Hall would remain the orchestra's home until 1962. New York Philharmonic_sentence_31

Theodore Thomas New York Philharmonic_section_4

The Philharmonic in 1877 was in desperate financial condition, caused by the paltry income from five concerts in the 1876/77 season that brought in an average of only $168 per concert. New York Philharmonic_sentence_32

Representatives of the Philharmonic wished to attract the German-born, American-trained conductor Theodore Thomas, whose own Theodore Thomas Orchestra had competed directly with the Philharmonic for over a decade and which had brought him fame and great success. New York Philharmonic_sentence_33

At first the Philharmonic's suggestion offended Thomas because he was unwilling to disband his own orchestra. New York Philharmonic_sentence_34

Because of the desperate financial circumstances, the Philharmonic offered Theodore Thomas the conductorship without conditions, and he began conducting the orchestra in the autumn of 1877. New York Philharmonic_sentence_35

With the exception of the 1878/79 season – when he was in Cincinnati and Adolph Neuendorff led the group – Thomas conducted every season for fourteen years, vastly improving the orchestra's financial health while creating a polished and virtuosic ensemble. New York Philharmonic_sentence_36

He left in 1891 to found the Chicago Symphony, taking thirteen Philharmonic musicians with him. New York Philharmonic_sentence_37

Another celebrated conductor, Anton Seidl, followed Thomas on the Philharmonic podium, serving until 1898. New York Philharmonic_sentence_38

Seidl, who had served as Wagner's assistant, was a renowned conductor of the composer's works; Seidl's romantic interpretations inspired both adulation and controversy. New York Philharmonic_sentence_39

During his tenure, the Philharmonic enjoyed a period of unprecedented success and prosperity and performed its first world premiere written by a world-renowned composer in the United States – Antonín Dvořák's Ninth Symphony "From the New World". New York Philharmonic_sentence_40

Seidl's sudden death in 1898 from food poisoning at the age of 47 was widely mourned. New York Philharmonic_sentence_41

Twelve thousand people applied for tickets to his funeral at the Metropolitan Opera House at 39th Street and Broadway and the streets were jammed for blocks with a "surging mass" of his admirers. New York Philharmonic_sentence_42

According to Joseph Horowitz, Seidl's death was followed by "five unsuccessful seasons" under Emil Paur [music director from 1898 to 1902] and Walter Damrosch [who served for only one season, 1902/03]." New York Philharmonic_sentence_43

After this, he says, for several seasons [1903–1906] the orchestra employed guest conductors, including Victor Herbert, Édouard Colonne, Willem Mengelberg, Fritz Steinbach, Richard Strauss, Felix Weingartner, and Henry Wood. New York Philharmonic_sentence_44

New management, 1909 New York Philharmonic_section_5

In 1909, to ensure the financial stability of the Philharmonic, a group of wealthy New Yorkers led by two women, Mary Seney Sheldon and Minnie Untermyer, formed the Guarantors Committee and changed the Orchestra's organization from a musician-operated cooperative to a corporate management structure. New York Philharmonic_sentence_45

The Guarantors were responsible for bringing Gustav Mahler to the Philharmonic as principal conductor and expanding the season from 18 concerts to 54, which included a tour of New England. New York Philharmonic_sentence_46

The Philharmonic was the only symphonic orchestra where Mahler worked as music director without any opera responsibilities, freeing him to explore the symphonic literature more deeply. New York Philharmonic_sentence_47

In New York, he conducted several works for the first time in his career and introduced audiences to his own compositions. New York Philharmonic_sentence_48

Under Mahler, a controversial figure both as a composer and conductor, the season expanded, musicians' salaries were guaranteed, the scope of operations broadened, and the 20th-century orchestra was created. New York Philharmonic_sentence_49

In 1911 Mahler died unexpectedly, and the Philharmonic appointed Josef Stránský as his replacement. New York Philharmonic_sentence_50

Many commentators were surprised by the choice of Stránský, whom they did not see as a worthy successor to Mahler. New York Philharmonic_sentence_51

Stránský led all of the orchestra's concerts until 1920, and also made the first recordings with the orchestra in 1917. New York Philharmonic_sentence_52

Mergers and outreach, 1921 New York Philharmonic_section_6

In 1921 the Philharmonic merged with New York's National Symphony Orchestra (no relation to the present Washington, D.C. ensemble). New York Philharmonic_sentence_53

With this merger it also acquired the imposing Dutch conductor Willem Mengelberg. New York Philharmonic_sentence_54

For the 1922/23 season Stránský and Mengelberg shared the conducting duties, but Stránský left after the one shared season. New York Philharmonic_sentence_55

For nine years Mengelberg dominated the scene, although other conductors, among them Bruno Walter, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Igor Stravinsky, and Arturo Toscanini, led about half of each season's concerts. New York Philharmonic_sentence_56

During this period, the Philharmonic became one of the first American orchestras to boast an outdoor symphony series when it began playing low-priced summer concerts at Lewisohn Stadium in upper Manhattan. New York Philharmonic_sentence_57

In 1920 the orchestra hired Henry Hadley as "associate conductor" given specific responsibility for the "Americanization" of the orchestra: each of Hadley's concerts featured at least one work by an American-born composer. New York Philharmonic_sentence_58

In 1924, the Young People's Concerts were expanded into a substantial series of children's concerts under the direction of American pianist-composer-conductor Ernest Schelling. New York Philharmonic_sentence_59

This series became the prototype for concerts of its kind around the country and grew by popular demand to 15 concerts per season by the end of the decade. New York Philharmonic_sentence_60

Mengelberg and Toscanini both led the Philharmonic in recording sessions for the Victor Talking Machine Company and Brunswick Records, initially in a recording studio (for the acoustically-recorded Victors, all under Mengelberg) and eventually in Carnegie Hall as electrical recording was developed. New York Philharmonic_sentence_61

All of the early electrical recordings for Victor were made with a single microphone, usually placed near or above the conductor, a process Victor called "Orthophonic"; the Brunswick electricals used the company's proprietary non-microphone "Light-Ray" selenium-cell system, which was much more prone to sonic distortion than Victor's. New York Philharmonic_sentence_62

Mengelberg's first records for Victor were acousticals made in 1922; Toscanini's recordings with the Philharmonic actually began with a single disc for Brunswick in 1926, recorded in a rehearsal hall at Carnegie Hall. New York Philharmonic_sentence_63

Mengelberg's most successful recording with the Philharmonic was a 1927 performance in Carnegie Hall of Richard Strauss' Ein Heldenleben. New York Philharmonic_sentence_64

Additional Toscanini recordings with the Philharmonic, all for Victor, took place on Carnegie Hall's stage in 1929 and 1936. New York Philharmonic_sentence_65

By the 1936 sessions Victor, now owned by RCA, began to experiment with multiple microphones to achieve more comprehensive reproductions of the orchestra. New York Philharmonic_sentence_66

The year 1928 marked the New York Philharmonic's last and most important merger: with the New York Symphony Society. New York Philharmonic_sentence_67

The Symphony had been quite innovative in its 50 years prior to the merger. New York Philharmonic_sentence_68

It made its first domestic tour in 1882, introduced educational concerts for young people in 1891, and gave the premieres of works such as Gershwin's Concerto in F and Holst's Egdon Heath. New York Philharmonic_sentence_69

The merger of these two venerable institutions consolidated extraordinary financial and musical resources. New York Philharmonic_sentence_70

Of the new Philharmonic Symphony Society of New York, Clarence Hungerford Mackay, chairman of the Philharmonic Society, will be chairman. New York Philharmonic_sentence_71

President Harry H. Flagler, of the Symphony Society, will be president of the merger.At the first joint board meeting in 1928, the chairman, Clarence Mackay, expressed the opinion that "with the forces of the two Societies now united... the Philharmonic-Symphony Society could build up the greatest orchestra in this country if not in the world." New York Philharmonic_sentence_72

The Maestro, 1930 New York Philharmonic_section_7

The War years, 1940 New York Philharmonic_section_8

After an unsuccessful attempt to hire the German conductor, Wilhelm Furtwängler, the English conductor John Barbirolli and the Polish conductor Artur Rodziński were joint replacements for Toscanini in 1936. New York Philharmonic_sentence_73

The following year Barbirolli was given the full conductorship, a post he held until the spring of 1941. New York Philharmonic_sentence_74

In December, 1942, Bruno Walter was offered the music directorship, but declined, citing his age (he was 67 years old). New York Philharmonic_sentence_75

In 1943, Rodziński, who had conducted the orchestra's centennial concert at Carnegie Hall in the preceding year, was appointed Musical Director. New York Philharmonic_sentence_76

He had also conducted the Sunday afternoon radio broadcast when CBS listeners around the country heard the announcer break in on Arthur Rubinstein's performance of Brahms's Second Piano Concerto to update them about the attack on Pearl Harbor. New York Philharmonic_sentence_77

(The initial word of the attack was forwarded by CBS News Correspondent John Charles Daly on his own show before the Philharmonic broadcast.) New York Philharmonic_sentence_78

Soon after the United States entered World War II, Aaron Copland wrote A Lincoln Portrait for the Philharmonic at the request of conductor Andre Kostelanetz as a tribute to and expression of the "magnificent spirit of our country." New York Philharmonic_sentence_79

Artur Rodziński, Bruno Walter, and Sir Thomas Beecham made a series of recordings with the Philharmonic for Columbia Records during the 1940s. New York Philharmonic_sentence_80

Many of the sessions were held in Liederkranz Hall, on East 58th Street in New York City, a building formerly belonging to a German cultural and musical society, and used as a recording studio by Columbia Records. New York Philharmonic_sentence_81

Sony Records later digitally remastered the Beecham recordings for reissue on CD. New York Philharmonic_sentence_82

The Telegenic Age, 1950 New York Philharmonic_section_9

In February, 1947, Artur Rodziński resigned; Bruno Walter was once again approached, and this time he accepted the position but only if the title was reduced to "Music Adviser"; he resigned in 1949. New York Philharmonic_sentence_83

Leopold Stokowski and Dimitri Mitropoulos were appointed co-principal conductors in 1949, with Mitropoulos becoming Musical Director in 1951. New York Philharmonic_sentence_84

Mitropoulos, known for championing new composers and obscure operas-in-concert, pioneered in other ways; adding live Philharmonic performances between movies at the Roxy Theatre and taking Edward R. Murrow and the See It Now television audience on a behind-the-scenes tour of the Orchestra. New York Philharmonic_sentence_85

Mitropoulos made a series of recordings for Columbia Records, mostly in mono; near the end of his tenure, he recorded excerpts from Prokofiev's ballet Romeo and Juliet in stereo. New York Philharmonic_sentence_86

In 1957, Mitropoulos and Leonard Bernstein served together as Principal Conductors until, in the course of the season, Bernstein was appointed Music Director, becoming the first American-born-and-trained conductor to head the Philharmonic. New York Philharmonic_sentence_87

Leonard Bernstein, who had made his historic, unrehearsed and spectacularly successful debut with the Philharmonic in 1943, was Music Director for 11 seasons, a time of significant change and growth. New York Philharmonic_sentence_88

Two television series were initiated on CBS: the Young People's Concerts and Leonard Bernstein and the New York Philharmonic. New York Philharmonic_sentence_89

The former program, launched in 1958, made television history, winning every award in the field of educational television. New York Philharmonic_sentence_90

Bernstein continued the orchestra's recordings with Columbia Records until he retired as Music Director in 1969. New York Philharmonic_sentence_91

Although Bernstein made a few recordings for Columbia after 1969, most of his later recordings were for Deutsche Grammophon. New York Philharmonic_sentence_92

Sony has digitally remastered Bernstein's numerous Columbia recordings and released them on CD as a part of its extensive "Bernstein Century" series. New York Philharmonic_sentence_93

Although the Philharmonic performed primarily in Carnegie Hall until 1962, Bernstein preferred to record in the Manhattan Center. New York Philharmonic_sentence_94

His later recordings were made in Philharmonic Hall. New York Philharmonic_sentence_95

In 1960, the centennial of the birth of Gustav Mahler, Bernstein and the Philharmonic began a historic cycle of recordings of eight of Mahler's nine symphonies for Columbia Records. New York Philharmonic_sentence_96

(Symphony No. New York Philharmonic_sentence_97

8 was recorded by Bernstein with the London Symphony.) New York Philharmonic_sentence_98

In 1962 Bernstein caused controversy with his comments before a performance by Glenn Gould of the First Piano Concerto of Johannes Brahms. New York Philharmonic_sentence_99

Modern music, 1962 New York Philharmonic_section_10

Ambassadors abroad New York Philharmonic_section_11

A third century, 2000 New York Philharmonic_section_12

In 2000, Lorin Maazel made a guest-conducting appearance with the New York Philharmonic in two weeks of subscription concerts after an absence of over twenty years, which was met with a positive reaction from the orchestra musicians. New York Philharmonic_sentence_100

This engagement led to his appointment in January 2001 as the orchestra's next Music Director. New York Philharmonic_sentence_101

He assumed the post in September 2002, 60 years after making his debut with the Orchestra at the age of twelve at Lewisohn Stadium. New York Philharmonic_sentence_102

In his first subscription week he led the world premiere of John Adams' On the Transmigration of Souls commissioned in memory of those who died on September 11, 2001. New York Philharmonic_sentence_103

Maazel concluded his tenure as the Philharmonic's Music Director at the end of the 2008/09 season. New York Philharmonic_sentence_104

In 2003, due to ongoing concerns with the acoustics of Avery Fisher Hall, there was a proposal to move the New York Philharmonic back to Carnegie Hall and merge the two organizations, but this proposal did not come to fruition. New York Philharmonic_sentence_105

On May 5, 2010, the New York Philharmonic performed its 15,000th concert, a milestone unmatched by any other symphony orchestra in the world. New York Philharmonic_sentence_106

On July 18, 2007, the Philharmonic named Alan Gilbert as its next music director, effective with the 2009/10 season, with an initial contract of five years. New York Philharmonic_sentence_107

In October 2012, the orchestra extended Gilbert's contract through the 2016/17 season. New York Philharmonic_sentence_108

In February 2015, the orchestra announced the scheduled conclusion of Gilbert's tenure its music director after the close of the 2016/17 season. New York Philharmonic_sentence_109

In January 2016, the orchestra announced the appointment of Jaap van Zweden as its next Music Director, effective with the 2018/19 season, with an initial contract of five years. New York Philharmonic_sentence_110

van Zweden is scheduled to serve as Music Director Designate for the 2017/18 season. New York Philharmonic_sentence_111

The current president and chief executive officer (CEO) of the orchestra is Deborah Borda. New York Philharmonic_sentence_112

Borda had previously held the same posts, as well as the post of managing director, with the orchestra. New York Philharmonic_sentence_113

Visit to North Korea, 2008 New York Philharmonic_section_13

Main article: 2008 New York Philharmonic visit to North Korea New York Philharmonic_sentence_114

The Philharmonic performed in Pyongyang at the invitation of the North Korean government on February 26, 2008. New York Philharmonic_sentence_115

The event was the first significant cultural visit to the country from the United States since the end of the Korean War. New York Philharmonic_sentence_116

The concert was held at East Pyongyang Grand Theatre, with a program including the national anthems of both North Korea (Aegukka) and the United States (The Star-Spangled Banner), the Prelude to Act III of Lohengrin by Richard Wagner, Antonín Dvořák's Symphony No. New York Philharmonic_sentence_117 9 "From the New World", George Gershwin's An American in Paris, Georges Bizet's Farandole, Leonard Bernstein's Overture to Candide, and the popular Korean folk song Arirang. New York Philharmonic_sentence_118

The Dvořák, Gershwin, and Bernstein works were each originally premiered by the New York Philharmonic. New York Philharmonic_sentence_119

The visit was anticipated as an opportunity to broaden relations with one of the world's most isolated nations. New York Philharmonic_sentence_120

The U.S. State Department viewed the invitation as a potential softening of anti-U.S. propaganda. New York Philharmonic_sentence_121

In response to initial criticism of performing a concert limited to the privileged elite, the New York Philharmonic arranged for the concert to be broadcast live on North Korean television and radio. New York Philharmonic_sentence_122

It was additionally broadcast live on CNN and CNN International. New York Philharmonic_sentence_123

It was also shown on South Korea's Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation to the entire nation of the Republic of Korea (ROK). New York Philharmonic_sentence_124

Music directors New York Philharmonic_section_14

Leonard Bernstein Scholar-in-Residence New York Philharmonic_section_15

The Leonard Bernstein Scholar-in-Residence was established in 2005 in recognition of the fifteenth anniversary of Bernstein's death. New York Philharmonic_sentence_125

He/she gives an annual lecture series and is also featured in NYP events. New York Philharmonic_sentence_126

Conductor Charles Zachary Bornstein was the first Leonard Bernstein Scholar-in-Residence, serving from 2005 through 2008. New York Philharmonic_sentence_127

James M. Keller held the position during the 2008–09 season, and American baritone Thomas Hampson was appointed to the post in July 2009. New York Philharmonic_sentence_128

The current holder of the position is , Carroll and Milton Petrie Chair and Collegiate Professor of Music at New York University. New York Philharmonic_sentence_129

Composer in residence New York Philharmonic_section_16

Alan Gilbert introduced the position of a Marie-Josée Kravis composer in residence, which is a three year appointment. New York Philharmonic_sentence_130

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Honors and awards New York Philharmonic_section_17

Grammy Award for Best Classical Album New York Philharmonic_sentence_131

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Grammy Award for Best Orchestral Performance New York Philharmonic_sentence_132

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Grammy Award for Best Album for Children New York Philharmonic_sentence_133

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Grammy Award for Best Instrumental Soloist with Orchestra New York Philharmonic_sentence_134

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Grammy Award for Best Classical Vocal Performance New York Philharmonic_sentence_135

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Grammy Award for Best Choral Performance New York Philharmonic_sentence_136

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Grammy Award for Best Engineered Album, Classical New York Philharmonic_sentence_137

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Archives New York Philharmonic_section_18

The New York Philharmonic Archives documents the history of the Philharmonic through visual and ephemeral history and printed music collections. New York Philharmonic_sentence_138

The collection dates back to the beginning of the Philharmonic's history in 1842. New York Philharmonic_sentence_139

The Archives are sponsored by the Leon Levy Foundation and are located at Lincoln Center. New York Philharmonic_sentence_140

In recent years, the Archives has undertaken a digitization project to digitize all of its materials between 1943 and 1970 in a digital archive called "The International Era, 1943-1970." New York Philharmonic_sentence_141

See also New York Philharmonic_section_19

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: York Philharmonic.