The New York Times

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This article is about the newspaper. The New York Times_sentence_0

For the parent company of the newspaper, see The New York Times Company. The New York Times_sentence_1

"NYT" redirects here. The New York Times_sentence_2

For other uses, see NYT (disambiguation) and The New York Times (disambiguation). The New York Times_sentence_3

The New York Times_table_infobox_0

The New York TimesThe New York Times_table_caption_0
TypeThe New York Times_header_cell_0_0_0 Daily newspaperThe New York Times_cell_0_0_1
FormatThe New York Times_header_cell_0_1_0 BroadsheetThe New York Times_cell_0_1_1
Owner(s)The New York Times_header_cell_0_2_0 The New York Times CompanyThe New York Times_cell_0_2_1
Founder(s)The New York Times_header_cell_0_3_0 The New York Times_cell_0_3_1
PublisherThe New York Times_header_cell_0_4_0 A. G. SulzbergerThe New York Times_cell_0_4_1
Editor-in-chiefThe New York Times_header_cell_0_5_0 Dean BaquetThe New York Times_cell_0_5_1
Managing editorThe New York Times_header_cell_0_6_0 Monica DrakeThe New York Times_cell_0_6_1
Opinion editorThe New York Times_header_cell_0_7_0 Kathleen Kingsbury (acting)The New York Times_cell_0_7_1
Sports editorThe New York Times_header_cell_0_8_0 Jason StallmanThe New York Times_cell_0_8_1
Photo editorThe New York Times_header_cell_0_9_0 Michele McNallyThe New York Times_cell_0_9_1
Staff writersThe New York Times_header_cell_0_10_0 1,300 news staff (2016)The New York Times_cell_0_10_1
FoundedThe New York Times_header_cell_0_11_0 September 18, 1851; 169 years ago (1851-09-18) (as New-York Daily Times)The New York Times_cell_0_11_1
HeadquartersThe New York Times_header_cell_0_12_0 The New York Times Building, 620 Eighth Avenue

New York, New York, U.S.The New York Times_cell_0_12_1

CountryThe New York Times_header_cell_0_13_0 United StatesThe New York Times_cell_0_13_1
CirculationThe New York Times_header_cell_0_14_0 (as of May (Sunday) / November (daily) 2016 / (digital-only) August 2018)The New York Times_cell_0_14_1
ISSNThe New York Times_header_cell_0_15_0 (print)
 (web)The New York Times_cell_0_15_1
OCLC numberThe New York Times_header_cell_0_16_0 The New York Times_cell_0_16_1
WebsiteThe New York Times_header_cell_0_17_0 The New York Times_cell_0_17_1

The New York Times (NYT or NY Times) is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide influence and readership. The New York Times_sentence_4

Nicknamed "the Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record". The New York Times_sentence_5

Founded in 1851, the paper has since won 130 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other. The New York Times_sentence_6

It is ranked 18th in the world by circulation and 3rd in the U.S. The New York Times_sentence_7

The paper is owned by The New York Times Company, which is publicly traded. The New York Times_sentence_8

It has been governed by the Sulzberger family since 1896, through a dual-class share structure after its shares became publicly-traded. The New York Times_sentence_9

A. The New York Times_sentence_10 G. Sulzberger and his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr.—the paper's publisher and the company's chairman, respectively—are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to head the paper. The New York Times_sentence_11

Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has greatly expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials, sports, and features. The New York Times_sentence_12

Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York (metropolitan), Business, Sports, Arts, Science, Styles, Home, Travel, and other features. The New York Times_sentence_13

On Sundays, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review (formerly the Week in Review), The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine, and T: The New York Times Style Magazine. The New York Times_sentence_14

The Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, and was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography, especially on the front page. The New York Times_sentence_15

The paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. The New York Times_sentence_16

History The New York Times_section_0

Origins The New York Times_section_1

The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. The New York Times_sentence_17

Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was initially published by Raymond, Jones & Company. The New York Times_sentence_18

Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, and Edward B. Wesley. The New York Times_sentence_19

Sold for a penny (equivalent to 31¢ today), the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: The New York Times_sentence_20

In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. The New York Times_sentence_21

However, the effort failed once local California newspapers came into prominence. The New York Times_sentence_22

On September 14, 1857, the newspaper officially shortened its name to The New-York Times. The New York Times_sentence_23

The hyphen in the city name was dropped on December 1, 1896. The New York Times_sentence_24

On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. The New York Times_sentence_25

One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone. The New York Times_sentence_26

The main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City draft riots. The New York Times_sentence_27

The riots, sparked by the institution of a draft for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. The New York Times_sentence_28

On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, co-founder Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself. The New York Times_sentence_29

The mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities. The New York Times_sentence_30

In 1869, Henry Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. The New York Times_sentence_31

The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party — popularly known as "Tammany Hall" (from its early-19th-century meeting headquarters) — that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. The New York Times_sentence_32

Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars (equivalent to 107 million dollars in 2019) to not publish the story. The New York Times_sentence_33

In the 1880s, The New York Times gradually transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. The New York Times_sentence_34

In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland (former mayor of Buffalo and governor of New York) in his first presidential campaign. The New York Times_sentence_35

While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers (revenue declined from $188,000 to $56,000 from 1883 to 1884), the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. The New York Times_sentence_36

Ochs era The New York Times_section_2

After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million (equivalent to $28 million in 2019) to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company. The New York Times_sentence_37

However, the newspaper found itself in a financial crisis by the Panic of 1893, and by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, and was losing $1,000 a day. The New York Times_sentence_38

That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. The New York Times_sentence_39

Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print". The New York Times_sentence_40

The slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, and has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The New York Times_sentence_41

The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid, sensationalist and often inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". The New York Times_sentence_42

Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr Van Anda, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, and reputation; Sunday circulation went from under 9,000 in 1896 to 780,000 in 1934. The New York Times_sentence_43

In 1904, during the Russo-Japanese War, The New York Times, along with The Times, received the first on-the-spot wireless telegraph transmission from a naval battle: a report of the destruction of the Russian Navy's Baltic Fleet, at the Battle of Port Arthur, from the press-boat Haimun. The New York Times_sentence_44

In 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times_sentence_45

In 1919, The New York Times' first trans-Atlantic delivery to London occurred by dirigible balloon. The New York Times_sentence_46

In 1920, during the 1920 Republican National Convention, a "4 A.M. The New York Times_sentence_47

Airplane Edition" was sent to Chicago by plane, so it could be in the hands of convention delegates by evening. The New York Times_sentence_48

Post-war expansion The New York Times_section_3

Ochs died in 1935, and was succeeded as publisher by his son-in-law, Arthur Hays Sulzberger. The New York Times_sentence_49

Under his leadership, and that of his son-in-law (and successor), Orvil Dryfoos, the paper extended its breadth and reach, beginning in the 1940s. The New York Times_sentence_50

The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the fashion section first appeared in 1946. The New York Times_sentence_51

The New York Times began an international edition in 1946. The New York Times_sentence_52

(The international edition stopped publishing in 1967, when The New York Times joined the owners of the New York Herald Tribune and The Washington Post to publish the International Herald Tribune in Paris.) The New York Times_sentence_53

Dryfoos died in 1963, and was succeeded as publisher by his brother-in-law, Arthur Ochs "Punch" Sulzberger, who led the Times until 1992, and continued the expansion of the paper. The New York Times_sentence_54

New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) The New York Times_section_4

Main article: New York Times Co. v. Sullivan The New York Times_sentence_55

The paper's involvement in a 1964 libel case helped bring one of the key United States Supreme Court decisions supporting freedom of the press, New York Times Co. v. Sullivan. The New York Times_sentence_56

In it, the United States Supreme Court established the "actual malice" standard for press reports about public officials or public figures to be considered defamatory or libelous. The New York Times_sentence_57

The malice standard requires the plaintiff in a defamation or libel case to prove the publisher of the statement knew the statement was false or acted in reckless disregard of its truth or falsity. The New York Times_sentence_58

Because of the high burden of proof on the plaintiff, and difficulty in proving malicious intent, such cases by public figures rarely succeed. The New York Times_sentence_59

The Pentagon Papers (1971) The New York Times_section_5

Main article: Pentagon Papers The New York Times_sentence_60

In 1971, the Pentagon Papers, a secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in the Vietnam War from 1945 to 1967, were given ("leaked") to Neil Sheehan of The New York Times by former State Department official Daniel Ellsberg, with his friend Anthony Russo assisting in copying them. The New York Times_sentence_61

The New York Times began publishing excerpts as a series of articles on June 13. The New York Times_sentence_62

Controversy and lawsuits followed. The New York Times_sentence_63

The papers revealed, among other things, that the government had deliberately expanded its role in the war by conducting airstrikes over Laos, raids along the coast of North Vietnam, and offensive actions were taken by the U.S. The New York Times_sentence_64 Marines well before the public was told about the actions, all while President Lyndon B. Johnson had been promising not to expand the war. The New York Times_sentence_65

The document increased the credibility gap for the U.S. The New York Times_sentence_66 government, and hurt efforts by the Nixon administration to fight the ongoing war. The New York Times_sentence_67

When The New York Times began publishing its series, President Richard Nixon became incensed. The New York Times_sentence_68

His words to National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger included "People have gotta be put to the torch for this sort of thing" and "Let's get the son-of-a-bitch in jail." The New York Times_sentence_69

After failing to get The New York Times to stop publishing, Attorney General John Mitchell and President Nixon obtained a federal court injunction that The New York Times cease publication of excerpts. The New York Times_sentence_70

The newspaper appealed and the case began working through the court system. The New York Times_sentence_71

On June 18, 1971, The Washington Post began publishing its own series. The New York Times_sentence_72

Ben Bagdikian, a Post editor, had obtained portions of the papers from Ellsberg. The New York Times_sentence_73

That day the Post received a call from William Rehnquist, an assistant U.S. Attorney General for the Office of Legal Counsel, asking them to stop publishing. The New York Times_sentence_74

When the Post refused, the U.S. The New York Times_sentence_75 Justice Department sought another injunction. The New York Times_sentence_76

The U.S. The New York Times_sentence_77 District court judge refused, and the government appealed. The New York Times_sentence_78

On June 26, 1971, the U.S. Supreme Court agreed to take both cases, merging them into New York Times Co. v. United States. The New York Times_sentence_79

On June 30, 1971, the Supreme Court held in a 6–3 decision that the injunctions were unconstitutional prior restraints and that the government had not met the burden of proof required. The New York Times_sentence_80

The justices wrote nine separate opinions, disagreeing on significant substantive issues. The New York Times_sentence_81

While it was generally seen as a victory for those who claim the First Amendment enshrines an absolute right to free speech, many felt it a lukewarm victory, offering little protection for future publishers when claims of national security were at stake. The New York Times_sentence_82

Late 1970s–90s The New York Times_section_6

In the 1970s, the paper introduced a number of new lifestyle sections including Weekend and Home, with the aim of attracting more advertisers and readers. The New York Times_sentence_83

Many criticized the move for betraying the paper's mission. The New York Times_sentence_84

On September 7, 1976, the paper switched from an eight-column format to a six-column format. The New York Times_sentence_85

The overall page width stayed the same, with each column becoming wider. The New York Times_sentence_86

On September 14, 1987, the Times printed the heaviest ever newspaper, at over 12 pounds (5.4 kg) and 1,612 pages. The New York Times_sentence_87

In 1992, "Punch" Sulzberger stepped down as publisher; his son, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr., succeeded him, first as publisher, and then as Chairman of the Board in 1997. The New York Times_sentence_88

The Times was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography, with the first color photograph on the front page appearing on October 16, 1997. The New York Times_sentence_89

Digital era The New York Times_section_7

Early digital content The New York Times_section_8

The New York Times switched to a digital production process sometime before 1980, but only began preserving the resulting digital text that year. The New York Times_sentence_90

In 1983, the Times sold the electronic rights to its articles to LexisNexis. The New York Times_sentence_91

As the online distribution of news increased in the 1990s, the Times decided not to renew the deal and in 1994 the newspaper regained electronic rights to its articles. The New York Times_sentence_92

On January 22, 1996, began publishing. The New York Times_sentence_93

2000s The New York Times_section_9

In September 2008, The New York Times announced that it would be combining certain sections effective October 6, 2008, in editions printed in the New York metropolitan area. The New York Times_sentence_94

The changes folded the Metro Section into the main International / National news section and combined Sports and Business (except Saturday through Monday, while Sports continues to be printed as a standalone section). The New York Times_sentence_95

This change also included having the name of the Metro section called New York outside of the Tri-State Area. The New York Times_sentence_96

The presses used by The New York Times can allow four sections to be printed simultaneously; as the paper includes more than four sections on all days with the exception of Saturday, the sections were required to be printed separately in an early press run and collated together. The New York Times_sentence_97

The changes allowed The New York Times to print in four sections Monday through Wednesday, in addition to Saturday. The New York Times_sentence_98

The New York Times' announcement stated that the number of news pages and employee positions would remain unchanged, with the paper realizing cost savings by cutting overtime expenses. The New York Times_sentence_99

In 2009, the newspaper began production of local inserts in regions outside of the New York area. The New York Times_sentence_100

Beginning October 16, 2009, a two-page "Bay Area" insert was added to copies of the Northern California edition on Fridays and Sundays. The New York Times_sentence_101

The newspaper commenced production of a similar Friday and Sunday insert to the Chicago edition on November 20, 2009. The New York Times_sentence_102

The inserts consist of local news, policy, sports, and culture pieces, usually supported by local advertisements. The New York Times_sentence_103

Following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. The New York Times_sentence_104

In August 2007, the paper reduced the physical size of its print edition, cutting the page width from 13.5 inches (34 cm) to a 12 inches (30 cm). The New York Times_sentence_105

This followed similar moves by a roster of other newspapers in the previous ten years, including USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, and The Washington Post. The New York Times_sentence_106

The move resulted in a 5% reduction in news space, but (in an era of dwindling circulation and significant advertising revenue losses) also saved about $12 million a year. The New York Times_sentence_107

Because of its declining sales largely attributed to the rise of news sources online, used especially by younger readers, and the decline of advertising revenue, the newspaper has been going through a downsizing for several years, offering buyouts to workers and cutting expenses, in common with a general trend among print news media. The New York Times_sentence_108

2010s The New York Times_section_10

In December 2012, the Times published "Snow Fall", a six-part article about the 2012 Tunnel Creek avalanche which integrated videos, photos, and interactive graphics and was hailed as a watershed moment for online journalism. The New York Times_sentence_109

In 2016, reporters for the newspaper were reportedly the target of cybersecurity breaches. The New York Times_sentence_110

The Federal Bureau of Investigation was reportedly investigating the attacks. The New York Times_sentence_111

The cybersecurity breaches have been described as possibly being related to cyberattacks that targeted other institutions, such as the Democratic National Committee. The New York Times_sentence_112

In October 2018, the Times published a 14,218-word investigation into Donald Trump's "self-made" fortune and alleged tax fraud, an 18-month project based on examination of 100,000 pages of documents. The New York Times_sentence_113

The extensive article ran as an eight-page feature in the print edition and also was adapted into a shortened 2,500 word listicle featuring its key takeaways. The New York Times_sentence_114

After the midweek front-page story, the Times also republished the piece as a 12-page "special report" section in the Sunday paper. The New York Times_sentence_115

During the lengthy investigation, Showtime cameras followed the Times' three investigative reporters for a half-hour documentary called The Family Business: Trump and Taxes, which aired the following Sunday. The New York Times_sentence_116

The report won a Pulitzer Prize for Explanatory Reporting. The New York Times_sentence_117

In May 2019, The New York Times announced that it would present a television news program based on news from its individual reporters stationed around the world and that it would premiere on FX and Hulu. The New York Times_sentence_118

Headquarters building The New York Times_section_11

The newspaper's first building was located at 113 Nassau Street in New York City. The New York Times_sentence_119

In 1854, it moved to 138 Nassau Street, and in 1858 to 41 Park Row, making it the first newspaper in New York City housed in a building built specifically for its use. The New York Times_sentence_120

The newspaper moved its headquarters to the Times Tower, located at 1475 Broadway in 1904, in an area then called Longacre Square, that was later renamed Times Square the newspaper's honor. The New York Times_sentence_121

The top of the building – now known as One Times Square – is the site of the New Year's Eve tradition of lowering a lighted ball, which was begun by the paper. The New York Times_sentence_122

The building is also known for its electronic news ticker – popularly known as "The Zipper" – where headlines crawl around the outside of the building. The New York Times_sentence_123

It is still in use, but has been operated by Dow Jones & Company since 1995. The New York Times_sentence_124

After nine years in its Times Square tower, the newspaper had an annex built at 229 West 43rd Street. The New York Times_sentence_125

After several expansions, the 43rd Street building became the newspaper's main headquarters in 1960 and the Times Tower on Broadway was sold the following year. The New York Times_sentence_126

It served as the newspaper's main printing plant until 1997, when the newspaper opened a state-of-the-art printing plant in the College Point section of the borough of Queens. The New York Times_sentence_127

A decade later, The New York Times moved its newsroom and businesses headquarters from West 43rd Street to a new tower at 620 Eighth Avenue between West 40th and 41st Streets, in Manhattan – directly across Eighth Avenue from the Port Authority Bus Terminal. The New York Times_sentence_128

The new headquarters for the newspaper, known officially as The New York Times Building but unofficially called the new "Times Tower" by many New Yorkers, is a skyscraper designed by Renzo Piano. The New York Times_sentence_129

In August 2019, Slate magazine obtained an internal NYT email which reported evidence of bedbug activity was found on all floors of the newsroom. The New York Times_sentence_130

Gender discrimination in employment The New York Times_section_12

Discriminatory practices used by the paper long restricted women in appointments to editorial positions. The New York Times_sentence_131

The newspaper's first general female reporter was Jane Grant, who described her experience afterward: "In the beginning I was charged not to reveal the fact that a female had been hired". The New York Times_sentence_132

Other reporters nicknamed her Fluff and she was subjected to considerable hazing. The New York Times_sentence_133

Because of her gender, any promotion was out of the question, according to the then-managing editor. The New York Times_sentence_134

She remained on the staff for fifteen years, interrupted by World War I. The New York Times_sentence_135

In 1935, Anne McCormick wrote to Arthur Hays Sulzberger: "I hope you won't expect me to revert to 'woman's-point-of-view' stuff." The New York Times_sentence_136

Later, she interviewed major political leaders and appears to have had easier access than her colleagues. The New York Times_sentence_137

Even witnesses of her actions were unable to explain how she gained the interviews she did. The New York Times_sentence_138

Clifton Daniel said, "[After World War II,] I'm sure Adenauer called her up and invited her to lunch. The New York Times_sentence_139

She never had to grovel for an appointment." The New York Times_sentence_140

Covering world leaders' speeches after World War II at the National Press Club was limited to men by a Club rule. The New York Times_sentence_141

When women were eventually allowed to hear the speeches directly, they were still not allowed to ask the speakers questions, although men were allowed and did ask, even though some of the women had won Pulitzer Prizes for prior work. The New York Times_sentence_142

Times reporter Maggie Hunter refused to return to the club after covering one speech on assignment. The New York Times_sentence_143

Nan Robertson's article on the Union Stock Yards, Chicago, was read aloud as anonymous by a professor, who then said: "'It will come as a surprise to you, perhaps, that the reporter is a girl,' he began... [G]asps; amazement in the ranks. The New York Times_sentence_144

'She had used all her senses, not just her eyes, to convey the smell and feel of the stockyards. The New York Times_sentence_145

She chose a difficult subject, an offensive subject. The New York Times_sentence_146

Her imagery was strong enough to revolt you.'" The New York Times_sentence_147

The New York Times hired Kathleen McLaughlin after ten years at the Chicago Tribune, where "[s]he did a series on maids, going out herself to apply for housekeeping jobs." The New York Times_sentence_148

Slogan The New York Times_section_13

The New York Times has had one slogan. The New York Times_sentence_149

Since 1896, the newspaper's slogan has been "All the News That's Fit to Print." The New York Times_sentence_150

In 1896, Adolph Ochs held a competition to attempt to find a replacement slogan, offering a $100 prize for the best one. The New York Times_sentence_151

Though he later announced that the original would not be changed, the prize would still be awarded. The New York Times_sentence_152

Entries included "News, Not Nausea"; "In One Word: Adequate"; "News Without Noise"; "Out Heralds The Herald, Informs The World, and Extinguishes The Sun"; "The Public Press is a Public Trust"; and the winner of the competition, "All the world's news, but not a school for scandal." The New York Times_sentence_153

On May 10, 1960, Wright Patman asked the FTC to investigate whether The New York Times's slogan was misleading or false advertising. The New York Times_sentence_154

Within 10 days, the FTC responded that it was not. The New York Times_sentence_155

Again in 1996, a competition was held to find a new slogan, this time for The New York Times_sentence_156

Over 8,000 entries were submitted. The New York Times_sentence_157

Again however, "All the News That's Fit to Print," was found to be the best. The New York Times_sentence_158

Organization The New York Times_section_14

News staff The New York Times_section_15

In addition to its New York City headquarters, the paper has newsrooms in London and Hong Kong. The New York Times_sentence_159

Its Paris newsroom, which had been the headquarters of the paper's international edition, was closed in 2016, although the city remains home to a news bureau and an advertising office. The New York Times_sentence_160

The paper also has an editing and wire service center in Gainesville, Florida. The New York Times_sentence_161

As of 2013, the newspaper had six news bureaus in the New York region, 14 elsewhere in the United States, and 24 in other countries. The New York Times_sentence_162

In 2009, Russ Stanton, editor of the Los Angeles Times, a competitor, stated that the newsroom of The New York Times was twice the size of the Los Angeles Times, which had a newsroom of 600 at the time. The New York Times_sentence_163

To facilitate their reporting and to hasten an otherwise lengthy process of reviewing many documents during preparation for publication, their interactive news team has adapted optical character recognition technology into a proprietary tool known as Document Helper. The New York Times_sentence_164

It enables the team to accelerate the processing of documents that need to be reviewed. The New York Times_sentence_165

During March 2019, they documented that this tool enabled them to process 900 documents in less than ten minutes in preparation for reporters to review the contents. The New York Times_sentence_166

Ochs-Sulzberger family The New York Times_section_16

In 1896, Adolph Ochs bought The New York Times, a money-losing newspaper, and formed the New York Times Company. The New York Times_sentence_167

The Ochs-Sulzberger family, one of the United States' newspaper dynasties, has owned The New York Times ever since. The New York Times_sentence_168

The publisher went public on January 14, 1969, trading at $42 a share on the American Stock Exchange. The New York Times_sentence_169

After this, the family continued to exert control through its ownership of the vast majority of Class B voting shares. The New York Times_sentence_170

Class A shareholders are permitted restrictive voting rights, while Class B shareholders are allowed open voting rights. The New York Times_sentence_171

The Ochs-Sulzberger family trust controls roughly 88 percent of the company's class B shares. The New York Times_sentence_172

Any alteration to the dual-class structure must be ratified by six of eight directors who sit on the board of the Ochs-Sulzberger family trust. The New York Times_sentence_173

The Trust board members are Daniel H. Cohen, James M. Cohen, Lynn G. Dolnick, Susan W. Dryfoos, Michael Golden, Eric M. A. Lax, Arthur O. Sulzberger Jr., and Cathy J. Sulzberger. The New York Times_sentence_174

Turner Catledge, the top editor at The New York Times from 1952 to 1968, wanted to hide the ownership influence. The New York Times_sentence_175

Arthur Sulzberger routinely wrote memos to his editor, each containing suggestions, instructions, complaints, and orders. The New York Times_sentence_176

When Catledge would receive these memos, he would erase the publisher's identity before passing them to his subordinates. The New York Times_sentence_177

Catledge thought that if he removed the publisher's name from the memos, it would protect reporters from feeling pressured by the owner. The New York Times_sentence_178

Public editors The New York Times_section_17

The position of public editor was established in 2003 to "investigate matters of journalistic integrity"; each public editor was to serve a two-year term. The New York Times_sentence_179

The post "was established to receive reader complaints and question Times journalists on how they make decisions." The New York Times_sentence_180

The impetus for the creation of the public editor position was the Jayson Blair affair. The New York Times_sentence_181

Public editors were: Daniel Okrent (2003–2005), Byron Calame (2005–2007), Clark Hoyt (2007–2010) (served an extra year), Arthur S. Brisbane (2010–2012), Margaret Sullivan (2012–2016) (served a four-year term), and Elizabeth Spayd (2016–2017). The New York Times_sentence_182

In 2017, the Times eliminated the position of public editor. The New York Times_sentence_183

Meredith Kopit Levien has been president and chief executive officer since September 2020. The New York Times_sentence_184

Content The New York Times_section_18

Editorial stance The New York Times_section_19

The New York Times editorial page is often regarded as liberal. The New York Times_sentence_185

In mid-2004, the newspaper's then public editor (ombudsman), Daniel Okrent, wrote that "the Op-Ed page editors do an evenhanded job of representing a range of views in the essays from outsiders they publish – but you need an awfully heavy counterweight to balance a page that also bears the work of seven opinionated columnists, only two of whom could be classified as conservative (and, even then, of the conservative subspecies that supports legalization of gay unions and, in the case of William Safire, opposes some central provisions of the Patriot Act)." The New York Times_sentence_186

The New York Times has not endorsed a Republican Party member for president since Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956; since 1960, it has endorsed the Democratic Party nominee in every presidential election (see New York Times presidential endorsements). The New York Times_sentence_187

However, The New York Times did endorse incumbent moderate Republican mayors of New York City Rudy Giuliani in 1997, and Michael Bloomberg in 2005 and 2009. The New York Times_sentence_188

The Times also endorsed Republican New York state governor George Pataki for re-election in 2002. The New York Times_sentence_189

Style The New York Times_section_20

Unlike most U.S. daily newspapers, the Times relies on its own in-house stylebook rather than The Associated Press Stylebook. The New York Times_sentence_190

When referring to people, The New York Times generally uses honorifics rather than unadorned last names (except in the sports pages, pop culture coverage, Book Review and Magazine). The New York Times_sentence_191

The New York Times printed a display advertisement on its first page on January 6, 2009, breaking tradition at the paper. The New York Times_sentence_192

The advertisement, for CBS, was in color and ran the entire width of the page. The New York Times_sentence_193

The newspaper promised it would place first-page advertisements on only the lower half of the page. The New York Times_sentence_194

In August 2014, the Times decided to use the word "torture" to describe incidents in which interrogators "inflicted pain on a prisoner in an effort to get information." The New York Times_sentence_195

This was a shift from the paper's previous practice of describing such practices as "harsh" or "brutal" interrogations. The New York Times_sentence_196

The paper maintains a strict profanity policy. The New York Times_sentence_197

A 2007 review of a concert by the punk band Fucked Up, for example, completely avoided mention of the group's name. The New York Times_sentence_198

However, the Times has on occasion published unfiltered video content that includes profanity and slurs where it has determined that such video has news value. The New York Times_sentence_199

During the 2016 U.S. presidential election campaign, the Times did print the words "fuck" and "pussy," among others, when reporting on the vulgar statements made by Donald Trump in a 2005 recording. The New York Times_sentence_200

Then-Times politics editor Carolyn Ryan said: "It's a rare thing for us to use this language in our stories, even in quotes, and we discussed it at length." The New York Times_sentence_201

Ryan said the paper ultimately decided to publish it because of its news value and because "[t]o leave it out or simply describe it seemed awkward and less than forthright to us, especially given that we would be running a video that showed our readers exactly what was said." The New York Times_sentence_202

Products The New York Times_section_21

Print newspaper The New York Times_section_22

In the absence of a major headline, the day's most important story generally appears in the top-right column, on the main page. The New York Times_sentence_203

The typefaces used for the headlines are custom variations of Cheltenham. The New York Times_sentence_204

The running text is set at 8.7 point Imperial. The New York Times_sentence_205

The newspaper is organized into three sections, including the magazine. The New York Times_sentence_206

The New York Times_ordered_list_0

  1. News: Includes International, National, Washington, Business, Technology, Science, Health, Sports, The Metro Section, Education, Weather, and Obituaries.The New York Times_item_0_0
  2. Opinion: Includes Editorials, Op-eds and Letters to the Editor.The New York Times_item_0_1
  3. Features: Includes Arts, Movies, Theater, Travel, NYC Guide, Food, Home & Garden, Fashion & Style, Crossword, The New York Times Book Review, T: The New York Times Style Magazine, The New York Times Magazine, and Sunday Review.The New York Times_item_0_2

Some sections, such as Metro, are only found in the editions of the paper distributed in the New York–New Jersey–Connecticut Tri-state area and not in the national or Washington, D.C. editions. The New York Times_sentence_207

Aside from a weekly roundup of reprints of editorial cartoons from other newspapers, The New York Times does not have its own staff editorial cartoonist, nor does it feature a comics page or Sunday comics section. The New York Times_sentence_208

From 1851 to 2017, The New York Times published around 60,000 print issues containing about 3.5 million pages and 15 million articles. The New York Times_sentence_209

Like most other American newspapers, The New York Times has experienced a decline in circulation. The New York Times_sentence_210

Its printed weekday circulation dropped by 50 percent to 540,000 copies from 2005 to 2017. The New York Times_sentence_211

International Edition The New York Times_section_23

The New York Times International Edition is a print version of the paper tailored for readers outside the United States. The New York Times_sentence_212

Formerly a joint venture with The Washington Post named The International Herald Tribune, The New York Times took full ownership of the paper in 2002 and has gradually integrated it more closely into its domestic operations. The New York Times_sentence_213

Website The New York Times_section_24

The New York Times began publishing daily on the World Wide Web on January 22, 1996, "offering readers around the world immediate access to most of the daily newspaper's contents." The New York Times_sentence_214

The website had 555 million pageviews in March 2005. The New York Times_sentence_215

The domain attracted at least 146 million visitors annually by 2008 according to a study. The New York Times_sentence_216

In March 2009, The New York Times website ranked 59th by number of unique visitors, with over 20 million unique visitors, making it the most visited newspaper site with more than twice the number of unique visitors as the next most popular site. The New York Times_sentence_217

As of May 2009, produced 22 of the 50 most popular newspaper blogs. The New York Times_sentence_218

As of August 2020, the company had 6.5 million paid subscribers out of which 5.7 million were subscribed to its digital content. The New York Times_sentence_219

In the period April-June 2020, it added 669,000 new digital subscribers. The New York Times_sentence_220

Food section The New York Times_section_25

The food section is supplemented on the web by properties for home cooks and for out-of-home dining. The New York Times_sentence_221

The New York Times Cooking (; also available via iOS app) provides access to more than 17,000 recipes on file as of November 2016, and availability of saving recipes from other sites around the web. The New York Times_sentence_222

The newspaper's restaurant search ( allows online readers to search NYC area restaurants by cuisine, neighborhood, price, and reviewer rating. The New York Times_sentence_223

The New York Times has also published several cookbooks, including The Essential New York Times Cookbook: Classic Recipes for a New Century, published in late 2010. The New York Times_sentence_224

TimesSelect The New York Times_section_26

In September 2005, the paper decided to begin subscription-based service for daily columns in a program known as TimesSelect, which encompassed many previously free columns. The New York Times_sentence_225

Until being discontinued two years later, TimesSelect cost $7.95 per month or $49.95 per year, though it was free for print copy subscribers and university students and faculty. The New York Times_sentence_226

To avoid this charge, bloggers often reposted TimesSelect material, and at least one site once compiled links of reprinted material. The New York Times_sentence_227

On September 17, 2007, The New York Times announced that it would stop charging for access to parts of its Web site, effective at midnight the following day, reflecting a growing view in the industry that subscription fees cannot outweigh the potential ad revenue from increased traffic on a free site. The New York Times_sentence_228

Times columnists including Nicholas Kristof and Thomas Friedman had criticized TimesSelect, with Friedman going so far as to say "I hate it. The New York Times_sentence_229

It pains me enormously because it's cut me off from a lot, a lot of people, especially because I have a lot of people reading me overseas, like in India ... The New York Times_sentence_230

I feel totally cut off from my audience." The New York Times_sentence_231

Paywall and digital subscriptions The New York Times_section_27

In addition to opening almost the entire site to all readers, The New York Times news archives from 1987 to the present are available at no charge, as well as those from 1851 to 1922, which are in the public domain. The New York Times_sentence_232

Access to the Premium Crosswords section continues to require either home delivery or a subscription for $6.95 per month or $39.95 per year. The New York Times_sentence_233

Falling print advertising revenue and projections of continued decline resulted in a "metered paywall" being instituted in 2011, regarded as modestly successful after garnering several hundred thousand subscriptions and about $100 million in revenue as of March 2012. The New York Times_sentence_234

As announced in March 2011, the paywall would charge frequent readers for access to its online content. The New York Times_sentence_235

Readers would be able to access up to 20 articles each month without charge. The New York Times_sentence_236

(Although beginning in April 2012, the number of free-access articles was halved to just ten articles per month.) The New York Times_sentence_237

Any reader who wanted to access more would have to pay for a digital subscription. The New York Times_sentence_238

This plan would allow free access for occasional readers but produce revenue from "heavy" readers. The New York Times_sentence_239

Digital subscription rates for four weeks range from $15 to $35 depending on the package selected, with periodic new subscriber promotions offering four-week all-digital access for as low as 99¢. The New York Times_sentence_240

Subscribers to the paper's print edition get full access without any additional fee. The New York Times_sentence_241

Some content, such as the front page and section fronts remained free, as well as the Top News page on mobile apps. The New York Times_sentence_242

In January 2013, The New York Times' Public Editor Margaret M. Sullivan announced that for the first time in many decades, the paper generated more revenue through subscriptions than through advertising. The New York Times_sentence_243

In December 2017, the number of free articles per month was reduced from ten to five, as the first change to the metered paywall since 2012. The New York Times_sentence_244

An executive of The New York Times Company stated that the decision was motivated by "an all-time high" in the demand for journalism. The New York Times_sentence_245

The newspaper's website was hacked on August 29, 2013, by the Syrian Electronic Army, a hacking group that supports the government of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. The New York Times_sentence_246

The SEA managed to penetrate the paper's domain name registrar, Melbourne IT, and alter DNS records for The New York Times, putting some of its websites out of service for hours. The New York Times_sentence_247

As of December 2017, The New York Times has a total of 3.5 million paid subscriptions in both print and digital versions, and more than 130 million monthly readers, more than double its audience two years previously. The New York Times_sentence_248

In February 2018, The New York Times Company reported increased revenue from the digital-only subscriptions, adding 157,000 new subscribers to a total of 2.6 million digital-only subscribers. The New York Times_sentence_249

Digital advertising also saw growth during this period. The New York Times_sentence_250

At the same time, advertising for the print version of the journal fell. The New York Times_sentence_251

Mobile presence The New York Times_section_28

Apps The New York Times_section_29

In 2008, The New York Times was made available as an app for the iPhone and iPod Touch; as well as publishing an iPad app in 2010. The New York Times_sentence_252

The app allowed users to download articles to their mobile device enabling them to read the paper even when they were unable to receive a signal. The New York Times_sentence_253

As of October 2010, The New York Times iPad app is ad-supported and available for free without a paid subscription, but translated into a subscription-based model in 2011. The New York Times_sentence_254

In 2010, The New York Times editors collaborated with students and faculty from New York University's Studio 20 Journalism Masters program to launch and produce "The Local East Village", a hyperlocal blog designed to offer news "by, for and about the residents of the East Village". The New York Times_sentence_255

That same year, reCAPTCHA helped to digitize old editions of The New York Times. The New York Times_sentence_256

In 2010, the newspaper also launched an app for Android smartphones, followed later by an app for Windows Phones. The New York Times_sentence_257

Moreover, the Times was the first newspaper to offer a video game as part of its editorial content, Food Import Folly by Persuasive Games. The New York Times_sentence_258

The Times Reader The New York Times_section_30

The Times Reader is a digital version of The New York Times, created via a collaboration between the newspaper and Microsoft. The New York Times_sentence_259

Times Reader takes the principles of print journalism and applies them to the technique of online reporting, using a series of technologies developed by Microsoft and their Windows Presentation Foundation team. The New York Times_sentence_260

It was announced in Seattle in April 2006, by Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr., Bill Gates, and Tom Bodkin. The New York Times_sentence_261

In 2009, the Times Reader 2.0 was rewritten in Adobe AIR. The New York Times_sentence_262

In December 2013, the newspaper announced that the Times Reader app would be discontinued as of January 6, 2014, urging readers of the app to instead begin using the subscription-only Today's Paper app. The New York Times_sentence_263

Podcasts The New York Times_section_31

The New York Times began producing podcasts in 2006. The New York Times_sentence_264

Among the early podcasts were Inside The Times and Inside The New York Times Book Review. The New York Times_sentence_265

However, several of the Times' podcasts were cancelled in 2012. The New York Times_sentence_266

The Times returned to launching new podcasts in 2016, including Modern Love with WBUR. The New York Times_sentence_267

On January 30, 2017, The New York Times launched a news podcast, The Daily. The New York Times_sentence_268

In October 2018, NYT debuted The Argument with opinion columnists Ross Douthat, Michelle Goldberg and David Leonhardt. The New York Times_sentence_269

It is a weekly discussion about a single issue explained from the left, center, and right of the political spectrum. The New York Times_sentence_270

Non-English versions The New York Times_section_32

The New York Times en Español (Spanish-language) The New York Times_section_33

Between February 2016 and September 2019, The New York Times launched a standalone Spanish language edition, The New York Times en Español. The New York Times_sentence_271

The Spanish-language version featured increased coverage of news and events in Latin America and Spain. The New York Times_sentence_272

The expansion into Spanish language news content allowed the newspaper to expand its audience into the Spanish speaking world and increase its revenue. The New York Times_sentence_273

The Spanish-language version was seen as a way to compete with the established El País newspaper of Spain, which bills itself the "global newspaper in Spanish." The New York Times_sentence_274

Its Spanish version has a team of journalists in Mexico City as well as correspondents in Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, Miami, and Madrid, Spain. The New York Times_sentence_275

It was discontinued in September 2019, citing lack of financial success as the reason. The New York Times_sentence_276

Chinese-language The New York Times_section_34

In June 2012, The New York Times introduced its first official foreign-language variant,, a Chinese-language news site viewable in both traditional and simplified Chinese characters. The New York Times_sentence_277

The project was led by Craig S. Smith on the business side and Philip P. Pan on the editorial side, with content created by staff based in Shanghai, Beijing, and Hong Kong, though the server was placed outside of China to avoid censorship issues. The New York Times_sentence_278

The site's initial success was interrupted in October that year following the publication of an investigative article by David Barboza about the finances of Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao's family. The New York Times_sentence_279

In retaliation for the article, the Chinese government blocked access to both and inside the People's Republic of China (PRC). The New York Times_sentence_280

Despite Chinese government interference, the Chinese-language operations have continued to develop, adding a second site,, iOS and Android apps, and newsletters, all of which are accessible inside the PRC. The New York Times_sentence_281

The China operations also produce three print publications in Chinese. The New York Times_sentence_282

Traffic to, meanwhile, has risen due to the widespread use of VPN technology in the PRC and to a growing Chinese audience outside mainland China. The New York Times_sentence_283

The New York Times articles are also available to users in China via the use of mirror websites, apps, domestic newspapers, and social media. The New York Times_sentence_284

The Chinese platforms now represent one of The New York Times' top five digital markets globally. The New York Times_sentence_285

The editor-in-chief of the Chinese platforms is Ching-Ching Ni. The New York Times_sentence_286

In March 2013, The New York Times and National Film Board of Canada announced a partnership titled A Short History of the Highrise, which will create four short documentaries for the Internet about life in high rise buildings as part of the NFB's Highrise project, utilizing images from the newspaper's photo archives for the first three films, and user-submitted images for the final film. The New York Times_sentence_287

The third project in the Short History of the Highrise series won a Peabody Award in 2013. The New York Times_sentence_288

TimesMachine The New York Times_section_35

The TimesMachine is a web-based archive of scanned issues of The New York Times from 1851 through 2002. The New York Times_sentence_289

Unlike The New York Times online archive, the TimesMachine presents scanned images of the actual newspaper. The New York Times_sentence_290

All non-advertising content can be displayed on a per-story basis in a separate PDF display page and saved for future reference. The New York Times_sentence_291

The archive is available to The New York Times subscribers, home delivery and/or digital. The New York Times_sentence_292

Interruptions The New York Times_section_36

Because of holidays, no editions were printed on November 23, 1851; January 2, 1852; July 4, 1852; January 2, 1853; and January 1, 1854. The New York Times_sentence_293

Because of strikes, the regular edition of The New York Times was not printed during the following periods: The New York Times_sentence_294

The New York Times_unordered_list_1

  • December 9, 1962, to March 31, 1963. Only a western edition was printed because of the 1962–63 New York City newspaper strike.The New York Times_item_1_3
  • September 17, 1965, to October 10, 1965. An international edition was printed, and a weekend edition replaced the Saturday and Sunday papers.The New York Times_item_1_4
  • August 10, 1978, to November 5, 1978. A multi-union strike shut down the three major New York City newspapers. No editions of The New York Times were printed. Two months into the strike, a parody of The New York Times called Not The New York Times was distributed in the city, with contributors such as Carl Bernstein, Christopher Cerf, Tony Hendra and George Plimpton.The New York Times_item_1_5

Criticism and controversies The New York Times_section_37

Main article: New York Times controversies The New York Times_sentence_295

Failure to report Ukraine famine The New York Times_section_38

The New York Times was criticized for the work of reporter Walter Duranty, who served as its Moscow bureau chief from 1922 through 1936. The New York Times_sentence_296

Duranty wrote a series of stories in 1931 on the Soviet Union and won a Pulitzer Prize for his work at that time; however, he has been criticized for his denial of widespread famine, most particularly the Ukrainian famine in the 1930s. The New York Times_sentence_297

In 2003, after the Pulitzer Board began a renewed inquiry, the Times hired Mark von Hagen, professor of Russian history at Columbia University, to review Duranty's work. The New York Times_sentence_298

Von Hagen found Duranty's reports to be unbalanced and uncritical, and that they far too often gave voice to Stalinist propaganda. The New York Times_sentence_299

In comments to the press he stated, "For the sake of The New York Times' honor, they should take the prize away." The New York Times_sentence_300

World War II The New York Times_section_39

On November 14, 2001, in The New York Times' 150th-anniversary issue, in an article entitled "Turning Away From the Holocaust," former executive editor Max Frankel wrote: The New York Times_sentence_301

According to Frankel, harsh judges of The New York Times "have blamed 'self-hating Jews' and 'anti-Zionists' among the paper's owners and staff." The New York Times_sentence_302

Frankel responded to this criticism by describing the fragile sensibilities of the Jewish owners of The New York Times: The New York Times_sentence_303

In the same article, Frankel quotes Laurel Leff, associate professor of journalism at Northeastern University, who concluded that the newspaper had downplayed Nazi Germany's targeting of Jews for genocide. The New York Times_sentence_304

Her 2005 book Buried by the Times documents the paper's tendency before, during and after World War II to place deep inside its daily editions the news stories about the ongoing persecution and extermination of Jews, while obscuring in those stories the special impact of the Nazis' crimes on Jews in particular. The New York Times_sentence_305

Leff attributes this dearth in part to the complex personal and political views of the newspaper's Jewish publisher, Arthur Hays Sulzberger, concerning Jewishness, antisemitism, and Zionism. The New York Times_sentence_306

Jerold Auerbach, a Guggenheim Fellow and Fulbright Lecturer, wrote in Print to Fit, The New York Times, Zionism and Israel, 1896-2016 that it was of utmost importance to Adolph Ochs, the first Jewish owner of the paper, that in spite of the persecution of Jews in Germany, The Times, through its reporting, should never be classified as a "Jewish newspaper". The New York Times_sentence_307

After Ochs' death in 1935, his son-in-law Arthur Hays Sulzberger became the publisher of The New York Times and maintained the understanding that no reporting should reflect on The Times as a Jewish newspaper. The New York Times_sentence_308

Sulzburger shared Ochs' concerns about the way Jews were perceived in American society. The New York Times_sentence_309

His apprehensions about judgement were manifested positively by his strong fidelity to the United States. The New York Times_sentence_310

At the same time, within the pages of The New York Times, Sulzburger refused to bring attention to Jews, including the refusal to identify Jews as major victims of the Nazi genocide. The New York Times_sentence_311

To be sure, many reports of Nazi-authored slaughter identified Jewish victims as "persons." The New York Times_sentence_312

The Times even opposed the rescue of Jewish refugees and backed American constraint. The New York Times_sentence_313

During the war, The New York Times journalist William L. Laurence was "on the payroll of the War Department". The New York Times_sentence_314

Accusations of liberal bias The New York Times_section_40

In mid-2004, the newspaper's then-public editor Daniel Okrent, wrote an opinion piece in which he said that The New York Times did have a liberal bias in news coverage of certain social issues such as abortion and same-sex marriage. The New York Times_sentence_315

He stated that this bias reflected the paper's cosmopolitanism, which arose naturally from its roots as a hometown paper of New York City, writing that the coverage of the Times's Arts & Leisure; Culture; and the Sunday Times Magazine trend to the left. The New York Times_sentence_316

Times public editor Arthur Brisbane wrote in 2012: The New York Times_sentence_317

The New York Times public editor (ombudsman) Elizabeth Spayd wrote in 2016 that "Conservatives and even many moderates, see in The Times a blue-state worldview" and accuse it of harboring a liberal bias. The New York Times_sentence_318

Spayd did not analyze the substance of the claim but did opine that the Times is "part of a fracturing media environment that reflects a fractured country. The New York Times_sentence_319

That in turn leads liberals and conservatives toward separate news sources." The New York Times_sentence_320

Times executive editor Dean Baquet stated that he does not believe coverage has a liberal bias, however: The New York Times_sentence_321

2016 election The New York Times_section_41

Donald Trump has frequently criticized The New York Times on his Twitter account before and during his presidency; since November 2015, Trump has referred to the Times as "the failing New York Times" in a series of tweets. The New York Times_sentence_322

Despite Trump's criticism, New York Times Company CEO Mark Thompson said that the paper had enjoyed soaring digital readership, with the fourth quarter of 2016 seeing the highest number of new digital subscribers to the newspaper since 2011. The New York Times_sentence_323

On October 23, 2019, Trump announced that he was canceling the White House subscription to both The New York Times and The Washington Post and would direct all federal agencies to drop their subscriptions as well. The New York Times_sentence_324

Critic Matt Taibbi accused The New York Times of favoring Hillary Clinton over Bernie Sanders in the paper's news coverage of the 2016 Democratic presidential primaries. The New York Times_sentence_325

Responding to the complaints of many readers, The New York Times public editor Margaret Sullivan wrote that "The Times has not ignored Mr. Sanders's campaign, but it hasn't always taken it very seriously. The New York Times_sentence_326

The tone of some stories is regrettably dismissive, even mocking at times. The New York Times_sentence_327

Some of that is focused on the candidate's age, appearance and style, rather than what he has to say." The New York Times_sentence_328

Times senior editor Carolyn Ryan defended both the volume of The New York Times coverage (noting that Sanders had received about the same amount of article coverage as Jeb Bush and Marco Rubio) and its tone. The New York Times_sentence_329

Jayson Blair plagiarism (2003) The New York Times_section_42

Main article: Jayson Blair § Plagiarism and fabrication scandal The New York Times_sentence_330

In May 2003, The New York Times reporter Jayson Blair was forced to resign from the newspaper after he was caught plagiarizing and fabricating elements of his stories. The New York Times_sentence_331

Some critics contended that African-American Blair's race was a major factor in his hiring and in The New York Times' initial reluctance to fire him. The New York Times_sentence_332

Iraq War (2003–06) The New York Times_section_43

Main article: Judith Miller § The Iraq War The New York Times_sentence_333

The Times supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The New York Times_sentence_334

On May 26, 2004, more than a year after the war started, the newspaper asserted that some of its articles had not been as rigorous as they should have been, and were insufficiently qualified, frequently overly dependent upon information from Iraqi exiles desiring regime change. The New York Times_sentence_335

The New York Times was involved in a significant controversy regarding the allegations surrounding Iraq and weapons of mass destruction in September 2002. The New York Times_sentence_336

A front-page story was authored by Judith Miller which claimed that the Iraqi government was in the process of developing nuclear weapons was published. The New York Times_sentence_337

Miller's story was cited by officials such as Condoleezza Rice, Colin Powell, and Donald Rumsfeld as part of a campaign to commission the Iraq War. The New York Times_sentence_338

One of Miller's prime sources was Ahmed Chalabi, an Iraqi expatriate who returned to Iraq after the U.S. invasion and held a number of governmental positions culminating in acting oil minister and deputy prime minister from May 2005 until May 2006. The New York Times_sentence_339

In 2005, negotiating a private severance package with Sulzberger, Miller retired after criticisms that her reporting of the lead-up to the Iraq War was factually inaccurate and overly favorable to the position of the Bush administration, for which The New York Times later apologized. The New York Times_sentence_340

Hatfill v. New York Times Co. and Kristof (2005) The New York Times_section_44

The 1964 case of NYT v. Sullivan foreshadowed another major libel case, Steven J. Hatfill v. The New York Times Company, and Nicholas Kristof, resulting from the 2001 anthrax attacks (which included powder in an envelope opened by reporter Judith Miller inside the Times newsroom). The New York Times_sentence_341

Dr. Steven Hatfill became a public figure as a result of insinuations that he was the "likely culprit" put forth in Nicholas Kristof's columns, which referenced the Federal Bureau of Investigation investigation of the case. The New York Times_sentence_342

Dr. Hatfill sued him and the Times for defamation and intentional infliction of emotional distress. The New York Times_sentence_343

After years of proceedings, the Supreme Court declined to grant certiorari in the case, leaving Dr. Hatfill's case dismissed since he had not proved malice on the part of the Times. The New York Times_sentence_344

The Times was involved in a similar case in which it agreed to pay a settlement to Dr. Wen Ho Lee who was falsely accused of espionage. The New York Times_sentence_345

Duke University lacrosse case (2006) The New York Times_section_45

The newspaper was criticized for largely reporting the prosecutors' version of events in the 2006 Duke lacrosse case. The New York Times_sentence_346

Suzanne Smalley of Newsweek criticized the newspaper for its "credulous" coverage of the charges of rape against Duke University lacrosse players. The New York Times_sentence_347

Stuart Taylor Jr. and KC Johnson, in their book Until Proven Innocent: Political Correctness and the Shameful Injustices of the Duke Lacrosse Rape Case, write: "at the head of the guilt-presuming pack, The New York Times vied in a race to the journalistic bottom with trash-TV talk shows." The New York Times_sentence_348

Israeli–Palestinian conflict The New York Times_section_46

A 2003 study in the Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics concluded that The New York Times reporting was more favorable to Israelis than to Palestinians. The New York Times_sentence_349

A 2002 study published in the journal Journalism examined Middle East coverage of the Second Intifada over a one-month period in the Times, Washington Post and Chicago Tribune. The New York Times_sentence_350

The study authors said that the Times was "the most slanted in a pro-Israeli direction" with a bias " its use of headlines, photographs, graphics, sourcing practices, and lead paragraphs." The New York Times_sentence_351

For its coverage of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, some (such as Ed Koch) have claimed that the paper is pro-Palestinian, while others (such as As'ad AbuKhalil) have insisted that it is pro-Israel. The New York Times_sentence_352

The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy, by political science professors John Mearsheimer and Stephen Walt, alleges that The New York Times sometimes criticizes Israeli policies but is not even-handed and is generally pro-Israel. The New York Times_sentence_353

On the other hand, the Simon Wiesenthal Center has criticized The New York Times for printing cartoons regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict that were claimed to be anti-Semitic. The New York Times_sentence_354

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu rejected a proposal to write an article for the paper on grounds of lack of objectivity. The New York Times_sentence_355

A piece in which Thomas Friedman commented that praise awarded to Netanyahu during a speech at congress was "paid for by the Israel lobby" elicited an apology and clarification from its writer. The New York Times_sentence_356

The New York Times' public editor Clark Hoyt concluded in his January 10, 2009, column: The New York Times_sentence_357

Delayed publication of 2005 NSA warrantless surveillance story The New York Times_section_47

The New York Times was criticized for the 13-month delay of the December 2005 story revealing the U.S. National Security Agency warrantless surveillance program. The New York Times_sentence_358

Ex-NSA officials blew the whistle on the program to journalists James Risen and Eric Lichtblau, who presented an investigative article to the newspaper in November 2004, weeks before America's presidential election. The New York Times_sentence_359

Contact with former agency officials began the previous summer. The New York Times_sentence_360

Former The New York Times executive editor Bill Keller decided not to report the piece after being pressured by the Bush administration and being advised not to do so by The New York Times Washington bureau chief Philip Taubman. The New York Times_sentence_361

Keller explained the silence's rationale in an interview with the newspaper in 2013, stating "Three years after 9/11, we, as a country, were still under the influence of that trauma, and we, as a newspaper, were not immune". The New York Times_sentence_362

In 2014, PBS Frontline interviewed Risen and Lichtblau, who said that the newspaper's plan was to not publish the story at all. The New York Times_sentence_363

"The editors were furious at me", Risen said to the program. The New York Times_sentence_364

"They thought I was being insubordinate." The New York Times_sentence_365

Risen wrote a book about the mass surveillance revelations after The New York Times declined the piece's publication, and only released it after Risen told them that he would publish the book. The New York Times_sentence_366

Another reporter told NPR that the newspaper "avoided disaster" by ultimately publishing the story. The New York Times_sentence_367

M.I.A. quotes out of context (2009–10) The New York Times_section_48

In February 2009, a Village Voice music blogger accused the newspaper of using "chintzy, ad-hominem allegations" in an article on British Tamil music artist M.I.A. The New York Times_sentence_368

concerning her activism against the Sinhala-Tamil conflict in Sri Lanka. The New York Times_sentence_369

M.I.A. The New York Times_sentence_370

criticized the paper in January 2010 after a travel piece rated post-conflict Sri Lanka the "#1 place to go in 2010". The New York Times_sentence_371

In June 2010, The New York Times Magazine published a correction on its cover article of M.I.A., acknowledging that the interview conducted by current W editor and then-Times Magazine contributor Lynn Hirschberg contained a recontextualization of two quotes. The New York Times_sentence_372

In response to the piece, M.I.A. The New York Times_sentence_373

broadcast Hirschberg's phone number and secret audio recordings from the interview via her Twitter and website. The New York Times_sentence_374

Irish student controversy (2015) The New York Times_section_49

On June 16, 2015, The New York Times published an article reporting the deaths of six Irish students staying in Berkeley, California when the balcony they were standing on collapsed, the paper's story insinuating that they were to blame for the collapse. The New York Times_sentence_375

The paper stated that the behavior of Irish students coming to the U.S. on J1 visas was an "embarrassment to Ireland". The New York Times_sentence_376

The Irish Taoiseach and former President of Ireland criticized the newspaper for "being insensitive and inaccurate" in its handling of the story. The New York Times_sentence_377

Nail salon series (2015) The New York Times_section_50

In May 2015, a The New York Times exposé by Sarah Maslin Nir on the working conditions of manicurists in New York City and elsewhere and the health hazards to which they are exposed attracted wide attention, resulting in emergency workplace enforcement actions by New York governor Andrew M. Cuomo. The New York Times_sentence_378

In July 2015, the story's claims of widespread illegally low wages were challenged by former The New York Times reporter Richard Bernstein, in the New York Review of Books. The New York Times_sentence_379

Bernstein, whose wife owns two nail salons, asserted that such illegally low wages were inconsistent with his personal experience, and were not evidenced by ads in the Chinese-language papers cited by the story. The New York Times_sentence_380

The New York Times editorial staff subsequently answered Bernstein's criticisms with examples of several published ads and stating that his response was industry advocacy. The New York Times_sentence_381

The independent NYT Public Editor also reported that she had previously corresponded with Bernstein and looked into his complaints, and expressed her belief that the story's reporting was sound. The New York Times_sentence_382

In September and October 2015, nail salon owners and workers protested at The New York Times offices several times, in response to the story and the ensuing New York State crackdown. The New York Times_sentence_383

In October, Reason magazine published a three-part re-reporting of the story by Jim Epstein, charging that the series was filled with misquotes and factual errors respecting both its claims of illegally low wages and health hazards. The New York Times_sentence_384

Epstein additionally argued that The New York Times had mistranslated the ads cited in its answer to Bernstein, and that those ads actually validated Bernstein's argument. The New York Times_sentence_385

In November 2015, The New York Times' public editor concluded that the exposé's "findings, and the language used to express them, should have been dialed back — in some instances substantially" and recommended that "The Times write further follow-up stories, including some that re-examine its original findings and that take on the criticism from salon owners and others — not defensively but with an open mind." The New York Times_sentence_386

Iran (2015) The New York Times_section_51

A 2015 study found that The New York Times fed into an overarching tendency towards national bias. The New York Times_sentence_387

During the Iranian nuclear crisis the newspaper minimized the "negative processes" of the United States while overemphasizing similar processes of Iran. The New York Times_sentence_388

This tendency was shared by other papers such as The Guardian, Tehran Times, and the Fars News Agency, while Xinhua News Agency was found to be more neutral while at the same time mimicking the foreign policy of the People's Republic of China. The New York Times_sentence_389

Hiring practices (2016) The New York Times_section_52

In April 2016, two black female employees in their sixties filed a federal class-action lawsuit against The New York Times Company CEO Mark Thompson and chief revenue officer Meredith Levien, claiming age, gender, and racial discrimination. The New York Times_sentence_390

The plaintiffs claimed that the Times advertising department favored younger white employees over older black employees in making firing and promotion decisions. The New York Times_sentence_391

The Times said that the suit was "entirely without merit" and was "a series of recycled, scurrilous and unjustified attacks." The New York Times_sentence_392

The plaintiffs' gender discrimination claims were subsequently dismissed by the court, and the court also later denied class certification as to the age and racial discrimination claims. The New York Times_sentence_393

Elimination of copy editors (2018) The New York Times_section_53

The New York Times announced plans to eliminate copy editing roles from the production of its daily newspaper and website content in June 2018. The New York Times_sentence_394

Executive Editor Dean Baquet defended the cuts, saying that the Times needed to free up funds to hire more reporters by eliminating editing roles. The New York Times_sentence_395

(The opinion and magazine sections have still retained their copy editors.) The New York Times_sentence_396

The duties of copy editors—checking for style, grammar, factual correctness, tone, as well as writing headlines—were merged into all-purpose editing roles. The New York Times_sentence_397

Editors currently not only edit the content of the stories but also, in many cases, provide the final read before publication. The New York Times_sentence_398

Many publications, such as the Chronicle of Higher Education, have suggested the elimination of copy editors has led to more mistakes, such as typos and factual errors, in the paper. The New York Times_sentence_399

The journalism research organization similarly suggested in a blog post that the elimination of copy editors would decrease internal expertise and hurt the quality of the daily news report. The New York Times_sentence_400

Views on Britain (2020) The New York Times_section_54

In January 2020, British author and political commentator Douglas Murray claimed that The New York Times was "waging a culture war vendetta against the [United Kingdom], but in doing so it is waging a campaign of misinformation against its own readers." The New York Times_sentence_401

Kelly Jane Torrance at The Spectator said, "Ever since Britain voted to leave the European Union, the Gray Lady—as the paper is known, thanks to its pompous and earnest tone—has become relentlessly critical of the UK." The New York Times_sentence_402

Torrance went on to say "If you were to read only the New York Times, you'd think there was little hope for a backward, bigoted Britain." The New York Times_sentence_403

Tom Cotton editorial (2020) The New York Times_section_55

During the George Floyd protests in June 2020, the Times published an opinion piece by U.S. The New York Times_sentence_404

Senator Tom Cotton entitled "Send in the Troops", which called for the mobilization of the U.S. military in response to rioting, and for "an overwhelming show of force to disperse, detain and ultimately deter lawbreakers", and which contained claims about the protests that the Times had previously identified as misinformation. The New York Times_sentence_405

Several current and former Times reporters criticized the decision to publish the piece and accused the newspaper of publishing misinformation. The New York Times_sentence_406

The NewsGuild of New York said the piece encouraged violence and lacked context and vetting. The New York Times_sentence_407

A. The New York Times_sentence_408 G. Sulzberger and editorial page editor James Bennet defended the piece, but the paper later issued a statement saying the piece failed to meet its editorial standards and described its publication as the result of a "rushed editorial process". The New York Times_sentence_409

Bennet resigned days later. The New York Times_sentence_410

Reputation The New York Times_section_56

The Times has developed a national and international "reputation for thoroughness" over time. The New York Times_sentence_411

Among journalists, the paper is held in high regard; a 1999 survey of newspaper editors conducted by the Columbia Journalism Review found that the Times was the "best" American paper, ahead of The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, and Los Angeles Times. The New York Times_sentence_412

The Times also was ranked #1 in a 2011 "quality" ranking of U.S. newspapers by Daniel de Vise of The Washington Post; the objective ranking took into account the number of recent Pulitzer Prizes won, circulation, and perceived Web site quality. The New York Times_sentence_413

A 2012 report in WNYC called the Times "the most respected newspaper in the world." The New York Times_sentence_414

Noam Chomsky, co-author of Manufacturing Consent, said that The New York Times was the first thing he looked at in the morning: "Despite all its flaws—and they're real—it still has the broadest, the most comprehensive coverage of I think any newspaper in the world." The New York Times_sentence_415

Nevertheless, like many other U.S. media sources, the Times had suffered from a decline in public perceptions of credibility in the U.S. from 2004 to 2012. The New York Times_sentence_416

A Pew Research Center survey in 2012 asked respondents about their views on credibility of various news organizations. The New York Times_sentence_417

Among respondents who gave a rating, 49% said that they believed "all or most" of the Times's reporting, while 50% disagreed. The New York Times_sentence_418

A large percentage (19%) of respondents were unable to rate believability. The New York Times_sentence_419

The Times's score was comparable to that of USA Today. The New York Times_sentence_420

Media analyst Brooke Gladstone of WNYC's On the Media, writing for The New York Times, says that the decline in U.S. public trust of the mass media can be explained (1) by the rise of the polarized Internet-driven news; (2) by a decline in trust in U.S. institutions more generally; and (3) by the fact that "Americans say they want accuracy and impartiality, but the polls suggest that, actually, most of us are seeking affirmation." The New York Times_sentence_421

Awards The New York Times_section_57

Main article: List of awards won by the New York Times The New York Times_sentence_422

The New York Times has won 130 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper. The New York Times_sentence_423

The prize is awarded for excellence in journalism in a range of categories. The New York Times_sentence_424

It has also, as of 2014, won three Peabody Awards and jointly received two. The New York Times_sentence_425

Peabody Awards are given for accomplishments in television, radio, and online media. The New York Times_sentence_426

See also The New York Times_section_58

The New York Times_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: New York Times.