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This article is about the country. Nigeria_sentence_0

For other uses, see Nigeria (disambiguation). Nigeria_sentence_1

Not to be confused with the neighbouring country Niger. Nigeria_sentence_2


Federal Republic of NigeriaNigeria_header_cell_0_0_0
CapitalNigeria_header_cell_0_1_0 AbujaNigeria_cell_0_1_1
Largest cityNigeria_header_cell_0_2_0 LagosNigeria_cell_0_2_1
Official languagesNigeria_header_cell_0_3_0 EnglishNigeria_cell_0_3_1
National languagesNigeria_header_cell_0_4_0 Yoruba Hausa IgboNigeria_cell_0_4_1
Other languagesNigeria_header_cell_0_5_0 ListNigeria_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Nigeria_header_cell_0_6_0 NigerianNigeria_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentNigeria_header_cell_0_7_0 Federal presidential constitutional republicNigeria_cell_0_7_1
PresidentNigeria_header_cell_0_8_0 Muhammadu BuhariNigeria_cell_0_8_1
Vice PresidentNigeria_header_cell_0_9_0 Yemi OsinbajoNigeria_cell_0_9_1
Senate PresidentNigeria_header_cell_0_10_0 Ahmed Ibrahim LawanNigeria_cell_0_10_1
House SpeakerNigeria_header_cell_0_11_0 Femi GbajabiamilaNigeria_cell_0_11_1
Chief JusticeNigeria_header_cell_0_12_0 Justice Ibrahim Tanko MuhammadNigeria_cell_0_12_1
LegislatureNigeria_header_cell_0_13_0 National AssemblyNigeria_cell_0_13_1
Upper houseNigeria_header_cell_0_14_0 SenateNigeria_cell_0_14_1
Lower houseNigeria_header_cell_0_15_0 House of RepresentativesNigeria_cell_0_15_1
Independence from United KingdomNigeria_header_cell_0_16_0
DeclarationNigeria_header_cell_0_17_0 1 October 1960Nigeria_cell_0_17_1
FederationNigeria_header_cell_0_18_0 1 October 1963Nigeria_cell_0_18_1
Current constitutionNigeria_header_cell_0_19_0 29 May 1999Nigeria_cell_0_19_1
Area Nigeria_header_cell_0_20_0
TotalNigeria_header_cell_0_21_0 923,769 km (356,669 sq mi) (32nd)Nigeria_cell_0_21_1
Water (%)Nigeria_header_cell_0_22_0 1.4Nigeria_cell_0_22_1
2020 estimateNigeria_header_cell_0_24_0 206,630,269 (7th)Nigeria_cell_0_24_1
2006 censusNigeria_header_cell_0_25_0 140,431,691Nigeria_cell_0_25_1
DensityNigeria_header_cell_0_26_0 218/km (564.6/sq mi) (42nd)Nigeria_cell_0_26_1
GDP (PPP)Nigeria_header_cell_0_27_0 2020 estimateNigeria_cell_0_27_1
TotalNigeria_header_cell_0_28_0 $1.275 trillion (23rd)Nigeria_cell_0_28_1
Per capitaNigeria_header_cell_0_29_0 $5,066 (129th)Nigeria_cell_0_29_1
GDP (nominal)Nigeria_header_cell_0_30_0 2020 estimateNigeria_cell_0_30_1
TotalNigeria_header_cell_0_31_0 $443 billion (27th)Nigeria_cell_0_31_1
Per capitaNigeria_header_cell_0_32_0 $2,149 (137th)Nigeria_cell_0_32_1
Gini (2020)Nigeria_header_cell_0_33_0 35.1


HDI (2018)Nigeria_header_cell_0_34_0 0.534

low · 158thNigeria_cell_0_34_1

CurrencyNigeria_header_cell_0_35_0 Naira (₦) (NGN)Nigeria_cell_0_35_1
Time zoneNigeria_header_cell_0_36_0 UTC+01:00 (WAT)Nigeria_cell_0_36_1
Driving sideNigeria_header_cell_0_37_0 rightNigeria_cell_0_37_1
Calling codeNigeria_header_cell_0_38_0 +234Nigeria_cell_0_38_1
ISO 3166 codeNigeria_header_cell_0_39_0 NGNigeria_cell_0_39_1
Internet TLDNigeria_header_cell_0_40_0 .ngNigeria_cell_0_40_1

Nigeria (/naɪˈdʒɪəriə/ (listen)), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a sovereign country in West Africa bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Nigeria_sentence_3

Its southern coast is on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. Nigeria_sentence_4

It is a federal republic comprising 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. Nigeria_sentence_5

Lagos is the most populous city in the country and the African continent, as well as one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world. Nigeria_sentence_6

Nigeria has been home to several indigenous pre-colonial states and kingdoms since the second millennium BC, with the Nok Civilization having been the first time the country had been unified internally in the 15th Century B.C. Nigeria_sentence_7

The modern state originated with British colonialization in the 19th century, taking its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914 by Lord Frederick Lugard. Nigeria_sentence_8

The British set up administrative and legal structures while practicing indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms. Nigeria_sentence_9

Nigeria became a formally independent federation on October 1, 1960. Nigeria_sentence_10

It experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970, followed by a succession of democratically-elected civilian governments and military dictatorships, until achieving a stable democracy in 1999; the 2015 presidential election was the first time an incumbent president had lost re-election. Nigeria_sentence_11

Nigeria is a multinational state inhabited by more than 250 ethnic groups speaking 500 distinct languages, all identifying with a wide variety of cultures. Nigeria_sentence_12

The three largest ethnic groups are the Hausa–Fulani in the north, Yoruba in the west, and Igbo in the east, together comprising over 60% of the total population. Nigeria_sentence_13

The official language is English, chosen to facilitate linguistic unity at the national level. Nigeria_sentence_14

Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Muslims, who live mostly in the north, and Christians, who live mostly in the south. Nigeria_sentence_15

The country has the world's fifth-largest Muslim population and sixth-largest Christian population, with a minority practicing indigenous religions, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities. Nigeria_sentence_16

Nigeria's constitution ensures freedom of religion. Nigeria_sentence_17

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world, with an estimated 206 million inhabitants as of late 2019. Nigeria_sentence_18

It has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with nearly half its population under the age of eighteen. Nigeria_sentence_19

Nigeria's economy is the largest in Africa and the 24th largest in the world, worth almost $450 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity, respectively. Nigeria_sentence_20

Nigeria is often referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy, and is also considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank; it has been identified as a regional power on the African continent, a middle power in international affairs, and has also been identified as an emerging global power. Nigeria_sentence_21

However, its Human Development Index ranks 158th in the world, and the country is classified as a lower middle-income economy, with a gross national income per capita between $1,026 and $3,986. Nigeria_sentence_22

Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the ECOWAS, and OPEC. Nigeria_sentence_23

Nigeria is also a member of the informal MINT group of countries, which are widely seen as the globe's next emerging economies, as well as the "Next Eleven" economies, which are set to become among the biggest in the world. Nigeria_sentence_24

Etymology Nigeria_section_0

The name was taken from the Niger River running through the country. Nigeria_sentence_25

This name was coined on January 8, 1897, by British journalist Flora Shaw, who later married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator. Nigeria_sentence_26

The neighbouring Niger takes its name from the same river. Nigeria_sentence_27

The origin of the name Niger, which originally applied to only the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. Nigeria_sentence_28

The word is likely an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism. Nigeria_sentence_29

History Nigeria_section_1

Main articles: History of Nigeria and Timeline of Nigerian history Nigeria_sentence_30

Early history (1500 BC – 1500 AD) Nigeria_section_2

Further information: History of Nigeria before 1500 Nigeria_sentence_31

The Nok civilization of Nigeria flourished between 1,500 BC and AD 200. Nigeria_sentence_32

It produced life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa and smelted iron by about 550 BC and possibly a few centuries earlier. Nigeria_sentence_33

Evidence of iron smelting has also been excavated at sites in the Nsukka region of southeast Nigeria: dating to 2000 BC at the site of Lejja (Uzomaka 2009) and to 750 BC and at the site of Opi. Nigeria_sentence_34

The Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nigeria_sentence_35

Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, and the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nigeria_sentence_36

Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Nigeria_sentence_37

Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. Nigeria_sentence_38

In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence. Nigeria_sentence_39

The Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, respectively. Nigeria_sentence_40

The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, and its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Nigeria_sentence_41

The Kano Chronicle highlights an ancient history dating to around 999 AD of the Hausa Sahelian city-state of Kano, with other major Hausa cities (or Hausa Bakwai) of: Daura, Hadeija, Kano, Katsina, Zazzau, Rano, and Gobir all having recorded histories dating back to the 10th century. Nigeria_sentence_42

With the spread of Islam from the 7th century AD, the area became known as Sudan or as Bilad Al Sudan (English: Land of the Blacks; Arabic: بلاد السودان‎). Nigeria_sentence_43

Since the populations were partially affiliated with the Arab Muslim culture of North Africa, they started to trade and be referred to by the Arabic speakers as Al-Sudan (meaning "The Blacks") as they were considered an extended part of the Muslim world. Nigeria_sentence_44

There are early historical references by medieval Arab and Muslim historians and geographers which refer to the Kanem-Bornu Empire as the region's major centre for Islamic civilization. Nigeria_sentence_45

Pre-colonial era (1500–1800) Nigeria_section_3

Further information: History of Nigeria (1500–1800) Nigeria_sentence_46

In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of Southern Nigeria, at the port they named Lagos and in Calabar along the region Slave Coast. Nigeria_sentence_47

Europeans traded goods with peoples at the coast; coastal trade with Europeans also marked the beginnings of the Atlantic slave trade. Nigeria_sentence_48

The port of Calabar on the historical Bight of Biafra (now commonly referred to as the Bight of Bonny) became one of the largest slave trading posts in West Africa in the era of the transatlantic slave trade. Nigeria_sentence_49

Other major slaving ports in Nigeria were located in Badagry, Lagos on the Bight of Benin and on Bonny Island on the Bight of Biafra. Nigeria_sentence_50

The majority of those enslaved and taken to these ports were captured in raids and wars. Nigeria_sentence_51

Usually the captives were taken back to the conquerors' territory as forced labour; after time, they were sometimes acculturated and absorbed into the conquerors' society. Nigeria_sentence_52

A number of slave routes were established throughout Nigeria linking the hinterland areas with the major coastal ports. Nigeria_sentence_53

Some of the more prolific slave trading kingdoms who participated in the transatlantic slave trade were linked with the Edo's Benin Empire in the south, Oyo Empire in the southwest, and the Aro Confederacy in the southeast. Nigeria_sentence_54

Benin's power lasted between the 15th and 19th centuries. Nigeria_sentence_55

Their dominance reached as far as the city of Eko (an Edo name later changed to Lagos by the Portuguese) and further. Nigeria_sentence_56

Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo. Nigeria_sentence_57

The Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_58

In the north, the incessant fighting amongst the Hausa city-states and the decline of the Bornu Empire gave rise to the Fulani people gaining headway into the region. Nigeria_sentence_59

Until this point, the Fulani a nomadic ethnic group primarily traversed the semi-desert Sahelian region, north of the Sudan, with cattle and avoided trade and intermingling with the Sudanic peoples. Nigeria_sentence_60

At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio led a successful jihad against the Hausa Kingdoms founding the centralised Sokoto Caliphate (also known as the Fulani Empire). Nigeria_sentence_61

The empire with Arabic as its official language grew rapidly under his rule and that of his descendants, who sent out invading armies in every direction. Nigeria_sentence_62

The vast landlocked empire connected the East with the West Sudan region and made inroads down south conquering parts of the Oyo Empire (modern-day Kwara), and advanced towards the Yoruba heartland of Ibadan, with the goal of reaching the Atlantic Ocean. Nigeria_sentence_63

The territory controlled by the Empire included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_64

The Sultan sent out emirs to establish a suzerainty over the conquered territories and promote Islamic civilization, the Emirs in turn became increasingly rich and powerful through trade and slavery. Nigeria_sentence_65

By the 1890s, the largest slave population in the world, about two million, was concentrated in the territories of the Sokoto Caliphate. Nigeria_sentence_66

The use of slave labor was extensive, especially in agriculture. Nigeria_sentence_67

By the time of its break-up in 1903 into various European colonies, the Sokoto Caliphate was one of the largest pre-colonial African states. Nigeria_sentence_68

British Nigeria (1800–1960) Nigeria_section_4

Main articles: Colonial Nigeria, Lagos Colony, Niger Coast Protectorate, Northern Nigeria Protectorate, and Southern Nigeria Protectorate Nigeria_sentence_69

A changing legal imperative (transatlantic slave trade outlawed by Britain in 1807) and economic imperative (a desire for political and social stability) led most European powers to support the widespread cultivation of agricultural products, such as the palm, for use in European industry. Nigeria_sentence_70

The Atlantic slave trade was engaged in by European companies until it was outlawed in 1807. Nigeria_sentence_71

After that illegal smugglers purchased slaves along the coast by native slavers. Nigeria_sentence_72

Britain's West Africa Squadron sought to intercept the smugglers at sea. Nigeria_sentence_73

The rescued slaves were taken to Freetown, a colony in West Africa originally established for the resettlement of freed slaves from Britain. Nigeria_sentence_74

Britain intervened in the Lagos Kingship power struggle by bombarding Lagos in 1851, deposing the slave trade friendly Oba Kosoko, helping to install the amenable Oba Akitoye, and signing the Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos on 1 January 1852. Nigeria_sentence_75

Britain annexed Lagos as a Crown Colony in August 1861 with the Lagos Treaty of Cession. Nigeria_sentence_76

British missionaries expanded their operations and traveled further inland. Nigeria_sentence_77

In 1864, Samuel Ajayi Crowther became the first African bishop of the Anglican Church. Nigeria_sentence_78

In 1885, British claims to a West African sphere of influence received recognition from other European nations at the Berlin Conference. Nigeria_sentence_79

The following year, it chartered the Royal Niger Company under the leadership of Sir George Taubman Goldie. Nigeria_sentence_80

By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the company had vastly succeeded in subjugating the independent southern kingdoms along the Niger River, the British conquered Benin in 1897, and, in the Anglo-Aro War (1901–1902), defeated other opponents. Nigeria_sentence_81

The defeat of these states opened up the Niger area to British rule. Nigeria_sentence_82

In 1900, the company's territory came under the direct control of the British government and established the Southern Nigeria Protectorate as a British protectorate and part of the British Empire, the foremost world power at the time. Nigeria_sentence_83

By 1902, the British had begun plans to move north into the Sokoto Caliphate. Nigeria_sentence_84

Lord Frederick Lugard a British general, was tasked by the Colonial Office to implement the agenda. Nigeria_sentence_85

Lugard used rivalries between many of the emirs in the southern reach of the caliphate and the central Sokoto administration to prevent any defense as he worked towards the capital. Nigeria_sentence_86

As the British approached the city of Sokoto, the new Sultan Muhammadu Attahiru I organized a quick defense of the city and fought the advancing British-led forces. Nigeria_sentence_87

The British force quickly won, sending Attahiru I and thousands of followers on a Mahdist hijra. Nigeria_sentence_88

In the northeast, the decline of the Bornu Empire gave rise to the British-controlled Borno Emirate which established Abubakar Garbai of Borno as the ruler. Nigeria_sentence_89

In 1903, the British-victory in the Battle of Kano gave them a logistical edge in pacifying the heartland of the Sokoto Caliphate and parts of the former Bornu Empire. Nigeria_sentence_90

On March 13, 1903, at the grand market square of Sokoto, the last Vizier of the Caliphate officially conceded to British rule. Nigeria_sentence_91

The British appointed Muhammadu Attahiru II as the new Caliph. Nigeria_sentence_92

Fredrick Lugard abolished the Caliphate, but retained the title Sultan as a symbolic position in the newly organized Northern Nigeria Protectorate. Nigeria_sentence_93

This remnant became known as "Sokoto Sultanate Council". Nigeria_sentence_94

In June 1903, the British defeated the remaining forces of Attahiru I and killed him; by 1906 resistance to British rule had ended. Nigeria_sentence_95

Amalgamation Nigeria_sentence_96

On 1 January 1914, the British formally united the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and the Northern Nigeria Protectorate into the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_97

Administratively, Nigeria remained divided into the Northern and Southern Protectorates and Lagos Colony. Nigeria_sentence_98

Inhabitants of the southern region sustained more interaction, economic and cultural, with the British and other Europeans owing to the coastal economy. Nigeria_sentence_99

Christian missions established Western educational institutions in the Protectorates. Nigeria_sentence_100

Under Britain's policy of indirect rule and validation of Islamic tradition, the Crown did not encourage the operation of Christian missions in the northern, Islamic part of the country. Nigeria_sentence_101

Some children of the southern elite went to Great Britain to pursue higher education. Nigeria_sentence_102

By independence in 1960, regional differences in modern educational access were marked. Nigeria_sentence_103

The legacy, though less pronounced, continues to the present day. Nigeria_sentence_104

Imbalances between North and South were expressed in Nigeria's political life as well. Nigeria_sentence_105

For instance, northern Nigeria did not outlaw slavery until 1936 whilst in other parts of Nigeria slavery was abolished soon after colonialism. Nigeria_sentence_106

Following World War II, in response to the growth of Nigerian nationalism and demands for independence, successive constitutions legislated by the British government moved Nigeria toward self-government on a representative and increasingly federal basis. Nigeria_sentence_107

By the middle of the 20th century, a great wave for independence was sweeping across Africa. Nigeria_sentence_108

Nigeria achieved independence in 1960. Nigeria_sentence_109

Independence and First Republic (1960–1966) Nigeria_section_5

Main article: First Nigerian Republic Nigeria_sentence_110

Nigeria gained independence from the United Kingdom on 1 October 1960, as the Federation of Nigeria, while retaining the British monarch, Elizabeth II, as nominal head of state and Queen of Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_111

Independent Nigeria's founding government was a coalition of conservative parties: the Northern People's Congress (NPC) led by Sir Ahmadu Bello, a party dominated by Muslim Northerners, and the Igbo and Christian-dominated National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) led by Nnamdi Azikiwe. Nigeria_sentence_112

Azikiwe replaced the colonial governor-general in November 1960. Nigeria_sentence_113

The opposition comprised the comparatively liberal Action Group (AG), which was largely dominated by the Yoruba and led by Obafemi Awolowo. Nigeria_sentence_114

At independence, the cultural and political differences were sharp among Nigeria's dominant ethnic groups: the Hausa–Fulani ('Northerners'), Igbo ('Easterners') and Yoruba ('Westerners'). Nigeria_sentence_115

An imbalance was created in the polity by the result of the 1961 plebiscite. Nigeria_sentence_116

Southern Cameroons (since renamed by separatists as Ambazonia) opted to join the Republic of Cameroon while Northern Cameroons chose to remain in Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_117

The northern part of the country then became larger than the southern part. Nigeria_sentence_118

In 1963, the nation established a Federal Republic, with Azikiwe as its first president. Nigeria_sentence_119

When elections were held in 1965, the Nigerian National Democratic Party came to power in Nigeria's Western Region. Nigeria_sentence_120

Military rule and Civil War (1966–1979) Nigeria_section_6

Main articles: Nigerian military juntas of 1966–79 and 1983–99 and Nigerian Civil War Nigeria_sentence_121

The disequilibrium and perceived corruption of the electoral and political process led, in 1966, to back-to-back military coups. Nigeria_sentence_122

The first coup was in January 1966 and was led mostly by Igbo soldiers under Majors Emmanuel Ifeajuna and Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu. Nigeria_sentence_123

The coup plotters succeeded in assassinating Sir Ahmadu Bello and Abubakar Tafawa Balewa alongside prominent leaders of the Northern Region and also Premier Samuel Akintola of the Western Region, but the coup plotters struggled to form a central government. Nigeria_sentence_124

Senate President Nwafor Orizu handed over government control to the Army, then under the command of another Igbo officer, General Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi. Nigeria_sentence_125

Later, the counter-coup of 1966, supported primarily by Northern military officers, facilitated the rise Yakubu Gowon as military head of state. Nigeria_sentence_126

Tension rose between North and South; Igbos in Northern cities suffered persecution and many fled to the Eastern Region. Nigeria_sentence_127

In May 1967, Governor of the Eastern Region Lt. Nigeria_sentence_128

Colonel Emeka Ojukwu declared the region independent from the federation as a state called the Republic of Biafra, under his leadership. Nigeria_sentence_129

This declaration precipitated the Nigerian Civil War, which began as the official Nigerian government side attacked Biafra on 6 July 1967 at Garkem. Nigeria_sentence_130

The 30-month war, with a long siege of Biafra and its isolation from trade and supplies, ended in January 1970. Nigeria_sentence_131

Estimates of the number of dead in the former Eastern Region during the 30-month civil war range from one to three million. Nigeria_sentence_132

France, Egypt, the Soviet Union, Britain, Israel, and others were deeply involved in the civil war behind the scenes. Nigeria_sentence_133

Britain and the Soviet Union were the main military backers of the Nigerian government; with Nigeria utilizing air support from Egyptian pilots provided by Gamal Abdel Nasser, while France and Israel aided the Biafrans. Nigeria_sentence_134

The Congolese government, under President Joseph-Désiré Mobutu, took an early stand on the Biafran secession, voicing strong support for the Nigerian federal government and deploying thousands of troops to fight against the secessionists. Nigeria_sentence_135

Following the war, Nigeria enjoyed the oil boom of the 1970s, during which the country joined OPEC and received huge oil revenues. Nigeria_sentence_136

Despite these revenues, the military government did little to improve the standard of living of the population, help small and medium businesses, or invest in infrastructure. Nigeria_sentence_137

As oil revenues fueled the rise of federal subsidies to states, the federal government became the centre of political struggle and the threshold of power in the country. Nigeria_sentence_138

As oil production and revenue rose, the Nigerian government became increasingly dependent on oil revenues and international commodity markets for budgetary and economic concerns. Nigeria_sentence_139

The coup in July 1975, led by Generals Shehu Musa Yar'Adua and Joseph Garba ousted Gowon, who fled to Britain. Nigeria_sentence_140

The coup plotters wanted to replace Gowon's autocratic rule with a triumvirate of three brigadier generals whose decisions could be vetoed by a Supreme Military Council. Nigeria_sentence_141

For this triumvirate, they convinced General Murtala Mohammad to become military head of state, with General Olusegun Obasanjo as his second-in-command, and General Theophilus Danjuma as the third. Nigeria_sentence_142

Together, the triumvirate introduces austerity measures to stem inflation, established a Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau, replaced all military governors with new officers, and launched "Operation Deadwood" through which they fired 11,000 officials from the civil service. Nigeria_sentence_143

Colonel Buka Suka Dimka launched the February 1976 coup against Nigeria's government, during which General Murtala Mohammed was assassinated. Nigeria_sentence_144

Dimka lacked widespread support among the military and his coup failed, forcing him to flee. Nigeria_sentence_145

After the coup attempt, General Olusegun Obasanjo was appointed military head of state. Nigeria_sentence_146

As head of state, Obasanjo vowed to continue Murtala's policies. Nigeria_sentence_147

Aware of the danger of alienating northern Nigerians, Obasanjo brought General Shehu Yar'Adua as his replacement and second-in-command as Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters completing the military triumvirate, with Obasanjo as head of state and General Theophilus Danjuma as Chief of Army Staff, the three went on to re-establish control over the military regime and organized the military's transfer of power programme: states creation and national delimitation, local government reforms and the constitutional drafting committee of the Second Nigerian Republic. Nigeria_sentence_148

Civilian rule and Second Republic (1979–1983) Nigeria_section_7

Main article: Second Nigerian Republic Nigeria_sentence_149

In 1977, a constituent assembly was elected to draft a new constitution, which was published on September 21, 1978, when the ban on political activity was lifted. Nigeria_sentence_150

The military carefully planned the return to civilian rule putting in place measures to ensure that political parties had broader support than witnessed during the first republic. Nigeria_sentence_151

In 1979, five political parties competed in a series of elections in which Alhaji Shehu Shagari of the National Party of Nigeria (NPN) was elected president. Nigeria_sentence_152

All five parties won representation in the National Assembly. Nigeria_sentence_153

On October 1, 1979, Shehu Shagari was sworn in as the first President and Commander-in-Chief of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_154

Obasanjo peacefully transferred power to Shagari, becoming the first head of state in Nigerian history to willingly step down. Nigeria_sentence_155

The Shagari government became viewed as corrupt by virtually all sectors of Nigerian society. Nigeria_sentence_156

In 1983 the inspectors of the state-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) began to notice "the slow poisoning of the waters of this country". Nigeria_sentence_157

In August 1983 Shagari and the NPN were returned to power in a landslide victory, with a majority of seats in the National Assembly and control of 12 state governments. Nigeria_sentence_158

But the elections were marred by violence and allegations of widespread vote rigging and electoral malfeasance led to legal battles over the results. Nigeria_sentence_159

There were also uncertainties, such as in the first republic, that political leaders may be unable to govern properly which would bring another batch of new military rulers. Nigeria_sentence_160

Military rule and Third Republic (1983–1999) Nigeria_section_8

Main article: Third Nigerian Republic Nigeria_sentence_161

The 1983 military coup d'état took place on New Year's Eve of that year. Nigeria_sentence_162

It was coordinated by key officers of the Nigerian military and led to the overthrow of the Second Nigerian Republic and the installation of Major General Muhammadu Buhari as Head of State. Nigeria_sentence_163

The military coup of Muhammadu Buhari shortly after the regime's re-election in 1984 was generally viewed as a positive development. Nigeria_sentence_164

Buhari promised major reforms, but his government fared little better than its predecessor. Nigeria_sentence_165

His regime was overthrown by another military coup in 1985. Nigeria_sentence_166

General Buhari was overthrown in 1985 military coup d'état led by General Ibrahim Babangida, who established the Armed Forces Ruling Council and became military president and commander in chief of the armed forces. Nigeria_sentence_167

In 1986, he established the Nigerian Political Bureau of 1986 which made recommendations for the transition to the Third Nigerian Republic. Nigeria_sentence_168

In 1989, Babangida started making plans for the transition to the Third Nigerian Republic. Nigeria_sentence_169

He legalized the formation of political parties, and formed the two-party system with the Social Democratic Party (SDP) and National Republican Convention (NRC) ahead of the 1992 general elections. Nigeria_sentence_170

He urged all Nigerians to join either of the parties, which the late Chief Bola Ige famously referred to as "two leper hands." Nigeria_sentence_171

The two-party state had been a Political Bureau recommendation. Nigeria_sentence_172

In November 1991, after a census was conducted, the National Electoral Commission (NEC) announced on 24 January 1992 that both legislative elections to a bicameral National Assembly and a presidential election would be held later that year. Nigeria_sentence_173

A process of voting was adopted, referred to as Option A4. Nigeria_sentence_174

This process advocated that any candidate needed to pass through adoption for all elective positions from the local government, state government and federal government. Nigeria_sentence_175

Babangida survived the 1990 Nigerian coup d'état attempt, then postponed a promised return to democracy to 1992. Nigeria_sentence_176

The 1993 presidential election held on June 12, the first since the military coup of 1983. Nigeria_sentence_177

The results though not officially declared by the National Electoral Commission – showed the duo of Moshood Abiola and Babagana Kingibe of the Social Democratic Party (SDP) defeated Bashir Tofa and Slyvester Ugoh of the National Republican Convention (NRC) by over 2.3 million votes. Nigeria_sentence_178

However, Babangida annulled the elections, leading to massive civilian protests that effectively shut down the country for weeks. Nigeria_sentence_179

In August 1993, Babangida finally kept his promise to relinquish power to a civilian government, but not before appointing Ernest Shonekan head of the Interim National Government. Nigeria_sentence_180

Babangida's regime has been considered the most corrupt, and responsible for creating a culture of corruption in Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_181

In late 1993, Shonekan's interim government, the shortest in the political history of the country was overthrown in the 1993 military coup d'état led by General Sani Abacha, who used military force on a wide scale to suppress the continuing civilian unrest. Nigeria_sentence_182

In 1995 the government hanged environmentalist Ken Saro-Wiwa on trumped-up charges in the deaths of four Ogoni elders. Nigeria_sentence_183

Lawsuits under the American Alien Tort Statute against Royal Dutch Shell and Brian Anderson, the head of Shell's Nigerian operation, settled out of court with Shell continuing to deny liability. Nigeria_sentence_184

Several hundred million dollars in accounts traced to Abacha were discovered in 1999. Nigeria_sentence_185

The regime came to an end in 1998, when the dictator died in the villa. Nigeria_sentence_186

He looted money to offshore accounts in western European banks and defeated coup plots by arresting and bribing generals and politicians. Nigeria_sentence_187

His successor, General Abdulsalami Abubakar, adopted a new constitution on 5 May 1999 which provided for multiparty elections. Nigeria_sentence_188

Democratization and Fourth Republic (1999–present) Nigeria_section_9

Main article: Fourth Nigerian Republic Nigeria_sentence_189

On 29 May 1999, Abubakar transferred power to the winner of the 1999 presidential election, former military ruler General Olusegun Obasanjo as the second democratically elected civilian President of Nigeria heralding the beginning of the Fourth Nigerian Republic. Nigeria_sentence_190

This ended almost 33 years of military rule from 1966 until 1999, excluding the short-lived second republic (between 1979 and 1983) by military dictators who seized power in coups d'état and counter-coups during the Nigerian military juntas of 1966–1979 and 1983–1999. Nigeria_sentence_191

Although the elections that brought Obasanjo to power in the 1999 presidential election and for a second term in the 2003 presidential election were condemned as unfree and unfair, Nigeria has shown marked improvements in attempts to tackle government corruption and hasten development. Nigeria_sentence_192

Ethnic violence for control over the oil-producing Niger Delta region and an insurgency in the North-East are some of the issues facing the country. Nigeria_sentence_193

Umaru Yar'Adua of the People's Democratic Party came into power in the general election of 2007. Nigeria_sentence_194

The international community, which had been observing Nigerian elections to encourage a free and fair process, condemned this one as being severely flawed. Nigeria_sentence_195

The then-president, Olusegun Obasanjo, acknowledged fraud and other electoral "lapses" but said the result reflected opinion polls. Nigeria_sentence_196

In a national television address in 2007, he added that if Nigerians did not like the victory of his handpicked successor, they would have an opportunity to vote again in four years. Nigeria_sentence_197

Yar'Adua died on 5 May 2010. Nigeria_sentence_198

Goodluck Jonathan was sworn in as Yar'Adua's successor, becoming the 14th Head of State. Nigeria_sentence_199

Goodluck Jonathan served as acting president of Nigeria until 16 April 2011, when a new presidential election in Nigeria was conducted. Nigeria_sentence_200

He went on to win the elections, with the international media reporting the elections as having run smoothly with relatively little violence or voter fraud, in contrast to previous elections. Nigeria_sentence_201

Ahead of the general election of 2015, a merger of the three biggest opposition parties – the Action Congress of Nigeria(ACN), the Congress for Progressive Change (CPC), the All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP), a faction of the All Progressives Grand Alliance (APGA) and the new PDP (nPDP), a faction of serving governors of the then ruling People's Democratic Party – formed the All Progressives Congress (APC). Nigeria_sentence_202

In the 2015 presidential election, former military head of state General Muhammadu Buhari, leader of the CPC faction of the APC – who had previously contested in the 2003, 2007, and 2011 presidential elections as the APC presidential candidate defeated incumbent President Goodluck Jonathan of the People's Democratic Party (PDP) by over two million votes, ending the party's sixteen year rule in the country, and marking the first time in the history of Nigeria that an incumbent president lost to an opposition candidate. Nigeria_sentence_203

Observers generally praised the election as being fair. Nigeria_sentence_204

Jonathan was generally praised for conceding defeat and limiting the risk of unrest. Nigeria_sentence_205

In the 2019 presidential election, Muhammadu Buhari was re-elected for a second term in office defeating his closet rival Atiku Abubakar. Nigeria_sentence_206

Politics Nigeria_section_10

Main article: Politics of Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_207

Nigeria is a federal republic modelled after the United States, with executive power exercised by the President. Nigeria_sentence_208

It is influenced by the Westminster System model in the composition and management of the upper and lower houses of the bicameral legislature. Nigeria_sentence_209

The president is both head of state and head of the federal government; the leader is elected by popular vote to a maximum of two four-year terms. Nigeria_sentence_210

The president's power is checked by a Senate and a House of Representatives, which are combined in a bicameral body called the National Assembly. Nigeria_sentence_211

The Senate is a 109-seat body with three members from each state and one from the capital region of Abuja; members are elected by popular vote to four-year terms. Nigeria_sentence_212

The House contains 360 seats, with the number of seats per state determined by population. Nigeria_sentence_213


Nigeria National symbols of NigeriaNigeria_header_cell_1_0_0
FlagNigeria_cell_1_1_0 BicolourNigeria_cell_1_1_1
EmblemNigeria_cell_1_2_0 Coat of arms of NigeriaNigeria_cell_1_2_1
AnthemNigeria_cell_1_3_0 "Arise, O Compatriots"Nigeria_cell_1_3_1
AnimalNigeria_cell_1_4_0 EagleNigeria_cell_1_4_1
BirdNigeria_cell_1_5_0 Black crowned craneNigeria_cell_1_5_1
FlowerNigeria_cell_1_6_0 Costus spectabilisNigeria_cell_1_6_1

Ethnocentrism, tribalism, religious persecution, and prebendalism have plagued Nigerian politics both prior and subsequent to independence in 1960. Nigeria_sentence_214

All major parties have practised vote-rigging and other means of coercion to remain competitive. Nigeria_sentence_215

In the period before 1983 election, a report of experts prepared by the National Institute of Policy and Strategic Studies showed that only the 1959 and 1979 elections were held without systematic rigging. Nigeria_sentence_216

In 2012, Nigeria was estimated to have lost over $400 billion to corruption since independence. Nigeria_sentence_217

Kin-selective altruism has made its way into Nigerian politics, resulting in tribalist efforts to concentrate Federal power to a particular region of their interests through. Nigeria_sentence_218

Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba and Igbo are the three largest ethnic groups in Nigeria and have maintained historical preeminence in Nigerian politics; competition amongst these three groups has fueled animosity. Nigeria_sentence_219

Following the bloody civil war, nationalism has seen an increase in the southern part of the country leading to active secessionist movements such as the Oodua Peoples Congress (OPC) and the Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB), though these groups are largely small and not representative of the entire ethnic group. Nigeria_sentence_220

Because of the above issues, Nigeria's political parties are pan-national and secular in character (though this does not preclude the continuing preeminence of the dominant ethnicities). Nigeria_sentence_221

The two major political parties are the People's Democratic Party of Nigeria and the All Progressives Congress with twenty minor opposition parties are registered. Nigeria_sentence_222

As in many other African societies, prebendalism and high rates of corruption continue to constitute major challenges to Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_223

Law Nigeria_section_11

Main article: Law of Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_224

The country has a judicial branch, with the highest court being the Supreme Court of Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_225

There are three distinct systems of law in Nigeria: Nigeria_sentence_226


  • Common law, derived from its British colonial past, and a development of its own after independence;Nigeria_item_0_0
  • Customary law, derived from indigenous traditional norms and practice, including the dispute resolution meetings of pre-colonial Yorubaland secret societies such as the Oyo Mesi and Ogboni, as well as the Ekpe and Okonko of Igboland and Ibibioland;Nigeria_item_0_1
  • Sharia law, used only in the predominantly Muslim northern states of the country. It is an Islamic legal system that had been used long before the colonial administration. In late 1999, Zamfara emphasised its use, alongside eleven other northern states: are Kano, Katsina, Niger, Bauchi, Borno, Kaduna, Gombe, Sokoto, Jigawa, Yobe, and Kebbi.Nigeria_item_0_2

Military Nigeria_section_12

Main article: Nigerian Armed Forces Nigeria_sentence_227

The Nigerian military is charged with protecting the Federal Republic of Nigeria, promoting Nigeria's global security interests, and supporting peacekeeping efforts, especially in West Africa. Nigeria_sentence_228

This is in support of the doctrine sometimes called Pax Nigeriana. Nigeria_sentence_229

The Nigerian Military consists of an army, a navy, and an air force. Nigeria_sentence_230

The military in Nigeria has played a major role in the country's history since independence. Nigeria_sentence_231

Various juntas have seized control of the country and ruled it through most of its history. Nigeria_sentence_232

Its last period of military rule ended in 1999 following the sudden death of former dictator Sani Abacha in 1998. Nigeria_sentence_233

His successor, Abdulsalam Abubakar, handed over power to the democratically elected government of Olusegun Obasanjo the next year. Nigeria_sentence_234

As Africa's most populated country, Nigeria has repositioned its military as a peacekeeping force on the continent. Nigeria_sentence_235

Since 1995, the Nigerian military, through ECOMOG mandates, have been deployed as peacekeepers in Liberia (1997), Ivory Coast (1997–1999), and Sierra Leone (1997–1999). Nigeria_sentence_236

Under an African Union mandate, it has stationed forces in Sudan's Darfur region to try to establish peace. Nigeria_sentence_237

Since then, the Nigerian military has been deployed across West Africa, curbing terrorism in countries like Mali, Senegal, Chad, and Cameroon, as well as dealing with the Mali War, and getting Yahya Jammeh out of power in 2017. Nigeria_sentence_238

Corruption Nigeria_section_13

Main article: Corruption in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_239

Nigeria has been pervaded by political corruption. Nigeria_sentence_240

Nigeria was ranked 143 out of 182 countries in Transparency International's 2011 Corruption Perceptions Index; however, it improved to 136th position in 2014. Nigeria_sentence_241

More than $400 billion were stolen from the treasury by Nigeria's leaders between 1960 and 1999. Nigeria_sentence_242

In 2015, incumbent President Muhammadu Buhari said corrupt officials have stolen $150 billion from Nigeria in the last 10 years. Nigeria_sentence_243

Foreign relations Nigeria_section_14

Main article: Foreign relations of Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_244

Upon gaining independence in 1960, Nigeria made African unity the centerpiece of its foreign policy and played a leading role in the fight against the apartheid government in South Africa. Nigeria_sentence_245

One exception to the African focus was Nigeria's close relationship developed with Israel throughout the 1960s. Nigeria_sentence_246

The latter nation sponsored and oversaw the construction of Nigeria's parliament buildings. Nigeria_sentence_247

Nigeria's foreign policy was put to the test in the 1970s after the country emerged united from its own civil war. Nigeria_sentence_248

It supported movements against white minority governments in the Southern Africa sub-region. Nigeria_sentence_249

Nigeria backed the African National Congress (ANC) by taking a committed tough line with regard to the South African government and their military actions in southern Africa. Nigeria_sentence_250

Nigeria was also a founding member of the Organisation for African Unity (now the African Union), and has tremendous influence in West Africa and Africa on the whole. Nigeria_sentence_251

Nigeria has additionally founded regional cooperative efforts in West Africa, functioning as standard-bearer for the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and ECOMOG, economic and military organizations, respectively. Nigeria_sentence_252

With this Africa-centered stance, Nigeria readily sent troops to the Congo at the behest of the United Nations shortly after independence (and has maintained membership since that time). Nigeria_sentence_253

Nigeria also supported several Pan-African and pro-self government causes in the 1970s, including garnering support for Angola's MPLA, SWAPO in Namibia, and aiding opposition to the minority governments of Portuguese Mozambique, and Rhodesia. Nigeria_sentence_254

Nigeria retains membership in the Non-Aligned Movement. Nigeria_sentence_255

In late November 2006, it organised an Africa-South America Summit in Abuja to promote what some attendees termed "South-South" linkages on a variety of fronts. Nigeria_sentence_256

Nigeria is also a member of the International Criminal Court, and the Commonwealth of Nations. Nigeria_sentence_257

It was temporarily expelled from the latter in 1995 when ruled by the Abacha regime. Nigeria_sentence_258

Nigeria has remained a key player in the international oil industry since the 1970s, and maintains membership in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), which it joined in July 1971. Nigeria_sentence_259

Its status as a major petroleum producer figures prominently in its sometimes volatile international relations with developed countries, notably the United States, and with developing countries. Nigeria_sentence_260

Millions of Nigerians have emigrated during times of economic hardship, primarily to Europe, North America and Australia. Nigeria_sentence_261

It is estimated that over a million Nigerians have emigrated to the United States and constitute the Nigerian American populace. Nigeria_sentence_262

Individuals in many such Diasporic communities have joined the "Egbe Omo Yoruba" society, a national association of Yoruba descendants in North America. Nigeria_sentence_263

In July 2019, UN ambassadors of 37 countries, including Nigeria, have signed a joint letter to the UNHRC defending China's treatment of Uyghurs in the Xinjiang region. Nigeria_sentence_264

Since 2000, Sino-Nigerian trade relations have risen exponentially. Nigeria_sentence_265

There has been an increase in total trade of over 10,384 million dollars between the two nations from 2000 to 2016. Nigeria_sentence_266

However the structure of the Sino-Nigerian trade relationship has become a major political issue for the Nigerian state. Nigeria_sentence_267

This is illustrated by the fact that Chinese exports account for around 80 percent of total bilateral trade volumes. Nigeria_sentence_268

This has resulted in a serious trade imbalance, with Nigeria importing ten times more than it exports to China. Nigeria_sentence_269

Subsequently, Nigeria's economy is becoming over-reliant on cheap foreign imports to sustain itself, resulting in a clear decline in Nigerian Industry under such arrangements. Nigeria_sentence_270

Continuing its Africa-centered foreign policy, Nigeria introduced the Idea of a single currency for West Africa known as the Eco under the presumption that it would be led by the Naira, but on December 21st, 2019; Ivorian President Alassane OuattaraI along with Emmanuel Macron multiple other UEMOA States, announced that they would merely rename the CFA Franc (the current currency of the UEMOA states) instead of completely replacing the currency as originally intended. Nigeria_sentence_271

This caused controversy ECOWAS, citing France Co-opting African Unity and if ratified, would lead to a loss of sovereignty. Nigeria_sentence_272

As of 2020, the Eco currency has been delayed to 2025. Nigeria_sentence_273

Administrative divisions Nigeria_section_15

Main article: Administrative divisions of Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_274

Nigeria is divided into thirty-six states and one Federal Capital Territory, which are further sub-divided into 774 Local Government Areas. Nigeria_sentence_275

In some contexts, the states are aggregated into six geopolitical zones: North West, North East, North Central, South West, South East, and South South. Nigeria_sentence_276

Nigeria has five cities with a population of over a million (from largest to smallest): Lagos, Kano, Ibadan, Benin City and Port Harcourt. Nigeria_sentence_277

Lagos is the largest city in Africa, with a population of over 12 million in its urban area. Nigeria_sentence_278

Geography Nigeria_section_16

Main articles: Geography of Nigeria and Geology of Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_279

Nigeria is located in western Africa on the Gulf of Guinea and has a total area of 923,768 km (356,669 sq mi), making it the world's 32nd-largest country. Nigeria_sentence_280

It is comparable in size to Venezuela, and is about twice the size of the U.S. state of California. Nigeria_sentence_281

Its borders span 4,047 kilometres (2,515 mi), and it shares borders with Benin (773 km or 480 mi), Niger (1,497 km or 930 mi), Chad (87 km or 54 mi), and Cameroon (including the separatist Ambazonia) 1,690 km or 1,050 mi. Nigeria_sentence_282

Its coastline is at least 853 km (530 mi). Nigeria_sentence_283

Nigeria lies between latitudes and 14°N, and longitudes and 15°E. Nigeria_sentence_284

The highest point in Nigeria is Chappal Waddi at 2,419 m (7,936 ft). Nigeria_sentence_285

The main rivers are the Niger and the Benue, which converge and empty into the Niger Delta. Nigeria_sentence_286

This is one of the world's largest river deltas, and the location of a large area of Central African mangroves. Nigeria_sentence_287

Climate Nigeria_section_17

Nigeria has a varied landscape. Nigeria_sentence_288

The far south is defined by its tropical rainforest climate, where annual rainfall is 60 to 80 inches (1,500 to 2,000 mm) a year. Nigeria_sentence_289

In the southeast stands the Obudu Plateau. Nigeria_sentence_290

Coastal plains are found in both the southwest and the southeast. Nigeria_sentence_291

This forest zone's most southerly portion is defined as "salt water swamp", also known as a mangrove swamp because of the large amount of mangroves in the area. Nigeria_sentence_292

North of this is fresh water swamp, containing different vegetation from the salt water swamp, and north of that is rainforest. Nigeria_sentence_293

Nigeria's most expansive topographical region is that of the valleys of the Niger and Benue river valleys (which merge and form a Y-shape). Nigeria_sentence_294

To the southwest of the Niger is "rugged" highland. Nigeria_sentence_295

To the southeast of the Benue are hills and mountains, which form the Mambilla Plateau, the highest plateau in Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_296

This plateau extends through the border with Cameroon, where the montane land is part of the Bamenda Highlands of Cameroon. Nigeria_sentence_297

The area near the border with Cameroon close to the coast is rich rainforest and part of the Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests ecoregion, an important centre for biodiversity. Nigeria_sentence_298

It is habitat for the drill monkey, which is found in the wild only in this area and across the border in Cameroon. Nigeria_sentence_299

The areas surrounding Calabar, Cross River State, also in this forest, are believed to contain the world's largest diversity of butterflies. Nigeria_sentence_300

The area of southern Nigeria between the Niger and the Cross Rivers has lost most of its forest because of development and harvesting by increased population, with it being replaced by grassland (see Cross-Niger transition forests). Nigeria_sentence_301

Everything in between the far south and the far north is savannah (insignificant tree cover, with grasses and flowers located between trees). Nigeria_sentence_302

Rainfall is more limited, to between 500 and 1,500 millimetres (20 and 60 in) per year. Nigeria_sentence_303

The savannah zone's three categories are Guinean forest-savanna mosaic, Sudan savannah, and Sahel savannah. Nigeria_sentence_304

Guinean forest-savanna mosaic is plains of tall grass interrupted by trees. Nigeria_sentence_305

Sudan savannah is similar but with shorter grasses and shorter trees. Nigeria_sentence_306

Sahel savannah consists of patches of grass and sand, found in the northeast. Nigeria_sentence_307

In the Sahel region, rain is less than 500 millimetres (20 in) per year and the Sahara Desert is encroaching. Nigeria_sentence_308

In the dry northeast corner of the country lies Lake Chad, which Nigeria shares with Niger, Chad and Cameroon. Nigeria_sentence_309

Plant ecology Nigeria_section_18

Nigeria is greatly endowed with numerous tree species of which the majority of them are native while few are exotic. Nigeria_sentence_310

Report shows that high percentage of man-made forests in the country is dominated with exotic species. Nigeria_sentence_311

This culminated from the assumption that exotic trees are fast-growing. Nigeria_sentence_312

However, studies have also investigated the growth of indigenous trees in with that of exotic species. Nigeria_sentence_313

Many countries in Africa are affected by Invasive Alien Species (IAS). Nigeria_sentence_314

In 2004, the IUCN–World Conservation Union identified 81 IAS in South Africa, 49 in Mauritius, 37 in Algeria and Madagascar, 35 in Kenya, 28 in Egypt, 26 in Ghana and Zimbabwe, and 22 in Ethiopia. Nigeria_sentence_315

However, very little is known about IAS in Nigeria, with most technical reports and literatures reporting fewer than 10 invasive plants in the country. Nigeria_sentence_316

Aside from plant invaders, Rattus rattus and Avian influenza virus were also considered IAS in Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_317

The initial entry of IAS into Nigeria was mainly through exotic plant introductions by the colonial rulers either for forest tree plantations or for ornamental purposes. Nigeria_sentence_318

The entry of exotic plants into Nigeria during the post-independence era was encouraged by increasing economic activity, the commencement of commercial oil explorations, introduction through ships, and introduction of ornamental plants by commercial floriculturists. Nigeria_sentence_319

Due to overexploitation, the remaining natural ecosystems and primary forests in Nigeria are restricted to the protected areas which include one biosphere reserve, seven national parks, one World Heritage site, 12 Strict Nature Reserves (SNRs), 32 game reserves/wildlife sanctuaries, and hundreds of forest reserves. Nigeria_sentence_320

These are in addition to several ex-situ conservation sites such as arboreta, botanical gardens, zoological gardens, and gene banks managed by several tertiary and research institutions Nigeria_sentence_321

In the semi-arid and dry sub-humid savanna's of West Africa, including Nigeria, numerous species of herbaceous dicots especially from the genera Crotalaria, Alysicarpus, Cassia and Ipomea are known to be widely used in livestock production. Nigeria_sentence_322

Quite often they are plucked or cut, and fed either as fresh or conserved fodders. Nigeria_sentence_323

The utilization of these and many other herbs growing naturally within the farm environment is opportunistic. Nigeria_sentence_324

Many other species native to Nigeria, including Soybean and its varieties, serve as an important source of oil and protein in this region. Nigeria_sentence_325

There are also many plants with medicinal purposes that are used to aid the therapy in many organs. Nigeria_sentence_326

Some of these vegetations include, Euphorbiaceae, that serve purposed to aid malaria, gastrointestinal disorders and many other infections. Nigeria_sentence_327

Different stress factors such as droughts, low soil nutrients and susceptibility to pests has contributed to Maize plantations being an integral part of agriculture in this region. Nigeria_sentence_328

As industrialization has increased, it has also put species of trees in the forest at risk to air pollution and studies have shown that in certain parts of Nigeria, trees have shown tolerance and grow in areas that have a significant amount air pollution Nigeria_sentence_329

Environmental issues Nigeria_section_19

Main articles: Environmental issues in the Niger Delta and Deforestation in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_330

Nigeria's Delta region, home of the large oil industry, experiences serious oil spills and other environmental problems, which has caused conflict. Nigeria_sentence_331

Waste management including sewage treatment, the linked processes of deforestation and soil degradation, and climate change or global warming are the major environmental problems in Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_332

Waste management presents problems in a mega city like Lagos and other major Nigerian cities which are linked with economic development, population growth and the inability of municipal councils to manage the resulting rise in industrial and domestic waste. Nigeria_sentence_333

This huge waste management problem is also attributable to unsustainable environmental management lifestyles of Kubwa Community in the Federal Capital Territory, where there are habits of indiscriminate disposal of waste, dumping of waste along or into the canals, sewerage systems that are channels for water flows, and the like. Nigeria_sentence_334

Haphazard industrial planning, increased urbanisation, poverty and lack of competence of the municipal government are seen as the major reasons for high levels of waste pollution in major cities of the country. Nigeria_sentence_335

Some of the 'solutions' have been disastrous to the environment, resulting in untreated waste being dumped in places where it can pollute waterways and groundwater. Nigeria_sentence_336

In 2005 Nigeria had the highest rate of deforestation in the world, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Nigeria_sentence_337

That year, 12.2%, the equivalent of 11,089,000 hectares had been forested in the country. Nigeria_sentence_338

Between 1990 and 2000, Nigeria lost an average of 409,700 hectares of forest every year equal to an average annual deforestation rate of 2.4%. Nigeria_sentence_339

Between 1990 and 2005, in total Nigeria lost 35.7% of its forest cover, or around 6,145,000 hectares. Nigeria_sentence_340

In 2010, thousands of people were inadvertently exposed to lead-containing soil / ore from informal gold mining within the northern state of Zamfara. Nigeria_sentence_341

While estimates vary, it is thought that upwards of 400 children died of acute lead poisoning, making this perhaps the largest lead poisoning fatality epidemic ever encountered. Nigeria_sentence_342

As of 2016, efforts to manage the exposure are ongoing. Nigeria_sentence_343

Economy Nigeria_section_20

Main article: Economy of Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_344

Nigeria is classified as a mixed economy emerging market. Nigeria_sentence_345

It has reached lower-middle-income status according to the World Bank, with its abundant supply of natural resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, transport sectors and stock exchange (the Nigerian Stock Exchange), which is the second-largest in Africa. Nigeria_sentence_346

Nigeria was ranked 21st in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) in 2015. Nigeria_sentence_347

Nigeria is the United States' largest trading partner in sub-Saharan Africa and supplies a fifth of its oil (11% of oil imports). Nigeria_sentence_348

It has the seventh-largest trade surplus with the U.S. of any country worldwide. Nigeria_sentence_349

Nigeria is the 50th-largest export market for U.S. goods and the 14th-largest exporter of goods to the U.S. Nigeria_sentence_350

The United States is the country's largest foreign investor. Nigeria_sentence_351

Following the oil price collapse in 2014–2016, combined with negative production shocks, the gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate dropped to 2.7% in 2015. Nigeria_sentence_352

In 2016 during its first recession in 25 years, the economy contracted by 1.6%. Nigeria_sentence_353

Fiscal year 2016 was characterized by currency depreciation and the attendant higher prices of petroleum products, electricity, and imported foods pushed inflation to 18.55% in December 2016 from 9.55% in December 2015. Nigeria_sentence_354

In 2019, the economy began to recover slightly with the nation's real GDP growing by 2.3% and the IMF estimating another increase of 2.3% in 2020. Nigeria_sentence_355

Economic development has been hindered by years of military rule, corruption, and mismanagement. Nigeria_sentence_356

The restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reforms have successfully put Nigeria back on track towards achieving its full economic potential. Nigeria_sentence_357

As of 2014 it is the largest economy in Africa, having overtaken South Africa. Nigeria_sentence_358

Next to petrodollars, the second-biggest source of foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria are remittances sent home by Nigerians living abroad. Nigeria_sentence_359

During the oil boom of the 1970s, Nigeria accumulated a significant foreign debt to finance major infrastructural investments. Nigeria_sentence_360

With the fall of oil prices during the 1980s oil glut Nigeria struggled to keep up with its loan payments and eventually defaulted on its principal debt repayments, limiting repayment to the interest portion of the loans. Nigeria_sentence_361

Arrears and penalty interest accumulated on the unpaid principal, which increased the size of the debt. Nigeria_sentence_362

After negotiations by the Nigerian authorities, in October 2005 Nigeria and its Paris Club creditors reached an agreement under which Nigeria repurchased its debt at a discount of approximately 60%. Nigeria_sentence_363

Nigeria used part of its oil profits to pay the residual 40%, freeing up at least $1.15 billion annually for poverty reduction programmes. Nigeria_sentence_364

Nigeria made history in April 2006 by becoming the first African country to completely pay off its debt (estimated $30 billion) owed to the Paris Club. Nigeria_sentence_365

Nigeria is trying to reach the Sustainable Development Goal Number 1, which is to end poverty in all its forms by 2030. Nigeria_sentence_366

Agriculture Nigeria_section_21

Further information: Agriculture in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_367

As of 2010, about 30% of Nigerians are employed in agriculture. Nigeria_sentence_368

Agriculture used to be the principal foreign exchange earner of Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_369

Major crops include beans, sesame, cashew nuts, cassava, cocoa beans, groundnuts, gum arabic, kolanut, maize (corn), melon, millet, palm kernels, palm oil, plantains, rice, rubber, sorghum, soybeans and yams. Nigeria_sentence_370

Cocoa is the leading non-oil foreign exchange earner. Nigeria_sentence_371

Rubber is the second-largest non-oil foreign exchange earner. Nigeria_sentence_372

Prior to the Nigerian civil war, Nigeria was self-sufficient in food. Nigeria_sentence_373

Agriculture has failed to keep pace with Nigeria's rapid population growth, and Nigeria now relies upon food imports to sustain itself. Nigeria_sentence_374

The Nigerian government promoted the use of inorganic fertilizers in the 1970s. Nigeria_sentence_375

In August 2019, Nigeria closed its border with Benin to stop rice smuggling into the country as part of efforts to boost the local production. Nigeria_sentence_376

Petroleum and mining Nigeria_section_22

Further information: Petroleum industry in Nigeria, List of countries by oil exports, and Mining industry of Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_377

Nigeria is the 12th largest producer of petroleum in the world and the 8th largest exporter, and has the 10th largest proven reserves. Nigeria_sentence_378

(The country joined OPEC in 1971.) Nigeria_sentence_379

Petroleum plays a large role in the Nigerian economy, accounting for 40% of GDP and 80% of Government earnings. Nigeria_sentence_380

However, agitation for better resource control in the Niger Delta, its main oil-producing region, has led to disruptions in oil production and prevents the country from exporting at 100% capacity. Nigeria_sentence_381

The Niger Delta Nembe Creek Oil field was discovered in 1973 and produces from middle Miocene deltaic sandstone-shale in an anticline structural trap at a depth of 2 to 4 kilometres (7,000 to 13,000 feet). Nigeria_sentence_382

In June 2013, Shell announced a strategic review of its operations in Nigeria, hinting that assets could be divested. Nigeria_sentence_383

While many international oil companies have operated there for decades, by 2014 most were making moves to divest their interests, citing a range of issues including oil theft. Nigeria_sentence_384

In August 2014, Shell Oil Company said it was finalising its interests in four Nigerian oil fields. Nigeria_sentence_385

Nigeria has a total of 159 oil fields and 1,481 wells in operation according to the Department of Petroleum Resources. Nigeria_sentence_386

The most productive region of the nation is the coastal Niger Delta Basin in the Niger Delta or "South-south" region which encompasses 78 of the 159 oil fields. Nigeria_sentence_387

Most of Nigeria's oil fields are small and scattered, and as of 1990, these small fields accounted for 62.1% of all Nigerian production. Nigeria_sentence_388

This contrasts with the sixteen largest fields which produced 37.9% of Nigeria's petroleum at that time. Nigeria_sentence_389

In addition to its petroleum resources, Nigeria also has a wide array of underexploited mineral resources which include natural gas, coal, bauxite, tantalite, gold, tin, iron ore, limestone, niobium, lead and zinc. Nigeria_sentence_390

Despite huge deposits of these natural resources, the mining industry in Nigeria is still in its infancy. Nigeria_sentence_391

Services and tourism Nigeria_section_23

Main articles: Banking in Nigeria, Telecommunications in Nigeria, and Tourism in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_392

Nigeria has a highly developed financial services sector, with a mix of local and international banks, asset management companies, brokerage houses, insurance companies and brokers, private equity funds and investment banks. Nigeria_sentence_393

Nigeria has one of the fastest-growing telecommunications markets in the world, major emerging market operators (like MTN, 9mobile, Airtel and Globacom) basing their largest and most profitable centres in the country. Nigeria_sentence_394

Nigeria's ICT sector has experienced a lot of growth, representing 10% of the nation's GDP in 2018 as compared to just 1% in 2001. Nigeria_sentence_395

Lagos is regarded as one of the largest technology hubs in Africa with its thriving tech ecosysytem. Nigeria_sentence_396

Several startups like Paystack, Interswitch, Bolt and Piggyvest are leveraging technology to solve issues across different sectors. Nigeria_sentence_397

Tourism in Nigeria centers largely on events, due to the country's ample amount of ethnic groups, but also includes rain forests, savannah, waterfalls, and other natural attractions. Nigeria_sentence_398

Abuja is home to several parks and green areas. Nigeria_sentence_399

The largest, Millennium Park, was designed by architect Manfredi Nicoletti and officially opened in December 2003. Nigeria_sentence_400

Lagos, subsequent to the re-modernization project achieved by the previous administration of Governor Raji Babatunde Fashola, is gradually becoming a major tourist destination, being one of the largest cities in Africa and in the world. Nigeria_sentence_401

Lagos is currently taking steps to become a global city. Nigeria_sentence_402

The 2009 Eyo carnival (a yearly festival originated from Iperu Remo, Ogun State), which took place on 25 April, was a step toward world city status. Nigeria_sentence_403

Currently, Lagos is primarily known as a business-oriented and a fast-paced community. Nigeria_sentence_404

Lagos has become an important location for African and "black" cultural identity. Nigeria_sentence_405

Many festivals are held in Lagos; festivals vary in offerings each year and may be held in different months. Nigeria_sentence_406

Some of the festivals are Town Annually, Eyo Festival, , Lagos Carnival, Eko International Film Festival, Lagos Seafood Festac Festival, LAGOS PHOTO Festival and the Lagos Jazz Series, which is a unique franchise for high-quality live music in all genres with a focus on jazz. Nigeria_sentence_407

Established in 2010, the event takes place over a 3- to 5-day period at selected high-quality outdoor venues. Nigeria_sentence_408

The music is as varied as the audience itself and features a diverse mix of musical genres from rhythm and blues to soul, Afrobeat, hip hop, bebop, and traditional jazz. Nigeria_sentence_409

The festivals provide entertainment of dance and song to add excitement to travelers during a stay in Lagos. Nigeria_sentence_410

Lagos has a number of sandy beaches by the Atlantic Ocean, including Elegushi Beach and Alpha Beach. Nigeria_sentence_411

Lagos also has a number of private beach resorts including Inagbe Grand Beach Resort and several others in the outskirts. Nigeria_sentence_412

Lagos has a variety of hotels ranging from three-star to five-star hotels, with a mixture of local hotels such as Eko Hotels and Suites, Federal Palace Hotel and franchises of multinational chains such as Intercontinental Hotel, Sheraton, and Four Points by Hilton. Nigeria_sentence_413

Other places of interest include the Tafawa Balewa Square, Festac town, The Nike Art Gallery, Freedom Park, Lagos and the Cathedral Church of Christ, Lagos. Nigeria_sentence_414

Manufacturing and technology Nigeria_section_24

Nigeria has a manufacturing industry that includes leather and textiles (centred in Kano, Abeokuta, Onitsha, and Lagos), Nigeria currently has an indigenous auto manufacturing company; Innoson Vehicle Manufacturing located in Nnewi. Nigeria_sentence_415

It produces Buses and SUVs. Nigeria_sentence_416

Car manufacturing (for the French car manufacturer Peugeot as well as for the English truck manufacturer Bedford, now a subsidiary of General Motors), T-shirts, plastics and processed food. Nigeria_sentence_417

In this regard, some foreign vehicle manufacturing companies like Nissan have made known their plans to have manufacturing plants in Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_418

Ogun is considered to be Nigeria's current industrial hub, as most factories are located in Ogun and more companies are moving there, followed by Lagos. Nigeria_sentence_419

Nigeria in recent years has been embracing industrialisation. Nigeria_sentence_420

It currently has an indigenous vehicle manufacturing company, Innoson Motors, which manufactures saloon cars, rapid transit buses, ambulances, firefighting trucks and SUVs. Nigeria_sentence_421

Nigeria also has a few electronic manufacturers like Zinox, the first branded Nigerian computer, and manufacturers of electronic gadgets such as tablet PCs. Nigeria_sentence_422

In 2013, Nigeria introduced a policy regarding import duty on vehicles to encourage local manufacturing companies in the country. Nigeria_sentence_423

The city of Aba in the south-eastern part of the country are well known for their handicrafts and shoes, known as "Aba made". Nigeria_sentence_424

Infrastructure Nigeria_section_25

Energy Nigeria_section_26

Main article: Energy in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_425

Nigeria's primary energy consumption was about 108 Mtoe in 2011. Nigeria_sentence_426

Most of the energy comes from traditional biomass and waste, which account for 83% of total primary production. Nigeria_sentence_427

The rest is from fossil fuels (16%) and hydropower (1%). Nigeria_sentence_428

From independence, Nigeria has tried to develop a domestic nuclear industry for energy. Nigeria_sentence_429

Since 2004, Nigeria has a Chinese-origin research reactor at Ahmadu Bello University, and has sought the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency to develop plans for up to 4,000 MWe of nuclear capacity by 2027 according to the National Program for the Deployment of Nuclear Power for Generation of Electricity. Nigeria_sentence_430

Nigeria hoped to begin construction in 2011 and start nuclear power production in 2017–2020. Nigeria_sentence_431

On 27 July 2007 Nigeria's President Umaru Yar'Adua urged the country to embrace nuclear power in order to meet its growing energy needs. Nigeria_sentence_432

Construction has not begun but plans have not been canceled by 2016. Nigeria_sentence_433

In 2017, Nigeria signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. Nigeria_sentence_434

In April 2015, Nigeria began talks with Russia's state-owned Rosatom to collaborate on the design, construction and operation of four nuclear power plants by 2035, the first of which will be in operation by 2025. Nigeria_sentence_435

In June 2015, Nigeria selected two sites for the planned construction of the nuclear plants. Nigeria_sentence_436

Neither the Nigerian government nor Rosatom would disclose the specific locations of the sites, but it is believed that the nuclear plants will be sited in Akwa Ibom State, in South-South Nigeria, and Kogi State, in the central northern part of the country. Nigeria_sentence_437

Both sites are planned to house two plants each. Nigeria_sentence_438

In 2017 agreements were signed for the construction of the Itu nuclear power plant. Nigeria_sentence_439

Transportation Nigeria_section_27

Main article: Transportation in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_440

Nigeria suffers from lack of adequate transportation infrastructure. Nigeria_sentence_441

As of 1999, it's 194,394 kilometres of road networks are the main means of transportation. Nigeria_sentence_442

Of which 60,068 kilometres (37,325 mi) (including 1,194 km (742 mi) of expressways) are paved roads and as of 1998 (west. Nigeria_sentence_443

), 134,326 kilometres are unpaved roads of city, town and village roads. Nigeria_sentence_444

The railways have undergone a massive revamping with projects such as the Lagos-Kano Standard Gauge Railway being completed connecting northern cities of Kano, Kaduna, Abuja, Ibadan and Lagos. Nigeria_sentence_445

There are 54 airports in Nigeria; the principal airports are Murtala Muhammed International Airport in Lagos and Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport in Abuja. Nigeria_sentence_446

Three other international airports are Mallam Aminu Kano International Airport in Kano, Akanu Ibiam International Airport in Enugu and Port Harcourt International Airport in Port Harcourt. Nigeria_sentence_447

As with other transportation facilities, the airports suffer from a poor reputation for safety and operational efficiency. Nigeria_sentence_448

Government satellites Nigeria_section_28

Main article: NIGCOMSAT Nigeria_sentence_449

The government has recently begun expanding this infrastructure to space-based communications. Nigeria_sentence_450

Nigeria has a space satellite that is monitored at the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency Headquarters in Abuja. Nigeria_sentence_451

The Nigerian government has commissioned the overseas production and launch of four satellites. Nigeria_sentence_452

NigComSat-1, was the first Nigerian satellite built-in 2004, was Nigeria's third satellite and Africa's first communication satellite. Nigeria_sentence_453

It was launched on 13 May 2007, aboard a Chinese Long March 3B carrier rocket, from the Xichang Satellite Launch Centre in China. Nigeria_sentence_454

The spacecraft was operated by NigComSat and the Nigerian Space Research and Development Agency. Nigeria_sentence_455

On 11 November 2008, NigComSat-1 failed in orbit after running out of power because of an anomaly in its solar array. Nigeria_sentence_456

It was based on the Chinese DFH-4 satellite bus, and carries a variety of transponders: four C-band; fourteen Ku-band; eight Ka-band; and two L-band. Nigeria_sentence_457

It was designed to provide coverage to many parts of Africa, and the Ka-band transponders would also cover Italy. Nigeria_sentence_458

The satellite was launched from Russia on 27 September 2003. Nigeria_sentence_459

Nigeriasat-1 was part of the worldwide Disaster Monitoring Constellation System. Nigeria_sentence_460

The primary objectives of the Nigeriasat-1 were: to give early warning signals of environmental disaster; to help detect and control desertification in the northern part of Nigeria; to assist in demographic planning; to establish the relationship between malaria vectors and the environment that breeds malaria and to give early warning signals on future outbreaks of meningitis using remote sensing technology; to provide the technology needed to bring education to all parts of the country through distant learning; and to aid in conflict resolution and border disputes by mapping out state and International borders. Nigeria_sentence_461

NigeriaSat-2, Nigeria's second satellite, was built as a high-resolution earth satellite by Surrey Space Technology Limited, a United Kingdom-based satellite technology company. Nigeria_sentence_462

It has 2.5-metre resolution panchromatic (very high resolution), 5-metre multispectral (high resolution, NIR red, green and red bands), and 32-metre multispectral (medium resolution, NIR red, green and red bands) antennas, with a ground receiving station in Abuja. Nigeria_sentence_463

The NigeriaSat-2 spacecraft alone was built at a cost of over £35 million. Nigeria_sentence_464

This satellite was launched into orbit from a military base in China. Nigeria_sentence_465

On 10 November 2008 (0900 GMT), the satellite was reportedly switched off for analysis and to avoid a possible collision with other satellites. Nigeria_sentence_466

According to Nigerian Communications Satellite Limited, it was put into "emergency mode operation in order to effect mitigation and repairs". Nigeria_sentence_467

The satellite eventually failed after losing power on 11 November 2008. Nigeria_sentence_468

On 24 March 2009, the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, NigComSat Ltd. and CGWIC signed another contract for the in-orbit delivery of the NigComSat-1R satellite. Nigeria_sentence_469

NigComSat-1R was also a DFH-4 satellite, and the replacement for the failed NigComSat-1 was successfully launched into orbit by China in Xichang on 19 December 2011. Nigeria_sentence_470

The satellite, was stated to have a positive impact on national development in various sectors such as communications, internet services, health, agriculture, environmental protection and national security. Nigeria_sentence_471

NigeriaEduSat-1 was a satellite designed, built, and owned by the Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA), in conjunction with Nigeria's National Space Research and Development Agency and Japan's Kyushu Institute of Technology. Nigeria_sentence_472

It was equipped with 0.3 megapixel and 5 megapixel cameras, and with the rest of the satellite fleet took images of Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_473

The satellite transmitted songs and poems as an outreach project to generate Nigerian interest in science. Nigeria_sentence_474

The signal could be received by amateur radio operators. Nigeria_sentence_475

The satellite constellation also conducted measurements of the atmospheric density 400 kilometres (250 mi) above the Earth. Nigeria_sentence_476

The satellite cost about US$500,000 to manufacture and launch. Nigeria_sentence_477

Demographics Nigeria_section_29

Main article: Demographics of Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_478

Nigeria's population increased by 57 million from 1990 to 2008, a 60% growth rate in less than two decades. Nigeria_sentence_479

As of 2017, the population stood at 191 million. Nigeria_sentence_480

Around 42.5% of the population were 14 years or younger, 19.6% were aged 15–24, 30.7% were aged 25–54, 4.0% aged 55–64, and 3.1% aged 65 years or older. Nigeria_sentence_481

The median age in 2017 was 18.4 years. Nigeria_sentence_482

Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and accounts for about 17% of the continent's total population as of 2017; however, exactly how populous is a subject of speculation. Nigeria_sentence_483

The United Nations estimates that the population in 2018 was at 195,874,685, distributed as 51.7% rural and 48.3% urban, and with a population density of 167.5 people per square kilometre. Nigeria_sentence_484

National census results in the past few decades have been disputed. Nigeria_sentence_485

The results of the most recent census were released in December 2006 and gave a population of 140,003,542. Nigeria_sentence_486

The only breakdown available was by gender: males numbered 71,709,859, females numbered 68,293,008. Nigeria_sentence_487

In June 2012, President Goodluck Jonathan said Nigerians should limit their number of children. Nigeria_sentence_488

According to the United Nations, Nigeria has been undergoing explosive population growth and has one of the highest growth and fertility rates in the world. Nigeria_sentence_489

By their projections, Nigeria is one of eight countries expected to account collectively for half of the world's total population increase in 2005–2050. Nigeria_sentence_490

By 2100 the UN estimates that the Nigerian population will be between 505 million and 1.03 billion people (middle estimate: 730 million). Nigeria_sentence_491

In 1950, Nigeria had only 33 million people. Nigeria_sentence_492

One in six Africans is Nigerian as of 2019. Nigeria_sentence_493

Presently, Nigeria is the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria_sentence_494

The birth rate is 35.2-births/1,000 population and the death rate is 9.6 deaths/1,000 population as of 2017, while the total fertility rate is 5.07 children born/woman. Nigeria_sentence_495

Nigeria's largest city is Lagos. Nigeria_sentence_496

Lagos has grown from about 300,000 in 1950 to an estimated 13.4 million in 2017. Nigeria_sentence_497

Ethnic groups Nigeria_section_30

See:List of ethnic groups in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_498


Nigeria_cell_2_0_0 Nigeria_cell_2_0_1 Nigeria_cell_2_0_2
A Hausa lute playerNigeria_cell_2_1_0 Igbo ChiefNigeria_cell_2_1_1 Yoruba drummersNigeria_cell_2_1_2

Nigeria has more than 250 ethnic groups, with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich ethnic diversity. Nigeria_sentence_499

The three largest ethnic groups are the Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo, together accounting for more than 70% of the population, while the Edo, Ijaw, Fulɓe, Kanuri, Urhobo-Isoko, Ibibio, Ebira, Nupe, Gbagyi, Jukun, Igala, Idoma and Tiv comprise between 25 and 30%; other minorities make up the remaining 5%. Nigeria_sentence_500

The middle belt of Nigeria is known for its diversity of ethnic groups, including the Pyem, Goemai, and Kofyar. Nigeria_sentence_501

The official population count of each of Nigeria's ethnicities has always remained controversial and disputed as members of different ethnic groups believe the census is rigged to give a particular group (usually believed to be northern groups) numerical superiority. Nigeria_sentence_502

There are small minorities of British, American, Indian, Chinese (est. 50,000), white Zimbabwean, Japanese, Greek, Syrian and Lebanese immigrants in Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_503

Immigrants also include those from other West African or East African nations. Nigeria_sentence_504

These minorities mostly reside in major cities such as Lagos and Abuja, or in the Niger Delta as employees for the major oil companies. Nigeria_sentence_505

A number of Cubans settled in Nigeria as political refugees following the Cuban Revolution. Nigeria_sentence_506

In the middle of the 19th century, a number of ex-slaves of Afro-Cuban and Afro-Brazilian descent and emigrants from Sierra Leone established communities in Lagos and other regions of Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_507

Many ex-slaves came to Nigeria following the emancipation of slaves in the Americas. Nigeria_sentence_508

Many of the immigrants, sometimes called Saro (immigrants from Sierra Leone) and Amaro (ex-slaves from Brazil) later became prominent merchants and missionaries in these cities. Nigeria_sentence_509

Languages Nigeria_section_31

Main article: Languages of Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_510

Religion Nigeria_section_32

Main article: Religion in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_511

Nigeria is a religiously diverse society, with Islam and Christianity being the most widely professed religions. Nigeria_sentence_512

Nigerians are nearly equally divided into Muslims and Christians, with a tiny minority of adherents of Traditional African religions and other religions. Nigeria_sentence_513

As common in other parts of Africa where Islam and Christianity are dominant, religious syncretism with the Traditional African religions is common throughout Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_514

Islam dominates North Western (Hausa, Fulani and others) and a good portion of Northern Eastern (Kanuri, Fulani and other groups) Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_515

It also has a number of adherents in the South Western, Yoruba part of the country. Nigeria_sentence_516

Nigeria has the largest Muslim population in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria_sentence_517

Protestant and locally cultivated Christianity are also widely practiced in Western areas, while Roman Catholicism is a more prominent Christian feature of South Eastern Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_518

Both Roman Catholicism and Protestantism are observed in the Ibibio, Annang, Efik, Ijo and Ogoni lands of the south. Nigeria_sentence_519

The 1963 census indicated that 47% of Nigerians were Muslim, 34% Christian, and 18% members of local indigenous religions. Nigeria_sentence_520

The vast majority of Muslims in Nigeria are Sunni belonging to Maliki school of jurisprudence; however, a sizeable minority also belongs to Shafi Madhhab. Nigeria_sentence_521

A large number of Sunni Muslims are members of Sufi brotherhoods. Nigeria_sentence_522

Most Sufis follow the Qadiriyya, Tijaniyyah and/or the Mouride movements. Nigeria_sentence_523

A significant Shia minority exists (see Shia in Nigeria). Nigeria_sentence_524

Some northern states have incorporated Sharia law into their previously secular legal systems, which has brought about some controversy. Nigeria_sentence_525

Kano State has sought to incorporate Sharia law into its constitution. Nigeria_sentence_526

The majority of Quranists follow the Kalo Kato or Quraniyyun movement. Nigeria_sentence_527

There are also Ahmadiyya and Mahdiyya minorities, as well as followers of the Baháʼí Faith. Nigeria_sentence_528

An 18 December 2012 report on religion and public life by the Pew Research Center stated that in 2010, 49.3 percent of Nigeria's population was Christian, 48.8 percent was Muslim, and 1.9 percent were followers of indigenous and other religions, or unaffiliated. Nigeria_sentence_529

However, in a report released by Pew Research Center in 2015, the Muslim population was estimated to be 50%, and by 2060, according to the report, Muslims will account for about 60% of the country. Nigeria_sentence_530

The 2010 census of Association of Religion Data Archives has also reported that 48.8% of the total population was Christian, slightly larger than the Muslim population of 43.4%, while 7.5% were members of other religions. Nigeria_sentence_531

However, these estimates should be taken with caution because sample data is mostly collected from major urban areas in the south, which are predominantly Christian. Nigeria_sentence_532

Among Christians, the Pew Research survey found that 74% were Protestant, 25% were Catholic, and 1% belonged to other Christian denominations, including a small Orthodox Christian community. Nigeria_sentence_533

In terms of Nigeria's major ethnic groups, the Hausa ethnic group (predominant in the north) was found to be 45% Muslim and 5% Christian, the Yoruba tribe (predominant in the west) was equally split between Christians and Muslims with 10% adherents of traditional religions, while the Igbos (predominant in the east) and the Ijaw (south) were 98% Christian, with 2% practicing traditional religions. Nigeria_sentence_534

The middle belt of Nigeria contains the largest number of minority ethnic groups in Nigeria, who were found to be mostly Christians and members of traditional religions, with a small proportion of Muslims. Nigeria_sentence_535

Leading Protestant churches in the country include the Church of Nigeria of the Anglican Communion, the Assemblies of God Church, the Nigerian Baptist Convention and The Synagogue, Church Of All Nations. Nigeria_sentence_536

Since the 1990s, there has been significant growth in many other churches, independently started in Africa by Africans, particularly the evangelical Protestant ones. Nigeria_sentence_537

These include the Redeemed Christian Church of God, Winners' Chapel, Christ Apostolic Church (the first Aladura Movement in Nigeria), Living Faith Church Worldwide, Deeper Christian Life Ministry, Evangelical Church of West Africa, Mountain of Fire and Miracles, Christ Embassy, Lord's Chosen Charismatic Revival Movement, Celestial Church of Christ, and Dominion City. Nigeria_sentence_538

In addition, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Aladura Church, the Seventh-day Adventist and various indigenous churches have also experienced growth. Nigeria_sentence_539

The Yoruba area contains a large Anglican population, while Igboland is a mix of Roman Catholics, Protestants, and a small population of Igbo Jews. Nigeria_sentence_540

The Edo area is composed predominantly of members of the Pentecostal Assemblies of God, which was introduced into Nigeria by Augustus Ehurie Wogu and his associates at Old Umuahia. Nigeria_sentence_541

For the Yoruba, the precise percentage of Muslims and Christians is unknown but in states like Lagos, Oyo, Ogun, Osun, Kwara, and Kogi, it is equally split between Christians and Muslims while the Yoruba states of Ekiti and Ondo are predominantly Christian. Nigeria_sentence_542

Further, Nigeria has become an African hub for the Grail Movement and the Hare Krishnas, and the largest temple of the Eckankar religion is in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, with a total capacity of 10,000. Nigeria_sentence_543

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) announced creation of new Owerri mission in Nigeria in 2016. Nigeria_sentence_544

Health Nigeria_section_33

Further information: Health in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_545

Health care delivery in Nigeria is a concurrent responsibility of the three tiers of government in the country, and the private sector. Nigeria_sentence_546

Nigeria has been reorganising its health system since the Bamako Initiative of 1987, which formally promoted community-based methods of increasing accessibility of drugs and health care services to the population, in part by implementing user fees. Nigeria_sentence_547

The new strategy dramatically increased accessibility through community-based health care reform, resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services. Nigeria_sentence_548

A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost. Nigeria_sentence_549

HIV/AIDS rate in Nigeria is much lower compared to the other African nations such as Kenya or South Africa whose prevalence (percentage) rates are in the double digits. Nigeria_sentence_550

As of 2012, the HIV prevalence rate among adults ages 15–49 was just 3.1 percent. Nigeria_sentence_551

As of 2014, life expectancy in Nigeria is 52.62 years on average according to CIA, and just over half the population have access to potable water and appropriate sanitation; As of 2010, the infant mortality is 8.4 deaths per 1000 live births. Nigeria_sentence_552

Nigeria was the only country in Africa to have never eradicated polio, which it periodically exported to other African countries; Polio was cut 98% between 2009 and 2010. Nigeria_sentence_553

However, a major breakthrough came in December 2014, when it was reported that Nigeria had recorded zero polio cases in six months. Nigeria_sentence_554

In 2012, a new bone marrow donor program was launched by the University of Nigeria to help people with leukaemia, lymphoma, or sickle cell disease to find a compatible donor for a life-saving bone marrow transplant, which cures them of their conditions. Nigeria_sentence_555

Nigeria became the second African country to have successfully carried out this surgery. Nigeria_sentence_556

In the 2014 ebola outbreak, Nigeria was the first country to effectively contain and eliminate the Ebola threat that was ravaging three other countries in the West African region, the unique method of contact tracing employed by Nigeria became an effective method later used by countries such as the United States, when ebola threats were discovered. Nigeria_sentence_557

The Nigerian health care system is continuously faced with a shortage of doctors known as 'brain drain', because of emigration by skilled Nigerian doctors to North America and Europe. Nigeria_sentence_558

In 1995, an estimated 21,000 Nigerian doctors were practising in the United States alone, which is about the same as the number of doctors working in the Nigerian public service. Nigeria_sentence_559

Retaining these expensively trained professionals has been identified as one of the goals of the government. Nigeria_sentence_560

Education Nigeria_section_34

Main article: Education in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_561

Education in Nigeria is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Nigeria_sentence_562

Local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for state-controlled public education and state schools at a regional level. Nigeria_sentence_563

The education system is divided into Kindergarten, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. Nigeria_sentence_564

After the 1970s oil boom, tertiary education was improved so it would reach every subregion of Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_565

68% of the Nigerian population is literate, and the rate for men (75.7%) is higher than that for women (60.6%). Nigeria_sentence_566

Nigeria provides free, government-supported education, but attendance is not compulsory at any level, and certain groups, such as nomads and the handicapped, are under-served. Nigeria_sentence_567

The education system consists of six years of primary school, three years of junior secondary school, three years of senior secondary school, and four, five or six years of university education leading to a bachelor's degree. Nigeria_sentence_568

The government has majority control of university education. Nigeria_sentence_569

Tertiary education in Nigeria consists of Universities (Public and Private), Polytechnics, Monotechnics, and Colleges of education. Nigeria_sentence_570

The country has a total of 129 universities registered by NUC among which federal and state government own 40 and 39 respectively while 50 universities are privately owned. Nigeria_sentence_571

In order to increase the number of universities in Nigeria from 129 to 138 the Federal Government gave nine new private universities their licences in May 2015. Nigeria_sentence_572

The names of the universities that got licenses in Abuja included, Augustine University, Ilara, Lagos; Chrisland University, Owode, Ogun State; Christopher University, Mowe, Ogun State; Hallmark University, Ijebu-Itele, Ogun State; Kings University, Ode-Omu, Osun State; Micheal and Cecilia Ibru University, Owhrode, Delta State; Mountain Top University, Makogi/Oba Ogun state; Ritman University, Ikot-Epene, Akwa- Ibom State and Summit University, Offa, Kwara State. Nigeria_sentence_573

First-year entry requirements into most universities in Nigeria include: Minimum of SSCE/GCE Ordinary Level Credits at a maximum of two sittings; Minimum cut-off marks in Joint Admission and Matriculation Board Entrance Examination (JAMB) of 180 and above out of a maximum of 400 marks are required. Nigeria_sentence_574

Candidates with a minimum of Merit Pass in National Certificate of Education (NCE), National Diploma (ND) and other Advanced Level Certificates minimum qualifications with a minimum of 5O/L Credits are given direct entry admission into the appropriate undergraduate degree programs. Nigeria_sentence_575

Students with required documents typically enter university from age 17–18 onwards and study for an academic degree. Nigeria_sentence_576

Society Nigeria_section_35

Crime Nigeria_section_36

Main article: Crime in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_577

Further information: Confraternities in Nigeria, Piracy in the Gulf of Guinea, and 419 Scams Nigeria_sentence_578

Nigeria is home to a substantial network of organised crime, active, especially in drug trafficking. Nigeria_sentence_579

Nigerian criminal groups are heavily involved in drug trafficking, shipping heroin from Asian countries to Europe and America; and cocaine from South America to Europe and South Africa. Nigeria_sentence_580

Various Nigerian Confraternities or student "campus cults" are active in both organised crime and in political violence as well as providing a network of corruption within Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_581

As confraternities have extensive connections with political and military figures, they offer excellent alumni networking opportunities. Nigeria_sentence_582

The Supreme Vikings Confraternity, for example, boasts that twelve members of the Rivers State House of Assembly are cult members. Nigeria_sentence_583

There is some major piracy in Nigeria, with attacks directed at all types of vessels. Nigeria_sentence_584

Consistent with the rise of Nigeria as an increasingly dangerous hot spot, 28 of the 30 seafarers kidnapped globally between January and June 2013 were in Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_585

On lower levels of society, there are the "area boys", organised gangs mostly active in Lagos who specialise in mugging and small-scale drug dealing. Nigeria_sentence_586

Gang violence in Lagos resulted in 273 civilians and 84 policemen killed in the period of August 2000 to May 2001. Nigeria_sentence_587

Internationally, Nigeria is infamous for a form of bank fraud dubbed 419, a type of advance fee fraud (named after Section 419 of the Nigerian Penal Code) along with the "Nigerian scam", a form of confidence trick practised by individuals and criminal syndicates. Nigeria_sentence_588

These scams involve a complicit Nigerian bank (the laws being set up loosely to allow it) and a scammer who claims to have money he needs to obtain from that bank. Nigeria_sentence_589

The victim is talked into exchanging bank account information on the premise that the money will be transferred to them and they will get to keep a cut. Nigeria_sentence_590

In reality, money is taken out instead, and/or large fees (which seem small in comparison with the imaginary wealth he awaits) are deducted. Nigeria_sentence_591

In 2003, the Nigerian Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (or EFCC) was created, ostensibly to combat this and other forms of organised financial crime. Nigeria_sentence_592

Poverty Nigeria_section_37

Main article: Poverty in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_593

Nigeria poverty rates have gone down significantly in the last few years, because of economic growth. Nigeria_sentence_594

The world bank states Nigeria has had a 7.4% economic growth in July, 2019 which has been their highest yet since the While as of May 4, 2020 40% of Nigerians live in poverty, this number still shows the growth of the developing country, with Having made their own plans to reduce this number, The Federal Republic of Nigeria has presented a plan to lower this number tremendously to the World Bank Group. Nigeria_sentence_595

Mostly because of government instability, which affects the rate at which citizens of Nigeria are employed is the major reason for the poverty levels being higher in certain periods of time. Nigeria_sentence_596

Civil unrest and conflict Nigeria_section_38

See also: Conflict in the Niger Delta, Religious violence in Nigeria, and Herder—farmer conflict in central Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_597

Because of its multitude of diverse, sometimes competing ethno-linguistic groups, Nigeria prior to independence was faced with sectarian tensions and violence, particularly in the oil-producing Niger Delta region, where both state and civilian forces employ varying methods of coercion in attempts to gain control over regional petroleum resources. Nigeria_sentence_598

Some of the ethnic groups like the Ogoni, have experienced severe environmental degradation due to petroleum extraction. Nigeria_sentence_599

Since the end of the civil war in 1970, some ethnic violence has persisted. Nigeria_sentence_600

There has subsequently been a period of relative harmony since the Federal Government introduced tough new measures against religious violence in all affected parts of the country. Nigeria_sentence_601

The 2002 Miss World pageant was moved from Abuja to London in the wake of violent protests by Muslims in the Northern part of the country that left at least a hundred dead and more than 500 injured. Nigeria_sentence_602

The rioting erupted after Muslims in the country reacted in anger to comments made by a newspaper reporter. Nigeria_sentence_603

Muslim rioters in Kaduna killed an estimated 105 men, women, and children with a further 521 injured taken to hospital. Nigeria_sentence_604

Since 2002, the country has seen sectarian violence by Boko Haram, a movement that seeks to abolish the secular system of government and establish Sharia law in the country. Nigeria_sentence_605

In the 2010 Jos riots, more than 500 people were killed by religious violence. Nigeria_sentence_606

Between 2011 and 2018, Boko Haram has been responsible for more than 37,000 deaths in the region. Nigeria_sentence_607

The group's targets include both civilians and Nigerian security forces. Nigeria_sentence_608

In May 2014 Benin, Chad, Cameroon and Niger joined Nigeria in a united effort to combat Boko Haram in the aftermath of the 2014 Chibok kidnapping of 276 schoolgirls. Nigeria_sentence_609

In April 2016, more than 500 people in ten villages in predominantly Christian areas in Agatu were murdered by Fulani herdsmen. Nigeria_sentence_610

A visiting Nigerian Senator reported that all the primary and post-primary schools, health centres, worship centres as well as the police station in the area were destroyed. Nigeria_sentence_611

The UNHCR representative said in 20 years of work, she had "never seen such a level of destruction". Nigeria_sentence_612

130 Fulani adults and children were massacred in the Kaduna State in February 2019. Nigeria_sentence_613

Women's rights and issues Nigeria_section_39

Main article: Women in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_614

Further information: Child marriage in Nigeria, Polygamy in Nigeria, Child sexual abuse in Nigeria, Gender inequality in Nigeria, Domestic violence in Nigeria, Female genital mutilation in Nigeria, and Girl child labour in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_615

Nigeria is a state party of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women It also has signed Maputo Protocol, an international treaty on women's rights, and the African Union Women's Rights Framework. Nigeria_sentence_616

Discrimination based on sex is a significant human rights issue, however. Nigeria_sentence_617

Forced marriages are common. Nigeria_sentence_618

Child marriage remains common in Northern Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_619

39% of girls are married before age 15, although the Marriage Rights Act banning marriage of girls below 18 years of age was introduced on a federal level in 2008. Nigeria_sentence_620

There is polygamy in Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_621

Submission of the wife to her husband and domestic violence are common. Nigeria_sentence_622

Women have less land rights. Nigeria_sentence_623

Maternal mortality was at 814 per 100,000 live births in 2015. Nigeria_sentence_624

Female genital mutilation is common. Nigeria_sentence_625

In 2015, there was a federal ban. Nigeria_sentence_626

In Nigeria, at least half a million suffer from vaginal fistula, largely as a result of lack of medical care. Nigeria_sentence_627

Early marriages can result in fistula. Nigeria_sentence_628

Most workers in the informal sector are women. Nigeria_sentence_629

Women also face a large amount of inequality Politically in Nigeria, being subjugated to a bias which is sexist and reinforced by socio-cultural, economic and oppressive ways. Nigeria_sentence_630

Women throughout the country were only politically emancipated in 1979. Nigeria_sentence_631

Yet husbands continue to dictate the votes for many women in Nigeria, which upholds the patriarchal system. Nigeria_sentence_632

Women's representation in government since Independence from Britain is also very poor. Nigeria_sentence_633

Women have been reduced to sideline roles in appointive posts throughout all levels in government, and still make an up a tiny minority of elected officials. Nigeria_sentence_634

But nowadays with more education available to the public, Nigerian women are taking steps to have more active roles in the public, and with the help of different initiatives, more businesses are being started by women. Nigeria_sentence_635

Human rights Nigeria_section_40

Main articles: Human rights in Nigeria and LGBT rights in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_636

Nigeria's human rights record remains poor. Nigeria_sentence_637

According to the U.S. Department of State, the most significant human rights problems are: use of excessive force by security forces; impunity for abuses by security forces; arbitrary arrests; prolonged pretrial detention; judicial corruption and executive influence on the judiciary; rape, torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment of prisoners, detainees and suspects; harsh and life‑threatening prison and detention centre conditions; human trafficking for the purpose of prostitution and forced labour; societal violence and vigilante killings; child labour, child abuse and child sexual exploitation; domestic violence; discrimination based on ethnicity, region and religion. Nigeria_sentence_638

Under the Shari'a penal code that applies to Muslims in twelve northern states, offences such as alcohol consumption, homosexuality, infidelity and theft carry harsh sentences, including amputation, lashing, stoning and long prison terms. Nigeria_sentence_639

According to 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 98% of Nigerians believe homosexuality should not be accepted by society. Nigeria_sentence_640

Under a law signed in early 2014, same-sex couples who marry face up to 14 years each in prison. Nigeria_sentence_641

Witnesses or anyone who helps gay couples marry will be sentenced to 10 years behind bars. Nigeria_sentence_642

The bill also punishes the "public show of same-sex amorous relationships directly or indirectly" with ten years in prison. Nigeria_sentence_643

Another portion of the bill mandates 10 years in prison for those found guilty of organising, operating or supporting gay clubs, organizations and meetings. Nigeria_sentence_644

In the Nigerian state of Akwa Ibom, about 15,000 children were branded as witches; most of them ended up abandoned and abused on the streets. Nigeria_sentence_645

Culture Nigeria_section_41

Main article: Culture of Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_646

Chieftaincy system Nigeria_section_42

Main article: Nigerian chieftaincy system Nigeria_sentence_647


  • Nigeria_item_1_3
  • Nigeria_item_1_4
  • Nigeria_item_1_5

Literature Nigeria_section_43

Main article: Nigerian literature Nigeria_sentence_648

Nigerian citizens have authored many influential works of post-colonial literature in the English language. Nigeria_sentence_649

Nigeria's best-known writers are Wole Soyinka, the first African Nobel Laureate in Literature, and Chinua Achebe, best known for the novel Things Fall Apart (1958) and his controversial critique of Joseph Conrad. Nigeria_sentence_650

Other Nigerian writers and poets who are well known internationally include John Pepper Clark, Ben Okri, Cyprian Ekwensi, Buchi Emecheta, Helon Habila, T. Nigeria_sentence_651 M. Aluko, Isaac Delano, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Daniel O. Fagunwa, Femi Osofisan and Ken Saro Wiwa, who was executed in 1995 by the military regime. Nigeria_sentence_652

Critically acclaimed writers of a younger generation include Adaobi Tricia Nwaubani, Chris Abani, Sefi Atta, Helon Habila, Helen Oyeyemi, Nnedi Okorafor, Kachi A. Ozumba, Sarah Ladipo Manyika, and Chika Unigwe. Nigeria_sentence_653

Music and film Nigeria_section_44

Main articles: Music of Nigeria, Cinema of Nigeria, and Festivals in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_654

Nigeria has had a huge role in the development of various genres of African music, including West African highlife, Afrobeat, Afrobeats, and palm-wine music, which fuses native rhythms with techniques that have been linked to the Congo, Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica and worldwide. Nigeria_sentence_655

Many late 20th-century musicians such as Fela Kuti have famously fused cultural elements of various indigenous music with American jazz and soul to form Afrobeat which has in turn influenced hip hop music. Nigeria_sentence_656

JuJu music, which is percussion music fused with traditional music from the Yoruba nation and made famous by King Sunny Adé, is from Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_657

Fuji music, a Yoruba percussion style, was created and popularised by Mr. Fuji, Alhaji Sikiru Ayinde Barrister. Nigeria_sentence_658

Afan Music was invented and popularised by the Ewu-born poet and musician Umuobuarie Igberaese. Nigeria_sentence_659

There is a budding hip-hop movement in Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_660

Kennis Music, the self-proclaimed number-one record label in Africa, and one of Nigeria's biggest record labels, has a roster almost entirely dominated by hip-hop artists. Nigeria_sentence_661

Notable musicians from Nigeria include: Sade Adu, King Sunny Adé, Onyeka Onwenu, Dele Sosimi, Adewale Ayuba, Ezebuiro Obinna, Ebenezer Obey, Femi Kuti, Lagbaja, Dr. Nigeria_sentence_662 Alban, Bola Abimbola, Tuface Idibia, Aṣa, Nneka, Wale, P Square, Wizkid, Skepta, Davido CB and D'Banj. Nigeria_sentence_663

In November 2008, Nigeria's music scene (and that of Africa) received international attention when MTV hosted the continent's first African music awards show in Abuja. Nigeria_sentence_664

Additionally, the very first music video played on MTV Base Africa (the 100th station on the MTV network) was Tuface Idibia's pan-African hit "African Queen". Nigeria_sentence_665

The Nigerian film industry is known as Nollywood (a blend of Nigeria and Hollywood) and is now the 2nd-largest producer of movies in the world after India's Bollywood. Nigeria_sentence_666

Nigerian film studios are based in Lagos, Kano and Enugu, forming a major portion of the local economy of these cities. Nigeria_sentence_667

Nigerian cinema is Africa's largest movie industry in terms of both value and the number of movies produced per year. Nigeria_sentence_668

Although Nigerian films have been produced since the 1960s, the country's film industry has been aided by the rise of affordable digital filming and editing technologies. Nigeria_sentence_669

Some films and audio documentaries include: Nigeria_sentence_670


The 2009 thriller film The Figurine is generally considered the game changer, which heightened the media attention towards New Nigerian Cinema revolution. Nigeria_sentence_671

The film was a critical and commercial success in Nigeria, and it was also screened in international film festivals. Nigeria_sentence_672

The 2010 film Ijé by Chineze Anyaene, overtook The Figurine to become the highest grossing Nigerian film; a record it held for four years, until it was overtaken in 2014 by Half of a Yellow Sun(2013). Nigeria_sentence_673

By 2016, this record was held by The Wedding Party, a film by Kemi Adetiba. Nigeria_sentence_674

By the end of 2013, the film industry reportedly hit a record-breaking revenue of ₦1.72 trillion (US$11 billion). Nigeria_sentence_675

As of 2014, the industry was worth ₦853.9 billion (US$5.1 billion) making it the third most valuable film industry in the world, behind the United States and India. Nigeria_sentence_676

It contributed about 1.4% to Nigeria's economy; this was attributed to the increase in the number of quality films produced and more formal distribution methods. Nigeria_sentence_677

T.B. Nigeria_sentence_678 Joshua's Emmanuel TV, originating from Nigeria, is one of the most viewed television stations across Africa. Nigeria_sentence_679

There are many festivals in Nigeria, some of which date to the period before the arrival of the major religions in this ethnically and culturally diverse society. Nigeria_sentence_680

The main Muslim and Christian festivals are often celebrated in ways that are unique to Nigeria or unique to the people of a locality. Nigeria_sentence_681

The Nigerian Tourism Development Corporation has been working with the states to upgrade the traditional festivals, which may become important sources of tourism revenue. Nigeria_sentence_682

Cuisine Nigeria_section_45

Main article: Cuisine of Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_683

Nigerian cuisine, like West African cuisine in general, is known for its richness and variety. Nigeria_sentence_684

Many different spices, herbs, and flavourings are used in conjunction with palm oil or groundnut oil to create deeply flavoured sauces and soups often made very hot with chili peppers. Nigeria_sentence_685

Nigerian feasts are colourful and lavish, while aromatic market and roadside snacks cooked on barbecues or fried in oil are plentiful and varied. Nigeria_sentence_686

Sport Nigeria_section_46

Main article: Sports in Nigeria Nigeria_sentence_687

Football is largely considered Nigeria's national sport and the country has its own Premier League of football. Nigeria_sentence_688

Nigeria's national football team, known as the "Super Eagles", has made the World Cup on Six occasions 1994, 1998, 2002, 2010, 2014, and most recently in 2018. Nigeria_sentence_689

In April 1994, the Super Eagles ranked 5th in the FIFA World Rankings, the highest ranking achieved by an African football team. Nigeria_sentence_690

They won the African Cup of Nations in 1980, 1994, and 2013, and have also hosted the U-17 & U-20 World Cup. Nigeria_sentence_691

They won the gold medal for football in the 1996 Summer Olympics (in which they beat Argentina) becoming the first African football team to win gold in Olympic football. Nigeria_sentence_692

The nation's cadet team from Japan '93 produced some international players notably Nwankwo Kanu, a two-time African Footballer of the year who won the European Champions League with Ajax Amsterdam and later played with Inter Milan, Arsenal, West Bromwich Albion and Portsmouth. Nigeria_sentence_693

Other players who graduated from the junior teams are Nduka Ugbade, Jonathan Akpoborie, Victor Ikpeba, Celestine Babayaro, Wilson Oruma and Taye Taiwo. Nigeria_sentence_694

Some other famous Nigerian footballers include John Obi Mikel, Obafemi Martins, Vincent Enyeama, Yakubu, Rashidi Yekini, Peter Odemwingie and Jay-Jay Okocha. Nigeria_sentence_695

According to the official May 2010 FIFA World Rankings, Nigeria was the second top-ranked football nation in Africa and the 21st highest in the world. Nigeria_sentence_696

Nigeria is also involved in other sports such as basketball, cricket and track and field. Nigeria_sentence_697

Boxing is also an important sport in Nigeria; Dick Tiger and Samuel Peter are both former World Champions. Nigeria_sentence_698

Nigeria's national basketball team made the headlines internationally when it qualified for the 2012 Summer Olympics as it beat heavily favoured world elite teams such as Greece and Lithuania. Nigeria_sentence_699

Nigeria has been home to numerous internationally recognised basketball players in the world's top leagues in America, Europe and Asia. Nigeria_sentence_700

These players include Basketball Hall of Famer Hakeem Olajuwon, and later NBA draft picks Solomon Alabi, Yinka Dare, Obinna Ekezie, Festus Ezeli, Al-Farouq Aminu and Olumide Oyedeji. Nigeria_sentence_701

Nigeria made history by qualifying the first bobsled team for the Winter Olympics from Africa when their women's two-man team qualified for the bobsled competition at the XXIII Olympic Winter Games in Pyeongchang, South Korea. Nigeria_sentence_702

In the early 1990s, Scrabble was made an official sport in Nigeria. Nigeria_sentence_703

By the end of 2017, there were around 4,000 players in more than 100 clubs in the country. Nigeria_sentence_704

In 2015, Wellington Jighere became the first African player to win World Scrabble Championship. Nigeria_sentence_705

See also Nigeria_section_47


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: