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The Nizamiyyah (from Persian: نظامیه‎, Arabic: النظامیة‎) are a group of the medieval institutions of higher education established by Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk in the eleventh century in Iran. Nezamiyeh_sentence_0

The name nizamiyyah derives from his name. Nezamiyeh_sentence_1

Founded at the beginning of the Seljuk Empire, these Sunni Islam theological schools are considered to be the model of later madrasahs, or Islamic religious schools. Nezamiyeh_sentence_2

Nizamiyyah institutes were among the first well organized institutions of higher learning in the Muslim world. Nezamiyeh_sentence_3

The quality of education was among the highest in the Islamic world, and they were even renowned in Europe. Nezamiyeh_sentence_4

They were supported financially, politically, and spiritually by the royal establishment and the elite class. Nezamiyeh_sentence_5

Some scholars have suggested that the establishment of the Nizamiyya madrasas was in fact an attempt to thwart the growing influence of another group of Muslims, the Ismailis, in the region. Nezamiyeh_sentence_6

Indeed, Nizam al-Mulk devoted a significant section in his famous Siyasatnama (Books of Politics) to refuting the Ismaili doctrines. Nezamiyeh_sentence_7

The most famous and celebrated of all the nizamiyyah schools was Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad (established 1065), where Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk appointed the distinguished philosopher and theologian, al-Ghazali, as a professor. Nezamiyeh_sentence_8

Persian poet Sa'di was a student of the Baghdad Nizamiyyah. Nezamiyeh_sentence_9

Other nizamiyyah schools were located in Nishapur, Amol, Balkh, Herat and Isfahan. Nezamiyeh_sentence_10

Nizam ul-Mulk was finally assassinated en route from Isfahan to Baghdad in 1092 CE. Nezamiyeh_sentence_11

According to several books, he was assassinated by a Nizari Ismaili (an Assassin). Nezamiyeh_sentence_12

According to Mughatil ibn Bakri, a staff member of the Al-Nizamiyya of Baghdad, he alleges that Nizam al-Mulk converted to Shia Islam after a Sunni-Shia debate held on the orders of Sultan Malik Shah I, who also converted to Shia'ism. Nezamiyeh_sentence_13

But it is thereafter that they were both assassinated. Nezamiyeh_sentence_14

This narration is disputed, however, by most historians and Sunni scholars. Nezamiyeh_sentence_15

The curriculum initially focused on religious studies, Islamic law, Arabic literature, and arithmetic, and later extended to history, mathematics, the physical sciences, and music. Nezamiyeh_sentence_16

See also Nezamiyeh_section_0




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