Non-binary gender

From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

"Enby" redirects here. Non-binary gender_sentence_0

For the village in Estonia also known as Enby, see Einbi. Non-binary gender_sentence_1

"Non-binary" redirects here. Non-binary gender_sentence_2

For other uses, see Binary (disambiguation). Non-binary gender_sentence_3

For non-human reproduction with no distinction between male and female gametes, see isogamy. Non-binary gender_sentence_4

Non-binary gender_table_infobox_0

Non-binaryNon-binary gender_table_caption_0
DefinitionNon-binary gender_header_cell_0_0_0 A spectrum of gender identities that are not exclusively masculine or feminineNon-binary gender_cell_0_0_1
ClassificationNon-binary gender_header_cell_0_1_0 Gender identityNon-binary gender_cell_0_1_1
AbbreviationsNon-binary gender_header_cell_0_2_0 EnbyNon-binary gender_cell_0_2_1
SubcategoriesNon-binary gender_header_cell_0_3_0 Various, see belowNon-binary gender_cell_0_3_1
Other termsNon-binary gender_header_cell_0_4_0
SynonymsNon-binary gender_header_cell_0_5_0 GenderqueerNon-binary gender_cell_0_5_1
Associated termsNon-binary gender_header_cell_0_6_0 Androgyny, queer, third gender, transgender, two-spiritNon-binary gender_cell_0_6_1
FlagNon-binary gender_header_cell_0_7_0
Flag nameNon-binary gender_header_cell_0_8_0 Non-binary pride flagNon-binary gender_cell_0_8_1
CreationNon-binary gender_header_cell_0_9_0 2014Non-binary gender_cell_0_9_1
DesignerNon-binary gender_header_cell_0_10_0 Kye RowanNon-binary gender_cell_0_10_1

Non-binary (also spelled nonbinary) or genderqueer is a spectrum of gender identities that are not exclusively masculine or feminine‍—‌identities that are outside the gender binary. Non-binary gender_sentence_5

Non-binary identities can fall under the transgender umbrella, since many non-binary people identify with a gender that is different from their assigned sex. Non-binary gender_sentence_6

Another term for non-binary is enby (from the abbreviation 'NB'). Non-binary gender_sentence_7

Non-binary people may identify as having two or more genders (being bigender or trigender); having no gender (agender, nongendered, genderless, genderfree or neutrois); moving between genders or having a fluctuating gender identity (genderfluid); being third gender or other-gendered (a category that includes those who do not place a name to their gender). Non-binary gender_sentence_8

Gender identity is separate from sexual or romantic orientation, and non-binary people have a variety of sexual orientations, just as cisgender people do. Non-binary gender_sentence_9

Non-binary gender identities are not associated with a specific gender expression, such as androgyny. Non-binary gender_sentence_10

Non-binary people as a group have a wide variety of gender expressions, and some may reject gender "identities" altogether. Non-binary gender_sentence_11

Some non-binary people are medically treated for gender dysphoria with surgery or hormones, as trans men and women often are. Non-binary gender_sentence_12

Definitions and identity Non-binary gender_section_0

The term genderqueer originated in queer zines of the 1980s as a precursor to the term non-binary. Non-binary gender_sentence_13

In addition to being an umbrella term, genderqueer has been used as an adjective to refer to any people who are perceived to transcend or divert from traditional distinctions of gender, regardless of their self-defined gender identity. Non-binary gender_sentence_14

Individuals may express gender non-normatively by not conforming into the binary gender categories of "man" and "woman". Non-binary gender_sentence_15

Genderqueer is often used to self-identify by people who challenge binary social constructions of gender. Non-binary gender_sentence_16

The term genderqueer has also been applied by those describing what they see as a gender ambiguity. Non-binary gender_sentence_17

Androgynous (also androgyne) is frequently used as a descriptive term for people in this category. Non-binary gender_sentence_18

This is because the term androgyny is closely associated with a blend of socially defined masculine and feminine traits. Non-binary gender_sentence_19

However, not all genderqueer people identify as androgynous. Non-binary gender_sentence_20

Some genderqueer people identify as a masculine woman or a feminine man or combine genderqueer with another gender option. Non-binary gender_sentence_21

Being non-binary is not the same as being intersex, and most intersex people identify as either male or female. Non-binary gender_sentence_22

Some people use enby (from the letters 'NB') as a short form of non-binary. Non-binary gender_sentence_23

Many references use the term transgender to include genderqueer/non-binary people. Non-binary gender_sentence_24

The Human Rights Campaign Foundation and Gender Spectrum use the term gender-expansive to convey "a wider, more flexible range of gender identity and/or expression than typically associated with the binary gender system". Non-binary gender_sentence_25

Agender people ('-' meaning "without"), also called genderless, gender-free, non-gendered, or ungendered, are those who identify as having no gender or being without a gender identity. Non-binary gender_sentence_26

Although this category includes a broad range of identities which do not conform to traditional gender norms, scholar Finn Enke states that people who identify with any of these positions may not necessarily self-identify as transgender. Non-binary gender_sentence_27

Agender people have no specific set of pronouns; singular they is typically used, but it is not the default. Non-binary gender_sentence_28

Neutrois and agender were two of 50 available custom genders on Facebook, which were added on 13 February 2014. Non-binary gender_sentence_29

Agender is also available as a gender option on OkCupid since 17 November 2014. Non-binary gender_sentence_30

Bigender, bi-gender, or dual gender is a gender identity that includes any two gender identities and behaviors. Non-binary gender_sentence_31

Identifying as bigender is typically understood to mean that one identifies as both male and female or moves between masculine gender expression and feminine gender expression, having two distinct gender identities simultaneously or fluctuating between them. Non-binary gender_sentence_32

This is different from identifying as genderfluid, as those who identify as genderfluid may not go back and forth between any fixed gender identities and may experience an entire range or spectrum of identities over time. Non-binary gender_sentence_33

The American Psychological Association describes the bigender identity as part of the umbrella of transgender identities. Non-binary gender_sentence_34

Some bigender individuals express two distinct personas, which may be feminine, masculine, agender, androgyne, or other gender identities; others find that they identify as two genders simultaneously. Non-binary gender_sentence_35

A 1999 survey conducted by the San Francisco Department of Public Health observed that, among the transgender community, 3% of those who were assigned male at birth and 8% of those who were assigned female at birth identified as either "a transvestite, cross-dresser, drag queen, or a bigendered person". Non-binary gender_sentence_36

A 2016 Harris poll conducted on behalf of GLAAD found that 1% of millennials identify as bigender. Non-binary gender_sentence_37

Demigender is a gender identity of a person identifying partially or mostly with one gender and at the same time with another gender. Non-binary gender_sentence_38

There are several subcategories of the identity. Non-binary gender_sentence_39

A demi-boy or demi-man, for example, identifies at least partially with being a boy or a man, no matter the sex and gender they were assigned at birth, while other parts of their identity might be assigned to other genders, genderfluid or no other gender (agender). Non-binary gender_sentence_40

A demiflux person feels that the stable part of their identity is non-binary. Non-binary gender_sentence_41

Genderfluid people often express a desire to remain flexible about their gender identity rather than committing to a single definition. Non-binary gender_sentence_42

They may fluctuate between differing gender expressions over their lifetime, or express multiple aspects of various gender markers at the same time. Non-binary gender_sentence_43

A genderfluid individual may also identify as bigender – shifting between masculine and feminine; or as trigender – shifting between these and a third gender. Non-binary gender_sentence_44

Pangender may be defined as being more than one gender, or it may describe a person who feels they are a member of all genders at the same time. Non-binary gender_sentence_45

Transfeminine and transmasculine may be used by individuals to describe an aspect of femininity or masculinity within their identity. Non-binary gender_sentence_46

Transfeminine may be used by individuals who were assigned male at birth but align more closely with femininity, while not necessarily fully identifying as a woman. Non-binary gender_sentence_47

Transmasculine may be used by individuals who were assigned female at birth but align more closely with masculinity, while not necessarily fully identifying as a man. Non-binary gender_sentence_48

History Non-binary gender_section_1

In 1992, after the publication of Transgender Liberation: A Movement Whose Time Has Come by Leslie Feinberg, the term transgender was broadened to become a term for gender variation in general. Non-binary gender_sentence_49

This is highlighted in 1994, when activist Kate Bornstein wrote "All the categories of transgender find a common ground in that they each break one or more of the rules of gender: What we have in common is that we are gender outlaws, every one of us." Non-binary gender_sentence_50

The term genderqueer came into use during the mid-1990s among political activists. Non-binary gender_sentence_51

Riki Anne Wilchins is often associated with the word and claims to have coined it. Non-binary gender_sentence_52

Wikchins used the term in a 1995 essay published in the first issue of In Your Face to describe anyone who is gender nonconforming. Non-binary gender_sentence_53

They were also one of the main contributors to the anthology Genderqueer: Voices Beyond the Sexual Binary which was published in 2002. Non-binary gender_sentence_54

Wilchins stated they identify as genderqueer in their 1997 autobiography. Non-binary gender_sentence_55

The internet popularized the term genderqueer, as a wide audience was able to be reached very quickly. Non-binary gender_sentence_56

In 2008, The New York Times used the word genderqueer. Non-binary gender_sentence_57

In the 2010s, this term became more popularized as many celebrities publicly identified as gender nonconforming. Non-binary gender_sentence_58

In 2012, the Intersex & Genderqueer Recognition Project was started to advocate for expanding gender options on official documentation. Non-binary gender_sentence_59

In 2016, James Shupe was the first person to have a nonbinary gender on official documents in the United States. Non-binary gender_sentence_60

Pronouns and titles Non-binary gender_section_2

Some non-binary/genderqueer people prefer to use gender-neutral pronouns. Non-binary gender_sentence_61

Usage of singular 'they', 'their' and 'them' is the most common; non-standard pronouns such as , , , , and ey are sometimes used as well. Non-binary gender_sentence_62

Some others prefer the conventional gender-specific pronouns 'her' or 'him', prefer to be referred to alternately as 'he' and 'she', or prefer to use only their name and not use pronouns at all. Non-binary gender_sentence_63

Many prefer additional neutral language, such as the title 'Mx.' Non-binary gender_sentence_64

instead of Mr. or Ms. Non-binary gender_sentence_65

Legal recognition Non-binary gender_section_3

Main article: Legal recognition of non-binary gender Non-binary gender_sentence_66

In today's society, many non-binary/genderqueer people still use the gender they were given at birth to conduct everyday business, as many institutions and forms of identification – such as passports and driver's licenses – only accept, in the sense of recorded recognition, binary gender identities. Non-binary gender_sentence_67

However, with the increasing acceptance of non-binary gender identities and the rise in wider societal recognition, this is slowly changing, as a greater number of governments and institutions recognize and allow non-binary identities. Non-binary gender_sentence_68

Multiple countries legally recognize non-binary or third gender classifications. Non-binary gender_sentence_69

Some non-Western societies have long recognized transgender people as a third gender, though this may not (or may only recently) include formal legal recognition. Non-binary gender_sentence_70

In Western societies, Australia may have been the first country to legally recognize a classification of sex outside of 'male' and 'female' on legal documentation, following the recognition of Alex MacFarlane's intersex status in 2003. Non-binary gender_sentence_71

The wider legal recognition of nonbinary people – following the recognition of intersex people in 2003 – in Australian law followed between 2010 and 2014, with legal action taken against the New South Wales Government Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages by transgender activist Norrie May-Welby to recognize Norrie's legal gender identity as 'non-specific'. Non-binary gender_sentence_72

While the United States does not federally recognize a non-binary gender, in 2016 Oregon became the first state to recognize a non-binary gender identity. Non-binary gender_sentence_73

Following Oregon, in 2017 California passed an act allowing citizens to identify as "non-binary" on official documents. Non-binary gender_sentence_74

As of 2019, eight states have passed acts that allow "non-binary" or "X" designations on certain identifying documents. Non-binary gender_sentence_75

One of the main arguments against the inclusion of a third gender identifier in the U.S. is that it would make law enforcement and surveillance harder, however countries that have officially recognized a third gender marker have not reported these issues. Non-binary gender_sentence_76

In the United States there are no explicit laws to protect non-binary people from discrimination, however it is illegal for an employer to require employees to conform to sex stereotypes. Non-binary gender_sentence_77

Discrimination Non-binary gender_section_4

Main article: Discrimination against non-binary gender persons Non-binary gender_sentence_78

In the United States, the majority of respondents to the National Transgender Discrimination Survey chose "A gender not listed here". Non-binary gender_sentence_79

The "not listed here" respondents were nine percentage-points (33 percent) more likely to report forgoing healthcare due to fear of discrimination than the general sample (36 percent compared to 27 percent). Non-binary gender_sentence_80

Ninety percent reported experiencing anti-trans bias at work, and 43 percent reported having attempted suicide. Non-binary gender_sentence_81

The majority of reported discrimination faced by non-binary individuals often includes disregard, disbelief, condescending interactions, and disrespect. Non-binary gender_sentence_82

People who are non-binary are also often viewed as partaking in part of a trend and are thus deemed insincere or attention-seeking. Non-binary gender_sentence_83

As an accumulation, erasure is often a large form of discrimination faced by non-binary individuals. Non-binary gender_sentence_84

Misgendering is also a problem that many individuals face, be it intentional or unintentional. Non-binary gender_sentence_85

In the case of intentional misgendering, transphobia is a driving force. Non-binary gender_sentence_86

Also, the use of they/them pronouns is lumped into the larger, controversial, subject of safe spaces and political correctness, causing push back, and intentional misgendering from some individuals. Non-binary gender_sentence_87

In the case of unintentional misgendering, it is often expected for the person who is misgendered to console and forgive the person who made the mistake. Non-binary gender_sentence_88

Symbols and observances Non-binary gender_section_5

Main article: LGBT symbols Non-binary gender_sentence_89

Many flags have been used in non-binary and genderqueer communities to represent various identities. Non-binary gender_sentence_90

There are distinct non-binary and genderqueer pride flags. Non-binary gender_sentence_91

The genderqueer pride flag was designed in 2011 by Marilyn Roxie. Non-binary gender_sentence_92

Lavender represents androgyny or queerness, white represents agender identity, and green represents those whose identities which are defined outside the binary. Non-binary gender_sentence_93

The non-binary pride flag was created in 2014 by Kye Rowan. Non-binary gender_sentence_94

Yellow represents people whose gender exists outside the binary, purple represents those whose gender is a mixture of – or between – male and female, black represents people who have no gender, and white represents those who embrace many or all genders. Non-binary gender_sentence_95

Genderfluid people, who also fall under the genderqueer umbrella, have their own flag as well. Non-binary gender_sentence_96

Pink represents femininity, white represents lack of gender, purple represents mixed gender or androgyny, black represents all other genders, and blue represents masculinity. Non-binary gender_sentence_97

Agender people, who also sometimes identify as genderqueer, have their own flag. Non-binary gender_sentence_98

This flag uses black and white stripes to represent an absence of gender, and a green stripe to represent non-binary genders. Non-binary gender_sentence_99

International Non-Binary People's Day is celebrated on 14 July. Non-binary gender_sentence_100

Population figures Non-binary gender_section_6

A 2019 survey of the Two-Spirit and LGBTQ+ population in the Canadian city of Hamilton, Ontario called Mapping the Void: Two-Spirit and LGBTQ+ Experiences in Hamilton showed that 19% of the 906 respondents identified as non-binary. Non-binary gender_sentence_101

A 2017 survey of Canadian LGBT+ people called LGBT+ Realities Survey found that 4% of the 1,897 respondents identified as non-binary transgender and 1% identified as non-binary outside of the transgender umbrella. Non-binary gender_sentence_102

According to The Report of the 2015 U.S. Transgender Survey, 35% of the nearly 28,000 transgender respondents to the anonymous online survey identified as non-binary. Non-binary gender_sentence_103

A 2011 survey conducted by the Equality and Human Rights Commission in the UK found that 0.4% of the 10,039 respondents identified as non-binary. Non-binary gender_sentence_104

See also Non-binary gender_section_7

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: gender.