North America

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"North American" redirects here. North America_sentence_0

For other uses, see North American (disambiguation). North America_sentence_1

Not to be confused with Northern America. North America_sentence_2

North America_table_infobox_0

North AmericaNorth America_table_caption_0
AreaNorth America_header_cell_0_0_0 24,709,000 km (9,540,000 sq mi) (3rd)North America_cell_0_0_1
PopulationNorth America_header_cell_0_1_0 579,024,000 (2016; 4th)North America_cell_0_1_1
Population densityNorth America_header_cell_0_2_0 22.9/km (59.3/sq mi)North America_cell_0_2_1
GDP (PPP)North America_header_cell_0_3_0 $26.03 trillion (2019; 3rd)North America_cell_0_3_1
GDP (nominal)North America_header_cell_0_4_0 $24.43 trillion (2019; 2nd)North America_cell_0_4_1
GDP per capitaNorth America_header_cell_0_5_0 $49,240 (2019; 2nd)North America_cell_0_5_1
DemonymNorth America_header_cell_0_6_0 North AmericanNorth America_cell_0_6_1
CountriesNorth America_header_cell_0_7_0 23 sovereign statesNorth America_cell_0_7_1
DependenciesNorth America_header_cell_0_8_0 23 non-sovereign territoriesNorth America_cell_0_8_1
LanguagesNorth America_header_cell_0_9_0 English, Spanish, French, and many othersNorth America_cell_0_9_1
Time zonesNorth America_header_cell_0_10_0 UTC-10 to UTCNorth America_cell_0_10_1
Largest citiesNorth America_header_cell_0_11_0 List of urban areas:North America_cell_0_11_1
UN M49 codeNorth America_header_cell_0_12_0 003 – North America

019 – Americas 001 – WorldNorth America_cell_0_12_1

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere. North America_sentence_3

It can also be described as a northern subcontinent of the Americas. North America_sentence_4

It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea, and to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean. North America_sentence_5

North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the Earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America_sentence_6

North America is the third-largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. North America_sentence_7

In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands (most notably around the Caribbean) are included. North America_sentence_8

North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge approximately 40,000 to 17,000 years ago. North America_sentence_9

The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago (the beginning of the Archaic or Meso-Indian period). North America_sentence_10

The classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. North America_sentence_11

The pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, with the beginning of the transatlantic migrations of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the early modern period. North America_sentence_12

Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves, immigrants, and the descendants of these groups. North America_sentence_13

Owing to Europe's colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak European languages such as English, Spanish or French, and their states' cultures commonly reflect Western traditions. North America_sentence_14

Name North America_section_0

Main article: Naming of the Americas North America_sentence_15

The Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. North America_sentence_16

Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. North America_sentence_17

In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil. North America_sentence_18

He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio: North America_sentence_19

For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. North America_sentence_20

He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name (Americus Vespucius), but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". North America_sentence_21

Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent. North America_sentence_22

In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere. North America_sentence_23

Some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries (except in the case of royalty), the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. North America_sentence_24

In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America; the next year, Jules Marcou suggested that the name of the mountain range stemmed from indigenous American languages. North America_sentence_25

Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and ... the [suffixes] can mean ... a spirit that breathes, life itself." North America_sentence_26

Mercator on his map called North America "America or New India" (America sive India Nova). North America_sentence_27

Extent North America_section_1

The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, and The Caribbean. North America_sentence_28

This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. North America_sentence_29

"Northern America", as a term distinct from "North America", excludes Central America, which itself may or may not include Mexico (see Central America § Different definitions). North America_sentence_30

In the limited context of the North American Free Trade Agreement, the term covers Canada, the United States, and Mexico, which are the three signatories of that treaty. North America_sentence_31

France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Romania, Greece, and the countries of Latin America use a six-continent model, with the Americas viewed as a single continent and North America designating a subcontinent comprising Canada, the United States, and Mexico, and often Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, and Bermuda. North America_sentence_32

North America has been historically referred to by other names. North America_sentence_33

Spanish North America (New Spain) was often referred to as Northern America, and this was the first official name given to Mexico. North America_sentence_34

Regions North America_section_2

See also: List of regions of Canada and List of regions of the United States North America_sentence_35

Geographically, the North American continent has many regions and subregions. North America_sentence_36

These include cultural, economic, and geographic regions. North America_sentence_37

Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement. North America_sentence_38

Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Anglo-America and Latin America. North America_sentence_39

Anglo-America includes most of Northern America, Belize, and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations (though sub-national entities, such as the state of Louisiana and the province of Quebec, have large Francophone populations; in Quebec, French is the sole official language). North America_sentence_40

The southern part of North American continent is composed of two regions. North America_sentence_41

These are Central America and the Caribbean. North America_sentence_42

The north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. North America_sentence_43

In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, Canada, the United States, and Greenland. North America_sentence_44

The term Northern America refers to the northernmost countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Canada and Greenland. North America_sentence_45

Although the term does not refer to a unified region, Middle America—not to be confused with the Midwestern United States—groups the regions of Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. North America_sentence_46

North America's largest countries by land area, Canada and the United States, also contain well-defined and recognized regions. North America_sentence_47

In the case of Canada these are (from east to west) Atlantic Canada, Central Canada, Canadian Prairies, the British Columbia Coast, and Northern Canada. North America_sentence_48

These regions also contain many subregions. North America_sentence_49

In the case of the United States – and in accordance with the US Census Bureau definitions – these regions are: New England, Mid-Atlantic, South Atlantic States, East North Central States, West North Central States, East South Central States, West South Central States, Mountain States, and Pacific States. North America_sentence_50

Regions shared between both nations included the Great Lakes Region. North America_sentence_51

Megalopolises have formed between both nations in the case of the Pacific Northwest and the Great Lakes Megaregion. North America_sentence_52

Countries, territories, and dependencies North America_section_3

Main article: List of sovereign states and dependent territories in North America North America_sentence_53

North America_table_general_1

ArmsNorth America_header_cell_1_0_0 FlagNorth America_header_cell_1_0_1 Country or territoryNorth America_header_cell_1_0_2 CapitalNorth America_header_cell_1_0_3 AreaNorth America_header_cell_1_0_4 Population

(2018)North America_header_cell_1_0_5

Population densityNorth America_header_cell_1_0_6
AnguillaNorth America_cell_1_1_0 Flag_of_AnguillaNorth America_cell_1_1_1 Anguilla

(United Kingdom)North America_cell_1_1_2

The ValleyNorth America_cell_1_1_3 91 km

(35 sq mi)North America_cell_1_1_4

14,731North America_cell_1_1_5 164.8/km

(427/sq mi)North America_cell_1_1_6

Antigua_and_BarbudaNorth America_cell_1_2_0 Flag_of_Antigua_and_BarbudaNorth America_cell_1_2_1 Antigua and BarbudaNorth America_cell_1_2_2 St. John'sNorth America_cell_1_2_3 442 km

(171 sq mi)North America_cell_1_2_4

96,286North America_cell_1_2_5 199.1/km

(516/sq mi)North America_cell_1_2_6

ArubaNorth America_cell_1_3_0 Flag_of_ArubaNorth America_cell_1_3_1 Aruba

(Kingdom of the Netherlands)North America_cell_1_3_2

OranjestadNorth America_cell_1_3_3 180 km

(69 sq mi)North America_cell_1_3_4

105,845North America_cell_1_3_5 594.4/km

(1,539/sq mi)North America_cell_1_3_6

BahamasNorth America_cell_1_4_0 Flag_of_The_BahamasNorth America_cell_1_4_1 The BahamasNorth America_cell_1_4_2 NassauNorth America_cell_1_4_3 13,943 km

(5,383 sq mi)North America_cell_1_4_4

385,637North America_cell_1_4_5 24.5/km

(63/sq mi)North America_cell_1_4_6

BarbadosNorth America_cell_1_5_0 Flag_of_BarbadosNorth America_cell_1_5_1 BarbadosNorth America_cell_1_5_2 BridgetownNorth America_cell_1_5_3 430 km

(170 sq mi)North America_cell_1_5_4

286,641North America_cell_1_5_5 595.3/km

(1,542/sq mi)North America_cell_1_5_6

BelizeNorth America_cell_1_6_0 Flag_of_BelizeNorth America_cell_1_6_1 BelizeNorth America_cell_1_6_2 BelmopanNorth America_cell_1_6_3 22,966 km

(8,867 sq mi)North America_cell_1_6_4

383,071North America_cell_1_6_5 13.4/km

(35/sq mi)North America_cell_1_6_6

BermudaNorth America_cell_1_7_0 Flag_of_BermudaNorth America_cell_1_7_1 Bermuda

(United Kingdom)North America_cell_1_7_2

HamiltonNorth America_cell_1_7_3 54 km

(21 sq mi)North America_cell_1_7_4

62,756North America_cell_1_7_5 1,203.7/km

(3,118/sq mi)North America_cell_1_7_6

BonaireNorth America_cell_1_8_0 Flag_of_BonaireNorth America_cell_1_8_1 Bonaire

(Kingdom of the Netherlands)North America_cell_1_8_2

KralendijkNorth America_cell_1_8_3 294 km

(114 sq mi)North America_cell_1_8_4

12,093North America_cell_1_8_5 41.1/km

(106/sq mi)North America_cell_1_8_6

British_Virgin_IslandsNorth America_cell_1_9_0 Flag_of_British_Virgin_IslandsNorth America_cell_1_9_1 British Virgin Islands

(United Kingdom)North America_cell_1_9_2

Road TownNorth America_cell_1_9_3 151 km

(58 sq mi)North America_cell_1_9_4

29,802North America_cell_1_9_5 152.3/km

(394/sq mi)North America_cell_1_9_6

CanadaNorth America_cell_1_10_0 Flag_of_CanadaNorth America_cell_1_10_1 CanadaNorth America_cell_1_10_2 OttawaNorth America_cell_1_10_3 9,984,670 km

(3,855,100 sq mi)North America_cell_1_10_4

37,064,562North America_cell_1_10_5 3.7/km

(9.6/sq mi)North America_cell_1_10_6

Cayman_IslandsNorth America_cell_1_11_0 Flag_of_Cayman_IslandsNorth America_cell_1_11_1 Cayman Islands

(United Kingdom)North America_cell_1_11_2

George TownNorth America_cell_1_11_3 264 km

(102 sq mi)North America_cell_1_11_4

64,174North America_cell_1_11_5 212.1/km

(549/sq mi)North America_cell_1_11_6

FranceNorth America_cell_1_12_0 Flag_of_FranceNorth America_cell_1_12_1 Clipperton Island (France)North America_cell_1_12_2 North America_cell_1_12_3 6 km

(2.3 sq mi)North America_cell_1_12_4

0North America_cell_1_12_5 0/km

(0/sq mi)North America_cell_1_12_6

Costa_RicaNorth America_cell_1_13_0 Flag_of_Costa_RicaNorth America_cell_1_13_1 Costa RicaNorth America_cell_1_13_2 San JoséNorth America_cell_1_13_3 51,100 km

(19,700 sq mi)North America_cell_1_13_4

4,999,441North America_cell_1_13_5 89.6/km

(232/sq mi)North America_cell_1_13_6

CubaNorth America_cell_1_14_0 Flag_of_CubaNorth America_cell_1_14_1 CubaNorth America_cell_1_14_2 HavanaNorth America_cell_1_14_3 109,886 km

(42,427 sq mi)North America_cell_1_14_4

11,338,134North America_cell_1_14_5 102.0/km

(264/sq mi)North America_cell_1_14_6

CuraçaoNorth America_cell_1_15_0 Flag_of_CuraçaoNorth America_cell_1_15_1 Curaçao

(Kingdom of the Netherlands)North America_cell_1_15_2

WillemstadNorth America_cell_1_15_3 444 km

(171 sq mi)North America_cell_1_15_4

162,752North America_cell_1_15_5 317.1/km

(821/sq mi)North America_cell_1_15_6

DominicaNorth America_cell_1_16_0 Flag_of_DominicaNorth America_cell_1_16_1 DominicaNorth America_cell_1_16_2 RoseauNorth America_cell_1_16_3 751 km

(290 sq mi)North America_cell_1_16_4

71,625North America_cell_1_16_5 89.2/km

(231/sq mi)North America_cell_1_16_6

Dominican_RepublicNorth America_cell_1_17_0 Flag_of_Dominican_RepublicNorth America_cell_1_17_1 Dominican RepublicNorth America_cell_1_17_2 Santo DomingoNorth America_cell_1_17_3 48,671 km

(18,792 sq mi)North America_cell_1_17_4

10,627,141North America_cell_1_17_5 207.3/km

(537/sq mi)North America_cell_1_17_6

El_SalvadorNorth America_cell_1_18_0 Flag_of_El_SalvadorNorth America_cell_1_18_1 El SalvadorNorth America_cell_1_18_2 San SalvadorNorth America_cell_1_18_3 21,041 km

(8,124 sq mi)North America_cell_1_18_4

6,420,746North America_cell_1_18_5 293.0/km

(759/sq mi)North America_cell_1_18_6

VenezuelaNorth America_cell_1_19_0 Flag_of_Federal_Dependencies_of_VenezuelaNorth America_cell_1_19_1 Federal Dependencies of Venezuela

(Venezuela)North America_cell_1_19_2

Gran RoqueNorth America_cell_1_19_3 342 km

(132 sq mi)North America_cell_1_19_4

2,155North America_cell_1_19_5 6.3/km

(16/sq mi)North America_cell_1_19_6

GreenlandNorth America_cell_1_20_0 Flag_of_GreenlandNorth America_cell_1_20_1 Greenland

(Kingdom of Denmark)North America_cell_1_20_2

NuukNorth America_cell_1_20_3 2,166,086 km

(836,330 sq mi)North America_cell_1_20_4

56,564North America_cell_1_20_5 0.026/km

(0.067/sq mi)North America_cell_1_20_6

GrenadaNorth America_cell_1_21_0 Flag_of_GrenadaNorth America_cell_1_21_1 GrenadaNorth America_cell_1_21_2 St. George'sNorth America_cell_1_21_3 344 km

(133 sq mi)North America_cell_1_21_4

111,454North America_cell_1_21_5 302.3/km

(783/sq mi)North America_cell_1_21_6

FranceNorth America_cell_1_22_0 Flag_of_GuadeloupeNorth America_cell_1_22_1 Guadeloupe

(France)North America_cell_1_22_2

Basse-TerreNorth America_cell_1_22_3 1,628 km

(629 sq mi)North America_cell_1_22_4

399,848North America_cell_1_22_5 246.7/km

(639/sq mi)North America_cell_1_22_6

North America_cell_1_23_0 Flag_of_GuatemalaNorth America_cell_1_23_1 GuatemalaNorth America_cell_1_23_2 Guatemala CityNorth America_cell_1_23_3 108,889 km

(42,042 sq mi)North America_cell_1_23_4

17,247,849North America_cell_1_23_5 128.8/km

(334/sq mi)North America_cell_1_23_6

North America_cell_1_24_0 Flag_of_HaitiNorth America_cell_1_24_1 HaitiNorth America_cell_1_24_2 Port-au-PrinceNorth America_cell_1_24_3 27,750 km

(10,710 sq mi)North America_cell_1_24_4

11,123,178North America_cell_1_24_5 361.5/km

(936/sq mi)North America_cell_1_24_6

HondurasNorth America_cell_1_25_0 Flag_of_HondurasNorth America_cell_1_25_1 HondurasNorth America_cell_1_25_2 TegucigalpaNorth America_cell_1_25_3 112,492 km

(43,433 sq mi)North America_cell_1_25_4

9,587,522North America_cell_1_25_5 66.4/km

(172/sq mi)North America_cell_1_25_6

JamaicaNorth America_cell_1_26_0 Flag_of_JamaicaNorth America_cell_1_26_1 JamaicaNorth America_cell_1_26_2 KingstonNorth America_cell_1_26_3 10,991 km

(4,244 sq mi)North America_cell_1_26_4

2,934,847North America_cell_1_26_5 247.4/km

(641/sq mi)North America_cell_1_26_6

FranceNorth America_cell_1_27_0 Flag_of_MartiniqueNorth America_cell_1_27_1 Martinique

(France)North America_cell_1_27_2

Fort-de-FranceNorth America_cell_1_27_3 1,128 km

(436 sq mi)North America_cell_1_27_4

375,673North America_cell_1_27_5 352.6/km

(913/sq mi)North America_cell_1_27_6

North America_cell_1_28_0 Flag_of_MexicoNorth America_cell_1_28_1 MexicoNorth America_cell_1_28_2 Mexico CityNorth America_cell_1_28_3 1,964,375 km

(758,449 sq mi)North America_cell_1_28_4

126,190,788North America_cell_1_28_5 57.1/km

(148/sq mi)North America_cell_1_28_6

MontserratNorth America_cell_1_29_0 Flag_of_MontserratNorth America_cell_1_29_1 Montserrat

(United Kingdom)North America_cell_1_29_2


BradesNorth America_cell_1_29_3

102 km

(39 sq mi)North America_cell_1_29_4

4,993North America_cell_1_29_5 58.8/km

(152/sq mi)North America_cell_1_29_6

NicaraguaNorth America_cell_1_30_0 Flag_of_NicaraguaNorth America_cell_1_30_1 NicaraguaNorth America_cell_1_30_2 ManaguaNorth America_cell_1_30_3 130,373 km

(50,337 sq mi)North America_cell_1_30_4

6,465,501North America_cell_1_30_5 44.1/km

(114/sq mi)North America_cell_1_30_6

North America_cell_1_31_0 Flag_of_Nueva_EspartaNorth America_cell_1_31_1 Nueva Esparta

(Venezuela)North America_cell_1_31_2

La AsunciónNorth America_cell_1_31_3 1,151 km

(444 sq mi)North America_cell_1_31_4

491,610North America_cell_1_31_5 427.1/km

(1,106/sq mi)North America_cell_1_31_6

PanamaNorth America_cell_1_32_0 Flag_of_PanamaNorth America_cell_1_32_1 PanamaNorth America_cell_1_32_2 Panama CityNorth America_cell_1_32_3 75,417 km

(29,119 sq mi)North America_cell_1_32_4

4,176,869North America_cell_1_32_5 45.8/km

(119/sq mi)North America_cell_1_32_6

Puerto_RicoNorth America_cell_1_33_0 Flag_of_Puerto_RicoNorth America_cell_1_33_1 Puerto Rico

(United States)North America_cell_1_33_2

San JuanNorth America_cell_1_33_3 8,870 km

(3,420 sq mi)North America_cell_1_33_4

3,039,596North America_cell_1_33_5 448.9/km

(1,163/sq mi)North America_cell_1_33_6

SabaNorth America_cell_1_34_0 Flag_of_SabaNorth America_cell_1_34_1 Saba

(Kingdom of the Netherlands)North America_cell_1_34_2

The BottomNorth America_cell_1_34_3 13 km

(5.0 sq mi)North America_cell_1_34_4

1,537North America_cell_1_34_5 118.2/km

(306/sq mi)North America_cell_1_34_6

North America_cell_1_35_0 Flag_of_Archipelago_of_San_Andrés,_Providencia_and_Santa_CatalinaNorth America_cell_1_35_1 San Andrés and Providencia

(Colombia)North America_cell_1_35_2

San AndrésNorth America_cell_1_35_3 53 km

(20 sq mi)North America_cell_1_35_4

77,701North America_cell_1_35_5 1,468.59/km

(3,803.6/sq mi)North America_cell_1_35_6

Saint_BarthélemyNorth America_cell_1_36_0 Flag_of_Saint_BarthélemyNorth America_cell_1_36_1 Saint Barthélemy

(France)North America_cell_1_36_2

GustaviaNorth America_cell_1_36_3 21 km

(8.1 sq mi)North America_cell_1_36_4

7,448North America_cell_1_36_5 354.7/km

(919/sq mi)North America_cell_1_36_6

Saint_Kitts_and_NevisNorth America_cell_1_37_0 Flag_of_Saint_Kitts_and_NevisNorth America_cell_1_37_1 Saint Kitts and NevisNorth America_cell_1_37_2 BasseterreNorth America_cell_1_37_3 261 km

(101 sq mi)North America_cell_1_37_4

52,441North America_cell_1_37_5 199.2/km

(516/sq mi)North America_cell_1_37_6

Saint_LuciaNorth America_cell_1_38_0 Flag_of_Saint_LuciaNorth America_cell_1_38_1 Saint LuciaNorth America_cell_1_38_2 CastriesNorth America_cell_1_38_3 539 km

(208 sq mi)North America_cell_1_38_4

181,889North America_cell_1_38_5 319.1/km

(826/sq mi)North America_cell_1_38_6

Collectivity_of_Saint_MartinNorth America_cell_1_39_0 Flag_of_Collectivity_of_Saint_MartinNorth America_cell_1_39_1 Saint Martin

(France)North America_cell_1_39_2

MarigotNorth America_cell_1_39_3 54 km

(21 sq mi)North America_cell_1_39_4

29,820North America_cell_1_39_5 552.2/km

(1,430/sq mi)North America_cell_1_39_6

Saint_Pierre_and_MiquelonNorth America_cell_1_40_0 Flag_of_Saint_Pierre_and_MiquelonNorth America_cell_1_40_1 Saint Pierre and Miquelon

(France)North America_cell_1_40_2

Saint-PierreNorth America_cell_1_40_3 242 km

(93 sq mi)North America_cell_1_40_4

5,849North America_cell_1_40_5 24.8/km

(64/sq mi)North America_cell_1_40_6

Saint_Vincent_and_the_GrenadinesNorth America_cell_1_41_0 Flag_of_Saint_Vincent_and_the_GrenadinesNorth America_cell_1_41_1 Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesNorth America_cell_1_41_2 KingstownNorth America_cell_1_41_3 389 km

(150 sq mi)North America_cell_1_41_4

110,211North America_cell_1_41_5 280.2/km

(726/sq mi)North America_cell_1_41_6

Sint_EustatiusNorth America_cell_1_42_0 Flag_of_Sint_EustatiusNorth America_cell_1_42_1 Sint Eustatius

(Kingdom of the Netherlands)North America_cell_1_42_2

OranjestadNorth America_cell_1_42_3 21 km

(8.1 sq mi)North America_cell_1_42_4

2,739North America_cell_1_42_5 130.4/km

(338/sq mi)North America_cell_1_42_6

Sint_MaartenNorth America_cell_1_43_0 Flag_of_Sint_MaartenNorth America_cell_1_43_1 Sint Maarten

(Kingdom of the Netherlands)North America_cell_1_43_2

PhilipsburgNorth America_cell_1_43_3 34 km

(13 sq mi)North America_cell_1_43_4

41,940North America_cell_1_43_5 1,176.7/km

(3,048/sq mi)North America_cell_1_43_6

Trinidad_and_TobagoNorth America_cell_1_44_0 Flag_of_Trinidad_and_TobagoNorth America_cell_1_44_1 Trinidad and TobagoNorth America_cell_1_44_2 Port of SpainNorth America_cell_1_44_3 5,130 km

(1,980 sq mi)North America_cell_1_44_4

1,389,843North America_cell_1_44_5 261.0/km

(676/sq mi)North America_cell_1_44_6

Turks_and_Caicos_IslandsNorth America_cell_1_45_0 Flag_of_Turks_and_Caicos_IslandsNorth America_cell_1_45_1 Turks and Caicos Islands

(United Kingdom)North America_cell_1_45_2

Cockburn TownNorth America_cell_1_45_3 948 km

(366 sq mi)North America_cell_1_45_4

37,665North America_cell_1_45_5 34.8/km

(90/sq mi)North America_cell_1_45_6

North America_cell_1_46_0 Flag_of_United_StatesNorth America_cell_1_46_1 United StatesNorth America_cell_1_46_2 Washington, D.C.North America_cell_1_46_3 9,629,091 km

(3,717,813 sq mi)North America_cell_1_46_4

327,096,265North America_cell_1_46_5 32.7/km

(85/sq mi)North America_cell_1_46_6

North America_cell_1_47_0 Flag_of_United_States_Virgin_IslandsNorth America_cell_1_47_1 United States Virgin Islands

(United States)North America_cell_1_47_2

Charlotte AmalieNorth America_cell_1_47_3 347 km

(134 sq mi)North America_cell_1_47_4

104,680North America_cell_1_47_5 317.0/km

(821/sq mi)North America_cell_1_47_6

TotalNorth America_header_cell_1_48_0 24,500,995North America_header_cell_1_48_4 541,720,440North America_header_cell_1_48_5 22.1/km

(57/sq mi)North America_header_cell_1_48_6

Natural characteristics North America_section_4

Geography North America_section_5

Main article: Geography of North America North America_sentence_54

North America occupies the northern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere, the Americas, or simply America (which, in many countries is considered as a single continent with North America a subcontinent). North America_sentence_55

North America is the third-largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa. North America_sentence_56

North America's only land connection to South America is at the Isthmus of Darian/Isthmus of Panama. North America_sentence_57

The continent is delimited on the southeast by most geographers at the Darién watershed along the Colombia-Panama border, placing almost all of Panama within North America. North America_sentence_58

Alternatively, some geologists physiographically locate its southern limit at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico, with Central America extending southeastward to South America from this point. North America_sentence_59

The Caribbean islands, or West Indies, are considered part of North America. North America_sentence_60

The continental coastline is long and irregular. North America_sentence_61

The Gulf of Mexico is the largest body of water indenting the continent, followed by Hudson Bay. North America_sentence_62

Others include the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Gulf of California. North America_sentence_63

Before the Central American isthmus formed, the region had been underwater. North America_sentence_64

The islands of the West Indies delineate a submerged former land bridge, which had connected North and South America via what are now Florida and Venezuela. North America_sentence_65

There are numerous islands off the continent's coasts; principally, the Arctic Archipelago, the Bahamas, Turks & Caicos, the Greater and Lesser Antilles, the Aleutian Islands (some of which are in the Eastern Hemisphere proper), the Alexander Archipelago, the many thousand islands of the British Columbia Coast, and Newfoundland. North America_sentence_66

Greenland, a self-governing Danish island, and the world's largest, is on the same tectonic plate (the North American Plate) and is part of North America geographically. North America_sentence_67

In a geologic sense, Bermuda is not part of the Americas, but an oceanic island which was formed on the fissure of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge over 100 million years ago. North America_sentence_68

The nearest landmass to it is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. North America_sentence_69

However, Bermuda is often thought of as part of North America, especially given its historical, political and cultural ties to Virginia and other parts of the continent. North America_sentence_70

The vast majority of North America is on the North American Plate. North America_sentence_71

Parts of western Mexico, including Baja California, and of California, including the cities of San Diego, Los Angeles, and Santa Cruz, lie on the eastern edge of the Pacific Plate, with the two plates meeting along the San Andreas fault. North America_sentence_72

The southernmost portion of the continent and much of the West Indies lie on the Caribbean Plate, whereas the Juan de Fuca and Cocos plates border the North American Plate on its western frontier. North America_sentence_73

The continent can be divided into four great regions (each of which contains many subregions): the Great Plains stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian Arctic; the geologically young, mountainous west, including the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, California and Alaska; the raised but relatively flat plateau of the Canadian Shield in the northeast; and the varied eastern region, which includes the Appalachian Mountains, the coastal plain along the Atlantic seaboard, and the Florida peninsula. North America_sentence_74

Mexico, with its long plateaus and cordilleras, falls largely in the western region, although the eastern coastal plain does extend south along the Gulf. North America_sentence_75

The western mountains are split in the middle into the main range of the Rockies and the coast ranges in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, with the Great Basin—a lower area containing smaller ranges and low-lying deserts—in between. North America_sentence_76

The highest peak is Denali in Alaska. North America_sentence_77

The states that the geographic center of North America is "6 miles [10 km] west of Balta, Pierce County, North Dakota" at about , about 24 kilometres (15 mi) from Rugby, North Dakota. North America_sentence_78

The USGS further states that "No marked or monumented point has been established by any government agency as the geographic center of either the 50 States, the conterminous United States, or the North American continent." North America_sentence_79

Nonetheless, there is a 4.6-metre (15 ft) field stone obelisk in Rugby claiming to mark the center. North America_sentence_80

The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is located 1,650 km (1,030 mi) from the nearest coastline, between Allen and Kyle, South Dakota at . North America_sentence_81

Geology North America_section_6

Main article: Geology of North America North America_sentence_82

Geologic history North America_section_7

Laurentia is an ancient craton which forms the geologic core of North America; it formed between 1.5 and 1.0 billion years ago during the Proterozoic eon. North America_sentence_83

The Canadian Shield is the largest exposure of this craton. North America_sentence_84

From the Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic eras, North America was joined with the other modern-day continents as part of the supercontinent Pangaea, with Eurasia to its east. North America_sentence_85

One of the results of the formation of Pangaea was the Appalachian Mountains, which formed some 480 million years ago, making it among the oldest mountain ranges in the world. North America_sentence_86

When Pangaea began to rift around 200 million years ago, North America became part of Laurasia, before it separated from Eurasia as its own continent during the mid-Cretaceous period. North America_sentence_87

The Rockies and other western mountain ranges began forming around this time from a period of mountain building called the Laramide orogeny, between 80 and 55 million years ago. North America_sentence_88

The formation of the Isthmus of Panama that connected the continent to South America arguably occurred approximately 12 to 15 million years ago, and the Great Lakes (as well as many other northern freshwater lakes and rivers) were carved by receding glaciers about 10,000 years ago. North America_sentence_89

North America is the source of much of what humanity knows about geologic time periods. North America_sentence_90

The geographic area that would later become the United States has been the source of more varieties of dinosaurs than any other modern country. North America_sentence_91

According to paleontologist Peter Dodson, this is primarily due to stratigraphy, climate and geography, human resources, and history. North America_sentence_92

Much of the Mesozoic Era is represented by exposed outcrops in the many arid regions of the continent. North America_sentence_93

The most significant Late Jurassic dinosaur-bearing fossil deposit in North America is the Morrison Formation of the western United States. North America_sentence_94

Canadian geology North America_section_8

Geologically, Canada is one of the oldest regions in the world, with more than half of the region consisting of precambrian rocks that have been above sea level since the beginning of the Palaeozoic era. North America_sentence_95

Canada's mineral resources are diverse and extensive. North America_sentence_96

Across the Canadian Shield and in the north there are large iron, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, and uranium reserves. North America_sentence_97

Large diamond concentrations have been recently developed in the Arctic, making Canada one of the world's largest producers. North America_sentence_98

Throughout the Shield there are many mining towns extracting these minerals. North America_sentence_99

The largest, and best known, is Sudbury, Ontario. North America_sentence_100

Sudbury is an exception to the normal process of forming minerals in the Shield since there is significant evidence that the Sudbury Basin is an ancient meteorite impact crater. North America_sentence_101

The nearby, but less known Temagami Magnetic Anomaly has striking similarities to the Sudbury Basin. North America_sentence_102

Its magnetic anomalies are very similar to the Sudbury Basin, and so it could be a second metal-rich impact crater. North America_sentence_103

The Shield is also covered by vast boreal forests that support an important logging industry. North America_sentence_104

United States geology North America_section_9

The lower 48 US states can be divided into roughly five physiographic provinces: North America_sentence_105

North America_ordered_list_0

  1. The American cordilleraNorth America_item_0_0
  2. The Canadian Shield Northern portion of the upper midwestern United States.North America_item_0_1
  3. The stable platformNorth America_item_0_2
  4. The coastal plainNorth America_item_0_3
  5. The Appalachian orogenic beltNorth America_item_0_4

The geology of Alaska is typical of that of the cordillera, while the major islands of Hawaii consist of Neogene volcanics erupted over a hot spot. North America_sentence_106

Central American geology North America_section_10

Central America is geologically active with volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occurring from time to time. North America_sentence_107

In 1976 Guatemala was hit by a major earthquake, killing 23,000 people; Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, was devastated by earthquakes in 1931 and 1972, the last one killing about 5,000 people; three earthquakes devastated El Salvador, one in 1986 and two in 2001; one earthquake devastated northern and central Costa Rica in 2009, killing at least 34 people; in Honduras a powerful earthquake killed seven people in 2009. North America_sentence_108

Volcanic eruptions are common in the region. North America_sentence_109

In 1968 the Arenal Volcano, in Costa Rica, erupted and killed 87 people. North America_sentence_110

Fertile soils from weathered volcanic lavas have made it possible to sustain dense populations in the agriculturally productive highland areas. North America_sentence_111

Central America has many mountain ranges; the longest are the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, the Cordillera Isabelia, and the Cordillera de Talamanca. North America_sentence_112

Between the mountain ranges lie fertile valleys that are suitable for the people; in fact, most of the population of Honduras, Costa Rica, and Guatemala live in valleys. North America_sentence_113

Valleys are also suitable for the production of coffee, beans, and other crops. North America_sentence_114

Climate North America_section_11

North America is a very large continent which surpasses the Arctic Circle, and the Tropic of Cancer. North America_sentence_115

Greenland, along with the Canadian Shield, is tundra with average temperatures ranging from 10 to 20 °C (50 to 68 °F), but central Greenland is composed of a very large ice sheet. North America_sentence_116

This tundra radiates throughout Canada, but its border ends near the Rocky Mountains (but still contains Alaska) and at the end of the Canadian Shield, near the Great Lakes. North America_sentence_117

Climate west of the Cascades is described as being a temperate weather with average precipitation 20 inches (510 mm). North America_sentence_118

Climate in coastal California is described to be Mediterranean, with average temperatures in cities like San Francisco ranging from 57 to 70 °F (14 to 21 °C) over the course of the year. North America_sentence_119

Stretching from the East Coast to eastern North Dakota, and stretching down to Kansas, is the continental-humid climate featuring intense seasons, with a large amount of annual precipitation, with places like New York City averaging 50 inches (1,300 mm). North America_sentence_120

Starting at the southern border of the continental-humid climate and stretching to the Gulf of Mexico (whilst encompassing the eastern half of Texas) is the subtropical climate. North America_sentence_121

This area has the wettest cities in the contiguous U.S. with annual precipitation reaching 67 inches (1,700 mm) in Mobile, Alabama. North America_sentence_122

Stretching from the borders of the continental humid and subtropical climates, and going west to the Cascades Sierra Nevada, south to the southern tip of durango, north to the border with tundra climate, the steppe/desert climate is the driest climate in the U.S. Highland climates cut from north to south of the continent, where subtropical or temperate climates occur just below the tropics, as in central Mexico and Guatemala. North America_sentence_123

Tropical climates appear in the island regions and in the subcontinent's bottleneck. North America_sentence_124

Usually of the savannah type, with rains and high temperatures constants the whole year. North America_sentence_125

Found in countries and states bathed by the Caribbean Sea or to south of the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Ocean. North America_sentence_126

Ecology North America_section_12

See also: List of endangered plants in North America North America_sentence_127

Notable North American fauna include the bison, black bear, prairie dog, turkey, pronghorn, raccoon, coyote and monarch butterfly. North America_sentence_128

Notable plants that were domesticated in North America include tobacco, maize, squash, tomato, sunflower, blueberry, avocado, cotton, chile pepper and vanilla. North America_sentence_129

History North America_section_13

Main article: History of North America North America_sentence_130

Pre-Columbian North America_section_14

Main article: Pre-Columbian era North America_sentence_131

The indigenous peoples of the Americas have many creation myths by which they assert that they have been present on the land since its creation, but there is no evidence that humans evolved there. North America_sentence_132

The specifics of the initial settlement of the Americas by ancient Asians are subject to ongoing research and discussion. North America_sentence_133

The traditional theory has been that hunters entered the Beringia land bridge between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska from 27,000 to 14,000 years ago. North America_sentence_134

A growing viewpoint is that the first American inhabitants sailed from Beringia some 13,000 years ago, with widespread habitation of the Americas during the end of the Last Glacial Period, in what is known as the Late Glacial Maximum, around 12,500 years ago. North America_sentence_135

The oldest petroglyphs in North America date from 15,000 to 10,000 years before present. North America_sentence_136

Genetic research and anthropology indicate additional waves of migration from Asia via the Bering Strait during the Early-Middle Holocene. North America_sentence_137

Before contact with Europeans, the natives of North America were divided into many different polities, from small bands of a few families to large empires. North America_sentence_138

They lived in several "culture areas", which roughly correspond to geographic and biological zones and give a good indication of the main way of life of the people who lived there (e.g., the bison hunters of the Great Plains, or the farmers of Mesoamerica). North America_sentence_139

Native groups can also be classified by their language family (e.g., Athapascan or Uto-Aztecan). North America_sentence_140

Peoples with similar languages did not always share the same material culture, nor were they always allies. North America_sentence_141

Anthropologists think that the Inuit people of the high Arctic came to North America much later than other native groups, as evidenced by the disappearance of Dorset culture artifacts from the archaeological record, and their replacement by the Thule people. North America_sentence_142

During the thousands of years of native habitation on the continent, cultures changed and shifted. North America_sentence_143

One of the oldest yet discovered is the Clovis culture (c. 9550–9050 BCE) in modern New Mexico. North America_sentence_144

Later groups include the Mississippian culture and related Mound building cultures, found in the Mississippi river valley and the Pueblo culture of what is now the Four Corners. North America_sentence_145

The more southern cultural groups of North America were responsible for the domestication of many common crops now used around the world, such as tomatoes, squash, and maize. North America_sentence_146

As a result of the development of agriculture in the south, many other cultural advances were made there. North America_sentence_147

The Mayans developed a writing system, built huge pyramids and temples, had a complex calendar, and developed the concept of zero around 400 CE. North America_sentence_148

The first recorded European references to North America are in Norse sagas where it is referred to as Vinland. North America_sentence_149

The earliest verifiable instance of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact by any European culture with the North America mainland has been dated to around 1000 CE. North America_sentence_150

The site, situated at the northernmost extent of the island named Newfoundland, has provided unmistakable evidence of Norse settlement. North America_sentence_151

Norse explorer Leif Erikson (c. 970–1020 CE) is thought to have visited the area. North America_sentence_152

Erikson was the first European to make landfall on the continent (excluding Greenland). North America_sentence_153

The Mayan culture was still present in southern Mexico and Guatemala when the Spanish conquistadors arrived, but political dominance in the area had shifted to the Aztec Empire, whose capital city Tenochtitlan was located further north in the Valley of Mexico. North America_sentence_154

The Aztecs were conquered in 1521 by Hernán Cortés. North America_sentence_155

Colonial period North America_section_15

Main article: European colonization of the Americas North America_sentence_156

Further information: Timeline of the European colonization of North America, British America, French America, New Spain, and Russian colonization of the Americas North America_sentence_157

During the Age of Discovery, Europeans explored and staked claims to various parts of North America. North America_sentence_158

Upon their arrival in the "New World", the Native American population declined substantially, because of violent conflicts with the invaders and the introduction of European diseases to which the Native Americans lacked immunity. North America_sentence_159

Native culture changed drastically and their affiliation with political and cultural groups also changed. North America_sentence_160

Several linguistic groups died out, and others changed quite quickly. North America_sentence_161

In 1513, Juan Ponce de León, who had accompanied Columbus's second voyage, visited and named La Florida. North America_sentence_162

As the colonial period unfolded, Britain, Spain, and France took over extensive territories in North America. North America_sentence_163

In the late 18th and early 19th century, independence movements sprung up across the continent, leading to the founding of the modern countries in the area. North America_sentence_164

The 13 British Colonies on the North Atlantic coast declared independence in 1776, becoming the United States of America. North America_sentence_165

Canada was formed from the unification of northern territories controlled by Britain and France. North America_sentence_166

New Spain, a territory that stretched from the modern-day southern US to Central America, declared independence in 1810, becoming the First Mexican Empire. North America_sentence_167

In 1823 the former Captaincy General of Guatemala, then part of the Mexican Empire, became the first independent state in Central America, officially changing its name to the United Provinces of Central America. North America_sentence_168

Over three decades of work on the Panama Canal led to the connection of Atlantic and Pacific waters in 1913, physically making North America a separate continent. North America_sentence_169

Demographics North America_section_16

Further information: Demographics of the United States, Demographics of Canada, and Demographics of Mexico North America_sentence_170

Economically, Canada and the United States are the wealthiest and most developed nations in the continent, followed by Mexico, a newly industrialized country. North America_sentence_171

The countries of Central America and the Caribbean are at various levels of economic and human development. North America_sentence_172

For example, small Caribbean island-nations, such as Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, and Antigua and Barbuda, have a higher GDP (PPP) per capita than Mexico due to their smaller populations. North America_sentence_173

Panama and Costa Rica have a significantly higher Human Development Index and GDP than the rest of the Central American nations. North America_sentence_174

Additionally, despite Greenland's vast resources in oil and minerals, much of them remain untapped, and the island is economically dependent on fishing, tourism, and subsidies from Denmark. North America_sentence_175

Nevertheless, the island is highly developed. North America_sentence_176

Demographically, North America is ethnically diverse. North America_sentence_177

Its three main groups are Caucasians, Mestizos and Blacks. North America_sentence_178

There is a significant minority of Indigenous Americans and Asians among other less numerous groups. North America_sentence_179

Languages North America_section_17

Main article: Languages of North America North America_sentence_180

The dominant languages in North America are English, Spanish, and French. North America_sentence_181

Danish is prevalent in Greenland alongside Greenlandic, and Dutch is spoken side by side local languages in the Dutch Caribbean. North America_sentence_182

The term Anglo-America is used to refer to the anglophone countries of the Americas: namely Canada (where English and French are co-official) and the United States, but also sometimes Belize and parts of the tropics, especially the Commonwealth Caribbean. North America_sentence_183

Latin America refers to the other areas of the Americas (generally south of the United States) where the Romance languages, derived from Latin, of Spanish and Portuguese (but French speaking countries are not usually included) predominate: the other republics of Central America (but not always Belize), part of the Caribbean (not the Dutch-, English-, or French-speaking areas), Mexico, and most of South America (except Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana (France), and the Falkland Islands (UK)). North America_sentence_184

The French language has historically played a significant role in North America and now retains a distinctive presence in some regions. North America_sentence_185

Canada is officially bilingual. North America_sentence_186

French is the official language of the Province of Quebec, where 95% of the people speak it as either their first or second language, and it is co-official with English in the Province of New Brunswick. North America_sentence_187

Other French-speaking locales include the Province of Ontario (the official language is English, but there are an estimated 600,000 Franco-Ontarians), the Province of Manitoba (co-official as de jure with English), the French West Indies and Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, as well as the US state of Louisiana, where French is also an official language. North America_sentence_188

Haiti is included with this group based on historical association but Haitians speak both Creole and French. North America_sentence_189

Similarly, French and French Antillean Creole is spoken in Saint Lucia and the Commonwealth of Dominica alongside English. North America_sentence_190

A significant number of Indigenous languages are spoken in North America, with 372,000 people in the United States speaking an indigenous language at home, about 225,000 in Canada and roughly 6 million in Mexico. North America_sentence_191

In the United States and Canada, there are approximately 150 surviving indigenous languages of the 300 spoken prior to European contact. North America_sentence_192

Religions North America_section_18

Main article: Religion in North America North America_sentence_193

See also: Religions of the world North America_sentence_194

Christianity is the largest religion in the United States, Canada and Mexico. North America_sentence_195

According to a 2012 Pew Research Center survey, 77% of the population considered themselves Christians. North America_sentence_196

Christianity also is the predominant religion in the 23 dependent territories in North America. North America_sentence_197

The United States has the largest Christian population in the world, with nearly 247 million Christians (70%), although other countries have higher percentages of Christians among their populations. North America_sentence_198

Mexico has the world's second largest number of Catholics, surpassed only by Brazil. North America_sentence_199

A 2015 study estimates about 493,000 Christian believers from a Muslim background in North America, most of them belonging to some form of Protestantism. North America_sentence_200

According to the same study religiously unaffiliated (include agnostic and atheist) make up about 17% of the population of Canada and the United States. North America_sentence_201

No religion make up about 24% of the United States population, and 24% of Canada total population. North America_sentence_202

Canada, the United States and Mexico host communities of both Jews (6 million or about 1.8%), Buddhists (3.8 million or 1.1%) and Muslims (3.4 million or 1.0%). North America_sentence_203

The biggest number of Jewish individuals can be found in the United States (5.4 million), Canada (375,000) and Mexico (67,476). North America_sentence_204

The United States host the largest Muslim population in North America with 2.7 million or 0.9%, While Canada host about one million Muslim or 3.2% of the population. North America_sentence_205

While in Mexico there were 3,700 Muslims in the country. North America_sentence_206

In 2012, U-T San Diego estimated U.S. practitioners of Buddhism at 1.2 million people, of whom 40% are living in Southern California. North America_sentence_207

The predominant religion in Central America is Christianity (96%). North America_sentence_208

Beginning with the Spanish colonization of Central America in the 16th century, Roman Catholicism became the most popular religion in the region until the first half of the 20th century. North America_sentence_209

Since the 1960s, there has been an increase in other Christian groups, particularly Protestantism, as well as other religious organizations, and individuals identifying themselves as having no religion. North America_sentence_210

Also Christianity is the predominant religion in the Caribbean (85%). North America_sentence_211

Other religious groups in the region are Hinduism, Islam, Rastafari (in Jamaica), and Afro-American religions such as Santería and Vodou. North America_sentence_212

Populace North America_section_19

See also: List of North American countries by population, List of North American cities by population, and List of North American metropolitan areas by population North America_sentence_213

North America is the fourth most populous continent after Asia, Africa, and Europe. North America_sentence_214

Its most populous country is the United States with 329.7 million persons. North America_sentence_215

The second largest country is Mexico with a population of 112.3 million. North America_sentence_216

Canada is the third most populous country with 37.0 million. North America_sentence_217

The majority of Caribbean island-nations have national populations under a million, though Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico (a territory of the United States), Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago each have populations higher than a million. North America_sentence_218

Greenland has a small population of 55,984 for its massive size (2,166,000 km or 836,300 mi), and therefore, it has the world's lowest population density at 0.026 pop./km (0.067 pop./mi). North America_sentence_219

While the United States, Canada, and Mexico maintain the largest populations, large city populations are not restricted to those nations. North America_sentence_220

There are also large cities in the Caribbean. North America_sentence_221

The largest cities in North America, by far, are Mexico City and New York. North America_sentence_222

These cities are the only cities on the continent to exceed eight million, and two of three in the Americas. North America_sentence_223

Next in size are Los Angeles, Toronto, Chicago, Havana, Santo Domingo, and Montreal. North America_sentence_224

Cities in the sun belt regions of the United States, such as those in Southern California and Houston, Phoenix, Miami, Atlanta, and Las Vegas, are experiencing rapid growth. North America_sentence_225

These causes included warm temperatures, retirement of Baby Boomers, large industry, and the influx of immigrants. North America_sentence_226

Cities near the United States border, particularly in Mexico, are also experiencing large amounts of growth. North America_sentence_227

Most notable is Tijuana, a city bordering San Diego that receives immigrants from all over Latin America and parts of Europe and Asia. North America_sentence_228

Yet as cities grow in these warmer regions of North America, they are increasingly forced to deal with the major issue of water shortages. North America_sentence_229

Eight of the top ten metropolitan areas are located in the United States. North America_sentence_230

These metropolitan areas all have a population of above 5.5 million and include the New York City metropolitan area, Los Angeles metropolitan area, Chicago metropolitan area, and the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. North America_sentence_231

Whilst the majority of the largest metropolitan areas are within the United States, Mexico is host to the largest metropolitan area by population in North America: Greater Mexico City. North America_sentence_232

Canada also breaks into the top ten largest metropolitan areas with the Toronto metropolitan area having six million people. North America_sentence_233

The proximity of cities to each other on the Canada–United States border and Mexico–United States border has led to the rise of international metropolitan areas. North America_sentence_234

These urban agglomerations are observed at their largest and most productive in Detroit–Windsor and San Diego–Tijuana and experience large commercial, economic, and cultural activity. North America_sentence_235

The metropolitan areas are responsible for millions of dollars of trade dependent on international freight. North America_sentence_236

In Detroit-Windsor the Border Transportation Partnership study in 2004 concluded US$13 billion was dependent on the Detroit–Windsor international border crossing while in San Diego-Tijuana freight at the Otay Mesa Port of Entry was valued at US$20 billion. North America_sentence_237

North America has also been witness to the growth of megapolitan areas. North America_sentence_238

In the United States exists eleven megaregions that transcend international borders and comprise Canadian and Mexican metropolitan regions. North America_sentence_239

These are the Arizona Sun Corridor, Cascadia, Florida, Front Range, Great Lakes Megaregion, Gulf Coast Megaregion, Northeast, Northern California, Piedmont Atlantic, Southern California, and the Texas Triangle. North America_sentence_240

Canada and Mexico are also the home of megaregions. North America_sentence_241

These include the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor, Golden Horseshoe – both of which are considered part of the Great Lakes Megaregion – and megalopolis of Central Mexico. North America_sentence_242

Traditionally the largest megaregion has been considered the Boston-Washington, DC Corridor, or the Northeast, as the region is one massive contiguous area. North America_sentence_243

Yet megaregion criterion have allowed the Great Lakes Megalopolis to maintain status as the most populated region, being home to 53,768,125 people in 2000. North America_sentence_244

The top ten largest North American metropolitan areas by population as of 2013, based on national census numbers from the United States and census estimates from Canada and Mexico. North America_sentence_245

North America_table_general_2

Metro AreaNorth America_cell_2_0_0 PopulationNorth America_cell_2_0_1 AreaNorth America_cell_2_0_2 CountryNorth America_cell_2_0_3
Mexico CityNorth America_cell_2_1_0 21,163,226North America_cell_2_1_1 7,346 km (2,836 sq mi)North America_cell_2_1_2 MexicoNorth America_cell_2_1_3
New York CityNorth America_cell_2_2_0 19,949,502North America_cell_2_2_1 17,405 km (6,720 sq mi)North America_cell_2_2_2 United StatesNorth America_cell_2_2_3
Los AngelesNorth America_cell_2_3_0 13,131,431North America_cell_2_3_1 12,562 km (4,850 sq mi)North America_cell_2_3_2 United StatesNorth America_cell_2_3_3
ChicagoNorth America_cell_2_4_0 9,537,289North America_cell_2_4_1 24,814 km (9,581 sq mi)North America_cell_2_4_2 United StatesNorth America_cell_2_4_3
Dallas–Fort WorthNorth America_cell_2_5_0 6,810,913North America_cell_2_5_1 24,059 km (9,289 sq mi)North America_cell_2_5_2 United StatesNorth America_cell_2_5_3
HoustonNorth America_cell_2_6_0 6,313,158North America_cell_2_6_1 26,061 km (10,062 sq mi)North America_cell_2_6_2 United StatesNorth America_cell_2_6_3
TorontoNorth America_cell_2_7_0 6,054,191North America_cell_2_7_1 5,906 km (2,280 sq mi)North America_cell_2_7_2 CanadaNorth America_cell_2_7_3
PhiladelphiaNorth America_cell_2_8_0 6,034,678North America_cell_2_8_1 13,256 km (5,118 sq mi)North America_cell_2_8_2 United StatesNorth America_cell_2_8_3
Washington, DCNorth America_cell_2_9_0 5,949,859North America_cell_2_9_1 14,412 km (5,565 sq mi)North America_cell_2_9_2 United StatesNorth America_cell_2_9_3
MiamiNorth America_cell_2_10_0 5,828,191North America_cell_2_10_1 15,896 km (6,137 sq mi)North America_cell_2_10_2 United StatesNorth America_cell_2_10_3

2011 Census figures. North America_sentence_246

Economy North America_section_20

Main article: Economy of North America North America_sentence_247

See also: List of North American countries by GDP (nominal) and List of North American countries by GDP (PPP) North America_sentence_248

North America_table_general_3

RankNorth America_header_cell_3_0_0 CountryNorth America_header_cell_3_0_1 GDP (PPP, peak year)

millions of USDNorth America_header_cell_3_0_2

Peak yearNorth America_header_cell_3_0_3
1North America_cell_3_1_0 United StatesNorth America_cell_3_1_1 21,433,225North America_cell_3_1_2 2019North America_cell_3_1_3
2North America_cell_3_2_0 MexicoNorth America_cell_3_2_1 2,625,895North America_cell_3_2_2 2019North America_cell_3_2_3
3North America_cell_3_3_0 CanadaNorth America_cell_3_3_1 1,920,997North America_cell_3_3_2 2019North America_cell_3_3_3
4North America_cell_3_4_0 CubaNorth America_cell_3_4_1 254,865North America_cell_3_4_2 2015North America_cell_3_4_3
5North America_cell_3_5_0 Dominican RepublicNorth America_cell_3_5_1 206,098North America_cell_3_5_2 2019North America_cell_3_5_3
6North America_cell_3_6_0 GuatemalaNorth America_cell_3_6_1 149,483North America_cell_3_6_2 2019North America_cell_3_6_3
7North America_cell_3_7_0 PanamaNorth America_cell_3_7_1 139,237North America_cell_3_7_2 2019North America_cell_3_7_3
8North America_cell_3_8_0 Puerto RicoNorth America_cell_3_8_1 119,192North America_cell_3_8_2 2013North America_cell_3_8_3
9North America_cell_3_9_0 Costa RicaNorth America_cell_3_9_1 103,339North America_cell_3_9_2 2019North America_cell_3_9_3
10North America_cell_3_10_0 El SalvadorNorth America_cell_3_10_1 59,032North America_cell_3_10_2 2019North America_cell_3_10_3

North America_table_general_4

RankNorth America_header_cell_4_0_0 CountryNorth America_header_cell_4_0_1 GDP (nominal, peak year)

millions of USDNorth America_header_cell_4_0_2

Peak yearNorth America_header_cell_4_0_3
1North America_cell_4_1_0 United StatesNorth America_cell_4_1_1 21,433,225North America_cell_4_1_2 2019North America_cell_4_1_3
2North America_cell_4_2_0 CanadaNorth America_cell_4_2_1 1,846,595North America_cell_4_2_2 2013North America_cell_4_2_3
3North America_cell_4_3_0 MexicoNorth America_cell_4_3_1 1,315,356North America_cell_4_3_2 2014North America_cell_4_3_3
4North America_cell_4_4_0 Puerto RicoNorth America_cell_4_4_1 104,337North America_cell_4_4_2 2016North America_cell_4_4_3
5North America_cell_4_5_0 CubaNorth America_cell_4_5_1 96,851North America_cell_4_5_2 2017North America_cell_4_5_3
6North America_cell_4_6_0 Dominican RepublicNorth America_cell_4_6_1 89,032North America_cell_4_6_2 2019North America_cell_4_6_3
7North America_cell_4_7_0 GuatemalaNorth America_cell_4_7_1 76,694North America_cell_4_7_2 2019North America_cell_4_7_3
8North America_cell_4_8_0 PanamaNorth America_cell_4_8_1 66,801North America_cell_4_8_2 2019North America_cell_4_8_3
9North America_cell_4_9_0 Costa RicaNorth America_cell_4_9_1 62,142North America_cell_4_9_2 2019North America_cell_4_9_3
10North America_cell_4_10_0 Trinidad and TobagoNorth America_cell_4_10_1 28,233North America_cell_4_10_2 2008North America_cell_4_10_3

North America's GDP per capita was evaluated in October 2016 by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to be $41,830, making it the richest continent in the world, followed by Oceania. North America_sentence_249

Canada, Mexico, and the United States have significant and multifaceted economic systems. North America_sentence_250

The United States has the largest economy of all three countries and in the world. North America_sentence_251

In 2016, the U.S. had an estimated per capita gross domestic product (PPP) of $57,466 according to the World Bank, and is the most technologically developed economy of the three. North America_sentence_252

The United States' services sector comprises 77% of the country's GDP (estimated in 2010), industry comprises 22% and agriculture comprises 1.2%. North America_sentence_253

The U.S. economy is also the fastest growing economy in North America and the Americas as a whole, with the highest GDP per capita in the Americas as well. North America_sentence_254

Canada shows significant growth in the sectors of services, mining and manufacturing. North America_sentence_255

Canada's per capita GDP (PPP) was estimated at $44,656 and it had the 11th largest GDP (nominal) in 2014. North America_sentence_256

Canada's services sector comprises 78% of the country's GDP (estimated in 2010), industry comprises 20% and agriculture comprises 2%. North America_sentence_257

Mexico has a per capita GDP (PPP) of $16,111 and as of 2014 is the 15th largest GDP (nominal) in the world. North America_sentence_258

Being a newly industrialized country, Mexico maintains both modern and outdated industrial and agricultural facilities and operations. North America_sentence_259

Its main sources of income are oil, industrial exports, manufactured goods, electronics, heavy industry, automobiles, construction, food, banking and financial services. North America_sentence_260

The North American economy is well defined and structured in three main economic areas. North America_sentence_261

These areas are the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), and the Central American Common Market (CACM). North America_sentence_262

Of these trade blocs, the United States takes part in two. North America_sentence_263

In addition to the larger trade blocs there is the Canada-Costa Rica Free Trade Agreement among numerous other free trade relations, often between the larger, more developed countries and Central American and Caribbean countries. North America_sentence_264

The North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) forms one of the four largest trade blocs in the world. North America_sentence_265

Its implementation in 1994 was designed for economic homogenization with hopes of eliminating barriers of trade and foreign investment between Canada, the United States and Mexico. North America_sentence_266

While Canada and the United States already conducted the largest bilateral trade relationship – and to present day still do – in the world and Canada–United States trade relations already allowed trade without national taxes and tariffs, NAFTA allowed Mexico to experience a similar duty-free trade. North America_sentence_267

The free trade agreement allowed for the elimination of tariffs that had previously been in place on United States-Mexico trade. North America_sentence_268

Trade volume has steadily increased annually and in 2010, surface trade between the three NAFTA nations reached an all-time historical increase of 24.3% or US$791 billion. North America_sentence_269

The NAFTA trade bloc GDP (PPP) is the world's largest with US$17.617 trillion. North America_sentence_270

This is in part attributed to the fact that the economy of the United States is the world's largest national economy; the country had a nominal GDP of approximately $14.7 trillion in 2010. North America_sentence_271

The countries of NAFTA are also some of each other's largest trade partners. North America_sentence_272

The United States is the largest trade partner of Canada and Mexico; while Canada and Mexico are each other's third largest trade partners. North America_sentence_273

The Caribbean trade bloc – CARICOM – came into agreement in 1973 when it was signed by 15 Caribbean nations. North America_sentence_274

As of 2000, CARICOM trade volume was US$96 billion. North America_sentence_275

CARICOM also allowed for the creation of a common passport for associated nations. North America_sentence_276

In the past decade the trade bloc focused largely on Free Trade Agreements and under the CARICOM Office of Trade Negotiations (OTN) free trade agreements have been signed into effect. North America_sentence_277

Integration of Central American economies occurred under the signing of the Central American Common Market agreement in 1961; this was the first attempt to engage the nations of this area into stronger financial cooperation. North America_sentence_278

Recent implementation of the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) has left the future of the CACM unclear. North America_sentence_279

The Central American Free Trade Agreement was signed by five Central American countries, the Dominican Republic, and the United States. North America_sentence_280

The focal point of CAFTA is to create a free trade area similar to that of NAFTA. North America_sentence_281

In addition to the United States, Canada also has relations in Central American trade blocs. North America_sentence_282

Currently under proposal, the Canada – Central American Free Trade Agreement (CA4) would operate much the same as CAFTA with the United States does. North America_sentence_283

These nations also take part in inter-continental trade blocs. North America_sentence_284

Mexico takes a part in the G3 Free Trade Agreement with Colombia and Venezuela and has a trade agreement with the EU. North America_sentence_285

The United States has proposed and maintained trade agreements under the Transatlantic Free Trade Area between itself and the European Union; the US-Middle East Free Trade Area between numerous Middle Eastern nations and itself; and the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership between Southeast Asian nations, Australia, and New Zealand. North America_sentence_286

Transport North America_section_21

Main article: Transportation in North America North America_sentence_287

The Pan-American Highway route in the Americas is the portion of a network of roads nearly 48,000 km (30,000 mi) in length which travels through the mainland nations. North America_sentence_288

No definitive length of the Pan-American Highway exists because the US and Canadian governments have never officially defined any specific routes as being part of the Pan-American Highway, and Mexico officially has many branches connecting to the US border. North America_sentence_289

However, the total length of the portion from Mexico to the northern extremity of the highway is roughly 26,000 km (16,000 mi). North America_sentence_290

The First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States was built in the 1860s, linking the railroad network of the eastern US with California on the Pacific coast. North America_sentence_291

Finished on 10 May 1869 at the famous golden spike event at Promontory Summit, Utah, it created a nationwide mechanized transportation network that revolutionized the population and economy of the American West, catalyzing the transition from the wagon trains of previous decades to a modern transportation system. North America_sentence_292

Although an accomplishment, it achieved the status of first transcontinental railroad by connecting myriad eastern US railroads to the Pacific and was not the largest single railroad system in the world. North America_sentence_293

The Canadian Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) had, by 1867, already accumulated more than 2,055 km (1,277 mi) of track by connecting Ontario with the Canadian Atlantic provinces west as far as Port Huron, Michigan, through Sarnia, Ontario. North America_sentence_294

Communications North America_section_22

A shared telephone system known as the North American Numbering Plan (NANP) is an integrated telephone numbering plan of 24 countries and territories: the United States and its territories, Canada, Bermuda, and 17 Caribbean nations. North America_sentence_295

Culture North America_section_23

Canada and the United States were both former British colonies. North America_sentence_296

There is frequent cultural interplay between the United States and English-speaking Canada. North America_sentence_297

Greenland has experienced many immigration waves from Northern Canada, e.g. the Thule People. North America_sentence_298

Therefore, Greenland shares some cultural ties with the indigenous people of Canada. North America_sentence_299

Greenland is also considered Nordic and has strong Danish ties due to centuries of colonization by Denmark. North America_sentence_300

Spanish-speaking North America shares a common past as former Spanish colonies. North America_sentence_301

In Mexico and the Central American countries where civilizations like the Maya developed, indigenous people preserve traditions across modern boundaries. North America_sentence_302

Central American and Spanish-speaking Caribbean nations have historically had more in common due to geographical proximity. North America_sentence_303

Northern Mexico, particularly in the cities of Monterrey, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and Mexicali, is strongly influenced by the culture and way of life of the United States. North America_sentence_304

Of the aforementioned cities, Monterrey has been regarded as the most Americanized city in Mexico. North America_sentence_305

Immigration to the United States and Canada remains a significant attribute of many nations close to the southern border of the US. North America_sentence_306

The Anglophone Caribbean states have witnessed the decline of the British Empire and its influence on the region, and its replacement by the economic influence of Northern America in the Anglophone Caribbean. North America_sentence_307

This is partly due to the relatively small populations of the English-speaking Caribbean countries, and also because many of them now have more people living abroad than those remaining at home. North America_sentence_308

Northern Mexico, the Western United States and Alberta, Canada share a cowboy culture. North America_sentence_309

Sports North America_section_24

Canada, Mexico and the US submitted a joint bid to host the 2026 FIFA World Cup. North America_sentence_310

The following table shows the most prominent sports leagues in North America, in order of average revenue. North America_sentence_311

North America_table_general_5

LeagueNorth America_header_cell_5_0_0 SportNorth America_header_cell_5_0_1 Primary

countryNorth America_header_cell_5_0_2

FoundedNorth America_header_cell_5_0_3 TeamsNorth America_header_cell_5_0_4 Revenue

US$ (bn)North America_header_cell_5_0_5


AttendanceNorth America_header_cell_5_0_6

National Football League (NFL)North America_cell_5_1_0 American footballNorth America_cell_5_1_1 United StatesNorth America_cell_5_1_2 1920North America_cell_5_1_3 32North America_cell_5_1_4 $9.0North America_cell_5_1_5 67,604North America_cell_5_1_6
Major League Baseball (MLB)North America_cell_5_2_0 BaseballNorth America_cell_5_2_1 United States

CanadaNorth America_cell_5_2_2

1869North America_cell_5_2_3 30North America_cell_5_2_4 $8.0North America_cell_5_2_5 30,458North America_cell_5_2_6
National Basketball Association (NBA)North America_cell_5_3_0 BasketballNorth America_cell_5_3_1 United States

CanadaNorth America_cell_5_3_2

1946North America_cell_5_3_3 30North America_cell_5_3_4 $5.0North America_cell_5_3_5 17,347North America_cell_5_3_6
National Hockey League (NHL)North America_cell_5_4_0 Ice hockeyNorth America_cell_5_4_1 United States

CanadaNorth America_cell_5_4_2

1917North America_cell_5_4_3 31North America_cell_5_4_4 $3.3North America_cell_5_4_5 17,720North America_cell_5_4_6
Liga MXNorth America_cell_5_5_0 Football (soccer)North America_cell_5_5_1 MexicoNorth America_cell_5_5_2 1943North America_cell_5_5_3 18North America_cell_5_5_4 $0.6North America_cell_5_5_5 25,557North America_cell_5_5_6
Major League Soccer (MLS)North America_cell_5_6_0 Football (soccer)North America_cell_5_6_1 United States

CanadaNorth America_cell_5_6_2

1994North America_cell_5_6_3 24North America_cell_5_6_4 $0.5North America_cell_5_6_5 21,574North America_cell_5_6_6
Canadian Football League (CFL)North America_cell_5_7_0 Canadian footballNorth America_cell_5_7_1 CanadaNorth America_cell_5_7_2 1958North America_cell_5_7_3 9North America_cell_5_7_4 $0.3North America_cell_5_7_5 23,890North America_cell_5_7_6

See also North America_section_25

North America_unordered_list_1

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: America.