From Wikipedia for FEVERv2
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This article is about the European country. Norway_sentence_0

For other uses, see Norway (disambiguation). Norway_sentence_1


Kingdom of NorwayNorway_header_cell_0_0_0

and largest cityNorway_header_cell_0_1_0

Official languagesNorway_header_cell_0_2_0 Regional language: Kven

Minority languages: Romani, RomanesNorway_cell_0_2_1

Writing systemNorway_header_cell_0_3_0 LatinNorway_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groupsNorway_header_cell_0_4_0 Indigenous status:

Minority status:Norway_cell_0_4_1

Demonym(s)Norway_header_cell_0_5_0 NorwegianNorway_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentNorway_header_cell_0_6_0 Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchyNorway_cell_0_6_1
MonarchNorway_header_cell_0_7_0 Harald VNorway_cell_0_7_1
Prime MinisterNorway_header_cell_0_8_0 Erna SolbergNorway_cell_0_8_1
President of the StortingNorway_header_cell_0_9_0 Tone W. TrøenNorway_cell_0_9_1
Chief JusticeNorway_header_cell_0_10_0 Toril Marie ØieNorway_cell_0_10_1
Current coalitionNorway_header_cell_0_11_0 Liberal conservativeNorway_cell_0_11_1
LegislatureNorway_header_cell_0_12_0 Stortinget

 L SámediggiNorway_cell_0_12_1

State established prior unificationNorway_header_cell_0_14_0 872Norway_cell_0_14_1
Old Kingdom of Norway (Peak extent)Norway_header_cell_0_15_0 1263Norway_cell_0_15_1
Kalmar UnionNorway_header_cell_0_16_0 1397Norway_cell_0_16_1
Denmark–NorwayNorway_header_cell_0_17_0 1524Norway_cell_0_17_1
Re-established stateNorway_header_cell_0_18_0 25 February 1814Norway_cell_0_18_1
ConstitutionNorway_header_cell_0_19_0 17 May 1814Norway_cell_0_19_1
Sweden-NorwayNorway_header_cell_0_20_0 4 November 1814Norway_cell_0_20_1
Dissolution of Sweden-NorwayNorway_header_cell_0_21_0 7 June 1905Norway_cell_0_21_1
Area Norway_header_cell_0_22_0
TotalNorway_header_cell_0_23_0 385,207 km (148,729 sq mi) (67th)Norway_cell_0_23_1
Water (%)Norway_header_cell_0_24_0 5.32 (as of 2015)Norway_cell_0_24_1
2020 estimateNorway_header_cell_0_26_0 5,367,580 (118th)Norway_cell_0_26_1
DensityNorway_header_cell_0_27_0 14.2/km (36.8/sq mi) (213th)Norway_cell_0_27_1
GDP (PPP)Norway_header_cell_0_28_0 2020 estimateNorway_cell_0_28_1
TotalNorway_header_cell_0_29_0 $397 billion (46th)Norway_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaNorway_header_cell_0_30_0 $79,638 (6th)Norway_cell_0_30_1
GDP (nominal)Norway_header_cell_0_31_0 2018 estimateNorway_cell_0_31_1
TotalNorway_header_cell_0_32_0 $443 billion (22nd)Norway_cell_0_32_1
Per capitaNorway_header_cell_0_33_0 $82,711 (3rd)Norway_cell_0_33_1
Gini (2018)Norway_header_cell_0_34_0 24.8


HDI (2018)Norway_header_cell_0_35_0 0.954

very high · 1stNorway_cell_0_35_1

CurrencyNorway_header_cell_0_36_0 Norwegian krone (NOK)Norway_cell_0_36_1
Time zoneNorway_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC+1 (CET)Norway_cell_0_37_1
Summer (DST)Norway_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC+2 (CEST)Norway_cell_0_38_1
Date formatNorway_header_cell_0_39_0
Driving sideNorway_header_cell_0_40_0 rightNorway_cell_0_40_1
Calling codeNorway_header_cell_0_41_0 +47Norway_cell_0_41_1
ISO 3166 codeNorway_header_cell_0_42_0 NONorway_cell_0_42_1
Internet TLDNorway_header_cell_0_43_0 .noNorway_cell_0_43_1

Norway (Bokmål: Norge; Nynorsk: Noreg; Northern Sami: Norga; Lule Sami: Vuodna; Southern Sami: Nöörje), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose mainland territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula; Mainland Norway and the remote island of Jan Mayen as well as the archipelago of Svalbard form Metropolitan Norway. Norway_sentence_2

Bouvet Island, located in the Subantarctic, is a dependency of the Kingdom of Norway. Norway_sentence_3

Norway also lays claims to the Antarctic territories of Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land. Norway_sentence_4

Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres (148,729 sq mi) and a population of 5,312,300 (as of August 2018). Norway_sentence_5

The country shares a long eastern border with Sweden (1,619 km or 1,006 mi long). Norway_sentence_6

Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, and the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway_sentence_7

Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. Norway_sentence_8

The maritime influence also dominates Norway's climate with mild lowland temperatures on the sea coasts, whereas the interior, while colder, is also a lot milder than areas elsewhere in the world on such northerly latitudes. Norway_sentence_9

Even during polar night in the north, temperatures above freezing are commonplace on the coastline. Norway_sentence_10

The maritime influence brings high rainfall and snowfall to some areas of the country. Norway_sentence_11

Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Norway_sentence_12

Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013 when she replaced Jens Stoltenberg. Norway_sentence_13

As a unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution. Norway_sentence_14

The kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of many petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,148 years. Norway_sentence_15

From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark–Norway, and from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway_sentence_16

Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway_sentence_17

Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway_sentence_18

Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities. Norway_sentence_19

The Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway_sentence_20

Norway maintains close ties with both the European Union and the United States. Norway_sentence_21

Norway is also a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, and the Nordic Council; a member of the European Economic Area, the WTO, and the OECD; and a part of the Schengen Area. Norway_sentence_22

In addition, the Norwegian languages share mutual intelligibility with Danish and Swedish. Norway_sentence_23

Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, and its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals. Norway_sentence_24

The Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, minerals, lumber, seafood, and fresh water. Norway_sentence_25

The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). Norway_sentence_26

On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East. Norway_sentence_27

The country has the fourth-highest per-capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists. Norway_sentence_28

On the CIA's GDP (PPP) per capita list (2015 estimate) which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven. Norway_sentence_29

It has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway_sentence_30

Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position also held previously between 2001 and 2006; it also has the highest inequality-adjusted ranking per 2018. Norway_sentence_31

Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and currently ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, and the Democracy Index. Norway_sentence_32

Norway also has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway_sentence_33

Etymology Norway_section_0

Norway has two official names: Norge in Bokmål and Noreg in Nynorsk. Norway_sentence_34

The English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", which is how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name. Norway_sentence_35

The Anglo-Saxons of Britain also referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. Norway_sentence_36

There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway originally had the same etymology as the English form. Norway_sentence_37

According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was originally , a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr , "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, and contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" (from Old Norse ) for (Germany), and austrvegr "eastern way" (from ) for the Baltic. Norway_sentence_38

In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. Norway_sentence_39

In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area that was later called Normandy from norðmann (Norseman or Scandinavian), although not a Norwegian possession. Norway_sentence_40

In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Norway, Sweden or Denmark. Norway_sentence_41

Until around 1800, inhabitants of Western Norway were referred to as nordmenn (northmen) while inhabitants of Eastern Norway were referred to as austmenn (eastmen). Norway_sentence_42

According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" (Old English nearu) or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land ("narrow way"). Norway_sentence_43

The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would then have been due to later folk etymology. Norway_sentence_44

This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; since 2016 it as also advocated by language student and activist Klaus Johan Myrvoll and was adopted by philology professor Michael Schulte. Norway_sentence_45

The form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, and still has the same meaning. Norway_sentence_46

Among other arguments in favour of the theory, it is pointed out that the word has a long vowel in Skaldic poetry and is not attested with <ð> in any native Norse texts or inscriptions (the earliest runic attestations have the spellings nuruiak and nuriki). Norway_sentence_47

This resurrected theory has received some pushback by other scholars on various grounds, e. g. the uncontroversial presence of the element norðr in the ethnonym norðrmaðr "Norseman, Norwegian person" (modern Norwegian nordmann), and the adjective norrǿnn "northern, Norse, Norwegian", as well as the very early attestations of the Latin and Anglo-Saxon forms with ! Norway_sentence_48

. Norway_sentence_49

In a Latin manuscript of 849, the name Northuagia is mentioned, while a French chronicle of c. 900 uses the names Northwegia and Norwegia. Norway_sentence_50

When Ohthere of Hålogaland visited King Alfred the Great in England in the end of the ninth century, the land was called Norðwegr (lit. Norway_sentence_51

"Northway") and norðmanna land (lit. Norway_sentence_52

"Northmen's land"). Norway_sentence_53

According to Ohthere, Norðmanna lived along the Atlantic coast, the Danes around Skagerrak og Kattegat, while the Sámi people (the "Fins") had a nomadic lifestyle in the wide interior. Norway_sentence_54

Ohthere told Alfred that he was "the most northern of all Norwegians", presumably at Senja island or closer to Tromsø. Norway_sentence_55

He also said that beyond the wide wilderness in Norway's southern part was the land of the Swedes, "Svealand". Norway_sentence_56

The adjective Norwegian, recorded from c. 1600, is derived from the latinisation of the name as Norwegia; in the adjective Norwegian, the Old English spelling '-weg' has survived. Norway_sentence_57

After Norway had become Christian, Noregr and Noregi had become the most common forms, but during the 15th century, the newer forms Noreg(h) and Norg(h)e, found in medieval Icelandic manuscripts, took over and have survived until the modern day. Norway_sentence_58

History Norway_section_1

Main articles: History of Norway and History of Scandinavia Norway_sentence_59

Prehistory Norway_section_2

Main article: Scandinavian prehistory Norway_sentence_60

The first inhabitants were the Ahrensburg culture (11th to 10th millennia BC), which was a late Upper Paleolithic culture during the Younger Dryas, the last period of cold at the end of the Weichselian glaciation. Norway_sentence_61

The culture is named after the village of Ahrensburg, 25 km (15.53 mi) north-east of Hamburg in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein, where wooden arrow shafts and clubs have been excavated. Norway_sentence_62

The earliest traces of human occupation in Norway are found along the coast, where the huge ice shelf of the last ice age first melted between 11,000 and 8,000 BC. Norway_sentence_63

The oldest finds are stone tools dating from 9,500 to 6,000 BC, discovered in Finnmark (Komsa culture) in the north and Rogaland (Fosna culture) in the south-west. Norway_sentence_64

However, theories about two altogether different cultures (the Komsa culture north of the Arctic Circle being one and the Fosna culture from Trøndelag to Oslofjord being the other) were rendered obsolete in the 1970s. Norway_sentence_65

More recent finds along the entire coast revealed to archaeologists that the difference between the two can simply be ascribed to different types of tools and not to different cultures. Norway_sentence_66

Coastal fauna provided a means of livelihood for fishermen and hunters, who may have made their way along the southern coast about 10,000 BC when the interior was still covered with ice. Norway_sentence_67

It is now thought that these so-called "Arctic" peoples came from the south and followed the coast northward considerably later. Norway_sentence_68

In the southern part of the country are dwelling sites dating from about 5,000 BC. Norway_sentence_69

Finds from these sites give a clearer idea of the life of the hunting and fishing peoples. Norway_sentence_70

The implements vary in shape and mostly are made of different kinds of stone; those of later periods are more skilfully made. Norway_sentence_71

Rock carvings (i.e. petroglyphs) have been found, usually near hunting and fishing grounds. Norway_sentence_72

They represent game such as deer, reindeer, elk, bears, birds, seals, whales, and fish (especially salmon and halibut), all of which were vital to the way of life of the coastal peoples. Norway_sentence_73

The rock carvings at Alta in Finnmark, the largest in Scandinavia, were made at sea level from 4,200 to 500 BC and mark the progression of the land as the sea rose after the last ice age ended. Norway_sentence_74

Bronze Age Norway_section_3

Main article: Nordic Bronze Age Norway_sentence_75

Between 3000 and 2500 BC, new settlers (Corded Ware culture) arrived in eastern Norway. Norway_sentence_76

They were Indo-European farmers who grew grain and kept cows and sheep. Norway_sentence_77

The hunting-fishing population of the west coast was also gradually replaced by farmers, though hunting and fishing remained useful secondary means of livelihood. Norway_sentence_78

From about 1500 BC, bronze was gradually introduced, but the use of stone implements continued; Norway had few riches to barter for bronze goods, and the few finds consist mostly of elaborate weapons and brooches that only chieftains could afford. Norway_sentence_79

Huge burial cairns built close to the sea as far north as Harstad and also inland in the south are characteristic of this period. Norway_sentence_80

The motifs of the rock carvings differ slightly from those typical of the Stone Age. Norway_sentence_81

Representations of the Sun, animals, trees, weapons, ships, and people are all strongly stylised. Norway_sentence_82

Thousands of rock carvings from this period depict ships, and the large stone burial monuments known as stone ships, suggest that ships and seafaring played an important role in the culture at large. Norway_sentence_83

The depicted ships most likely represent sewn plank built canoes used for warfare, fishing and trade. Norway_sentence_84

These ship types may have their origin as far back as the neolithic period and they continue into the Pre-Roman Iron Age, as exemplified by the Hjortspring boat. Norway_sentence_85

Iron Age Norway_section_4

Main article: Iron Age Scandinavia Norway_sentence_86

Little has been found dating from the early Iron Age (the last 500 years BC). Norway_sentence_87

The dead were cremated, and their graves contain few burial goods. Norway_sentence_88

During the first four centuries AD, the people of Norway were in contact with Roman-occupied Gaul. Norway_sentence_89

About 70 Roman bronze cauldrons, often used as burial urns, have been found. Norway_sentence_90

Contact with the civilised countries farther south brought a knowledge of runes; the oldest known Norwegian runic inscription dates from the 3rd century. Norway_sentence_91

At this time, the amount of settled area in the country increased, a development that can be traced by coordinated studies of topography, archaeology, and place-names. Norway_sentence_92

The oldest root names, such as nes, vik, and bø ("cape," "bay," and "farm"), are of great antiquity, dating perhaps from the Bronze Age, whereas the earliest of the groups of compound names with the suffixes vin ("meadow") or heim ("settlement"), as in Bjǫrgvin (Bergen) or Sǿheim (Seim), usually date from the 1st century AD. Norway_sentence_93

Archaeologists first made the decision to divide the Iron Age of Northern Europe into distinct pre-Roman and Roman Iron Ages after Emil Vedel unearthed a number of Iron Age artefacts in 1866 on the island of Bornholm. Norway_sentence_94

They did not exhibit the same permeating Roman influence seen in most other artefacts from the early centuries AD, indicating that parts of northern Europe had not yet come into contact with the Romans at the beginning of the Iron Age. Norway_sentence_95

Migration period Norway_section_5

Main article: Migration period Norway_sentence_96

See also: Petty kingdoms of Norway Norway_sentence_97

The destruction of the Western Roman Empire by the Germanic peoples in the 5th century is characterised by rich finds, including tribal chiefs' graves containing magnificent weapons and gold objects. Norway_sentence_98

Hill forts were built on precipitous rocks for defence. Norway_sentence_99

Excavation has revealed stone foundations of farmhouses 18 to 27 metres (59 to 89 ft) long—one even 46 metres (151 feet) long—the roofs of which were supported on wooden posts. Norway_sentence_100

These houses were family homesteads where several generations lived together, with people and cattle under one roof. Norway_sentence_101

These states were based on either clans or tribes (e.g., the Horder of Hordaland in western Norway). Norway_sentence_102

By the 9th century, each of these small states had things (local or regional assemblies) for negotiating and settling disputes. Norway_sentence_103

The thing meeting places, each eventually with a hörgr (open-air sanctuary) or a heathen hof (temple; literally "hill"), were usually situated on the oldest and best farms, which belonged to the chieftains and wealthiest farmers. Norway_sentence_104

The regional things united to form even larger units: assemblies of deputy yeomen from several regions. Norway_sentence_105

In this way, the lagting (assemblies for negotiations and lawmaking) developed. Norway_sentence_106

The Gulating had its meeting place by Sognefjord and may have been the centre of an aristocratic confederation along the western fjords and islands called the Gulatingslag. Norway_sentence_107

The Frostating was the assembly for the leaders in the Trondheimsfjord area; the Earls of Lade, near Trondheim, seem to have enlarged the Frostatingslag by adding the coastland from Romsdalsfjord to Lofoten. Norway_sentence_108

Viking Age Norway_section_6

Main article: Viking Age Norway_sentence_109

See also: Unification of Norway and Hereditary Kingdom of Norway Norway_sentence_110

From the 8th to the 10th century, the wider Scandinavian region was the source of Vikings. Norway_sentence_111

The looting of the monastery at Lindisfarne in Northeast England in 793 by Norse people has long been regarded as the event which marked the beginning of the Viking Age. Norway_sentence_112

This age was characterised by expansion and emigration by Viking seafarers. Norway_sentence_113

They colonised, raided, and traded in all parts of Europe. Norway_sentence_114

Norwegian Viking explorers discovered Iceland by accident in the 9th century when heading for the Faroe Islands, and eventually came across Vinland, known today as Newfoundland, in Canada. Norway_sentence_115

The Vikings from Norway were most active in the northern and western British Isles and eastern North America isles. Norway_sentence_116

According to tradition, Harald Fairhair unified them into one in 872 after the Battle of Hafrsfjord in Stavanger, thus becoming the first king of a united Norway. Norway_sentence_117

Harald's realm was mainly a South Norwegian coastal state. Norway_sentence_118

Fairhair ruled with a strong hand and according to the sagas, many Norwegians left the country to live in Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and parts of Britain and Ireland. Norway_sentence_119

The modern-day Irish cities of Dublin, Limerick and Waterford were founded by Norwegian settlers. Norway_sentence_120

Norse traditions were replaced slowly by Christian ones in the late 10th and early 11th centuries. Norway_sentence_121

One of the most important sources for the history of the 11th century Vikings is the treaty between the Icelanders and Olaf Haraldsson, king of Norway circa 1015 to 1028. Norway_sentence_122

This is largely attributed to the missionary kings Olav Tryggvasson and St. Norway_sentence_123

Olav. Norway_sentence_124

Haakon the Good was Norway's first Christian king, in the mid-10th century, though his attempt to introduce the religion was rejected. Norway_sentence_125

Born sometime in between 963 and 969, Olav Tryggvasson set off raiding in England with 390 ships. Norway_sentence_126

He attacked London during this raiding. Norway_sentence_127

Arriving back in Norway in 995, Olav landed in Moster. Norway_sentence_128

There he built a church which became the first Christian church ever built in Norway. Norway_sentence_129

From Moster, Olav sailed north to Trondheim where he was proclaimed King of Norway by the Eyrathing in 995. Norway_sentence_130

Feudalism never really developed in Norway or Sweden, as it did in the rest of Europe. Norway_sentence_131

However, the administration of government took on a very conservative feudal character. Norway_sentence_132

The Hanseatic League forced the royalty to cede to them greater and greater concessions over foreign trade and the economy. Norway_sentence_133

The League had this hold over the royalty because of the loans the Hansa had made to the royalty and the large debt the kings were carrying. Norway_sentence_134

The League's monopolistic control over the economy of Norway put pressure on all classes, especially the peasantry, to the degree that no real burgher class existed in Norway. Norway_sentence_135

Civil war and peak of power Norway_section_7

Main article: Kingdom of Norway (872–1397) Norway_sentence_136

See also: Greater Norway and Civil war era in Norway Norway_sentence_137

From the 1040s to 1130, the country was at peace. Norway_sentence_138

In 1130, the civil war era broke out on the basis of unclear succession laws, which allowed all the king's sons to rule jointly. Norway_sentence_139

For periods there could be peace, before a lesser son allied himself with a chieftain and started a new conflict. Norway_sentence_140

The Archdiocese of Nidaros was created in 1152 and attempted to control the appointment of kings. Norway_sentence_141

The church inevitably had to take sides in the conflicts, with the civil wars also becoming an issue regarding the church's influence of the king. Norway_sentence_142

The wars ended in 1217 with the appointment of Håkon Håkonsson, who introduced clear law of succession. Norway_sentence_143

From 1000 to 1300, the population increased from 150,000 to 400,000, resulting both in more land being cleared and the subdivision of farms. Norway_sentence_144

While in the Viking Age all farmers owned their own land, by 1300, seventy percent of the land was owned by the king, the church, or the aristocracy. Norway_sentence_145

This was a gradual process which took place because of farmers borrowing money in poor times and not being able to repay. Norway_sentence_146

However, tenants always remained free men and the large distances and often scattered ownership meant that they enjoyed much more freedom than continental serfs. Norway_sentence_147

In the 13th century, about twenty percent of a farmer's yield went to the king, church and landowners. Norway_sentence_148

The 14th century is described as Norway's Golden Age, with peace and increase in trade, especially with the British Islands, although Germany became increasingly important towards the end of the century. Norway_sentence_149

Throughout the High Middle Ages, the king established Norway as a sovereign state with a central administration and local representatives. Norway_sentence_150

In 1349, the Black Death spread to Norway and had within a year killed a third of the population. Norway_sentence_151

Later plagues reduced the population to half the starting point by 1400. Norway_sentence_152

Many communities were entirely wiped out, resulting in an abundance of land, allowing farmers to switch to more animal husbandry. Norway_sentence_153

The reduction in taxes weakened the king's position, and many aristocrats lost the basis for their surplus, reducing some to mere farmers. Norway_sentence_154

High tithes to church made it increasingly powerful and the archbishop became a member of the Council of State. Norway_sentence_155

The Hanseatic League took control over Norwegian trade during the 14th century and established a trading center in Bergen. Norway_sentence_156

In 1380, Olaf Haakonsson inherited both the Norwegian and Danish thrones, creating a union between the two countries. Norway_sentence_157

In 1397, under Margaret I, the Kalmar Union was created between the three Scandinavian countries. Norway_sentence_158

She waged war against the Germans, resulting in a trade blockade and higher taxation on Norwegian goods, which resulted in a rebellion. Norway_sentence_159

However, the Norwegian Council of State was too weak to pull out of the union. Norway_sentence_160

Margaret pursued a centralising policy which inevitably favoured Denmark, because it had a greater population than Norway and Sweden combined. Norway_sentence_161

Margaret also granted trade privileges to the Hanseatic merchants of Lübeck in Bergen in return for recognition of her right to rule, and these hurt the Norwegian economy. Norway_sentence_162

The Hanseatic merchants formed a state within a state in Bergen for generations. Norway_sentence_163

Even worse were the pirates, the "Victual Brothers", who launched three devastating raids on the port (the last in 1427). Norway_sentence_164

Norway slipped ever more to the background under the Oldenburg dynasty (established 1448). Norway_sentence_165

There was one revolt under Knut Alvsson in 1502. Norway_sentence_166

Norwegians had some affection for King Christian II, who resided in the country for several years. Norway_sentence_167

Norway took no part in the events which led to Swedish independence from Denmark in the 1520s. Norway_sentence_168

Kalmar Union Norway_section_8

Main article: Kalmar Union Norway_sentence_169

Upon the death of Haakon V (King of Norway) in 1319, Magnus Erikson, at just three years old, inherited the throne as King Magnus VII of Norway. Norway_sentence_170

At the same time, a movement to make Magnus King of Sweden proved successful, and both the kings of Sweden and of Denmark were elected to the throne by their respective nobles, Thus, with his election to the throne of Sweden, both Sweden and Norway were united under King Magnus VII. Norway_sentence_171

In 1349, the Black Death radically altered Norway, killing between 50% and 60% of its population and leaving it in a period of social and economic decline. Norway_sentence_172

The plague left Norway very poor. Norway_sentence_173

Although the death rate was comparable with the rest of Europe, economic recovery took much longer because of the small, scattered population. Norway_sentence_174

Even before the plague, the population was only about 500,000. Norway_sentence_175

After the plague, many farms lay idle while the population slowly increased. Norway_sentence_176

However, the few surviving farms' tenants found their bargaining positions with their landlords greatly strengthened. Norway_sentence_177

King Magnus VII ruled Norway until 1350, when his son, Haakon, was placed on the throne as Haakon VI. Norway_sentence_178

In 1363, Haakon VI married Margaret, the daughter of King Valdemar IV of Denmark. Norway_sentence_179

Upon the death of Haakon VI, in 1379, his son, Olaf IV, was only 10 years old. Norway_sentence_180

Olaf had already been elected to the throne of Denmark on 3 May 1376. Norway_sentence_181

Thus, upon Olaf's accession to the throne of Norway, Denmark and Norway entered personal union. Norway_sentence_182

Olaf's mother and Haakon's widow, Queen Margaret, managed the foreign affairs of Denmark and Norway during the minority of Olaf IV. Norway_sentence_183

Margaret was working toward a union of Sweden with Denmark and Norway by having Olaf elected to the Swedish throne. Norway_sentence_184

She was on the verge of achieving this goal when Olaf IV suddenly died. Norway_sentence_185

However, Denmark made Margaret temporary ruler upon the death of Olaf. Norway_sentence_186

On 2 February 1388, Norway followed suit and crowned Margaret. Norway_sentence_187

Queen Margaret knew that her power would be more secure if she were able to find a king to rule in her place. Norway_sentence_188

She settled on Eric of Pomerania, grandson of her sister. Norway_sentence_189

Thus at an all-Scandinavian meeting held at Kalmar, Erik of Pomerania was crowned king of all three Scandinavian countries. Norway_sentence_190

Thus, royal politics resulted in personal unions between the Nordic countries, eventually bringing the thrones of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden under the control of Queen Margaret when the country entered into the Kalmar Union. Norway_sentence_191

Union with Denmark Norway_section_9

Main article: Denmark–Norway Norway_sentence_192

After Sweden broke out of the Kalmar Union in 1521, Norway tried to follow suit, but the subsequent rebellion was defeated, and Norway remained in a union with Denmark until 1814, a total of 434 years. Norway_sentence_193

During the national romanticism of the 19th century, this period was by some referred to as the "400-Year Night", since all of the kingdom's royal, intellectual, and administrative power was centred in Copenhagen in Denmark. Norway_sentence_194

In fact, it was a period of great prosperity and progress for Norway, especially in terms of shipping and foreign trade, and it also secured the country's revival from the demographic catastrophe it suffered in the Black Death. Norway_sentence_195

Based on the respective natural resources, Denmark–Norway was in fact a very good match since Denmark supported Norway's needs for grain and food supplies, and Norway supplied Denmark with timber, metal, and fish. Norway_sentence_196

With the introduction of Protestantism in 1536, the archbishopric in Trondheim was dissolved, and Norway lost its independence, and effectually became a colony of Denmark. Norway_sentence_197

The Church's incomes and possessions were instead redirected to the court in Copenhagen. Norway_sentence_198

Norway lost the steady stream of pilgrims to the relics of St. Norway_sentence_199

Olav at the Nidaros shrine, and with them, much of the contact with cultural and economic life in the rest of Europe. Norway_sentence_200

Eventually restored as a kingdom (albeit in legislative union with Denmark) in 1661, Norway saw its land area decrease in the 17th century with the loss of the provinces Båhuslen, Jemtland, and Herjedalen to Sweden, as the result of a number of disastrous wars with Sweden. Norway_sentence_201

In the north, however, its territory was increased by the acquisition of the northern provinces of Troms and Finnmark, at the expense of Sweden and Russia. Norway_sentence_202

The famine of 1695–1696 killed roughly 10% of Norway's population. Norway_sentence_203

The harvest failed in Scandinavia at least nine times between 1740 and 1800, with great loss of life. Norway_sentence_204

Union with Sweden Norway_section_10

Main article: United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway Norway_sentence_205

See also: Norwegian protectorate and Norwegian romantic nationalism Norway_sentence_206

After Denmark–Norway was attacked by the United Kingdom at the 1807 Battle of Copenhagen, it entered into an alliance with Napoleon, with the war leading to dire conditions and mass starvation in 1812. Norway_sentence_207

As the Danish kingdom found itself on the losing side in 1814, it was forced, under terms of the Treaty of Kiel, to cede Norway to the king of Sweden, while the old Norwegian provinces of Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands remained with the Danish crown. Norway_sentence_208

Norway took this opportunity to declare independence, adopted a constitution based on American and French models, and elected the Crown Prince of Denmark and Norway, Christian Frederick, as king on 17 May 1814. Norway_sentence_209

This is the famous Syttende mai (Seventeenth of May) holiday celebrated by Norwegians and Norwegian-Americans alike. Norway_sentence_210

Syttende mai is also called Norwegian Constitution Day. Norway_sentence_211

Norwegian opposition to the great powers' decision to link Norway with Sweden caused the Norwegian–Swedish War to break out as Sweden tried to subdue Norway by military means. Norway_sentence_212

As Sweden's military was not strong enough to defeat the Norwegian forces outright, and Norway's treasury was not large enough to support a protracted war, and as British and Russian navies blockaded the Norwegian coast, the belligerents were forced to negotiate the Convention of Moss. Norway_sentence_213

According to the terms of the convention, Christian Frederik abdicated the Norwegian throne and authorised the Parliament of Norway to make the necessary constitutional amendments to allow for the personal union that Norway was forced to accept. Norway_sentence_214

On 4 November 1814, the Parliament (Storting) elected Charles XIII of Sweden as king of Norway, thereby establishing the union with Sweden. Norway_sentence_215

Under this arrangement, Norway kept its liberal constitution and its own independent institutions, though it shared a common monarch and common foreign policy with Sweden. Norway_sentence_216

Following the recession caused by the Napoleonic Wars, economic development of Norway remained slow until economic growth began around 1830. Norway_sentence_217

This period also saw the rise of the Norwegian romantic nationalism, as Norwegians sought to define and express a distinct national character. Norway_sentence_218

The movement covered all branches of culture, including literature (Henrik Wergeland [1808–1845], Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson [1832–1910], Peter Christen Asbjørnsen [1812–1845], Jørgen Moe [1813–1882]), painting (Hans Gude [1825–1903], Adolph Tidemand [1814–1876]), music (Edvard Grieg [1843–1907]), and even language policy, where attempts to define a native written language for Norway led to today's two official written forms for Norwegian: Bokmål and Nynorsk. Norway_sentence_219

King Charles III John, who came to the throne of Norway and Sweden in 1818, was the second king following Norway's break from Denmark and the union with Sweden. Norway_sentence_220

Charles John was a complex man whose long reign extended to 1844. Norway_sentence_221

He protected the constitution and liberties of Norway and Sweden during the age of Metternich. Norway_sentence_222

As such, he was regarded as a liberal monarch for that age. Norway_sentence_223

However, he was ruthless in his use of paid informers, the secret police and restrictions on the freedom of the press to put down public movements for reform—especially the Norwegian national independence movement. Norway_sentence_224

The Romantic Era that followed the reign of King Charles III John brought some significant social and political reforms. Norway_sentence_225

In 1854, women won the right to inherit property in their own right, just like men. Norway_sentence_226

In 1863, the last trace of keeping unmarried women in the status of minors was removed. Norway_sentence_227

Furthermore, women were then eligible for different occupations, particularly the common school teacher. Norway_sentence_228

By mid-century, Norway's democracy was limited by modern standards: Voting was limited to officials, property owners, leaseholders and burghers of incorporated towns. Norway_sentence_229

Still, Norway remained a conservative society. Norway_sentence_230

Life in Norway (especially economic life) was "dominated by the aristocracy of professional men who filled most of the important posts in the central government". Norway_sentence_231

There was no strong bourgeosie class in Norway to demand a breakdown of this aristocratic control of the economy. Norway_sentence_232

Thus, even while revolution swept over most of the countries of Europe in 1848, Norway was largely unaffected by revolts that year. Norway_sentence_233

Marcus Thrane was a Utopian socialist. Norway_sentence_234

He made his appeal to the labouring classes urging a change of social structure "from below upwards." Norway_sentence_235

In 1848, he organised a labour society in Drammen. Norway_sentence_236

In just a few months, this society had a membership of 500 and was publishing its own newspaper. Norway_sentence_237

Within two years, 300 societies had been organised all over Norway, with a total membership of 20,000 persons. Norway_sentence_238

The membership was drawn from the lower classes of both urban and rural areas; for the first time these two groups felt they had a common cause. Norway_sentence_239

In the end, the revolt was easily crushed; Thrane was captured and in 1855, after four years in jail, was sentenced to three additional years for crimes against the safety of the state. Norway_sentence_240

Upon his release, Marcus Thrane attempted unsuccessfully to revitalise his movement, but after the death of his wife, he migrated to the United States. Norway_sentence_241

In 1898, all men were granted universal suffrage, followed by all women in 1913. Norway_sentence_242

Dissolution of the union Norway_section_11

Main articles: Union dissolution referendum and Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden Norway_sentence_243

Christian Michelsen, a shipping magnate and statesman, and Prime Minister of Norway from 1905 to 1907, played a central role in the peaceful separation of Norway from Sweden on 7 June 1905. Norway_sentence_244

A national referendum confirmed the people's preference for a monarchy over a republic. Norway_sentence_245

However, no Norwegian could legitimately claim the throne, since none of Norway's noble families could claim descent from medieval royalty. Norway_sentence_246

In European tradition, royal or "blue" blood is a precondition for laying claim to the throne. Norway_sentence_247

The government then offered the throne of Norway to Prince Carl of Denmark, a prince of the Dano-German royal house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and a distant relative of several of Norway's medieval kings. Norway_sentence_248

After centuries of close ties between Norway and Denmark, a prince from the latter was the obvious choice for a European prince who could best relate to the Norwegian people. Norway_sentence_249

Following the plebiscite, he was unanimously elected king by the Norwegian Parliament, the first king of a fully independent Norway in 508 years (1397: Kalmar Union); he took the name Haakon VII. Norway_sentence_250

In 1905, the country welcomed the prince from neighbouring Denmark, his wife Maud of Wales and their young son to re-establish Norway's royal house. Norway_sentence_251

First and Second World Wars Norway_section_12

See also: German occupation of Norway, Reichskommissariat Norwegen, and Quisling regime Norway_sentence_252

Throughout the First World War, Norway was in principle a neutral country. Norway_sentence_253

In reality, however, Norway had been pressured by the British to hand over increasingly large parts of its large merchant fleet to the British at low rates, as well as to join the trade blockade against Germany. Norway_sentence_254

Norwegian merchant marine ships, often with Norwegian sailors still on board, were then sailing under the British flag and at risk of being sunk by German submarines. Norway_sentence_255

Thus, many Norwegian sailors and ships were lost. Norway_sentence_256

Thereafter, the world ranking of the Norwegian merchant navy fell from fourth place to sixth in the world. Norway_sentence_257

Norway also proclaimed its neutrality during the Second World War, but despite this, it was invaded by German forces on 9 April 1940. Norway_sentence_258

Although Norway was unprepared for the German surprise attack (see: Battle of Drøbak Sound, Norwegian Campaign, and Invasion of Norway), military and naval resistance lasted for two months. Norway_sentence_259

Norwegian armed forces in the north launched an offensive against the German forces in the Battles of Narvik, until they were forced to surrender on 10 June after losing British support which had been diverted to France during the German invasion of France. Norway_sentence_260

King Haakon and the Norwegian government escaped to Rotherhithe in London. Norway_sentence_261

Throughout the war they sent inspirational radio speeches and supported clandestine military actions in Norway against the Germans. Norway_sentence_262

On the day of the invasion, the leader of the small National-Socialist party Nasjonal Samling, Vidkun Quisling, tried to seize power, but was forced by the German occupiers to step aside. Norway_sentence_263

Real power was wielded by the leader of the German occupation authority, Reichskommissar Josef Terboven. Norway_sentence_264

Quisling, as minister president, later formed a collaborationist government under German control. Norway_sentence_265

Up to 15,000 Norwegians volunteered to fight in German units, including the Waffen-SS. Norway_sentence_266

The fraction of the Norwegian population that supported Germany was traditionally smaller than in Sweden, but greater than is generally appreciated today. Norway_sentence_267

It included a number of prominent personalities such as the Nobel-prize winning novelist Knut Hamsun. Norway_sentence_268

The concept of a "Germanic Union" of member states fit well into their thoroughly nationalist-patriotic ideology. Norway_sentence_269

Many Norwegians and persons of Norwegian descent joined the Allied forces as well as the Free Norwegian Forces. Norway_sentence_270

In June 1940, a small group had left Norway following their king to Britain. Norway_sentence_271

This group included 13 ships, five aircraft, and 500 men from the Royal Norwegian Navy. Norway_sentence_272

By the end of the war, the force had grown to 58 ships and 7,500 men in service in the Royal Norwegian Navy, 5 squadrons of aircraft (including Spitfires, Sunderland flying boats and Mosquitos) in the newly formed Norwegian Air Force, and land forces including the Norwegian Independent Company 1 and 5 Troop as well as No. Norway_sentence_273

10 Commandos. Norway_sentence_274

During the five years of German occupation, Norwegians built a resistance movement which fought the German occupation forces with both civil disobedience and armed resistance including the destruction of Norsk Hydro's heavy water plant and stockpile of heavy water at Vemork, which crippled the German nuclear programme (see: Norwegian heavy water sabotage). Norway_sentence_275

More important to the Allied war effort, however, was the role of the Norwegian Merchant Marine. Norway_sentence_276

At the time of the invasion, Norway had the fourth-largest merchant marine fleet in the world. Norway_sentence_277

It was led by the Norwegian shipping company Nortraship under the Allies throughout the war and took part in every war operation from the evacuation of Dunkirk to the Normandy landings. Norway_sentence_278

Every December Norway gives a Christmas tree to the United Kingdom as thanks for the British assistance during the Second World War. Norway_sentence_279

A ceremony takes place to erect the tree in London's Trafalgar Square. Norway_sentence_280

Svalbard was not occupied by German troops. Norway_sentence_281

Germany secretly established a meteorological station in 1944. Norway_sentence_282

The crew was stuck after the general capitulation in May 1945 and were rescued by a Norwegian seal hunter on 4 September. Norway_sentence_283

They surrendered to the seal hunter as the last German soldiers to surrender in WW2. Norway_sentence_284

Post-World War II history Norway_section_13

From 1945 to 1962, the Labour Party held an absolute majority in the parliament. Norway_sentence_285

The government, led by prime minister Einar Gerhardsen, embarked on a program inspired by Keynesian economics, emphasising state financed industrialisation and co-operation between trade unions and employers' organisations. Norway_sentence_286

Many measures of state control of the economy imposed during the war were continued, although the rationing of dairy products was lifted in 1949, while price control and rationing of housing and cars continued until 1960. Norway_sentence_287

The wartime alliance with the United Kingdom and the United States was continued in the post-war years. Norway_sentence_288

Although pursuing the goal of a socialist economy, the Labour Party distanced itself from the Communists (especially after the Communists' seizure of power in Czechoslovakia in 1948), and strengthened its foreign policy and defence policy ties with the US. Norway_sentence_289

Norway received Marshall Plan aid from the United States starting in 1947, joined the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) one year later, and became a founding member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949. Norway_sentence_290

The first oil was discovered at the small Balder field in 1967, production only began in 1999. Norway_sentence_291

In 1969, the Phillips Petroleum Company discovered petroleum resources at the Ekofisk field west of Norway. Norway_sentence_292

In 1973, the Norwegian government founded the State oil company, Statoil. Norway_sentence_293

Oil production did not provide net income until the early 1980s because of the large capital investment that was required to establish the country's petroleum industry. Norway_sentence_294

Around 1975, both the proportion and absolute number of workers in industry peaked. Norway_sentence_295

Since then labour-intensive industries and services like factory mass production and shipping have largely been outsourced. Norway_sentence_296

Norway was a founding member of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Norway_sentence_297

Norway was twice invited to join the European Union, but ultimately declined to join after referendums that failed by narrow margins in 1972 and 1994. Norway_sentence_298

In 1981, a Conservative government led by Kåre Willoch replaced the Labour Party with a policy of stimulating the stagflated economy with tax cuts, economic liberalisation, deregulation of markets, and measures to curb record-high inflation (13.6% in 1981). Norway_sentence_299

Norway's first female prime minister, Gro Harlem Brundtland of the Labour party, continued many of the reforms of her conservative predecessor, while backing traditional Labour concerns such as social security, high taxes, the industrialisation of nature, and feminism. Norway_sentence_300

By the late 1990s, Norway had paid off its foreign debt and had started accumulating a sovereign wealth fund. Norway_sentence_301

Since the 1990s, a divisive question in politics has been how much of the income from petroleum production the government should spend, and how much it should save. Norway_sentence_302

In 2011, Norway suffered two terrorist attacks on the same day conducted by Anders Behring Breivik which struck the government quarter in Oslo and a summer camp of the Labour party's youth movement at Utøya island, resulting in 77 deaths and 319 wounded. Norway_sentence_303

The 2013 Norwegian parliamentary election brought a more conservative government to power, with the Conservative Party and the Progress Party winning 43% of the electorate's votes. Norway_sentence_304

Geography Norway_section_14

Main articles: Geography of Norway and Geology of Norway Norway_sentence_305

Norway's core territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula; the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard are also part of the Kingdom of Norway. Norway_sentence_306

The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway_sentence_307

Norway also lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway_sentence_308

From the Middle Ages to 1814 Norway was part of the Danish kingdom. Norway_sentence_309

Norwegian possessions in the North Atlantic, Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Iceland, remained Danish when Norway was passed to Sweden at the Treaty of Kiel. Norway_sentence_310

Norway also comprised Bohuslän until 1658, Jämtland and Härjedalen until 1645, Shetland and Orkney until 1468, and the Hebrides and Isle of Man until the Treaty of Perth in 1266. Norway_sentence_311

Norway comprises the western and northernmost part of Scandinavia in Northern Europe. Norway_sentence_312

Norway lies between latitudes 57° and 81° N, and longitudes and 32° E. Norway_sentence_313

Norway is the northernmost of the Nordic countries and if Svalbard is included also the easternmost. Norway_sentence_314

Vardø at 31° 10' 07" east of Greenwich lies further east than St. Petersburg and Istanbul. Norway_sentence_315

Norway includes the northernmost point on the European mainland. Norway_sentence_316

The rugged coastline is broken by huge fjords and thousands of islands. Norway_sentence_317

The coastal baseline is 2,532 kilometres (1,573 mi). Norway_sentence_318

The coastline of the mainland including fjords stretches 28,953 kilometres (17,991 mi), when islands are included the coastline has been estimated to 100,915 kilometres (62,706 mi). Norway_sentence_319

Norway shares a 1,619-kilometre (1,006 mi) land border with Sweden, 727 kilometres (452 mi) with Finland, and 196 kilometres (122 mi) with Russia to the east. Norway_sentence_320

To the north, west and south, Norway is bordered by the Barents Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the North Sea, and Skagerrak. Norway_sentence_321

The Scandinavian Mountains form much of the border with Sweden. Norway_sentence_322

At 385,207 square kilometres (148,729 sq mi) (including Svalbard and Jan Mayen) (and 323,808 square kilometres (125,023 sq mi) without), much of the country is dominated by mountainous or high terrain, with a great variety of natural features caused by prehistoric glaciers and varied topography. Norway_sentence_323

The most noticeable of these are the fjords: deep grooves cut into the land flooded by the sea following the end of the Ice Age. Norway_sentence_324

Sognefjorden is the world's second deepest fjord, and the world's longest at 204 kilometres (127 mi). Norway_sentence_325

Hornindalsvatnet is the deepest lake in all Europe. Norway_sentence_326

Norway has about 400,000 lakes. Norway_sentence_327

There are 239,057 registered islands. Norway_sentence_328

Permafrost can be found all year in the higher mountain areas and in the interior of Finnmark county. Norway_sentence_329

Numerous glaciers are found in Norway. Norway_sentence_330

The land is mostly made of hard granite and gneiss rock, but slate, sandstone, and limestone are also common, and the lowest elevations contain marine deposits. Norway_sentence_331

Because of the Gulf Stream and prevailing westerlies, Norway experiences higher temperatures and more precipitation than expected at such northern latitudes, especially along the coast. Norway_sentence_332

The mainland experiences four distinct seasons, with colder winters and less precipitation inland. Norway_sentence_333

The northernmost part has a mostly maritime Subarctic climate, while Svalbard has an Arctic tundra climate. Norway_sentence_334

Because of the large latitudinal range of the country and the varied topography and climate, Norway has a larger number of different habitats than almost any other European country. Norway_sentence_335

There are approximately 60,000 species in Norway and adjacent waters (excluding bacteria and viruses). Norway_sentence_336

The Norwegian Shelf large marine ecosystem is considered highly productive. Norway_sentence_337

Climate Norway_section_15

The southern and western parts of Norway, fully exposed to Atlantic storm fronts, experience more precipitation and have milder winters than the eastern and far northern parts. Norway_sentence_338

Areas to the east of the coastal mountains are in a rain shadow, and have lower rain and snow totals than the west. Norway_sentence_339

The lowlands around Oslo have the warmest and sunniest summers, but also cold weather and snow in wintertime. Norway_sentence_340

Because of Norway's high latitude, there are large seasonal variations in daylight. Norway_sentence_341

From late May to late July, the sun never completely descends beneath the horizon in areas north of the Arctic Circle (hence Norway's description as the "Land of the Midnight sun"), and the rest of the country experiences up to 20 hours of daylight per day. Norway_sentence_342

Conversely, from late November to late January, the sun never rises above the horizon in the north, and daylight hours are very short in the rest of the country. Norway_sentence_343

The coastal climate of Norway is exceptionally mild compared with areas on similar latitudes elsewhere in the world, with the Gulf Stream passing directly offshore the northern areas of the Atlantic coast, continuously warming the region in the winter. Norway_sentence_344

Temperature anomalies found in coastal locations are exceptional, with Røst and Værøy lacking a meteorological winter in spite of being north of the Arctic Circle. Norway_sentence_345

The Gulf Stream has this effect only on the northern parts of Norway, not in the south, despite what is commonly believed. Norway_sentence_346

The northern coast of Norway would thus be ice-covered if not for the Gulf Stream. Norway_sentence_347

As a side-effect, the Scandinavian Mountains prevent continental winds from reaching the coastline, causing very cool summers throughout Atlantic Norway. Norway_sentence_348

Oslo has more of a continental climate, similar to Sweden's. Norway_sentence_349

The mountain ranges have subarctic and tundra climates. Norway_sentence_350

There is also very high rainfall in areas exposed to the Atlantic, such as Bergen. Norway_sentence_351

Oslo, in comparison, is dry, being in a rain shadow. Norway_sentence_352

Skjåk in Oppland county is also in the rain shadow and is one of the driest places with 278 millimetres (10.9 inches) precipitation annually. Norway_sentence_353

Finnmarksvidda and the interior valleys of Troms and Nordland also receive less than 300 millimetres (12 inches) annually. Norway_sentence_354

Longyearbyen is the driest place in Norway with 190 millimetres (7.5 inches). Norway_sentence_355

Parts of southeastern Norway including parts of Mjøsa have warm-summer humid continental climates (Köppen Dfb), while the more southern and western coasts are mostly of the oceanic climate (Cfb). Norway_sentence_356

Further inland in southeastern and northern Norway, the subarctic climate (Dfc) dominates; this is especially true for areas in the rain shadow of the Scandinavian Mountains. Norway_sentence_357

Some of the inner valleys of Oppland get so little precipitation annually, thanks to the rain shadow effect, that they meet the requirements for dry-summer subarctic climates (Dsc). Norway_sentence_358

In higher altitudes, close to the coasts of southern and western Norway, one can find the rare subpolar oceanic climate (Cfc). Norway_sentence_359

This climate is also common in Northern Norway, usually in lower altitudes, all the way down to sea level. Norway_sentence_360

A small part of the northernmost coast of Norway has the tundra/alpine/polar climate (ET). Norway_sentence_361

Large parts of Norway are covered by mountains and high altitude plateaus, many of which also exhibit the tundra/alpine/polar climate (ET). Norway_sentence_362

Biodiversity Norway_section_16

Main article: Wildlife of Norway Norway_sentence_363

The total number of species include 16,000 species of insects (probably 4,000 more species yet to be described), 20,000 species of algae, 1,800 species of lichen, 1,050 species of mosses, 2,800 species of vascular plants, up to 7,000 species of fungi, 450 species of birds (250 species nesting in Norway), 90 species of mammals, 45 fresh-water species of fish, 150 salt-water species of fish, 1,000 species of fresh-water invertebrates, and 3,500 species of salt-water invertebrates. Norway_sentence_364

About 40,000 of these species have been described by science. Norway_sentence_365

The red list of 2010 encompasses 4,599 species. Norway_sentence_366

Seventeen species are listed mainly because they are endangered on a global scale, such as the European beaver, even if the population in Norway is not seen as endangered. Norway_sentence_367

The number of threatened and near-threatened species equals to 3,682; it includes 418 fungi species, many of which are closely associated with the small remaining areas of old-growth forests, 36 bird species, and 16 species of mammals. Norway_sentence_368

In 2010, 2,398 species were listed as endangered or vulnerable; of these were 1250 listed as vulnerable (VU), 871 as endangered (EN), and 276 species as critically endangered (CR), among which were the grey wolf, the Arctic fox (healthy population on Svalbard) and the pool frog. Norway_sentence_369

The largest predator in Norwegian waters is the sperm whale, and the largest fish is the basking shark. Norway_sentence_370

The largest predator on land is the polar bear, while the brown bear is the largest predator on the Norwegian mainland. Norway_sentence_371

The largest land animal on the mainland is the elk (American English: moose). Norway_sentence_372

The elk in Norway is known for its size and strength and is often called skogens konge, "king of the forest". Norway_sentence_373

Environment Norway_section_17

Attractive and dramatic scenery and landscape are found throughout Norway. Norway_sentence_374

The west coast of southern Norway and the coast of northern Norway present some of the most visually impressive coastal sceneries in the world. Norway_sentence_375

National Geographic has listed the Norwegian fjords as the world's top tourist attraction. Norway_sentence_376

The country is also home to the natural phenomena of the Midnight sun (during summer), as well as the Aurora borealis known also as the Northern lights. Norway_sentence_377

The 2016 Environmental Performance Index from Yale University, Columbia University and the World Economic Forum put Norway in seventeenth place, immediately below Croatia and Switzerland. Norway_sentence_378

The index is based on environmental risks to human health, habitat loss, and changes in CO2 emissions. Norway_sentence_379

The index notes over-exploitation of fisheries, but not Norway's whaling or oil exports. Norway_sentence_380

Politics and government Norway_section_18

Main articles: Politics of Norway and Law of Norway Norway_sentence_381

See also: Norwegian parliamentary election, 2017 Norway_sentence_382

Norway is considered to be one of the most developed democracies and states of justice in the world. Norway_sentence_383

From 1814, c. 45% of men (25 years and older) had the right to vote, whereas the United Kingdom had c. 20% (1832), Sweden c. 5% (1866), and Belgium c. 1.15% (1840). Norway_sentence_384

Since 2010, Norway has been classified as the world's most democratic country by the Democracy Index. Norway_sentence_385

According to the Constitution of Norway, which was adopted on 17 May 1814 and inspired by the United States Declaration of Independence and French Revolution of 1776 and 1789, respectively, Norway is a unitary constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government, wherein the King of Norway is the head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. Norway_sentence_386

Power is separated among the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government, as defined by the Constitution, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. Norway_sentence_387

The monarch officially retains executive power. Norway_sentence_388

But following the introduction of a parliamentary system of government, the duties of the monarch have since become strictly representative and ceremonial, such as the formal appointment and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers in the executive government. Norway_sentence_389

Accordingly, the Monarch is commander-in-chief of the Norwegian Armed Forces, and serves as chief diplomatic official abroad and as a symbol of unity. Norway_sentence_390

Harald V of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg was crowned King of Norway in 1991, the first since the 14th century who has been born in the country. Norway_sentence_391

Haakon, Crown Prince of Norway, is the legal and rightful heir to the throne and the Kingdom. Norway_sentence_392

In practice, the Prime Minister exercises the executive powers. Norway_sentence_393

Constitutionally, legislative power is vested with both the government and the Parliament of Norway, but the latter is the supreme legislature and a unicameral body. Norway_sentence_394

Norway is fundamentally structured as a representative democracy. Norway_sentence_395

The Parliament can pass a law by simple majority of the 169 representatives, who are elected on the basis of proportional representation from 19 constituencies for four-year terms. Norway_sentence_396

150 are elected directly from the 19 constituencies, and an additional 19 seats ("levelling seats") are allocated on a nationwide basis to make the representation in parliament correspond better with the popular vote for the political parties. Norway_sentence_397

A 4% election threshold is required for a party to gain levelling seats in Parliament. Norway_sentence_398

There are a total of 169 members of parliament. Norway_sentence_399

The Parliament of Norway, called the Stortinget (meaning Grand Assembly), ratifies national treaties developed by the executive branch. Norway_sentence_400

It can impeach members of the government if their acts are declared unconstitutional. Norway_sentence_401

If an indicted suspect is impeached, Parliament has the power to remove the person from office. Norway_sentence_402

The position of prime minister, Norway's head of government, is allocated to the member of Parliament who can obtain the confidence of a majority in Parliament, usually the current leader of the largest political party or, more effectively, through a coalition of parties. Norway_sentence_403

A single party generally does not have sufficient political power in terms of the number of seats to form a government on its own. Norway_sentence_404

Norway has often been ruled by minority governments. Norway_sentence_405

The prime minister nominates the cabinet, traditionally drawn from members of the same political party or parties in the Storting, making up the government. Norway_sentence_406

The PM organises the executive government and exercises its power as vested by the Constitution. Norway_sentence_407

Norway has a state church, the Lutheran Church of Norway, which has in recent years gradually been granted more internal autonomy in day-to-day affairs, but which still has a special constitutional status. Norway_sentence_408

Formerly, the PM had to have more than half the members of cabinet be members of the Church of Norway, meaning at least ten out of the 19 ministries. Norway_sentence_409

This rule was however removed in 2012. Norway_sentence_410

The issue of separation of church and state in Norway has been increasingly controversial, as many people believe it is time to change this, to reflect the growing diversity in the population. Norway_sentence_411

A part of this is the evolution of the public school subject Christianity, a required subject since 1739. Norway_sentence_412

Even the state's loss in a battle at the European Court of Human Rights at Strasbourg in 2007 did not settle the matter. Norway_sentence_413

As of 1 January 2017, the Church of Norway is a separate legal entity, and no longer a branch of the civil service. Norway_sentence_414

Through the Council of State, a privy council presided over by the monarch, the prime minister and the cabinet meet at the Royal Palace and formally consult the Monarch. Norway_sentence_415

All government bills need the formal approval by the monarch before and after introduction to Parliament. Norway_sentence_416

The Council reviews and approves all of the monarch's actions as head of state. Norway_sentence_417

Although all government and parliamentary acts are decided beforehand, the privy council is an example of symbolic gesture the king retains. Norway_sentence_418

Members of the Storting are directly elected from party-lists proportional representation in nineteen plural-member constituencies in a national multi-party system. Norway_sentence_419

Historically, both the Norwegian Labour Party and Conservative Party have played leading political roles. Norway_sentence_420

In the early 21st century, the Labour Party has been in power since the 2005 election, in a Red–Green Coalition with the Socialist Left Party and the Centre Party. Norway_sentence_421

Since 2005, both the Conservative Party and the Progress Party have won numerous seats in the Parliament, but not sufficient in the 2009 general election to overthrow the coalition. Norway_sentence_422

Commentators have pointed to the poor co-operation between the opposition parties, including the Liberals and the Christian Democrats. Norway_sentence_423

Jens Stoltenberg, the leader of the Labour Party, continued to have the necessary majority through his multi-party alliance to continue as PM until 2013. Norway_sentence_424

In national elections in September 2013, voters ended eight years of Labor rule. Norway_sentence_425

Two political parties, Høyre and Fremskrittspartiet, elected on promises of tax cuts, more spending on infrastructure and education, better services and stricter rules on immigration, formed a government. Norway_sentence_426

Coming at a time when Norway's economy is in good condition with low unemployment, the rise of the right appeared to be based on other issues. Norway_sentence_427

Erna Solberg became prime minister, the second female prime minister after Brundtland and the first conservative prime minister since Syse. Norway_sentence_428

Solberg said her win was "a historic election victory for the right-wing parties". Norway_sentence_429

Administrative divisions Norway_section_19

Main articles: Administrative divisions of Norway, Counties of Norway, Municipalities of Norway, List of towns and cities in Norway, and Dependencies of Norway Norway_sentence_430

See also: Sápmi (area) Norway_sentence_431

Norway, a unitary state, is divided into eleven first-level administrative counties (fylke). Norway_sentence_432

The counties are administered through directly elected county assemblies who elect the County Governor. Norway_sentence_433

Additionally, the King and government are represented in every county by a fylkesmann, who effectively acts as a Governor. Norway_sentence_434

As such, the Government is directly represented at a local level through the County Governors' offices. Norway_sentence_435

The counties are then sub-divided into 356 second-level municipalities (kommuner), which in turn are administered by directly elected municipal council, headed by a mayor and a small executive cabinet. Norway_sentence_436

The capital of Oslo is considered both a county and a municipality. Norway_sentence_437

Norway has two integral overseas territories: Jan Mayen and Svalbard, the only developed island in the archipelago of the same name, located miles away to the north. Norway_sentence_438

There are three Antarctic and Subantarctic dependencies: Bouvet Island, Peter I Island, and Queen Maud Land. Norway_sentence_439

On most maps, there had been an unclaimed area between Queen Maud Land and the South Pole until 12 June 2015 when Norway formally annexed that area. Norway_sentence_440

96 settlements have city status in Norway. Norway_sentence_441

In most cases, the city borders are coterminous with the borders of their respective municipalities. Norway_sentence_442

Often, Norwegian city municipalities include large areas that are not developed; for example, Oslo municipality contains large forests, located north and south-east of the city, and over half of Bergen municipality consists of mountainous areas. Norway_sentence_443

The counties of Norway are: Norway_sentence_444


NumberNorway_header_cell_1_0_0 County (fylke)Norway_header_cell_1_0_1 Administrative centreNorway_header_cell_1_0_2 Most populous municipalityNorway_header_cell_1_0_3 Geographical regionNorway_header_cell_1_0_4 Total areaNorway_header_cell_1_0_5 PopulationNorway_header_cell_1_0_6 Official language formNorway_header_cell_1_0_7
03Norway_cell_1_1_0 OsloNorway_cell_1_1_1 City of OsloNorway_cell_1_1_2 OsloNorway_cell_1_1_3 Eastern NorwayNorway_cell_1_1_4 454 kmNorway_cell_1_1_5 673,469Norway_cell_1_1_6 NeutralNorway_cell_1_1_7
11Norway_cell_1_2_0 RogalandNorway_cell_1_2_1 StavangerNorway_cell_1_2_2 StavangerNorway_cell_1_2_3 Western NorwayNorway_cell_1_2_4 9,377 kmNorway_cell_1_2_5 473,526Norway_cell_1_2_6 NeutralNorway_cell_1_2_7
15Norway_cell_1_3_0 Møre og RomsdalNorway_cell_1_3_1 MoldeNorway_cell_1_3_2 ÅlesundNorway_cell_1_3_3 Western NorwayNorway_cell_1_3_4 14,355 kmNorway_cell_1_3_5 266,856Norway_cell_1_3_6 NynorskNorway_cell_1_3_7
18Norway_cell_1_4_0 NordlandNorway_cell_1_4_1 BodøNorway_cell_1_4_2 BodøNorway_cell_1_4_3 Northern NorwayNorway_cell_1_4_4 38,154 kmNorway_cell_1_4_5 243,335Norway_cell_1_4_6 NeutralNorway_cell_1_4_7
30Norway_cell_1_5_0 Viken_(county) VikenNorway_cell_1_5_1 Oslo, Drammen, Sarpsborg and MossNorway_cell_1_5_2 BærumNorway_cell_1_5_3 Eastern NorwayNorway_cell_1_5_4 24,592 kmNorway_cell_1_5_5 1,234,374Norway_cell_1_5_6 NeutralNorway_cell_1_5_7
34Norway_cell_1_6_0 InnlandetNorway_cell_1_6_1 HamarNorway_cell_1_6_2 RingsakerNorway_cell_1_6_3 Eastern NorwayNorway_cell_1_6_4 52,072 kmNorway_cell_1_6_5 370,994Norway_cell_1_6_6 NeutralNorway_cell_1_6_7
38Norway_cell_1_7_0 Vestfold og TelemarkNorway_cell_1_7_1 SkienNorway_cell_1_7_2 SandefjordNorway_cell_1_7_3 Eastern NorwayNorway_cell_1_7_4 17,465 kmNorway_cell_1_7_5 415,777Norway_cell_1_7_6 NeutralNorway_cell_1_7_7
42Norway_cell_1_8_0 AgderNorway_cell_1_8_1 KristiansandNorway_cell_1_8_2 KristiansandNorway_cell_1_8_3 Southern NorwayNorway_cell_1_8_4 16,434 kmNorway_cell_1_8_5 303,754Norway_cell_1_8_6 NeutralNorway_cell_1_8_7
46Norway_cell_1_9_0 VestlandNorway_cell_1_9_1 BergenNorway_cell_1_9_2 BergenNorway_cell_1_9_3 Western NorwayNorway_cell_1_9_4 33,870 kmNorway_cell_1_9_5 631,594Norway_cell_1_9_6 NynorskNorway_cell_1_9_7
50Norway_cell_1_10_0 TrøndelagNorway_cell_1_10_1 SteinkjerNorway_cell_1_10_2 TrondheimNorway_cell_1_10_3 Central NorwayNorway_cell_1_10_4 42,201 kmNorway_cell_1_10_5 458,744Norway_cell_1_10_6 NeutralNorway_cell_1_10_7
54Norway_cell_1_11_0 Troms og FinnmarkNorway_cell_1_11_1 TromsøNorway_cell_1_11_2 TromsøNorway_cell_1_11_3 Northern NorwayNorway_cell_1_11_4 74,829 kmNorway_cell_1_11_5 243,925Norway_cell_1_11_6 NeutralNorway_cell_1_11_7

Largest populated areas Norway_section_20

Main article: List of towns and cities in Norway Norway_sentence_445

Judicial system and law enforcement Norway_section_21

Main article: Judiciary of Norway Norway_sentence_446

Norway uses a civil law system where laws are created and amended in Parliament and the system regulated through the Courts of justice of Norway. Norway_sentence_447

It consists of the Supreme Court of 20 permanent judges and a Chief Justice, appellate courts, city and district courts, and conciliation councils. Norway_sentence_448

The judiciary is independent of executive and legislative branches. Norway_sentence_449

While the Prime Minister nominates Supreme Court Justices for office, their nomination must be approved by Parliament and formally confirmed by the Monarch in the Council of State. Norway_sentence_450

Usually, judges attached to regular courts are formally appointed by the Monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister. Norway_sentence_451

The Courts' strict and formal mission is to regulate the Norwegian judicial system, interpret the Constitution, and as such implement the legislation adopted by Parliament. Norway_sentence_452

In its judicial reviews, it monitors the legislative and executive branches to ensure that they comply with provisions of enacted legislation. Norway_sentence_453

The law is enforced in Norway by the Norwegian Police Service. Norway_sentence_454

It is a Unified National Police Service made up of 27 Police Districts and several specialist agencies, such as Norwegian National Authority for the Investigation and Prosecution of Economic and Environmental Crime, known as Økokrim; and the National Criminal Investigation Service, known as Kripos, each headed by a chief of police. Norway_sentence_455

The Police Service is headed by the National Police Directorate, which reports to the Ministry of Justice and the Police. Norway_sentence_456

The Police Directorate is headed by a National Police Commissioner. Norway_sentence_457

The only exception is the Norwegian Police Security Agency, whose head answers directly to the Ministry of Justice and the Police. Norway_sentence_458

Norway abolished the death penalty for regular criminal acts in 1902. Norway_sentence_459

The legislature abolished the death penalty for high treason in war and war-crimes in 1979. Norway_sentence_460

Reporters Without Borders, in its 2007 Worldwide Press Freedom Index, ranked Norway at a shared first place (along with Iceland) out of 169 countries. Norway_sentence_461

In general, the legal and institutional framework in Norway is characterised by a high degree of transparency, accountability and integrity, and the perception and the occurrence of corruption are very low. Norway_sentence_462

Norway has ratified all relevant international anti-corruption conventions, and its standards of implementation and enforcement of anti-corruption legislation are considered very high by many international anti-corruption working groups such as the OECD Anti-Bribery Working Group. Norway_sentence_463

However, there are some isolated cases showing that some municipalities have abused their position in public procurement processes. Norway_sentence_464

Norwegian prisons are humane, rather than tough, with emphasis on rehabilitation. Norway_sentence_465

At 20%, Norway's re-conviction rate is among the lowest in the world. Norway_sentence_466

Foreign relations Norway_section_22

Main article: Foreign relations of Norway Norway_sentence_467

See also: Norway and the European Union and Whaling in Norway Norway_sentence_468

Norway maintains embassies in 82 countries. Norway_sentence_469

60 countries maintain an embassy in Norway, all of them in the capital, Oslo. Norway_sentence_470

Norway is a founding member of the United Nations (UN), the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Council of Europe and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Norway_sentence_471

Norway issued applications for accession to the European Union (EU) and its predecessors in 1962, 1967 and 1992, respectively. Norway_sentence_472

While Denmark, Sweden and Finland obtained membership, the Norwegian electorate rejected the treaties of accession in referenda in 1972 and 1994. Norway_sentence_473

After the 1994 referendum, Norway maintained its membership in the European Economic Area (EEA), an arrangement granting the country access to the internal market of the Union, on the condition that Norway implements the Union's pieces of legislation which are deemed relevant (of which there were approximately seven thousand by 2010) Successive Norwegian governments have, since 1994, requested participation in parts of the EU's co-operation that go beyond the provisions of the EEA agreement. Norway_sentence_474

Non-voting participation by Norway has been granted in, for instance, the Union's Common Security and Defence Policy, the Schengen Agreement, and the European Defence Agency, as well as 19 separate programmes. Norway_sentence_475

Norway participated in the 1990s brokering of the Oslo Accords, an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Norway_sentence_476

Military Norway_section_23

Main article: Norwegian Armed Forces Norway_sentence_477

The Norwegian Armed Forces numbers about 25,000 personnel, including civilian employees. Norway_sentence_478

According to 2009 mobilisation plans, full mobilisation produces approximately 83,000 combatant personnel. Norway_sentence_479

Norway has conscription (including 6–12 months of training); in 2013, the country became the first in Europe and NATO to draft women as well as men. Norway_sentence_480

However, due to less need for conscripts after the Cold War ended with the break-up of the Soviet Union, few people have to serve if they are not motivated. Norway_sentence_481

The Armed Forces are subordinate to the Norwegian Ministry of Defence. Norway_sentence_482

The Commander-in-Chief is King Harald V. Norway_sentence_483

The military of Norway is divided into the following branches: the Norwegian Army, the Royal Norwegian Navy, the Royal Norwegian Air Force, the Norwegian Cyber Defence Force and the Home Guard. Norway_sentence_484

In response to its being overrun by Germany in 1940, the country was one of the founding nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) on 4 April 1949. Norway_sentence_485

At present, Norway contributes in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. Norway_sentence_486

Additionally, Norway has contributed in several missions in contexts of the United Nations, NATO, and the Common Security and Defence Policy of the European Union. Norway_sentence_487

Economy Norway_section_24

Main articles: Economy of Norway, Energy in Norway, European Economic Area, and Exclusive economic zone § Norway Norway_sentence_488

Norwegians enjoy the second-highest GDP per-capita among European countries (after Luxembourg), and the sixth-highest GDP (PPP) per-capita in the world. Norway_sentence_489

Today, Norway ranks as the second-wealthiest country in the world in monetary value, with the largest capital reserve per capita of any nation. Norway_sentence_490

According to the CIA World Factbook, Norway is a net external creditor of debt. Norway_sentence_491

Norway maintained first place in the world in the UNDP Human Development Index (HDI) for six consecutive years (2001–2006), and then reclaimed this position in 2009. Norway_sentence_492

The standard of living in Norway is among the highest in the world. Norway_sentence_493

Foreign Policy magazine ranks Norway last in its Failed States Index for 2009, judging Norway to be the world's most well-functioning and stable country. Norway_sentence_494

The OECD ranks Norway fourth in the 2013 equalised Better Life Index and third in intergenerational earnings elasticity. Norway_sentence_495

The Norwegian economy is an example of a mixed economy; a prosperous capitalist welfare state it features a combination of free market activity and large state ownership in certain key sectors, influenced by both liberal governments from the late 19th century and later by social democratic governments in the postwar era. Norway_sentence_496

Public health care in Norway is free (after an annual charge of around 2000 kroner for those over 16), and parents have 46 weeks paid parental leave. Norway_sentence_497

The state income derived from natural resources includes a significant contribution from petroleum production. Norway_sentence_498

Norway has an unemployment rate of 4.8%, with 68% of the population aged 15–74 employed. Norway_sentence_499

People in the labour force are either employed or looking for work. Norway_sentence_500

9.5% of the population aged 18–66 receive a disability pension and 30% of the labour force are employed by the government, the highest in the OECD. Norway_sentence_501

The hourly productivity levels, as well as average hourly wages in Norway, are among the highest in the world. Norway_sentence_502

The egalitarian values of Norwegian society have kept the wage difference between the lowest paid worker and the CEO of most companies as much less than in comparable western economies. Norway_sentence_503

This is also evident in Norway's low Gini coefficient. Norway_sentence_504

The state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, such as the strategic petroleum sector (Statoil), hydroelectric energy production (Statkraft), aluminium production (Norsk Hydro), the largest Norwegian bank (DNB), and telecommunication provider (Telenor). Norway_sentence_505

Through these big companies, the government controls approximately 30% of the stock values at the Oslo Stock Exchange. Norway_sentence_506

When non-listed companies are included, the state has even higher share in ownership (mainly from direct oil licence ownership). Norway_sentence_507

Norway is a major shipping nation and has the world's 6th largest merchant fleet, with 1,412 Norwegian-owned merchant vessels. Norway_sentence_508

By referendums in 1972 and 1994, Norwegians rejected proposals to join the European Union (EU). Norway_sentence_509

However, Norway, together with Iceland and Liechtenstein, participates in the European Union's single market through the European Economic Area (EEA) agreement. Norway_sentence_510

The EEA Treaty between the European Union countries and the EFTA countries—transposed into Norwegian law via "EØS-loven"—describes the procedures for implementing European Union rules in Norway and the other EFTA countries. Norway_sentence_511

Norway is a highly integrated member of most sectors of the EU internal market. Norway_sentence_512

Some sectors, such as agriculture, oil and fish, are not wholly covered by the EEA Treaty. Norway_sentence_513

Norway has also acceded to the Schengen Agreement and several other intergovernmental agreements among the EU member states. Norway_sentence_514

The country is richly endowed with natural resources including petroleum, hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals. Norway_sentence_515

Large reserves of petroleum and natural gas were discovered in the 1960s, which led to a boom in the economy. Norway_sentence_516

Norway has obtained one of the highest standards of living in the world in part by having a large amount of natural resources compared to the size of the population. Norway_sentence_517

In 2011, 28% of state revenues were generated from the petroleum industry. Norway_sentence_518

Norway is the first country which banned cutting of trees (deforestation), in order to prevent rain forests from vanishing. Norway_sentence_519

The country declared its intention at the UN Climate Summit in 2014, alongside Great Britain and Germany. Norway_sentence_520

Crops, that are typically linked to forests' destruction are timber, soy, palm oil and beef. Norway_sentence_521

Now Norway has to find a new way to provide these essential products without exerting negative influence on its environment. Norway_sentence_522

Resources Norway_section_25


Export revenues from oil and gas have risen to over 40% of total exports and constitute almost 20% of the GDP. Norway_sentence_523

Norway is the fifth-largest oil exporter and third-largest gas exporter in the world, but it is not a member of OPEC. Norway_sentence_524

In 1995, the Norwegian government established the sovereign wealth fund ("Government Pension Fund – Global"), which would be funded with oil revenues, including taxes, dividends, sales revenues and licensing fees. Norway_sentence_525

This was intended to reduce overheating in the economy from oil revenues, minimise uncertainty from volatility in oil price, and provide a cushion to compensate for expenses associated with the ageing of the population. Norway_sentence_526

The government controls its petroleum resources through a combination of state ownership in major operators in the oil fields (with approximately 62% ownership in Statoil in 2007) and the fully state-owned Petoro, which has a market value of about twice Statoil, and SDFI. Norway_sentence_527

Finally, the government controls licensing of exploration and production of fields. Norway_sentence_528

The fund invests in developed financial markets outside Norway. Norway_sentence_529

Spending from the fund is constrained by the budgetary rule (Handlingsregelen), which limits spending over time to no more than the real value yield of the fund, originally assumed to be 4% a year, but lowered in 2017 to 3% of the fund's total value. Norway_sentence_530


Between 1966 and 2013, Norwegian companies drilled 5085 oil wells, mostly in the North Sea. Norway_sentence_531

Of these 3672 are utviklingsbrønner (regular production); 1413 are letebrønner (exploration); and 1405 have been terminated (avsluttet). Norway_sentence_532

Oil fields not yet in production phase include: Wisting Central—calculated size in 2013, 65–156 million barrels of oil and 10 to 40 billion cubic feet (0.28 to 1.13 billion cubic metres), (utvinnbar) of gas. Norway_sentence_533

and the Castberg Oil Field (Castberg-feltet)—calculated size 540 million barrels of oil, and 2 to 7 billion cubic feet (57 to 198 million cubic metres) (utvinnbar) of gas. Norway_sentence_534

Both oil fields are located in the Barents Sea. Norway_sentence_535


Norway is also the world's second-largest exporter of fish (in value, after China). Norway_sentence_536

Fish from fish farms and catch constitutes the second largest (behind oil/natural gas) export product measured in value. Norway_sentence_537


Hydroelectric plants generate roughly 98–99% of Norway's electric power, more than any other country in the world. Norway_sentence_538


Norway contains significant mineral resources, and in 2013, its mineral production was valued at US$1.5 billion (Norwegian Geological Survey data). Norway_sentence_539

The most valuable minerals are calcium carbonate (limestone), building stone, nepheline syenite, olivine, iron, titanium, and nickel. Norway_sentence_540


In 2017, the Government Pension Fund controlled assets surpassed a value of US$1 trillion (equal to US$190,000 per capita), about 250% of Norway's 2017 GDP. Norway_sentence_541

It is the largest sovereign wealth fund in the world. Norway_sentence_542

The fund controls about 1.3% of all listed shares in Europe, and more than 1% of all the publicly traded shares in the world. Norway_sentence_543

The Norwegian Central Bank operates investment offices in London, New York, and Shanghai. Norway_sentence_544

Guidelines implemented in 2007 allow the fund to invest up to 60% of the capital in shares (maximum of 40% prior), while the rest may be placed in bonds and real-estate. Norway_sentence_545

As the stock markets tumbled in September 2008, the fund was able to buy more shares at low prices. Norway_sentence_546

In this way, the losses incurred by the market turmoil was recuperated by November 2009. Norway_sentence_547

Other nations with economies based on natural resources, such as Russia, are trying to learn from Norway by establishing similar funds. Norway_sentence_548

The investment choices of the Norwegian fund are directed by ethical guidelines; for example, the fund is not allowed to invest in companies that produce parts for nuclear weapons. Norway_sentence_549

Norway's highly transparent investment scheme is lauded by the international community. Norway_sentence_550

The future size of the fund is closely linked to the price of oil and to developments in international financial markets. Norway_sentence_551

In 2000, the government sold one-third of the state-owned oil company Statoil in an IPO. Norway_sentence_552

The next year, the main telecom supplier, Telenor, was listed on Oslo Stock Exchange. Norway_sentence_553

The state also owns significant shares of Norway's largest bank, DnB NOR and the airline SAS. Norway_sentence_554

Since 2000, economic growth has been rapid, pushing unemployment down to levels not seen since the early 1980s (unemployment in 2007: 1.3%). Norway_sentence_555

The international financial crisis has primarily affected the industrial sector, but unemployment has remained low, and was at 3.3% (86,000 people) in August 2011. Norway_sentence_556

In contrast to Norway, Sweden had substantially higher actual and projected unemployment numbers as a result of the recession. Norway_sentence_557

Thousands of mainly young Swedes migrated to Norway for work during these years, which is easy, as the labour market and social security systems overlap in the Nordic Countries. Norway_sentence_558

In the first quarter of 2009, the GNP of Norway surpassed Sweden's for the first time in history, although its population is half the size. Norway_sentence_559

Transport Norway_section_26

Main articles: Transport in Norway, Rail transport in Norway, and List of airports in Norway Norway_sentence_560

Due to the low population density, narrow shape and long coastlines of Norway, its public transport is less developed than in many European countries, especially outside the major cities. Norway_sentence_561

The country has long-standing water transport traditions, but the Norwegian Ministry of Transport and Communications has in recent years implemented rail, road, and air transport through numerous subsidiaries to develop the country's infrastructure. Norway_sentence_562

Under discussion is development of a new high-speed rail system between the nation's largest cities. Norway_sentence_563

Norway's main railway network consists of 4,114 kilometres (2,556 mi) of standard gauge lines, of which 242 kilometres (150 mi) is double track and 64 kilometres (40 mi) high-speed rail (210 km/h) while 62% is electrified at 15 kV  16.7 Hz AC. Norway_sentence_564

The railways transported 56,827,000 passengers 2,956 million passenger-kilometres and 24,783,000 tonnes of cargo 3,414 million tonne-kilometres. Norway_sentence_565

The entire network is owned by the Norwegian National Rail Administration. Norway_sentence_566

All domestic passenger trains except the Airport Express Train are operated by Norges Statsbaner (NSB). Norway_sentence_567

Several companies operate freight trains. Norway_sentence_568

Investment in new infrastructure and maintenance is financed through the state budget, and subsidies are provided for passenger train operations. Norway_sentence_569

NSB operates long-haul trains, including night trains, regional services and four commuter train systems, around Oslo, Trondheim, Bergen and Stavanger. Norway_sentence_570

Norway has approximately 92,946 kilometres (57,754 mi) of road network, of which 72,033 kilometres (44,759 mi) are paved and 664 kilometres (413 mi) are motorway. Norway_sentence_571

The four tiers of road routes are national, county, municipal and private, with national and primary county roads numbered en route. Norway_sentence_572

The most important national routes are part of the European route scheme. Norway_sentence_573

The two most prominent are the European route E6 going north–south through the entire country, and the E39, which follows the West Coast. Norway_sentence_574

National and county roads are managed by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. Norway_sentence_575

Norway has the world's largest registered stock of plug-in electric vehicles per capita. Norway_sentence_576

In March 2014, Norway became the first country where over 1 in every 100 passenger cars on the roads is a plug-in electric. Norway_sentence_577

The plug-in electric segment market share of new car sales is also the highest in the world. Norway_sentence_578

According to a report by Dagens Næringsliv in June 2016, the country would like to ban sales of gasoline and diesel powered vehicles as early as 2025. Norway_sentence_579

In June 2017, 42% of new cars registered were electric. Norway_sentence_580

Of the 98 airports in Norway, 52 are public, and 46 are operated by the state-owned Avinor. Norway_sentence_581

Seven airports have more than one million passengers annually. Norway_sentence_582

A total of 41,089,675 passengers passed through Norwegian airports in 2007, of whom 13,397,458 were international. Norway_sentence_583

The central gateway to Norway by air is Oslo Airport, Gardermoen. Norway_sentence_584

Located about 35 kilometres (22 mi) northeast of Oslo, it is hub for the two major Norwegian airlines: Scandinavian Airlines and Norwegian Air Shuttle, and for regional aircraft from Western Norway. Norway_sentence_585

There are departures to most European countries and some intercontinental destinations. Norway_sentence_586

A direct high-speed train connects to Oslo Central Station every 10 minutes for a 20 min ride. Norway_sentence_587

Demographics Norway_section_27

Main article: Demographics of Norway Norway_sentence_588

Population Norway_section_28

Norway's population was 5,384,576 people as of the third quarter of 2020. Norway_sentence_589

Norwegians are an ethnic North Germanic people. Norway_sentence_590

Since the late 20th century, Norway has attracted immigrants from southern and central Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia and beyond. Norway_sentence_591

The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2018 was estimated at 1.56 children born per woman, below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 4.69 children born per woman in 1877. Norway_sentence_592

In 2018 the median age of the Norwegian population was 39.3 years. Norway_sentence_593

In 2012, an official study showed that 86% of the total population have at least one parent who was born in Norway. Norway_sentence_594

As of 2020 approximately 980,000 individuals (18.2%) are immigrants and their descendants. Norway_sentence_595

Among these approximately 189,000 are children of immigrants, born in Norway. Norway_sentence_596

Of these 980,000 immigrants and their descendants: Norway_sentence_597


  • 485,500 (49.5%) have a Western background (Europe, USA, Canada and Oceania)Norway_item_6_0
  • 493,700 (50.5%) have a non-Western background (Asia, Africa, South and Central America).Norway_item_6_1

In 2013, the Norwegian government said that 14% of the Norwegian population were immigrants or children of two immigrant parents. Norway_sentence_598

About 6% of the immigrant population come from EU, North America and Australia, and about 8.1% come from Asia, Africa and Latin America. Norway_sentence_599

In 2012, of the total 660,000 with immigrant background, 407,262 had Norwegian citizenship (62.2%). Norway_sentence_600

Immigrants have settled in all Norwegian municipalities. Norway_sentence_601

The cities or municipalities with the highest share of immigrants in 2012 were Oslo (32%) and Drammen (27%). Norway_sentence_602

The share in Stavanger was 16%. Norway_sentence_603

According to Reuters, Oslo is the "fastest growing city in Europe because of increased immigration". Norway_sentence_604

In recent years, immigration has accounted for most of Norway's population growth. Norway_sentence_605

In 2011, 16% of newborn children were of immigrant background. Norway_sentence_606

The Sámi people are indigenous to the Far North and have traditionally inhabited central and northern parts of Norway and Sweden, as well as areas in northern Finland and in Russia on the Kola Peninsula. Norway_sentence_607

Another national minority are the Kven people, descendants of Finnish-speaking people who migrated to northern Norway from the 18th up to the 20th century. Norway_sentence_608

From the 19th century up to the 1970s, the Norwegian government tried to assimilate both the Sámi and the Kven, encouraging them to adopt the majority language, culture and religion. Norway_sentence_609

Because of this "Norwegianization process", many families of Sámi or Kven ancestry now identify as ethnic Norwegian. Norway_sentence_610

Migration Norway_section_29


Main articles: Norwegian diaspora and Norwegian Americans Norway_sentence_611

Particularly in the 19th century, when economic conditions were difficult in Norway, tens of thousands of people migrated to the United States and Canada, where they could work and buy land in frontier areas. Norway_sentence_612

Many went to the Midwest and Pacific Northwest. Norway_sentence_613

In 2006, according to the US Census Bureau, almost 4.7 million persons identified as Norwegian Americans, which was larger than the population of ethnic Norwegians in Norway itself. Norway_sentence_614

In the 2011 Canadian census, 452,705 Canadian citizens identified as having Norwegian ancestry. Norway_sentence_615


Main article: Immigration to Norway Norway_sentence_616

On 1 January 2013, the number of immigrants or children of two immigrants residing in Norway was 710,465, or 14.1% of the total population, up from 183,000 in 1992. Norway_sentence_617

Yearly immigration has increased since 2005. Norway_sentence_618

While yearly net immigration in 2001–2005 was on average 13,613, it increased to 37,541 between 2006 and 2010, and in 2011 net immigration reached 47,032. Norway_sentence_619

This is mostly because of increased immigration by residents of the EU, in particular from Poland. Norway_sentence_620

In 2012, the immigrant community (which includes immigrants and children born in Norway of immigrant parents) grew by 55,300, a record high. Norway_sentence_621

Net immigration from abroad reached 47,300 (300 higher than in 2011), while immigration accounted for 72% of Norway's population growth. Norway_sentence_622

17% of newborn children were born to immigrant parents. Norway_sentence_623

Children of Pakistani, Somali and Vietnamese parents made up the largest groups of all Norwegians born to immigrant parents. Norway_sentence_624


Immigrants and Norwegian-born to immigrant parents, by country of origin (2019)Norway_table_caption_2
Country of originNorway_header_cell_2_0_0 PopulationNorway_header_cell_2_0_1
PolandNorway_cell_2_1_0 111,985Norway_cell_2_1_1
LithuaniaNorway_cell_2_2_0 45,415Norway_cell_2_2_1
SomaliaNorway_cell_2_3_0 42,802Norway_cell_2_3_1
SwedenNorway_cell_2_4_0 38,770Norway_cell_2_4_1
PakistanNorway_cell_2_5_0 38,000Norway_cell_2_5_1
SyriaNorway_cell_2_6_0 34,112Norway_cell_2_6_1
Iraq inc. Kurdistan regionNorway_cell_2_7_0 33,924Norway_cell_2_7_1
EritreaNorway_cell_2_8_0 27,855Norway_cell_2_8_1
GermanyNorway_cell_2_9_0 27,770Norway_cell_2_9_1
PhilippinesNorway_cell_2_10_0 25,078Norway_cell_2_10_1

Pakistani Norwegians are the largest non-European minority group in Norway. Norway_sentence_625

Most of their 32,700 members live in and around Oslo. Norway_sentence_626

The Iraqi and Somali immigrant populations have increased significantly in recent years. Norway_sentence_627

After the enlargement of the EU in 2004, a wave of immigrants arrived from Central and Northern Europe, particularly Poland, Sweden and Lithuania. Norway_sentence_628

The fastest growing immigrant groups in 2011 in absolute numbers were from Poland, Lithuania and Sweden. Norway_sentence_629

The policies of immigration and integration have been the subject of much debate in Norway. Norway_sentence_630

Religion Norway_section_30

Main article: Religion in Norway Norway_sentence_631

Church of Norway Norway_section_31

Separation of church and state happened significantly later in Norway than in most of Europe, and remains incomplete. Norway_sentence_632

In 2012, the Norwegian parliament voted to grant the Church of Norway greater autonomy, a decision which was confirmed in a constitutional amendment on 21 May 2012. Norway_sentence_633

Until 2012 parliamentary officials were required to be members of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Norway, and at least half of all government ministers had to be a member of the state church. Norway_sentence_634

As state church, the Church of Norway's clergy were viewed as state employees, and the central and regional church administrations were part of the state administration. Norway_sentence_635

Members of the Royal family are required to be members of the Lutheran church. Norway_sentence_636

On 1 January 2017, Norway made the church independent of the state, but retained the Church's status as the "people's church". Norway_sentence_637

Most Norwegians are registered at baptism as members of the Church of Norway, which has been Norway's state church since its establishment. Norway_sentence_638

In recent years the church has been granted increasing internal autonomy, but it retains its special constitutional status and other special ties to the state, and the constitution requires that the reigning monarch must be a member and states that the country's values are based on its Christian and humanist heritage. Norway_sentence_639

Many remain in the church to participate in the community and practices such as baptism, confirmation, marriage and burial rites. Norway_sentence_640

About 70.6% of Norwegians were members of the Church of Norway in 2017. Norway_sentence_641

In 2017, about 53.6% of all newborns were baptised and about 57.9% of all 15-year-old persons were confirmed in the church. Norway_sentence_642

Religious Affiliation Norway_section_32

According to the 2010 Eurobarometer Poll, 22% of Norwegian citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", 44% responded that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 29% responded that "they don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force". Norway_sentence_643

Five percent gave no response. Norway_sentence_644

In the early 1990s, studies estimated that between 4.7% and 5.3% of Norwegians attended church on a weekly basis. Norway_sentence_645

This figure has dropped to about 2%. Norway_sentence_646

In 2010, 10% of the population was religiously unaffiliated, while another 9% were members of religious communities outside the Church of Norway. Norway_sentence_647

Other Christian denominations total about 4.9% of the population, the largest of which is the Roman Catholic Church, with 83,000 members, according to 2009 government statistics. Norway_sentence_648

The Aftenposten (Norwegian, The Evening Post) in October 2012 reported there were about 115,234 registered Roman Catholics in Norway; the reporter estimated that the total number of people with a Roman Catholic background may be 170,000–200,000 or higher. Norway_sentence_649

Others include Pentecostals (39,600), the Evangelical Lutheran Free Church of Norway (19,600), Methodists (11,000), Baptists (9,900), Eastern Orthodox (9,900), Brunstad Christian Church (6,800), Seventh-day Adventists (5,100), Assyrians and Chaldeans, and others. Norway_sentence_650

The Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic Lutheran congregations in Norway have about 27,500 members in total. Norway_sentence_651

Other Christian denominations comprise less than 1% each, including 4,000 members in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and 12,000 Jehovah's Witnesses. Norway_sentence_652

Among non-Christian religions, Islam is the largest, with 166,861 registered members (2018), and probably fewer than 200,000 in total. Norway_sentence_653

It is practised mainly by Somali, Arab, Bosniak, Kurdish and Turkish immigrants, as well as Norwegians of Pakistani descent. Norway_sentence_654

Other religions comprise less than 1% each, including 819 adherents of Judaism. Norway_sentence_655

Indian immigrants introduced Hinduism to Norway, which in 2011 has slightly more than 5,900 adherents, or 1% of non-Lutheran Norwegians. Norway_sentence_656

Sikhism has approximately 3,000 adherents, with most living in Oslo, which has two gurdwaras. Norway_sentence_657

Sikhs first came to Norway in the early 1970s. Norway_sentence_658

The troubles in Punjab after Operation Blue Star and riots committed against Sikhs in India after the assassination of Indira Gandhi led to an increase in Sikh refugees moving to Norway. Norway_sentence_659

Drammen also has a sizeable population of Sikhs; the largest gurdwara in north Europe was built in Lier. Norway_sentence_660

There are eleven Buddhist organisations, grouped under the Buddhistforbundet organisation, with slightly over 14,000 members, which make up 0.2% of the population. Norway_sentence_661

The Baháʼí Faith religion has slightly more than 1,000 adherents. Norway_sentence_662

Around 1.7% (84,500) of Norwegians belong to the secular Norwegian Humanist Association. Norway_sentence_663

From 2006 to 2011, the fastest-growing religious communities in Norway were Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Oriental Orthodox Christianity, which grew in membership by 80%; however, their share of the total population remains small, at 0.2%. Norway_sentence_664

It is associated with the huge immigration from Eritrea and Ethiopia, and to a lesser extent from Central and Eastern European and Middle Eastern countries. Norway_sentence_665

Other fast-growing religions were Roman Catholicism (78.7%), Hinduism (59.6%), Islam (48.1%), and Buddhism (46.7%). Norway_sentence_666

Indigenous Religions Norway_section_33

As in other Scandinavian countries, the ancient Norse followed a form of native Germanic paganism known as Norse paganism. Norway_sentence_667

By the end of the 11th century, when Norway had been Christianised, the indigenous Norse religion and practices were prohibited. Norway_sentence_668

Remnants of the native religion and beliefs of Norway survive today in the form of names, referential names of cities and locations, the days of the week, and other parts of everyday language. Norway_sentence_669

Modern interest in the old ways has led to a revival of pagan religious practices in the form of Åsatru. Norway_sentence_670

The Norwegian Åsatrufellesskapet Bifrost formed in 1996; in 2011, the fellowship had about 300 members. Norway_sentence_671

Foreningen Forn Sed was formed in 1999 and has been recognised by the Norwegian government. Norway_sentence_672

The Sámi minority retained their shamanistic religion well into the 18th century, when most converted to Christianity under the influence of Dano-Norwegian Lutheran missionaries. Norway_sentence_673

Although some insist that "indigenous Sámi religion had effectively been eradicated,' athropologist Gutorm Gjessing's Changing Lapps (1954) argues that the Sámi's "were outwardly and to all practical purposes converted to Christianity, but at the subconscious and unconscious level, the shamistic frenzy survived, more or less latent, only awaiting the necessary stimulus to break out into the open." Norway_sentence_674

Today there is a renewed appreciation for the Sámi traditional way of life, which has led to a revival of Noaidevuohta. Norway_sentence_675

Some Norwegian and Sámi celebrities are reported to visit shamans for guidance. Norway_sentence_676

Health Norway_section_34

Main article: Health in Norway Norway_sentence_677

Norway was awarded first place according to the UN's Human Development Index (HDI) for 2013. Norway_sentence_678

In the 1800s, by contrast, poverty and communicable diseases dominated in Norway together with famines and epidemics. Norway_sentence_679

From the 1900s, improvements in public health occurred as a result of development in several areas such as social and living conditions, changes in disease and medical outbreaks, establishment of the health care system, and emphasis on public health matters. Norway_sentence_680

Vaccination and increased treatment opportunities with antibiotics resulted in great improvements within the Norwegian population. Norway_sentence_681

Improved hygiene and better nutrition were factors that contributed to improved health. Norway_sentence_682

The disease pattern in Norway changed from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases and chronic diseases as cardiovascular disease. Norway_sentence_683

Inequalities and social differences are still present in public health in Norway today. Norway_sentence_684

In 2013 the infant mortality rate was 2.5 per 1,000 live births among children under the age of one. Norway_sentence_685

For girls it was 2.7 and for boys 2.3, which is the lowest infant mortality rate for boys ever recorded in Norway. Norway_sentence_686

Education Norway_section_35

Main article: Education in Norway Norway_sentence_687

Higher education in Norway is offered by a range of seven universities, five specialised colleges, 25 university colleges as well as a range of private colleges. Norway_sentence_688

Education follows the Bologna Process involving Bachelor (3 years), Master (2 years) and PhD (3 years) degrees. Norway_sentence_689

Acceptance is offered after finishing upper secondary school with general study competence. Norway_sentence_690

Public education is virtually free, regardless of nationality. Norway_sentence_691

The academic year has two semesters, from August to December and from January to June. Norway_sentence_692

The ultimate responsibility for the education lies with the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. Norway_sentence_693

Languages Norway_section_36

Main articles: Languages of Norway and Norwegian dialects Norway_sentence_694

See also: Norwegian language and Sámi languages Norway_sentence_695

Norwegian and Sámi are the two official languages of Norway. Norway_sentence_696

The North Germanic Norwegian language has two official written forms, Bokmål and Nynorsk. Norway_sentence_697

Both are used in public administration, schools, churches, and media. Norway_sentence_698

Bokmål is the written language used by a large majority of about 80–85%. Norway_sentence_699

Around 95% of the population speak Norwegian as their first or native language, although many speak dialects that may differ significantly from the written languages. Norway_sentence_700

All Norwegian dialects are mutually intelligible, although listeners with limited exposure to dialects other than their own may struggle to understand certain phrases and pronunciations in some other dialects. Norway_sentence_701

Several Uralic Sámi languages are spoken and written throughout the country, especially in the north, by some members of the Sámi people. Norway_sentence_702

(Estimates suggest that about one third of the Norwegian Sámi speak a Sámi language.) Norway_sentence_703

Speakers have a right to be educated and to receive communication from the government in their own language in a special forvaltningsområde (administrative area) for Sámi languages. Norway_sentence_704

The Kven minority historically spoke the Uralic Kven language (considered a separate language in Norway, but generally perceived as a Finnish dialect in Finland). Norway_sentence_705

Today the majority of ethnic Kven have little or no knowledge of the language. Norway_sentence_706

According to the Kainun institutti, "The typical modern Kven is a Norwegian-speaking Norwegian who knows his genealogy." Norway_sentence_707

As Norway has ratified the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) the Kven language together with Romani and Scandoromani language has become officially recognised minority languages. Norway_sentence_708

Some supporters have also advocated making Norwegian Sign Language an official language of the country. Norway_sentence_709

In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Norwegian language was subject to strong political and cultural controversies. Norway_sentence_710

This led to the development of Nynorsk in the 19th century and to the formation of alternative spelling standards in the 20th century. Norway_sentence_711

Norwegian is similar to its neighbour Scandinavian languages; Swedish and Danish. Norway_sentence_712

All three languages are to a degree mutually intelligible and can be, and commonly are, employed in communication among inhabitants of the Scandinavian countries. Norway_sentence_713

As a result of the co-operation within the Nordic Council, inhabitants of all Nordic countries, including Iceland and Finland, have the right to communicate with Norwegian authorities in their own language. Norway_sentence_714

Students who are children of immigrant parents are encouraged to learn the Norwegian language. Norway_sentence_715

The Norwegian government offers language instructional courses for immigrants wishing to obtain Norwegian citizenship. Norway_sentence_716

With increasing concern about assimilating immigrants, since 1 September 2008, the government has required that an applicant for Norwegian citizenship give evidence of proficiency in either Norwegian or in one of the Sámi languages, or give proof of having attended classes in Norwegian for 300 hours, or meet the language requirements for university studies in Norway (that is, by being proficient in one of the Scandinavian languages). Norway_sentence_717

The primary foreign language taught in Norwegian schools is English, considered an international language since the post-WWII era. Norway_sentence_718

The majority of the population is fairly fluent in English, especially those born after World War II. Norway_sentence_719

German, French and Spanish are also commonly taught as second or, more often, third languages. Norway_sentence_720

Russian, Japanese, Italian, Latin, and rarely Chinese (Mandarin) are offered in some schools, mostly in the cities. Norway_sentence_721

Traditionally, English, German and French were considered the main foreign languages in Norway. Norway_sentence_722

These languages, for instance, were used on Norwegian passports until the 1990s, and university students have a general right to use these languages when submitting their theses. Norway_sentence_723

Culture Norway_section_37

Main article: Culture of Norway Norway_sentence_724

The Norwegian farm culture continues to play a role in contemporary Norwegian culture. Norway_sentence_725

In the 19th century, it inspired a strong romantic nationalistic movement, which is still visible in the Norwegian language and media. Norway_sentence_726

Norwegian culture blossomed with nationalist efforts to achieve an independent identity in the areas of literature, art and music. Norway_sentence_727

This continues today in the performing arts and as a result of government support for exhibitions, cultural projects and artwork. Norway_sentence_728

Human rights Norway_section_38

Main article: Human rights in Norway Norway_sentence_729

Norway has been considered a progressive country, which has adopted legislation and policies to support women's rights, minority rights, and LGBT rights. Norway_sentence_730

As early as 1884, 171 of the leading figures, among them five Prime Ministers for the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party, co-founded the Norwegian Association for Women's Rights. Norway_sentence_731

They successfully campaigned for women's right to education, women's suffrage, the right to work, and other gender equality policies. Norway_sentence_732

From the 1970s, gender equality also came high on the state agenda, with the establishment of a public body to promote gender equality, which evolved into the Gender Equality and Anti-Discrimination Ombud. Norway_sentence_733

Civil society organisations also continue to play an important role, and the women's rights organisations are today organised in the Norwegian Women's Lobby umbrella organisation. Norway_sentence_734

In 1990, the Norwegian constitution was amended to grant absolute primogeniture to the Norwegian throne, meaning that the eldest child, regardless of gender, takes precedence in the line of succession. Norway_sentence_735

As it was not retroactive, the current successor to the throne is the eldest son of the King, rather than his eldest child. Norway_sentence_736

The Norwegian constitution Article 6 states that "For those born before the year 1990 it the case that a male shall take precedence over a female." Norway_sentence_737

The Sámi people have for centuries been the subject of discrimination and abuse by the dominant cultures in Scandinavia and Russia, those countries claiming possession of Sámi lands. Norway_sentence_738

The Sámi people have never been a single community in a single region of Sápmi. Norway_sentence_739

Norway has been greatly criticised by the international community for the politics of Norwegianization of and discrimination against the indigenous population of the country. Norway_sentence_740

Nevertheless, Norway was, in 1990, the first country to recognise ILO-convention 169 on indigenous people recommended by the UN. Norway_sentence_741

In regard to LGBT rights, Norway was the first country in the world to enact an anti-discrimination law protecting the rights of gays and lesbians. Norway_sentence_742

In 1993, Norway became the second country to legalise civil union partnerships for same-sex couples, and on 1 January 2009 Norway became the sixth country to grant full marriage equality to same-sex couples. Norway_sentence_743

As a promoter of human rights, Norway has held the annual Oslo Freedom Forum conference, a gathering described by The Economist as "on its way to becoming a human-rights equivalent of the Davos economic forum." Norway_sentence_744

Cinema Norway_section_39

Main article: Cinema of Norway Norway_sentence_745

The Norwegian cinema has received international recognition. Norway_sentence_746

The documentary film Kon-Tiki (1950) won an Academy Award. Norway_sentence_747

In 1959, Arne Skouen's Nine Lives was nominated, but failed to win. Norway_sentence_748

Another notable film is Flåklypa Grand Prix (English: Pinchcliffe Grand Prix), an animated feature film directed by Ivo Caprino. Norway_sentence_749

The film was released in 1975 and is based on characters from Norwegian cartoonist Kjell Aukrust. Norway_sentence_750

It is the most widely seen Norwegian film of all time. Norway_sentence_751

Nils Gaup's Pathfinder (1987), the story of the Sámi, was nominated for an Oscar. Norway_sentence_752

Berit Nesheim's The Other Side of Sunday was nominated for an Oscar in 1997. Norway_sentence_753

Since the 1990s, the film industry has thrived, producing up to 20 feature films each year. Norway_sentence_754

Particular successes were Kristin Lavransdatter, based on a novel by a Nobel Prize winner; The Telegraphist and Gurin with the Foxtail. Norway_sentence_755

Knut Erik Jensen was among the more successful new directors, together with Erik Skjoldbjærg, who is remembered for Insomnia. Norway_sentence_756

The country has also been used as filming location for several Hollywood and other international productions, including The Empire Strikes Back (1980), for which the producers used Hardangerjøkulen glacier as a filming location for scenes of the ice planet Hoth. Norway_sentence_757

It included a memorable battle in the snow. Norway_sentence_758

The films Die Another Day, The Golden Compass, Spies Like Us and Heroes of Telemark, as well as the TV series Lilyhammer and Vikings also had scenes set in Norway. Norway_sentence_759

A short film, The Spirit of Norway, was featured at Maelstrom at Norway Pavilion at Epcot located within Walt Disney World Resort in Florida in the United States. Norway_sentence_760

The attraction and the film ceased their operations on 5 October 2014. Norway_sentence_761

Music Norway_section_40

Main article: Music of Norway Norway_sentence_762

See also: Norwegian music industry Norway_sentence_763

The classical music of the romantic composers Edvard Grieg, Rikard Nordraak and Johan Svendsen is internationally known, as is the modern music of Arne Nordheim. Norway_sentence_764

Norway's classical performers include Leif Ove Andsnes, one of the world's more famous pianists; Truls Mørk, an outstanding cellist; and the great Wagnerian soprano Kirsten Flagstad. Norway_sentence_765

Norwegian black metal, a form of rock music in Norway, has been an influence in world music since the late 20th century. Norway_sentence_766

Since the 1990s, Norway's export of black metal, a lo-fi, dark and raw form of heavy metal, has been developed by such bands as Emperor, Darkthrone, Gorgoroth, Mayhem, Burzum and Immortal. Norway_sentence_767

More recently, bands such as Enslaved, Kvelertak, Dimmu Borgir and Satyricon have evolved the genre into the present day while still garnering worldwide fans. Norway_sentence_768

Controversial events associated with the black metal movement in the early 1990s included several church burnings and two prominent murder cases. Norway_sentence_769

The jazz scene in Norway is thriving. Norway_sentence_770

Jan Garbarek, Terje Rypdal, Mari Boine, Arild Andersen and Bugge Wesseltoft are internationally recognised while Paal Nilssen-Love, Supersilent, Jaga Jazzist and Wibutee are becoming world-class artists of the younger generation. Norway_sentence_771

Norway has a strong folk music tradition which remains popular to this day. Norway_sentence_772

Among the most prominent folk musicians are Hardanger fiddlers Andrea Een, Olav Jørgen Hegge and Annbjørg Lien, and the vocalists Agnes Buen Garnås, Kirsten Bråten Berg and Odd Nordstoga. Norway_sentence_773

Other internationally recognised bands are A-ha, Röyksopp and Ylvis. Norway_sentence_774

A-ha initially rose to global fame during the mid-1980s. Norway_sentence_775

In the 1990s and 2000s, the group maintained its popularity domestically, and has remained successful outside Norway, especially in Germany, Switzerland, France, and Brazil. Norway_sentence_776

Some of the most memorable female solo artists from Norway are Susanne Sundfør, Sigrid, Astrid S, Adelén, Julie Bergan, Maria Mena, Tone Damli, Margaret Berger, Lene Marlin, Christel Alsos, Maria Arredondo, Marion Raven and Marit Larsen (both former members of the defunct pop-rock group M2M), Lene Nystrøm (vocalist of the Danish eurodance group Aqua) and Anni-Frid Lyngstad (vocalist of the Swedish pop group ABBA). Norway_sentence_777

In recent years, various Norwegian songwriters and production teams have contributed to the music of other international artists. Norway_sentence_778

The Norwegian production team Stargate has produced songs for Rihanna, Beyoncé, Shakira, Jennifer Lopez and Lionel Richie, among others. Norway_sentence_779

Espen Lind has written and produced songs for Beyoncé, Lionel Richie and Leona Lewis, among others. Norway_sentence_780

Lene Marlin has written songs for Rihanna and Lovebugs. Norway_sentence_781

Ina Wroldsen has written songs for artists such as Demi Lovato, Shakira, Inna, Sophie Ellis-Bextor, One Direction and The Saturdays, among others. Norway_sentence_782

Norway enjoys many music festivals throughout the year, all over the country. Norway_sentence_783

Norway is the host of one of the world's biggest extreme sport festivals with music, Ekstremsportveko—a festival held annually in Voss. Norway_sentence_784

Oslo is the host of many festivals, such as Øyafestivalen and by:Larm. Norway_sentence_785

Oslo used to have a summer parade similar to the German Love Parade. Norway_sentence_786

In 1992, the city of Oslo wanted to adopt the French music festival Fête de la Musique. Norway_sentence_787

Fredrik Carl Størmer established the festival. Norway_sentence_788

Even in its first year, "Musikkens Dag" gathered thousands of people and artists in the streets of Oslo. Norway_sentence_789

"Musikkens Dag" is now renamed Musikkfest Oslo. Norway_sentence_790

Literature Norway_section_41

Main article: Norwegian literature Norway_sentence_791

See also: List of Norwegian writers Norway_sentence_792

The history of Norwegian literature starts with the pagan Eddaic poems and skaldic verse of the 9th and 10th centuries, with poets such as Bragi Boddason and Eyvindr skáldaspillir. Norway_sentence_793

The arrival of Christianity around the year 1000 brought Norway into contact with European medieval learning, hagiography and history writing. Norway_sentence_794

Merged with native oral tradition and Icelandic influence, this influenced the literature written in the late 12th and early 13th centuries. Norway_sentence_795

Major works of that period include Historia Norwegiæ, Þiðrekssaga and Konungs skuggsjá. Norway_sentence_796

Little Norwegian literature came out of the period of the Scandinavian Union and the subsequent Dano-Norwegian union (1387–1814), with some notable exceptions such as Petter Dass and Ludvig Holberg. Norway_sentence_797

In his play Peer Gynt, Ibsen characterised this period as "Twice two hundred years of darkness/brooded o'er the race of monkeys." Norway_sentence_798

The first line of this couplet is frequently quoted. Norway_sentence_799

During the union with Denmark, the government imposed using only written Danish, which decreased the writing of Norwegian literature. Norway_sentence_800

Two major events precipitated a major resurgence in Norwegian literature: in 1811 a Norwegian university was established in Christiania. Norway_sentence_801

Secondly, seized by the spirit of revolution following the American and French revolutions, the Norwegians created their first Constitution in 1814. Norway_sentence_802

Strong authors were inspired who became recognised first in Scandinavia, and then worldwide; among them were Henrik Wergeland, Peter Christen Asbjørnsen, Jørgen Moe and Camilla Collett. Norway_sentence_803

By the late 19th century, in the Golden Age of Norwegian literature, the so-called "Great Four" emerged: Henrik Ibsen, Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Alexander Kielland, and Jonas Lie. Norway_sentence_804

Bjørnson's "peasant novels", such as Ein glad gut (A Happy Boy) and Synnøve Solbakken, are typical of the Norwegian romantic nationalism of their day. Norway_sentence_805

Kielland's novels and short stories are mostly naturalistic. Norway_sentence_806

Although an important contributor to early romantic nationalism, (especially Peer Gynt), Henrik Ibsen is better known for his pioneering realistic dramas such as The Wild Duck and A Doll's House. Norway_sentence_807

They caused an uproar because of his candid portrayals of the middle classes, complete with infidelity, unhappy marriages, and corrupt businessmen. Norway_sentence_808

In the 20th century, three Norwegian novelists were awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature: Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson in 1903, Knut Hamsun for the book Markens grøde ("Growth of the Soil") in 1920, and Sigrid Undset (known for Kristinlavransdatter) in 1928. Norway_sentence_809

Writers such as the following also made important contributions: Dag Solstad, Jon Fosse, Cora Sandel, Olav Duun, Olav H. Hauge, Gunvor Hofmo, Stein Mehren, Kjell Askildsen, Hans Herbjørnsrud, Aksel Sandemose, Bergljot Hobæk Haff, Jostein Gaarder, Erik Fosnes Hansen, Jens Bjørneboe, Kjartan Fløgstad, Lars Saabye Christensen, Johan Borgen, Herbjørg Wassmo, Jan Erik Vold, Rolf Jacobsen, Olaf Bull, Jan Kjærstad, Georg Johannesen, Tarjei Vesaas, Sigurd Hoel, Arnulf Øverland, Karl Ove Knausgård and Johan Falkberget. Norway_sentence_810

Research Norway_section_42

Internationally recognised Norwegian scientists include the mathematicians Niels Henrik Abel, Sophus Lie and Atle Selberg, physical chemist Lars Onsager, physicist Ivar Giaever, chemists Odd Hassel, Peter Waage, and Cato Maximilian Guldberg. Norway_sentence_811

In the 20th century, Norwegian academics have been pioneering in many social sciences, including criminology, sociology and peace and conflict studies. Norway_sentence_812

Prominent academics include Arne Næss, a philosopher and founder of deep ecology; Johan Galtung, the founder of peace studies; Nils Christie and Thomas Mathiesen, criminologists; Fredrik Barth, a social anthropologist; Vilhelm Aubert, Harriet Holter and Erik Grønseth, sociologists; Tove Stang Dahl, a pioneer of women's law; Stein Rokkan, a political scientist; and economists Ragnar Frisch, Trygve Haavelmo, and Finn E. Kydland. Norway_sentence_813

In 2014, the two Norwegian scientists May-Britt Moser and Edvard Moser won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with John O'Keefe. Norway_sentence_814

They won the prize for their groundbreaking work identifying the cells that make up a positioning system in the human brain, our "in-built GPS". Norway_sentence_815

Architecture Norway_section_43

Main article: Architecture of Norway Norway_sentence_816

With expansive forests, Norway has long had a tradition of building in wood. Norway_sentence_817

Many of today's most interesting new buildings are made of wood, reflecting the strong appeal that this material continues to hold for Norwegian designers and builders. Norway_sentence_818

With Norway's conversion to Christianity some 1,000 years ago, churches were built. Norway_sentence_819

Stonework architecture was introduced from Europe for the most important structures, beginning with the construction of Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim. Norway_sentence_820

In the early Middle Ages, wooden stave churches were constructed throughout Norway. Norway_sentence_821

Some of them have survived; they represent Norway's most unusual contribution to architectural history. Norway_sentence_822

A fine example, Urnes Stave Church in inner Sognefjord, is on UNESCO's World Heritage List. Norway_sentence_823

Another notable example of wooden architecture is the buildings at Bryggen Wharf in Bergen, also on the list for World Cultural Heritage sites, consisting of a row of tall, narrow wooden structures along the quayside. Norway_sentence_824

In the 17th century, under the Danish monarchy, cities and villages such as Kongsberg and Røros were established. Norway_sentence_825

The city Kongsberg had a church built in the Baroque style. Norway_sentence_826

Traditional wooden buildings that were constructed in Røros have survived. Norway_sentence_827

After Norway's union with Denmark was dissolved in 1814, Oslo became the capital. Norway_sentence_828

The architect Christian H. Grosch designed the earliest parts of the University of Oslo, the Oslo Stock Exchange, and many other buildings and churches constructed in that early national period. Norway_sentence_829

At the beginning of the 20th century, the city of Ålesund was rebuilt in the Art Nouveau style, influenced by styles of France. Norway_sentence_830

The 1930s, when functionalism dominated, became a strong period for Norwegian architecture. Norway_sentence_831

It is only since the late 20th century that Norwegian architects have achieved international renown. Norway_sentence_832

One of the most striking modern buildings in Norway is the Sámi Parliament in Kárášjohka, designed by Stein Halvorson and Christian Sundby. Norway_sentence_833

Its debating chamber, in timber, is an abstract version of a lavvo, the traditional tent used by the nomadic Sámi people. Norway_sentence_834

Art Norway_section_44

Main article: Norwegian art Norway_sentence_835

For an extended period, the Norwegian art scene was dominated by artwork from Germany and Holland as well as by the influence of Copenhagen. Norway_sentence_836

It was in the 19th century that a truly Norwegian era began, first with portraits, later with impressive landscapes. Norway_sentence_837

Johan Christian Dahl (1788–1857), originally from the Dresden school, eventually returned to paint the landscapes of western Norway, defining Norwegian painting for the first time." Norway_sentence_838

Norway's newly found independence from Denmark encouraged painters to develop their Norwegian identity, especially with landscape painting by artists such as Kitty Kielland, a female painter who studied under Hans Gude, and Harriet Backer, another pioneer among female artists, influenced by impressionism. Norway_sentence_839

Frits Thaulow, an impressionist, was influenced by the art scene in Paris as was Christian Krohg, a realist painter, famous for his paintings of prostitutes. Norway_sentence_840

Of particular note is Edvard Munch, a symbolist/expressionist painter who became world-famous for The Scream which is said to represent the anxiety of modern man. Norway_sentence_841

Other artists of note include Harald Sohlberg, a neo-romantic painter remembered for his paintings of Røros, and Odd Nerdrum, a figurative painter who maintains that his work is not art, but kitsch. Norway_sentence_842

Cuisine Norway_section_45

Main article: Norwegian cuisine Norway_sentence_843

Norway's culinary traditions show the influence of long seafaring and farming traditions, with salmon (fresh and cured), herring (pickled or marinated), trout, codfish, and other seafood, balanced by cheeses (such as brunost), dairy products, and breads (predominantly dark/darker). Norway_sentence_844

Lefse is a Norwegian potato flatbread, usually topped with large amounts of butter and sugar, most common around Christmas. Norway_sentence_845

Some traditional Norwegian dishes include lutefisk, smalahove, pinnekjøtt, raspeball, and fårikål. Norway_sentence_846

Some quirky Norwegian speciality is rakefisk, which is a fermented trout, consumed with thin flatbread (flatbrød, not lefse) and sour cream. Norway_sentence_847

And the most popular pastry among all population is vaffel. Norway_sentence_848

It is different from Belgian in taste and consistency and is served with sour cream, brown cheese, butter and sugar, or strawberry or raspberry jam, which can all be mixed or eaten separately. Norway_sentence_849

Sports Norway_section_46

See also: Football in Norway Norway_sentence_850

Sports are a central part of Norwegian culture, and popular sports include association football, handball, biathlon, cross-country skiing, ski jumping, speed skating, and, to a lesser degree, ice hockey. Norway_sentence_851

Association football is the most popular sport in Norway in terms of active membership. Norway_sentence_852

In 2014–2015 polling, football ranked far behind biathlon and cross-country skiing in terms of popularity as spectator sports. Norway_sentence_853

Ice hockey is the biggest indoor sport. Norway_sentence_854

The women's handball national team has won several titles, including two Summer Olympics championships (2008, 2012), three World Championships (1999, 2011, 2015), and six European Championship (1998, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2014). Norway_sentence_855

In association football, the women's national team has won the FIFA Women's World Cup in 1995 and the Olympic Football Tournament in 2000. Norway_sentence_856

The women's team also has two UEFA European Women's Championship titles (1987, 1993). Norway_sentence_857

The men's national football team has participated three times in the FIFA World Cup (1938, 1994, and 1998), and once in the European Championship (2000). Norway_sentence_858

The highest FIFA ranking Norway has achieved is 2nd, a position it has held twice, in 1993 and in 1995. Norway_sentence_859

Chess is also gaining popularity in Norway. Norway_sentence_860

Magnus Carlsen is the current world champion. Norway_sentence_861

There are about 10 Grandmasters and 29 International Masters in Norway. Norway_sentence_862

Norwegian players in the National Football League (NFL) include Halvor Hagen, Bill Irgens, Leif Olve Dolonen Larsen, Mike Mock, and Jan Stenerud. Norway_sentence_863

Bandy is a traditional sport in Norway and the country is one of the four founders of Federation of International Bandy. Norway_sentence_864

In terms of licensed athletes, it is the second biggest winter sport in the world. Norway_sentence_865

As of January 2018, the men's national team has captured one silver and one bronze, while the women's national team has managed five bronzes at the World Championships. Norway_sentence_866

Norway first participated at the Olympic Games in 1900, and has sent athletes to compete in every Games since then, except for the sparsely attended 1904 Games and the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow when they participated in the American-led boycott. Norway_sentence_867

Norway leads the overall medal tables at the Winter Olympic Games by a considerable margin. Norway_sentence_868

Famous Norwegian winter sport athletes includes biathlete Ole Einar Bjørndalen, speed skaters Johan Olav Koss and Hjalmar Andersen, figure skater Sonja Henie and cross-country skiers Marit Bjørgen and Bjørn Dæhlie. Norway_sentence_869

Norway has hosted the Games on two occasions: Norway_sentence_870


It also hosted the 2016 Winter Youth Olympics in Lillehammer, making Norway the first country to host both Winter regular and Youth Olympics. Norway_sentence_871

Tourism Norway_section_47

Main article: Tourism in Norway Norway_sentence_872

See also: Tourist attractions in Norway Norway_sentence_873

As of 2008, Norway ranks 17th in the World Economic Forum's Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report. Norway_sentence_874

Tourism in Norway contributed to 4.2% of the gross domestic product as reported in 2016. Norway_sentence_875

Every one in fifteen people throughout the country work in the tourism industry. Norway_sentence_876

Tourism is seasonal in Norway, with more than half of total tourists visiting between the months of May and August. Norway_sentence_877

The main attractions of Norway are the varied landscapes that extend across the Arctic Circle. Norway_sentence_878

It is famous for its fjord-indented coastline and its mountains, ski resorts, lakes and woods. Norway_sentence_879

Popular tourist destinations in Norway include Oslo, Ålesund, Bergen, Stavanger, Trondheim, Kristiansand and Tromsø. Norway_sentence_880

Much of the nature of Norway remains unspoiled, and thus attracts numerous hikers and skiers. Norway_sentence_881

The fjords, mountains and waterfalls in Western and Northern Norway attract several hundred thousand foreign tourists each year. Norway_sentence_882

In the cities, cultural idiosyncrasies such as the Holmenkollen ski jump attract many visitors, as do landmarks such as Bergen's Bryggen and Oslo's Vigeland Sculpture Park. Norway_sentence_883

See also Norway_section_48


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: