Nova Scotia

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This article is about the province in Canada. Nova Scotia_sentence_0

For other uses, see Nova Scotia (disambiguation). Nova Scotia_sentence_1

Nova Scotia_table_infobox_0

Nova Scotia

Nouvelle-Écosse  (French) Alba Nuadh  (Scottish Gaelic)Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_0_0

CountryNova Scotia_header_cell_0_1_0 CanadaNova Scotia_cell_0_1_1
ConfederationNova Scotia_header_cell_0_2_0 1 July 1867 (1st, with Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick)Nova Scotia_cell_0_2_1
CapitalNova Scotia_header_cell_0_3_0 HalifaxNova Scotia_cell_0_3_1
Largest cityNova Scotia_header_cell_0_4_0 Halifax, Nova ScotiaNova Scotia_cell_0_4_1
Largest metroNova Scotia_header_cell_0_5_0 Halifax County, Nova ScotiaNova Scotia_cell_0_5_1
GovernmentNova Scotia_header_cell_0_6_0
TypeNova Scotia_header_cell_0_7_0 Constitutional monarchyNova Scotia_cell_0_7_1
Lieutenant GovernorNova Scotia_header_cell_0_8_0 Arthur Joseph LeBlancNova Scotia_cell_0_8_1
PremierNova Scotia_header_cell_0_9_0 Stephen McNeil (Liberal)Nova Scotia_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureNova Scotia_header_cell_0_10_0 Nova Scotia House of AssemblyNova Scotia_cell_0_10_1
Federal representationNova Scotia_header_cell_0_11_0 Parliament of CanadaNova Scotia_cell_0_11_1
House seatsNova Scotia_header_cell_0_12_0 11 of 338 (3.3%)Nova Scotia_cell_0_12_1
Senate seatsNova Scotia_header_cell_0_13_0 10 of 105 (9.5%)Nova Scotia_cell_0_13_1
AreaNova Scotia_header_cell_0_14_0
TotalNova Scotia_header_cell_0_15_0 55,284 km (21,345 sq mi)Nova Scotia_cell_0_15_1
LandNova Scotia_header_cell_0_16_0 52,942 km (20,441 sq mi)Nova Scotia_cell_0_16_1
WaterNova Scotia_header_cell_0_17_0 2,342 km (904 sq mi)  4.2%Nova Scotia_cell_0_17_1
Area rankNova Scotia_header_cell_0_18_0 Ranked 12thNova Scotia_cell_0_18_1
Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_19_0 0.6% of CanadaNova Scotia_cell_0_19_1
Population (2016)Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_20_0
TotalNova Scotia_header_cell_0_21_0 923,598Nova Scotia_cell_0_21_1
Estimate (2020 Q3)Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_22_0 979,351Nova Scotia_cell_0_22_1
RankNova Scotia_header_cell_0_23_0 Ranked 7thNova Scotia_cell_0_23_1
DensityNova Scotia_header_cell_0_24_0 17.45/km (45.2/sq mi)Nova Scotia_cell_0_24_1
Demonym(s)Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_25_0 Nova Scotian, BluenoserNova Scotia_cell_0_25_1
Official languagesNova Scotia_header_cell_0_26_0 English (de facto)Nova Scotia_cell_0_26_1
GDPNova Scotia_header_cell_0_27_0
RankNova Scotia_header_cell_0_28_0 7thNova Scotia_cell_0_28_1
Total (2016)Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_29_0 CA$42.715 billionNova Scotia_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaNova Scotia_header_cell_0_30_0 CA$44,931 (12th)Nova Scotia_cell_0_30_1
HDINova Scotia_header_cell_0_31_0
HDI (2018)Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_32_0 0.895 — Very high (11th)Nova Scotia_cell_0_32_1
Time zoneNova Scotia_header_cell_0_33_0 UTC-04:00 (Atlantic)Nova Scotia_cell_0_33_1
Postal abbr.Nova Scotia_header_cell_0_34_0 NSNova Scotia_cell_0_34_1
Postal code prefixNova Scotia_header_cell_0_35_0 BNova Scotia_cell_0_35_1
ISO 3166 codeNova Scotia_header_cell_0_36_0 CA-NSNova Scotia_cell_0_36_1
FlowerNova Scotia_header_cell_0_37_0 MayflowerNova Scotia_cell_0_37_1
TreeNova Scotia_header_cell_0_38_0 Red spruceNova Scotia_cell_0_38_1
BirdNova Scotia_header_cell_0_39_0 OspreyNova Scotia_cell_0_39_1

Nova Scotia (/ˌnoʊvə ˈskoʊʃə/ NOH-və SKOH-shə) is a province in eastern Canada. Nova Scotia_sentence_2

With a population of 923,598 as of 2016, it is the most populous of Canada's four Atlantic provinces. Nova Scotia_sentence_3

It is the country's second-most densely populated province and second-smallest province by area, both after neighbouring Prince Edward Island. Nova Scotia_sentence_4

Its area of 55,284 square kilometres (21,345 sq mi) includes Cape Breton Island and 3,800 other coastal islands. Nova Scotia_sentence_5

The peninsula that makes up Nova Scotia's mainland is connected to the rest of North America by the Isthmus of Chignecto, on which the province's land border with New Brunswick is located. Nova Scotia_sentence_6

The province borders the Bay of Fundy to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the south and east, and is separated from Prince Edward Island and the island of Newfoundland by the Northumberland and Cabot straits, respectively. Nova Scotia_sentence_7

The land that comprises what is now Nova Scotia has been inhabited by the indigenous Miꞌkmaq people for thousands of years. Nova Scotia_sentence_8

France's first settlement in North America, Port-Royal, was established in 1605 and intermittently served in various locations as the capital of the French colony of Acadia for over a hundred years. Nova Scotia_sentence_9

The Fortress of Louisbourg was a key focus point in the struggle between the British and French for control of the area, changing hands numerous times until France relinquished its claims with the Treaty of Paris in 1763. Nova Scotia_sentence_10

During the American Revolutionary War, thousands of Loyalists settled in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia_sentence_11

In 1848, Nova Scotia became the first British colony to achieve responsible government, and it federated in July 1867 with New Brunswick and the Province of Canada (now Ontario and Quebec) to form what is now the country of Canada. Nova Scotia_sentence_12

Nova Scotia's capital and largest city is Halifax, which today is home to about 45 percent of the province's population. Nova Scotia_sentence_13

Halifax is the thirteenth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada, the largest city in Atlantic Canada, and Canada's second-largest coastal city after Vancouver. Nova Scotia_sentence_14

Etymology Nova Scotia_section_0

Further information: Etymology of Scotland Nova Scotia_sentence_15

"Nova Scotia" means "New Scotland" in Latin and is the recognized English-language name for the province. Nova Scotia_sentence_16

In both French and Scottish Gaelic, the province is directly translated as "New Scotland" (French: Nouvelle-Écosse. Nova Scotia_sentence_17

Gaelic: Alba Nuadh). Nova Scotia_sentence_18

In general, Romance and Slavic languages use a direct translation of "New Scotland", while most other languages use direct transliterations of the Latin / English name. Nova Scotia_sentence_19

The province was first named in the 1621 Royal Charter granting to Sir William Alexander in 1632 the right to settle lands including modern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and the Gaspé Peninsula. Nova Scotia_sentence_20

Geography Nova Scotia_section_1

Main article: Geography of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia_sentence_21

See also: List of provincial parks in Nova Scotia and List of protected areas of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia_sentence_22

Nova Scotia is Canada's second-smallest province in area, after Prince Edward Island. Nova Scotia_sentence_23

The province's mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula, surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean and including numerous bays and estuaries. Nova Scotia_sentence_24

Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km (42 mi) from the ocean. Nova Scotia_sentence_25

Cape Breton Island, a large island to the northeast of the Nova Scotia mainland, is also part of the province, as is Sable Island, a small island notorious for being the site of offshore shipwrecks, approximately 175 km (110 mi) from the province's southern coast. Nova Scotia_sentence_26

Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations. Nova Scotia_sentence_27

These formations are particularly rich on the Bay of Fundy's shores. Nova Scotia_sentence_28

Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundy's shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous-age fossils. Nova Scotia_sentence_29

Wasson's Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic- and Jurassic-age fossils. Nova Scotia_sentence_30

The province contains 5,400 lakes. Nova Scotia_sentence_31

Climate Nova Scotia_section_2

Main article: Climate of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia_sentence_32

Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone and, although the province is almost surrounded by water, the climate is closer to continental climate rather than maritime. Nova Scotia_sentence_33

The winter and summer temperature extremes of the continental climate are moderated by the ocean. Nova Scotia_sentence_34

However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental—still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west. Nova Scotia_sentence_35

The Nova Scotian climate is in many ways similar to the central Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe, only wetter and snowier. Nova Scotia_sentence_36

This is true although Nova Scotia is some fifteen parallels further south. Nova Scotia_sentence_37

Areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, and winter lows are a little colder. Nova Scotia_sentence_38

Described on the provincial vehicle licence plate as Canada's Ocean Playground, Nova Scotia is surrounded by four major bodies of water: the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the north, the Bay of Fundy to the west, the Gulf of Maine to the southwest, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Nova Scotia_sentence_39

Nova Scotia_table_general_1

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Nova ScotiaNova Scotia_table_caption_1
LocationNova Scotia_header_cell_1_0_0 July (°C)Nova Scotia_header_cell_1_0_1 July (°F)Nova Scotia_header_cell_1_0_2 January (°C)Nova Scotia_header_cell_1_0_3 January (°F)Nova Scotia_header_cell_1_0_4
HalifaxNova Scotia_cell_1_1_0 23/14Nova Scotia_cell_1_1_1 73/58Nova Scotia_cell_1_1_2 0/−8Nova Scotia_cell_1_1_3 32/17Nova Scotia_cell_1_1_4
SydneyNova Scotia_cell_1_2_0 23/12Nova Scotia_cell_1_2_1 73/54Nova Scotia_cell_1_2_2 −1/−9Nova Scotia_cell_1_2_3 30/14Nova Scotia_cell_1_2_4
KentvilleNova Scotia_cell_1_3_0 25/14Nova Scotia_cell_1_3_1 78/57Nova Scotia_cell_1_3_2 −1/−10Nova Scotia_cell_1_3_3 29/14Nova Scotia_cell_1_3_4
TruroNova Scotia_cell_1_4_0 24/13Nova Scotia_cell_1_4_1 75/55Nova Scotia_cell_1_4_2 −1/−12Nova Scotia_cell_1_4_3 29/9Nova Scotia_cell_1_4_4
LiverpoolNova Scotia_cell_1_5_0 25/14Nova Scotia_cell_1_5_1 77/57Nova Scotia_cell_1_5_2 0/–9Nova Scotia_cell_1_5_3 32/15Nova Scotia_cell_1_5_4
ShelburneNova Scotia_cell_1_6_0 23/12Nova Scotia_cell_1_6_1 73/54Nova Scotia_cell_1_6_2 1/−8Nova Scotia_cell_1_6_3 33/17Nova Scotia_cell_1_6_4
YarmouthNova Scotia_cell_1_7_0 21/12Nova Scotia_cell_1_7_1 69/55Nova Scotia_cell_1_7_2 1/−7Nova Scotia_cell_1_7_3 33/19Nova Scotia_cell_1_7_4

History Nova Scotia_section_3

Main article: History of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia_sentence_40

See also: Military history of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia_sentence_41

The province includes regions of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki (mi'gama'gi). Nova Scotia_sentence_42

(The territory of the Nation of Mi'kma'ki also includes the Maritimes, parts of Maine, Newfoundland and the Gaspé Peninsula.) Nova Scotia_sentence_43

The Mi'kmaq people are among the large Algonquian-language family and inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. Nova Scotia_sentence_44

European settlement Nova Scotia_section_4

Warfare was a notable feature in Nova Scotia during the 17th and 18th centuries. Nova Scotia_sentence_45

The French arrived in 1604, and Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians formed the majority of the population of the colony for the next 150 years. Nova Scotia_sentence_46

In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada (and the first north of Florida) at Port Royal, founding what would become known as Acadia. Nova Scotia_sentence_47

During the first 80 years the French and Acadians lived in Nova Scotia, nine significant military clashes took place as the English and Scottish (later British), Dutch and French fought for possession of the area. Nova Scotia_sentence_48

These encounters happened at Port Royal, Saint John, Cap de Sable (present-day Port La Tour, Nova Scotia), Jemseg (1674 and 1758) and Baleine (1629). Nova Scotia_sentence_49

The Acadian Civil War took place from 1640 to 1645. Nova Scotia_sentence_50

Beginning with King William's War in 1688, a series of six wars took place between the English/British and the French, with Nova Scotia being a consistent theatre of conflict between the two powers. Nova Scotia_sentence_51

18th century Nova Scotia_section_5

Hostilities between the British and French resumed from 1702 to 1713, known as Queen Anne's War. Nova Scotia_sentence_52

The British siege of Port Royal took place in 1710, ending French-rule in peninsular Acadia. Nova Scotia_sentence_53

The subsequent signing of the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this, while returning Cape Breton Island (Île Royale) and Prince Edward Island (Île Saint-Jean) to the French. Nova Scotia_sentence_54

Despite the British conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained primarily occupied by Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq, who confined British forces to Annapolis and to Canso. Nova Scotia_sentence_55

Present-day New Brunswick then still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. Nova Scotia_sentence_56

Immediately after the capture of Port Royal in 1710, Francis Nicholson announced it would be renamed Annapolis Royal in honor of Queen Anne. Nova Scotia_sentence_57

As a result of Father Rale's War (1722–1725), the Mi'kmaq signed a series of treaties with Great Britain in 1725. Nova Scotia_sentence_58

The Mi'kmaq signed a treaty of "submission" to the British crown. Nova Scotia_sentence_59

However, conflict between the Acadians, Mi'kmaq, French, and the British persisted in the following decades with King George's War (1744–1748). Nova Scotia_sentence_60

Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755) began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports on 21 June 1749. Nova Scotia_sentence_61

A General Court, made up of the governor and the Council, was the highest court in the colony at the time. Nova Scotia_sentence_62

Jonathan Belcher was sworn in as chief justice of the Nova Scotia Supreme Court on 21 October 1754. Nova Scotia_sentence_63

The first legislative assembly in Halifax, under the Governorship of Charles Lawrence, met on 2 October 1758. Nova Scotia_sentence_64

During the French and Indian War of 1754–63 (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War of 1756–1763), the British deported the Acadians and recruited New England Planters to resettle the colony. Nova Scotia_sentence_65

The 75-year period of war ended with the Halifax Treaties between the British and the Mi'kmaq (1761). Nova Scotia_sentence_66

After the war, some Acadians were allowed to return. Nova Scotia_sentence_67

In 1763, most of Acadia (Cape Breton Island, St. John's Island (now Prince Edward Island), and New Brunswick) became part of Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia_sentence_68

In 1765, the county of Sunbury was created. Nova Scotia_sentence_69

This included the territory of present-day New Brunswick and eastern Maine as far as the Penobscot River. Nova Scotia_sentence_70

In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia_sentence_71

The American Revolution (1775–1783) had a significant impact on shaping Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia_sentence_72

Initially, Nova Scotia—"the 14th American Colony" as some called it—displayed ambivalence over whether the colony should join the more southern colonies in their defiance of Britain, and rebellion flared at the Battle of Fort Cumberland (1776) and at the Siege of Saint John (1777). Nova Scotia_sentence_73

Throughout the war, American privateers devastated the maritime economy by capturing ships and looting almost every community outside of Halifax. Nova Scotia_sentence_74

These American raids alienated many sympathetic or neutral Nova Scotians into supporting the British. Nova Scotia_sentence_75

By the end of the war Nova Scotia had outfitted a number of privateers to attack American shipping. Nova Scotia_sentence_76

British military forces based at Halifax succeeded in preventing American support for rebels in Nova Scotia and deterred any invasion of Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia_sentence_77

However the British navy failed to establish naval supremacy. Nova Scotia_sentence_78

While the British captured many American privateers in battles such as the Naval battle off Halifax (1782), many more continued attacks on shipping and settlements until the final months of the war. Nova Scotia_sentence_79

The Royal Navy struggled to maintain British supply lines, defending convoys from American and French attacks as in the fiercely fought convoy battle, the Naval battle off Cape Breton (1781). Nova Scotia_sentence_80

After the Thirteen Colonies and their French allies forced the British forces to surrender (1781), approximately 33,000 Loyalists (the King's Loyal Americans, allowed to place "United Empire Loyalist" after their names) settled in Nova Scotia (14,000 of them in what became New Brunswick) on lands granted by the Crown as some compensation for their losses. Nova Scotia_sentence_81

(The British administration divided Nova Scotia and hived off Cape Breton and New Brunswick in 1784). Nova Scotia_sentence_82

The Loyalist exodus created new communities across Nova Scotia, including Shelburne, which briefly became one of the larger British settlements in North America, and infused Nova Scotia with additional capital and skills. Nova Scotia_sentence_83

There are also a number of Black loyalists buried in unmarked graves in the Old Burying Ground (Halifax, Nova Scotia). Nova Scotia_sentence_84

However the migration also caused political tensions between Loyalist leaders and the leaders of the existing New England Planters settlement. Nova Scotia_sentence_85

The Loyalist influx also pushed Nova Scotia's 2000 Mi'kmaq People to the margins as Loyalist land grants encroached on ill-defined native lands. Nova Scotia_sentence_86

As part of the Loyalist migration, about 3,000 Black Loyalists arrived; they founded the largest free Black settlement in North America at Birchtown, near Shelburne. Nova Scotia_sentence_87

Many Nova Scotian communities were settled by British regiments that fought in the war. Nova Scotia_sentence_88

19th century Nova Scotia_section_6

During the War of 1812, Nova Scotia's contribution to the British war effort involved communities either purchasing or building various privateer ships to attack U.S. vessels. Nova Scotia_sentence_89

Perhaps the most dramatic moment in the war for Nova Scotia occurred when HMS Shannon escorted the captured American frigate USS Chesapeake into Halifax Harbour (1813). Nova Scotia_sentence_90

Many of the U.S. prisoners were kept at Deadman's Island, Halifax. Nova Scotia_sentence_91

During this century, Nova Scotia became the first colony in British North America and in the British Empire to achieve responsible government in January–February 1848 and become self-governing through the efforts of Joseph Howe. Nova Scotia_sentence_92

Nova Scotia had established representative government in 1758, an achievement later commemorated by the erection of the Dingle Tower in 1908. Nova Scotia_sentence_93

Nova Scotians fought in the Crimean War of 1853–1856. Nova Scotia_sentence_94

The Welsford-Parker Monument in Halifax is the second-oldest war monument in Canada (1860) and the only Crimean War monument in North America. Nova Scotia_sentence_95

It commemorates the 1854–55 Siege of Sevastopol. Nova Scotia_sentence_96

Thousands of Nova Scotians fought in the American Civil War (1861–1865), primarily on behalf of the North. Nova Scotia_sentence_97

The British Empire (including Nova Scotia) in the conflict. Nova Scotia_sentence_98

As a result, Britain (and Nova Scotia) continued to trade with both the South and the North. Nova Scotia_sentence_99

Nova Scotia's economy boomed during the Civil War. Nova Scotia_sentence_100

Post-Confederation history Nova Scotia_section_7

Soon after the American Civil War, Pro-Canadian Confederation premier Charles Tupper led Nova Scotia into Canadian Confederation on 1 July 1867, along with New Brunswick and the Province of Canada. Nova Scotia_sentence_101

The Anti-Confederation Party was led by Joseph Howe. Nova Scotia_sentence_102

Almost three months later, in the election of 18 September 1867, the Anti-Confederation Party won 18 out of 19 federal seats, and 36 out of 38 seats in the provincial legislature. Nova Scotia_sentence_103

Throughout the 19th century, numerous businesses developed in Nova Scotia became of pan-Canadian and international importance: the Starr Manufacturing Company (first skate-manufacturer in Canada), the Bank of Nova Scotia, Cunard Line, Alexander Keith's Brewery, Morse's Tea Company (first tea company in Canada), among others. Nova Scotia_sentence_104

Nova Scotia became a world leader in both building and owning wooden sailing ships in the second half of the 19th century. Nova Scotia_sentence_105

Nova Scotia produced internationally recognized shipbuilders Donald McKay and William Dawson Lawrence. Nova Scotia_sentence_106

The fame Nova Scotia achieved from sailors was assured when Joshua Slocum became the first man to sail single-handedly around the world (1895). Nova Scotia_sentence_107

International attention continued into the following century with the many racing victories of the Bluenose schooner. Nova Scotia_sentence_108

Nova Scotia was also the birthplace and home of Samuel Cunard, a British shipping magnate (born at Halifax, Nova Scotia) who founded the Cunard Line. Nova Scotia_sentence_109

In December 1917, about 2,000 people were killed in the Halifax Explosion. Nova Scotia_sentence_110

In April 2020, a killing spree occurred across the province and became the deadliest rampage in Canada's history. Nova Scotia_sentence_111

Demography Nova Scotia_section_8

Main article: Demographics of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia_sentence_112

Ethnic origins Nova Scotia_section_9

According to the 2006 Canadian census the largest ethnic group in Nova Scotia is Scottish (31.9%), followed by English (31.8%), Irish (21.6%), French (17.9%), German (11.3%), Aboriginal origin (5.3%), Dutch (4.1%), Black Canadians (2.8%), Welsh (1.9%) Italian (1.5%), and Scandinavian (1.4%). Nova Scotia_sentence_113

40.9% of respondents identified their ethnicity as "Canadian". Nova Scotia_sentence_114

Language Nova Scotia_section_10

See also: Maritimer English, Cape Breton English, Acadian French, and Canadian Gaelic Nova Scotia_sentence_115

The 2016 Canadian census showed a population of 923,598. Nova Scotia_sentence_116

Of the 904,285 singular responses to the census question concerning mother tongue, the most commonly reported languages were: Nova Scotia_sentence_117

Nova Scotia_table_general_2

RankNova Scotia_header_cell_2_0_0 LanguageNova Scotia_header_cell_2_0_1 PopulationNova Scotia_header_cell_2_0_2 PercentageNova Scotia_header_cell_2_0_3
1.Nova Scotia_cell_2_1_0 EnglishNova Scotia_cell_2_1_1 836,085Nova Scotia_cell_2_1_2 92.46%Nova Scotia_cell_2_1_3
2.Nova Scotia_cell_2_2_0 FrenchNova Scotia_cell_2_2_1 31,105Nova Scotia_cell_2_2_2 3.44%Nova Scotia_cell_2_2_3
3.Nova Scotia_cell_2_3_0 ArabicNova Scotia_cell_2_3_1 5,965Nova Scotia_cell_2_3_2 0.66%Nova Scotia_cell_2_3_3
4.Nova Scotia_cell_2_4_0 Algonquian languagesNova Scotia_cell_2_4_1 4,685Nova Scotia_cell_2_4_2 0.52%Nova Scotia_cell_2_4_3
Nova Scotia_cell_2_5_0 Mi'kmaqNova Scotia_cell_2_5_1 4,620Nova Scotia_cell_2_5_2 0.51%Nova Scotia_cell_2_5_3
5.Nova Scotia_cell_2_6_0 GermanNova Scotia_cell_2_6_1 3,275Nova Scotia_cell_2_6_2 0.36%Nova Scotia_cell_2_6_3
6.Nova Scotia_cell_2_7_0 ChineseNova Scotia_cell_2_7_1 2,750Nova Scotia_cell_2_7_2 0.30%Nova Scotia_cell_2_7_3
Nova Scotia_cell_2_8_0 MandarinNova Scotia_cell_2_8_1 905Nova Scotia_cell_2_8_2 0.10%Nova Scotia_cell_2_8_3
Nova Scotia_cell_2_9_0 CantoneseNova Scotia_cell_2_9_1 590Nova Scotia_cell_2_9_2 0.06%Nova Scotia_cell_2_9_3
7.Nova Scotia_cell_2_10_0 DutchNova Scotia_cell_2_10_1 1,725Nova Scotia_cell_2_10_2 0.19%Nova Scotia_cell_2_10_3
8.Nova Scotia_cell_2_11_0 SpanishNova Scotia_cell_2_11_1 1,545Nova Scotia_cell_2_11_2 0.17%Nova Scotia_cell_2_11_3
9.Nova Scotia_cell_2_12_0 Canadian GaelicNova Scotia_cell_2_12_1 1,275Nova Scotia_cell_2_12_2 0.14%Nova Scotia_cell_2_12_3
10.Nova Scotia_cell_2_13_0 TagalogNova Scotia_cell_2_13_1 1,185Nova Scotia_cell_2_13_2 0.13%Nova Scotia_cell_2_13_3
10.Nova Scotia_cell_2_14_0 PersianNova Scotia_cell_2_14_1 1,185Nova Scotia_cell_2_14_2 0.13%Nova Scotia_cell_2_14_3

Figures shown are for the number of single-language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses. Nova Scotia_sentence_118

Nova Scotia is home to the largest Scottish Gaelic-speaking community outside of Scotland, with a small number of native speakers in Pictou County, Antigonish County, and Cape Breton Island, and the language is taught in a number of secondary schools throughout the province. Nova Scotia_sentence_119

In 2018 the government launched a new Gaelic vehicle licence plate to raise awareness of the language and help fund Gaelic language and culture initiatives. Nova Scotia_sentence_120

They estimated that there were 2,000 Gaelic speakers in the province. Nova Scotia_sentence_121

Religion Nova Scotia_section_11

In 1871, the largest religious denominations were Protestant with 103,500 (27%); Roman Catholic with 102,000 (26%); Baptist with 73,295 (19%); Anglican with 55,124 (14%); Methodist with 40,748 (10%), Lutheran with 4,958 (1.3%); and Congregationalist with 2,538 (0.65%). Nova Scotia_sentence_122

According to the 2011 census, the largest denominations by number of adherents were the Christians with 78.2%.About 21.18 % were Non-religious and 1 % were Muslims. Nova Scotia_sentence_123

Jews, Hindus and Sikhs constitute around 0.20%. Nova Scotia_sentence_124

Population tables Nova Scotia_section_12

Nova Scotia_table_general_3

Population since 1851Nova Scotia_table_caption_3
YearNova Scotia_header_cell_3_0_0 PopulationNova Scotia_header_cell_3_0_1 Five year

 % changeNova Scotia_header_cell_3_0_2

Ten year

 % changeNova Scotia_header_cell_3_0_3

1851Nova Scotia_cell_3_1_0 276,854Nova Scotia_cell_3_1_1 n/aNova Scotia_cell_3_1_2 n/aNova Scotia_cell_3_1_3
1861Nova Scotia_cell_3_2_0 330,857Nova Scotia_cell_3_2_1 n/aNova Scotia_cell_3_2_2 19.5Nova Scotia_cell_3_2_3
1871Nova Scotia_cell_3_3_0 387,800Nova Scotia_cell_3_3_1 n/aNova Scotia_cell_3_3_2 17.2Nova Scotia_cell_3_3_3
1881Nova Scotia_cell_3_4_0 440,572Nova Scotia_cell_3_4_1 n/aNova Scotia_cell_3_4_2 13.6Nova Scotia_cell_3_4_3
1891Nova Scotia_cell_3_5_0 450,396Nova Scotia_cell_3_5_1 n/aNova Scotia_cell_3_5_2 2.2Nova Scotia_cell_3_5_3
1901Nova Scotia_cell_3_6_0 459,574Nova Scotia_cell_3_6_1 n/aNova Scotia_cell_3_6_2 2.0Nova Scotia_cell_3_6_3
1911Nova Scotia_cell_3_7_0 492,338Nova Scotia_cell_3_7_1 n/aNova Scotia_cell_3_7_2 7.1Nova Scotia_cell_3_7_3
1921Nova Scotia_cell_3_8_0 523,837Nova Scotia_cell_3_8_1 n/aNova Scotia_cell_3_8_2 6.4Nova Scotia_cell_3_8_3
1931Nova Scotia_cell_3_9_0 512,846Nova Scotia_cell_3_9_1 n/aNova Scotia_cell_3_9_2 −2.1Nova Scotia_cell_3_9_3
1941Nova Scotia_cell_3_10_0 577,962Nova Scotia_cell_3_10_1 n/aNova Scotia_cell_3_10_2 12.7Nova Scotia_cell_3_10_3
1951Nova Scotia_cell_3_11_0 642,584Nova Scotia_cell_3_11_1 n/aNova Scotia_cell_3_11_2 11.2Nova Scotia_cell_3_11_3
1956Nova Scotia_cell_3_12_0 694,717Nova Scotia_cell_3_12_1 8.1Nova Scotia_cell_3_12_2 n/aNova Scotia_cell_3_12_3
1961Nova Scotia_cell_3_13_0 737,007Nova Scotia_cell_3_13_1 6.1Nova Scotia_cell_3_13_2 14.7Nova Scotia_cell_3_13_3
1966Nova Scotia_cell_3_14_0 756,039Nova Scotia_cell_3_14_1 2.6Nova Scotia_cell_3_14_2 8.8Nova Scotia_cell_3_14_3
1971Nova Scotia_cell_3_15_0 788,965Nova Scotia_cell_3_15_1 4.4Nova Scotia_cell_3_15_2 7.0Nova Scotia_cell_3_15_3
1976Nova Scotia_cell_3_16_0 828,570Nova Scotia_cell_3_16_1 5.0Nova Scotia_cell_3_16_2 9.6Nova Scotia_cell_3_16_3
1981Nova Scotia_cell_3_17_0 847,442Nova Scotia_cell_3_17_1 2.3Nova Scotia_cell_3_17_2 7.4Nova Scotia_cell_3_17_3
1986Nova Scotia_cell_3_18_0 873,175Nova Scotia_cell_3_18_1 3.0Nova Scotia_cell_3_18_2 5.4Nova Scotia_cell_3_18_3
1991Nova Scotia_cell_3_19_0 899,942Nova Scotia_cell_3_19_1 3.1Nova Scotia_cell_3_19_2 6.2Nova Scotia_cell_3_19_3
1996Nova Scotia_cell_3_20_0 909,282Nova Scotia_cell_3_20_1 1.0Nova Scotia_cell_3_20_2 4.1Nova Scotia_cell_3_20_3
2001Nova Scotia_cell_3_21_0 908,007Nova Scotia_cell_3_21_1 −0.1Nova Scotia_cell_3_21_2 0.9Nova Scotia_cell_3_21_3
2006Nova Scotia_cell_3_22_0 913,462Nova Scotia_cell_3_22_1 0.6Nova Scotia_cell_3_22_2 0.5Nova Scotia_cell_3_22_3
2011Nova Scotia_cell_3_23_0 921,727Nova Scotia_cell_3_23_1 0.9Nova Scotia_cell_3_23_2 1.5Nova Scotia_cell_3_23_3
2016Nova Scotia_cell_3_24_0 923,598Nova Scotia_cell_3_24_1 0.2Nova Scotia_cell_3_24_2 0.11Nova Scotia_cell_3_24_3

county boundaries contiguous with those of the Cape Breton Regional Municipality. Nova Scotia_sentence_125

county boundaries contiguous with those of the Halifax Regional Municipality. Nova Scotia_sentence_126

county boundaries contiguous with those of the Region of Queens Municipality. Nova Scotia_sentence_127

Economy Nova Scotia_section_13

Nova Scotia's per capita GDP in 2016 was CA$44,924, significantly lower than the national average per capita GDP of CA$57,574. Nova Scotia_sentence_128

GDP growth has lagged behind the rest of the country for at least the past decade. Nova Scotia_sentence_129

As of 2017, the median family income in Nova Scotia was $85,970, below the national average of $92,990; in Halifax the figure rises to $98,870. Nova Scotia_sentence_130

The province is the world's largest exporter of Christmas trees, lobster, gypsum, and wild berries. Nova Scotia_sentence_131

Its export value of fish exceeds $1 billion, and fish products are received by 90 countries around the world. Nova Scotia_sentence_132

Nevertheless, the province's imports far exceed its exports. Nova Scotia_sentence_133

While these numbers were roughly equal from 1992 until 2004, since that time the trade deficit has ballooned. Nova Scotia_sentence_134

In 2012, exports from Nova Scotia were 12.1% of provincial GDP, while imports were 22.6%. Nova Scotia_sentence_135

Nova Scotia's traditionally resource-based economy has diversified in recent decades. Nova Scotia_sentence_136

The rise of Nova Scotia as a viable jurisdiction in North America, historically, was driven by the ready availability of natural resources, especially the fish stocks off the Scotian Shelf. Nova Scotia_sentence_137

The fishery was a pillar of the economy since its development as part of New France in the 17th century; however, the fishery suffered a sharp decline due to overfishing in the late 20th century. Nova Scotia_sentence_138

The collapse of the cod stocks and the closure of this sector resulted in a loss of approximately 20,000 jobs in 1992. Nova Scotia_sentence_139

Other sectors in the province were also hit hard, particularly during the last two decades: coal mining in Cape Breton and northern mainland Nova Scotia has virtually ceased, and a large steel mill in Sydney closed during the 1990s. Nova Scotia_sentence_140

More recently, the high value of the Canadian dollar relative to the US dollar has hurt the forestry industry, leading to the shutdown of a long-running pulp and paper mill near Liverpool. Nova Scotia_sentence_141

Mining, especially of gypsum and salt and to a lesser extent silica, peat and barite, is also a significant sector. Nova Scotia_sentence_142

Since 1991, offshore oil and gas has become an important part of the economy, although production and revenue are now declining. Nova Scotia_sentence_143

However, agriculture remains an important sector in the province, particularly in the Annapolis Valley. Nova Scotia_sentence_144

Nova Scotia's defence and aerospace sector generates approximately $500 million in revenues and contributes about $1.5 billion to the provincial economy each year. Nova Scotia_sentence_145

To date, 40% of Canada's military assets reside in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia_sentence_146

Nova Scotia has the fourth-largest film industry in Canada hosting over 100 productions yearly, more than half of which are the products of international film and television producers. Nova Scotia_sentence_147

In 2015, the government of Nova Scotia eliminated tax credits to film production in the province, jeopardizing the industry given most other jurisdictions continue to offer such credits. Nova Scotia_sentence_148

The province also boasts a rapidly developing Information & Communication Technology (ICT) sector which consists of over 500 companies, and employs roughly 15,000 people. Nova Scotia_sentence_149

In 2006, the manufacturing sector brought in over $2.6 billion in chained GDP, the largest output of any industrial sector in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia_sentence_150

Michelin remains by far the largest single employer in this sector, operating three production plants in the province. Nova Scotia_sentence_151

Michelin is also the province's largest private-sector employer. Nova Scotia_sentence_152

Tourism Nova Scotia_section_14

Main article: Tourism in Nova Scotia Nova Scotia_sentence_153

The Nova Scotia tourism industry includes more than 6,500 direct businesses, supporting nearly 40,000 jobs. Nova Scotia_sentence_154

Cruise ships pay regular visits to the province. Nova Scotia_sentence_155

In 2010, the Port of Halifax received 261,000 passengers and Sydney 69,000. Nova Scotia_sentence_156

This industry contributes approximately $1.3 billion annually to the economy. Nova Scotia_sentence_157

A 2008 Nova Scotia tourism campaign included advertising a fictional mobile phone called Pomegranate and establishing website, which after reading about "new phone" redirected to tourism info about region. Nova Scotia_sentence_158

Nova Scotia's tourism industry showcases Nova Scotia's culture, scenery and coastline. Nova Scotia_sentence_159

Nova Scotia has many museums reflecting its ethnic heritage, including the Glooscap Heritage Centre, Grand-Pré National Historic Site, Hector Heritage Quay and the Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia_sentence_160

Other museums tell the story of its working history, such as the Cape Breton Miners' Museum, and the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. Nova Scotia_sentence_161

Nova Scotia is home to several internationally renowned musicians and there are visitor centres in the home towns of Hank Snow, Rita MacNeil, and Anne Murray Centre. Nova Scotia_sentence_162

There are also numerous music and cultural festivals such as the Stan Rogers Folk Festival, Celtic Colours, the Nova Scotia Gaelic Mod, Royal Nova Scotia International Tattoo, the Atlantic Film Festival and the Atlantic Fringe Festival. Nova Scotia_sentence_163

The province has 87 National Historic Sites of Canada, including the Habitation at Port-Royal, the Fortress of Louisbourg and Citadel Hill (Fort George) in Halifax. Nova Scotia_sentence_164

Nova Scotia has two national parks, Kejimkujik and Cape Breton Highlands, and many other protected areas. Nova Scotia_sentence_165

The Bay of Fundy has the highest tidal range in the world, and the iconic Peggys Cove is internationally recognized and receives 600,000-plus visitors a year. Nova Scotia_sentence_166

Old Town Lunenburg is a port town on the South Shore that was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Nova Scotia_sentence_167

Acadian Skies and Mi'kmaq Lands is a starlight reserve in southwestern Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia_sentence_168

It is the first certified UNESCO-Starlight Tourist Destination. Nova Scotia_sentence_169

Starlight tourist destinations are locations that offer conditions for observations of stars which are protected from light pollution. Nova Scotia_sentence_170

Government and politics Nova Scotia_section_15

See also: Government of Nova Scotia and Politics of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia_sentence_171

Nova Scotia is ordered by a parliamentary government within the construct of constitutional monarchy; the monarchy in Nova Scotia is the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Nova Scotia_sentence_172

The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as head of state of 15 other Commonwealth countries, each of Canada's nine other provinces, and the Canadian federal realm, and resides predominantly in the United Kingdom. Nova Scotia_sentence_173

As such, the Queen's representative, the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia (at present Arthur Joseph LeBlanc), carries out most of the royal duties in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia_sentence_174

The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in any of these areas of governance is limited, though; in practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Executive Council, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the unicameral, elected House of Assembly and chosen and headed by the Premier of Nova Scotia (presently Stephen McNeil), the head of government. Nova Scotia_sentence_175

To ensure the stability of government, the lieutenant governor will usually appoint as premier the person who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Assembly. Nova Scotia_sentence_176

The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (presently Tim Houston) and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check. Nova Scotia_sentence_177

Each of the 51 Members of the Legislative Assembly in the House of Assembly is elected by single member plurality in an electoral district or riding. Nova Scotia_sentence_178

General elections must be called by the lieutenant governor on the advice of the premier, or may be triggered by the government losing a confidence vote in the House. Nova Scotia_sentence_179

There are three dominant political parties in Nova Scotia: the Liberal Party, the New Democratic Party, and the Progressive Conservative Party. Nova Scotia_sentence_180

The other two registered parties are the Green Party of Nova Scotia and the Atlantica Party, neither of which has a seat in the House of Assembly. Nova Scotia_sentence_181

The province's revenue comes mainly from the taxation of personal and corporate income, although taxes on tobacco and alcohol, its stake in the Atlantic Lottery Corporation, and oil and gas royalties are also significant. Nova Scotia_sentence_182

In 2006–07, the province passed a budget of $6.9 billion, with a projected $72 million surplus. Nova Scotia_sentence_183

Federal equalization payments account for $1.385 billion, or 20.07% of the provincial revenue. Nova Scotia_sentence_184

The province participates in the HST, a blended sales tax collected by the federal government using the GST tax system. Nova Scotia_sentence_185

Nova Scotia no longer has any incorporated cities; they were amalgamated into Regional Municipalities in 1996. Nova Scotia_sentence_186

Culture Nova Scotia_section_16

Cuisine Nova Scotia_section_17

The cuisine of Nova Scotia is typically Canadian with an emphasis on local seafood. Nova Scotia_sentence_187

One endemic dish (in the sense of "peculiar to" and "originating from") is the Halifax donair, a distant variant of the doner kebab prepared using thinly sliced beef meatloaf and a sweet condensed milk sauce. Nova Scotia_sentence_188

As well, hodge podge, a creamy soup of fresh baby vegetables, is native to Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia_sentence_189

The province is also known for a dessert called blueberry fungy or blueberry grunt. Nova Scotia_sentence_190

Events and festivals Nova Scotia_section_18

There are a number of festivals and cultural events that are recurring in Nova Scotia, or notable in its history. Nova Scotia_sentence_191

The following is an incomplete list of festivals and other cultural gatherings in the province: Nova Scotia_sentence_192

Film and television Nova Scotia_section_19

Nova Scotia has produced numerous film actors. Nova Scotia_sentence_193

Academy Award nominee Elliot Page (Juno, Inception) was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia; five-time Academy Award nominee Arthur Kennedy (Lawrence of Arabia, High Sierra) called Nova Scotia his home; and two time Golden Globe winner Donald Sutherland (MASH, Ordinary People) spent most of his youth in the province. Nova Scotia_sentence_194

Other actors include John Paul Tremblay, Robb Wells, Mike Smith and John Dunsworth of Trailer Park Boys and actress Joanne Kelly of Warehouse 13. Nova Scotia_sentence_195

Nova Scotia has also produced numerous film directors such as Thom Fitzgerald (The Hanging Garden), Daniel Petrie (Resurrection—Academy Award nominee) and Acadian film director Phil Comeau's multiple award-winning local story (Le secret de Jérôme). Nova Scotia_sentence_196

Nova Scotian stories are the subject of numerous feature films: Margaret's Museum (starring Helena Bonham Carter); The Bay Boy (directed by Daniel Petrie and starring Kiefer Sutherland); New Waterford Girl; The Story of Adele H. (the story of unrequited love of Adèle Hugo); and two films of Evangeline (one starring Miriam Cooper and another starring Dolores del Río). Nova Scotia_sentence_197

There is a significant film industry in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia_sentence_198

Feature filmmaking began in Canada with Evangeline (1913), made by Canadian Bioscope Company in Halifax, which released six films before it closed. Nova Scotia_sentence_199

The film has since been lost. Nova Scotia_sentence_200

Some of the award-winning feature films made in the province are Titanic (starring Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet); The Shipping News (starring Kevin Spacey and Julianne Moore); K-19: The Widowmaker (starring Harrison Ford and Liam Neeson); Amelia (starring Hilary Swank, Richard Gere and Ewan McGregor) and The Lighthouse (starring Robert Pattinson and William Dafoe). Nova Scotia_sentence_201

Nova Scotia has also produced numerous television series: This Hour Has 22 Minutes, Don Messer's Jubilee, Black Harbour, Haven, Trailer Park Boys, Mr. Nova Scotia_sentence_202 D, Call Me Fitz, and Theodore Tugboat. Nova Scotia_sentence_203

The Jesse Stone film series on CBS starring Tom Selleck is also routinely produced in the province. Nova Scotia_sentence_204

Fine arts Nova Scotia_section_20

Nova Scotia has long been a centre for artistic and cultural excellence. Nova Scotia_sentence_205

The capital, Halifax, hosts institutions such as Nova Scotia College of Art and Design University, Art Gallery of Nova Scotia, Neptune Theatre, Dalhousie Arts Centre, Two Planks and a Passion Theatre, and the Ship's Company Theatre. Nova Scotia_sentence_206

The province is home to avant-garde visual art and traditional crafting, writing and publishing and a film industry. Nova Scotia_sentence_207

Much of the historic public art sculptures in the province were made by New York sculptor J. Nova Scotia_sentence_208 Massey Rhind as well as Canadian sculptors Hamilton MacCarthy, George Hill, Emanuel Hahn and Louis-Philippe Hébert. Nova Scotia_sentence_209

Some of this public art was also created by Nova Scotian John Wilson. Nova Scotia_sentence_210

Nova Scotian George Lang was a stone sculptor who also built many landmark buildings in the province, including the Welsford-Parker Monument. Nova Scotia_sentence_211

Two valuable sculptures/ monuments in the province are in St. Paul's Church (Halifax): one by John Gibson (for Richard John Uniacke, Jr.) and another monument by Sir Francis Leggatt Chantrey (for Amelia Ann Smyth). Nova Scotia_sentence_212

Both Gibson and Chantry were famous British sculptors during the Victorian era and have numerou sculptures in the Tate, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and Westminster Abbey. Nova Scotia_sentence_213

Some of the province's greatest painters were Maud Lewis, William Valentine, Maria Morris, Jack L. Gray, Mabel Killiam Day, Ernest Lawson, Frances Bannerman, Alex Colville, Tom Forrestall and ship portrait artist John O'Brien. Nova Scotia_sentence_214

Some of most notable artists whose works have been acquired by Nova Scotia are British artist Joshua Reynolds (collection of Art Gallery of Nova Scotia); William Gush and William J. Weaver (both have works in Province House); Robert Field (Government House), as well as leading American artists Benjamin West (self portrait in The Halifax Club, portrait of chief justice in Nova Scotia Supreme Court), John Singleton Copley, Robert Feke, and Robert Field (the latter three have works in the Uniacke Estate). Nova Scotia_sentence_215

Two famous Nova Scotian photographers are Wallace R. MacAskill and Sherman Hines. Nova Scotia_sentence_216

Three of the most accomplished illustrators were George Wylie Hutchinson, Bob Chambers (cartoonist) and Donald A. Mackay. Nova Scotia_sentence_217

Literature Nova Scotia_section_21

There are numerous Nova Scotian authors who have achieved international fame: Thomas Chandler Haliburton (The Clockmaker), Alistair MacLeod (No Great Mischief), Evelyn Richardson (We Keep A Light), Margaret Marshall Saunders (Beautiful Joe), Laurence B. Dakin (Marco Polo), and Joshua Slocum (Sailing Alone Around the World). Nova Scotia_sentence_218

Other authors include Johanna Skibsrud (The Sentimentalists), Alden Nowlan (Bread, Wine and Salt), George Elliott Clarke (Execution Poems), Lesley Choyce (Nova Scotia: Shaped by the Sea), Thomas Raddall (Halifax: Warden of the North), Donna Morrissey (Kit's Law), and Frank Parker Day (Rockbound). Nova Scotia_sentence_219

Nova Scotia has also been the subject of numerous literary books. Nova Scotia_sentence_220

Some of the international best-sellers are: Last Man Out: The Story of the Springhill Mining Disaster (by Melissa Fay Greene) ; Curse of the Narrows: The Halifax Explosion 1917 (by Laura MacDonald); "In the Village" (short story by Pulitzer Prize–winning author Elizabeth Bishop); and National Book Critics Circle Award winner Rough Crossings (by Simon Schama). Nova Scotia_sentence_221

Other authors who have written novels about Nova Scotian stories include: Linden MacIntyre (The Bishop's Man); Hugh MacLennan (Barometer Rising); Rebecca McNutt (Mandy and Alecto); Ernest Buckler (The Valley and the Mountain); Archibald MacMechan (Red Snow on Grand Pré), Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (long poem Evangeline); Lawrence Hill (The Book of Negroes) and John Mack Faragher (Great and Nobel Scheme). Nova Scotia_sentence_222

Music Nova Scotia_section_22

Main article: Music of Nova Scotia Nova Scotia_sentence_223

Nova Scotia is home to Symphony Nova Scotia, a symphony orchestra based in Halifax. Nova Scotia_sentence_224

The province has produced more than its fair share of famous musicians, including Grammy Award winners Denny Doherty (from The Mamas & the Papas), Anne Murray, and Sarah McLachlan, country singers Hank Snow, George Canyon, and Drake Jensen, jazz vocalist Holly Cole, classical performers Portia White and Barbara Hannigan, multi Juno Award nominated rapper Classified, and such diverse artists as Rita MacNeil, Matt Mays, Sloan, Feist, Todd Fancey, The Rankin Family, Natalie MacMaster, Susan Crowe, Buck 65, Joel Plaskett, and the bands April Wine and Grand Dérangement Nova Scotia_sentence_225

There are numerous songs written about Nova Scotia: The Ballad of Springhill (written by Peggy Seeger and performed by Irish folk singer Luke Kelly, a member of The Dubliners); several songs by Stan Rogers including Bluenose, Watching The Apples Grow, The Jeannie C (mentions Little Dover, NS), Barrett's Privateers, Giant, and The Rawdon Hills; Farewell to Nova Scotia (traditional); Blue Nose (Stompin' Tom Connors); She's Called Nova Scotia (by Rita MacNeil); Cape Breton (by David Myles); Acadian Driftwood (by Robbie Robertson); Acadie (by Daniel Lanois); Song For The Mira (by Allister MacGillivray) and My Nova Scotia Home (by Hank Snow). Nova Scotia_sentence_226

Nova Scotia has produced many significant songwriters, such as Grammy Award winning Gordie Sampson, who has written songs for Carrie Underwood ("Jesus, Take the Wheel", "Just a Dream", "Get Out of This Town"), Martina McBride ("If I Had Your Name", "You're Not Leavin Me"), LeAnn Rimes ("Long Night", "Save Myself"), and George Canyon ("My Name"). Nova Scotia_sentence_227

Many of Hank Snow's songs went on to be recorded by the likes of The Rolling Stones, Elvis Presley, and Johnny Cash. Nova Scotia_sentence_228

Cape Bretoners Allister MacGillivray and Leon Dubinsky have both written songs which, by being covered by so many popular artists, and by entering the repertoire of so many choirs around the world, have become iconic representations of Nova Scotian style, values and ethos. Nova Scotia_sentence_229

Dubinsky's pop ballad "We Rise Again" might be called the unofficial anthem of Cape Breton. Nova Scotia_sentence_230

Music producer Brian Ahern is a Nova Scotian. Nova Scotia_sentence_231

He got his start by being music director for CBC television's Singalong Jubilee. Nova Scotia_sentence_232

He later produced 12 albums for Anne Murray ("Snowbird", "Danny's Song" and "You Won't See Me"); 11 albums for Emmylou Harris (whom he married at his home in Halifax on 9 January 1977). Nova Scotia_sentence_233

He also produced discs for Johnny Cash, George Jones, Roy Orbison, Glen Campbell, Don Williams, Jesse Winchester and Linda Ronstadt. Nova Scotia_sentence_234

Sports Nova Scotia_section_23

Sport is an important part of Nova Scotia culture. Nova Scotia_sentence_235

There are numerous semi pro, university and amateur sports teams, for example, The Halifax Mooseheads, 2013 Canadian Hockey League Memorial Cup Champions, and the Cape Breton Screaming Eagles, both of the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. Nova Scotia_sentence_236

The Halifax Hurricanes of the National Basketball League of Canada is another team that calls Nova Scotia home, and were 2016 league champions. Nova Scotia_sentence_237

Professional soccer came to the province in 2019 in the form of Canadian Premier League club HFX Wanderers FC. Nova Scotia_sentence_238

The Nova Scotia Open was a professional golf tournament on the Tour in 2014 and 2015. Nova Scotia_sentence_239

The province has also produced numerous athletes such as Sidney Crosby (ice hockey), Nathan Mackinnon (ice hockey), Brad Marchand (ice hockey), Colleen Jones (curling), Al MacInnis (ice hockey), TJ Grant (mixed martial arts), Rocky Johnson (wrestling, and father of Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson), George Dixon (boxing) and Kirk Johnson (boxing). Nova Scotia_sentence_240

The achievements of Nova Scotian athletes are presented at the Nova Scotia Sport Hall of Fame. Nova Scotia_sentence_241

Education Nova Scotia_section_24

The Minister of Education is responsible for the administration and delivery of education, as defined by the Education Act and other acts relating to colleges, universities and private schools. Nova Scotia_sentence_242

The powers of the Minister and the Department of Education are defined by the Ministerial regulations and constrained by the Governor-In-Council regulations. Nova Scotia_sentence_243

All children until the age of 16 are legally required to attend school or the parent needs to perform home schooling. Nova Scotia_sentence_244

Nova Scotia's education system is split up into eight different regions including; Tri-County (22 schools), Annapolis Valley (42 schools), South Shore (25 schools), Chignecto-Central (67 schools), Halifax (135 schools), Strait (20 schools) and Cape Breton-Victoria Regional Centre for Education (39 schools). Nova Scotia_sentence_245

Nova Scotia has more than 450 public schools for children. Nova Scotia_sentence_246

The public system offers primary to Grade 12. Nova Scotia_sentence_247

There are also private schools in the province. Nova Scotia_sentence_248

Public education is administered by seven regional school boards, responsible primarily for English instruction and French immersion, and also province-wide by the Conseil Scolaire Acadien Provincial, which administers French instruction to students whose primary language is French. Nova Scotia_sentence_249

The Nova Scotia Community College system has 13 campuses around the province. Nova Scotia_sentence_250

With a focus on training and education, the college was established in 1988 by amalgamating the province's former vocational schools. Nova Scotia_sentence_251

In addition to the provincial community college system, there are more than 90 registered private colleges in Nova Scotia. Nova Scotia_sentence_252

Ten universities are also situated in Nova Scotia, including Dalhousie University, University of King's College, Saint Mary's University, Mount Saint Vincent University, NSCAD University, Acadia University, Université Sainte-Anne, Saint Francis Xavier University, Cape Breton University and the Atlantic School of Theology. Nova Scotia_sentence_253

See also Nova Scotia_section_25

Nova Scotia_unordered_list_0

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Scotia.