Oakland, California

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"Oakland" redirects here. Oakland, California_sentence_0

For other uses, see Oakland (disambiguation). Oakland, California_sentence_1

Oakland, California_table_infobox_0

Oakland, CaliforniaOakland, California_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryOakland, California_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesOakland, California_cell_0_1_1
StateOakland, California_header_cell_0_2_0 CaliforniaOakland, California_cell_0_2_1
CountyOakland, California_header_cell_0_3_0 AlamedaOakland, California_cell_0_3_1
RegionOakland, California_header_cell_0_4_0 San Francisco Bay AreaOakland, California_cell_0_4_1
IncorporatedOakland, California_header_cell_0_5_0 May 4, 1852Oakland, California_cell_0_5_1
Named forOakland, California_header_cell_0_6_0 The large oak forest that originally covered the areaOakland, California_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentOakland, California_header_cell_0_7_0
TypeOakland, California_header_cell_0_8_0 Strong mayorOakland, California_cell_0_8_1
MayorOakland, California_header_cell_0_9_0 Libby Schaaf (D)Oakland, California_cell_0_9_1
State senatorOakland, California_header_cell_0_10_0 Nancy Skinner (D)Oakland, California_cell_0_10_1
AssemblymembersOakland, California_header_cell_0_11_0 Buffy Wicks (D) and

Rob Bonta (D)Oakland, California_cell_0_11_1

U. S. rep.Oakland, California_header_cell_0_12_0 Barbara Lee (D)Oakland, California_cell_0_12_1
AreaOakland, California_header_cell_0_13_0
TotalOakland, California_header_cell_0_14_0 77.89 sq mi (201.74 km)Oakland, California_cell_0_14_1
LandOakland, California_header_cell_0_15_0 55.91 sq mi (144.80 km)Oakland, California_cell_0_15_1
WaterOakland, California_header_cell_0_16_0 21.98 sq mi (56.94 km)  28.48%Oakland, California_cell_0_16_1
ElevationOakland, California_header_cell_0_17_0 43 ft (13 m)Oakland, California_cell_0_17_1
Population (2010)Oakland, California_header_cell_0_18_0
TotalOakland, California_header_cell_0_19_0 390,724Oakland, California_cell_0_19_1
Estimate (2019)Oakland, California_header_cell_0_20_0 433,031Oakland, California_cell_0_20_1
RankOakland, California_header_cell_0_21_0 1st in Alameda County

8th in California 45th in the United StatesOakland, California_cell_0_21_1

DensityOakland, California_header_cell_0_22_0 7,745.42/sq mi (2,990.53/km)Oakland, California_cell_0_22_1
Demonym(s)Oakland, California_header_cell_0_23_0 OaklanderOakland, California_cell_0_23_1
Time zoneOakland, California_header_cell_0_24_0 UTC−08:00 (Pacific)Oakland, California_cell_0_24_1
Summer (DST)Oakland, California_header_cell_0_25_0 UTC−07:00 (PDT)Oakland, California_cell_0_25_1
ZIP CodesOakland, California_header_cell_0_26_0 94601–94615, 94617-94624, 94649, 94659–94662, 94666Oakland, California_cell_0_26_1
Area codesOakland, California_header_cell_0_27_0 510/341Oakland, California_cell_0_27_1
FIPS codeOakland, California_header_cell_0_28_0 Oakland, California_cell_0_28_1
GNIS feature IDsOakland, California_header_cell_0_29_0 ,Oakland, California_cell_0_29_1
WebsiteOakland, California_header_cell_0_30_0 Oakland, California_cell_0_30_1

Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States. Oakland, California_sentence_2

A major West Coast port city, Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, the third largest city overall in the San Francisco Bay Area, the eighth most populated city in California, and the 45th most populated city in the United States. Oakland, California_sentence_3

With a population of 433,031 as of 2019, it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area; its Port of Oakland is the busiest port in the San Francisco Bay, the entirety of Northern California, and the fifth busiest in the United States of America. Oakland, California_sentence_4

An act to incorporate the city was passed on May 4, 1852, and incorporation was later approved on March 25, 1854, which officially made Oakland a city. Oakland, California_sentence_5

Oakland is a charter city. Oakland, California_sentence_6

Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, and north coastal scrub. Oakland, California_sentence_7

Its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. Oakland, California_sentence_8

Oakland's fertile flatland soils helped it become a prolific agricultural region. Oakland, California_sentence_9

In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Oakland, California_sentence_10

Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the city's population, increasing its housing stock, and improving its infrastructure. Oakland, California_sentence_11

It continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, shipyards, and a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. Oakland, California_sentence_12

History Oakland, California_section_0

Main article: History of Oakland, California Oakland, California_sentence_13

Further information: Timeline of Oakland, California Oakland, California_sentence_14

Pre-incorporation Oakland, California_section_1

The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun natives, who lived there for thousands of years. Oakland, California_sentence_15

The Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping later called the Ohlone (a Miwok word meaning "western people"). Oakland, California_sentence_16

In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. Oakland, California_sentence_17

In 1772, the area that later became Oakland was colonized, along with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. Oakland, California_sentence_18

In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio. Oakland, California_sentence_19

The grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Oakland, California_sentence_20

Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Oakland, California_sentence_21

Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Maria and Vicente. Oakland, California_sentence_22

The portion of the parcel that is now Oakland was called Encinar (misrendered at an early date and carried forward as "encinal") —Spanish for "oak grove"—due to the large oak forest that covered the area, which eventually led to the city's name. Oakland, California_sentence_23

According to Stanford University historian Albert Camarillo, the Peralta family struggled to keep their land after the incorporation of California into the United States after the Mexican–American War. Oakland, California_sentence_24

Camarillo claims the family was the victim of targeted racial violence. Oakland, California_sentence_25

He writes in Chicanos in California, "They lost everything when squatters cut down their fruit trees, killed their cattle, destroyed their buildings, and even fenced off the roads leading to the rancho. Oakland, California_sentence_26

Especially insidious were the actions of attorney Horace Carpentier, who tricked Vicente Peralta into signing a 'lease' which turned out to be a mortgage against the 19,000-acre rancho. Oakland, California_sentence_27

The lands became Carpentier's when Peralta refused to repay the loan he believed was fraudulently incurred. Oakland, California_sentence_28

The Peraltas had no choice but to abandon the homesite they had occupied for two generations." Oakland, California_sentence_29

Development of Chinatown Oakland, California_section_2

During the 1850s—just as gold was discovered in California—Oakland started growing and further developing because land was becoming too expensive in San Francisco. Oakland, California_sentence_30

The Chinese were struggling financially as a result of the First Opium War, the Second Opium War, and the Taiping Rebellion, so they began migrating to Oakland, many of whom were recruited to work on railroads. Oakland, California_sentence_31

However, the Chinese struggled to settle because they were discriminated against by the white community and their living quarters were burned down on several occasions. Oakland, California_sentence_32

The majority of the Chinese migrants lived in unhealthy conditions in China and they often had diseases, so plague spread into San Francisco even though the Chinese were thoroughly inspected for diseases upon their arrival to San Francisco. Oakland, California_sentence_33

City beginnings Oakland, California_section_3

In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, and Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_34

In 1852, the Town of Oakland was incorporated by the state legislature. Oakland, California_sentence_35

During this time, Oakland had 75-100 inhabitants, two hotels, a wharf, two warehouses, and only cattle trails. Oakland, California_sentence_36

Two years later, on March 25, 1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_37

Horace Carpentier was elected the first mayor, though a scandal ended his mayorship in less than a year. Oakland, California_sentence_38

The city and its environs quickly grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. Oakland, California_sentence_39

In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, the site of today's Port of Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_40

A number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century. Oakland, California_sentence_41

The first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, and other lines were converted and added over the course of the 1890s. Oakland, California_sentence_42

The various streetcar companies operating in Oakland were acquired by Francis "Borax" Smith and consolidated into what eventually became known as the Key System, the predecessor of today's publicly owned AC Transit. Oakland, California_sentence_43

1900–1950s Oakland, California_section_4

Plague epidemic Oakland, California_section_5

Oakland was one of the worst affected cities in California that was impacted by the plague epidemic. Oakland, California_sentence_44

Quarantine measures were set in place at the Oakland ports requiring the authorities at the port to inspect the arriving vessels for the presence of infected rats. Oakland, California_sentence_45

Quarantine authorities at these ports inspected over a thousand vessels per year for plague and yellow fever. Oakland, California_sentence_46

By 1908, over 5,000 people were detained in quarantine. Oakland, California_sentence_47

Hunters were sent to poison the affected areas in Oakland and shoot the squirrels, but the eradication work was limited in its range because the State Board of Health and the United States Public Health Service were only allotted about $60,000 a year to eradicate the disease. Oakland, California_sentence_48

During this period Oakland did not have sufficient health facilities, so some of the infected patients were treated at home. Oakland, California_sentence_49

The State Board of Health along with Oakland also advised physicians to promptly report any cases of infected patients. Oakland, California_sentence_50

Yet, in 1919 it still resulted in a small epidemic of Pneumonic plague which killed a dozen people in Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_51

This started when a man went hunting in Contra Costa Valley and killed a squirrel. Oakland, California_sentence_52

After eating the squirrel, he fell ill four days later and another household member contracted the plague. Oakland, California_sentence_53

This in turn was passed on either directly or indirectly to about a dozen others. Oakland, California_sentence_54

The officials in Oakland acted quickly by issuing death certificates to monitor the spread of plague. Oakland, California_sentence_55

Incorporation Oakland, California_section_6

At the time of incorporation in 1852, Oakland had consisted of the territory that lay south of today's major intersection of San Pablo Avenue, Broadway, and Fourteenth Street. Oakland, California_sentence_56

The city gradually annexed farmlands and settlements to the east and the north. Oakland, California_sentence_57

Oakland's rise to industrial prominence, and its subsequent need for a seaport, led to the digging of a shipping and tidal channel in 1902. Oakland, California_sentence_58

This resulted in the nearby town of Alameda being made an island. Oakland, California_sentence_59

In 1906, the city's population doubled with refugees made homeless after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire. Oakland, California_sentence_60

In 1908 lawyer, former miner and newspaper owner Homer Wood (1880–1976) suggested to his friend Frank Bilger of Blake and Bilger Rock Quarry and Paving Company that he organize a gathering to establish a Rotary Club east of the bay. Oakland, California_sentence_61

On November 27, 1908 Homer took a ferry across the bay in a driving rainstorm and met for lunch with Frank and twenty three other businessmen at the Hotel Metropole at 13th and Jefferson. Oakland, California_sentence_62

This gathering became the first meeting of the Tri-City Rotary Club, renamed in 1911 The Rotary Club of Oakland, the third Rotary Club in the world. Oakland, California_sentence_63

This group established the tradition of weekly meetings, something most clubs worldwide follow today. Oakland, California_sentence_64

In 1916, General Motors opened an automobile factory in East Oakland called Oakland Assembly. Oakland, California_sentence_65

It produced Chevrolet cars and then GMC trucks until 1963, when it was moved to Fremont in southern Alameda County. Oakland, California_sentence_66

Also in 1916, the Fageol Motor Company chose East Oakland for their first factory, manufacturing farming tractors from 1918 to 1923. Oakland, California_sentence_67

By 1920, Oakland was the home of numerous manufacturing industries, including metals, canneries, bakeries, internal combustion engines, automobiles, and shipbuilding. Oakland, California_sentence_68

By 1929, when Chrysler expanded with a new plant there, Oakland had become known as the "Detroit of the West," referring to the major auto manufacturing center in Michigan. Oakland, California_sentence_69

Oakland expanded during the 1920s, as its population expanded with factory workers. Oakland, California_sentence_70

Approximately 13,000 homes were built in the 3 years between 1921 and 1924, more than during the 13 years between 1907 and 1920. Oakland, California_sentence_71

Many of the large downtown office buildings, apartment buildings, and single-family houses still standing in Oakland were built during the 1920s; they reflect the architectural styles of the time. Oakland, California_sentence_72

Russell Clifford Durant established Durant Field at 82nd Avenue and East 14th Street in 1916. Oakland, California_sentence_73

The first transcontinental airmail flight finished its journey at Durant Field on August 9, 1920, flown by Army Capt. Oakland, California_sentence_74

Eddie Rickenbacker and Navy Lt. Oakland, California_sentence_75

Bert Acosta. Oakland, California_sentence_76

Durant Field was often called Oakland Airport, though the current Oakland International Airport was soon established four miles (6.4 km) to the southwest. Oakland, California_sentence_77

During World War II, the East Bay Area was home to many war-related industries. Oakland, California_sentence_78

Oakland's Moore Dry Dock Company expanded its shipbuilding capabilities and built over 100 ships. Oakland, California_sentence_79

Valued at $100 million in 1943, Oakland's canning industry was its second-most-valuable war contribution after shipbuilding. Oakland, California_sentence_80

The largest canneries were in the Fruitvale District, and included the Josiah Lusk Canning Company, the Oakland Preserving Company (which started the Del Monte brand), and the California Packing Company. Oakland, California_sentence_81

President Franklin D. Roosevelt called on defense industries with government contracts to integrate their workforces and provide opportunities for all Americans. Oakland, California_sentence_82

Tens of thousands of laborers came from around the country, especially poor whites and blacks from the Deep South: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas, as well as Missouri and Tennessee. Oakland, California_sentence_83

Henry J. Kaiser's representatives recruited sharecroppers and tenant farmers from rural areas to work in his shipyards. Oakland, California_sentence_84

African Americans were part of the Great Migration by which five million persons left the South, mostly for the West, from 1940 to 1970. Oakland, California_sentence_85

White migrants from the Jim Crow South carried their racial attitudes, causing tensions to rise among black and white workers competing for the better-paying jobs in the Bay Area. Oakland, California_sentence_86

The racial harmony Oakland blacks had been accustomed to prior to the war evaporated. Oakland, California_sentence_87

Also migrating to the area during this time were many Mexican Americans from southwestern states such as New Mexico, Texas, and Colorado. Oakland, California_sentence_88

Many worked for the Southern Pacific Railroad, at its major rail yard in West Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_89

Their young men encountered hostility and discrimination by Armed Forces personnel, and tensions broke out in "zoot suit riots" in downtown Oakland in 1943 in the wake of a major disturbance in Los Angeles that year. Oakland, California_sentence_90

In 1946, National City Lines (NCL), a General Motors holding company, acquired 64% of Key System stock; during the next several years NCL engaged in the conspiratorial dissolution of Oakland's electric streetcar system. Oakland, California_sentence_91

The city's expensive electric streetcar fleet was converted to the cheaper diesel buses. Oakland, California_sentence_92

The state Legislature created the Alameda and Contra Costa Transit District in 1955, which operates today as AC Transit, the third-largest bus-only transit system in the nation. Oakland, California_sentence_93

Soon after the war, as Oakland's shipbuilding industry declined and the automobile industry went through restructuring, many jobs were lost. Oakland, California_sentence_94

Economic competition increased racial tension. Oakland, California_sentence_95

In addition, labor unrest increased as workers struggled to protect their livelihoods. Oakland, California_sentence_96

Oakland was the center of a general strike during the first week of December 1946, one of six cities across the country that had such a strike after World War II. Oakland, California_sentence_97

1960–1999 Oakland, California_section_7

In 1960, Kaiser Corporation opened its new headquarters; it was the largest skyscraper in Oakland, as well as "the largest office tower west of Chicago" up to that time. Oakland, California_sentence_98

In the postwar period, suburban development increased around Oakland, and wealthier residents moved to new housing. Oakland, California_sentence_99

Despite the major increases in the number and proportion of African Americans in the city, in 1966 only 16 of the city's 661 police officers were black. Oakland, California_sentence_100

Tensions between the black community and the largely white police force were high, as expectations during the civil rights era increased to gain social justice and equality before the law. Oakland, California_sentence_101

Police abuse of blacks was common. Oakland, California_sentence_102

Students Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party at Merritt College (then located at a former high school on Grove Street, now occupied by Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute), which emphasized black power, advocated armed self-defense against police brutality, and was involved in several incidents that ended in the deaths of police officers and other Black Panther members. Oakland, California_sentence_103

Among their social programs were feeding children and providing other services to the needy. Oakland, California_sentence_104

During the 1970s, Oakland began to suffer serious violence and other problems related to gang-controlled dealing of heroin and cocaine when drug kingpin Felix Mitchell created the nation's first large-scale operation of this kind. Oakland, California_sentence_105

Both violent crime and property crime increased during this period, and Oakland's murder rate rose to over twice that of San Francisco and New York. Oakland, California_sentence_106

As in many other American cities during the 1980s, crack cocaine became a serious problem in Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_107

Drug dealing in general, and the dealing of crack cocaine in particular, resulted in elevated rates of violent crime, causing Oakland to consistently be listed as one of America's most crime-ridden cities. Oakland, California_sentence_108

In 1980 Oakland's black population reached its 20th-century peak at approximately 47% of the overall city population. Oakland, California_sentence_109

The 6.9 Mw Loma Prieta earthquake occurred on October 17, 1989. Oakland, California_sentence_110

The rupture was related to the San Andreas fault system and affected the entire San Francisco Bay Area with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent). Oakland, California_sentence_111

Many structures in Oakland were badly damaged including the double-decker portion of Interstate 880 that collapsed. Oakland, California_sentence_112

The eastern span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge also sustained damage and was closed to traffic for one month. Oakland, California_sentence_113

On October 20, 1991, a massive firestorm swept down from the Berkeley/Oakland hills above the Caldecott Tunnel. Oakland, California_sentence_114

Twenty-five people were killed, 150 people were injured, and nearly 4,000 homes destroyed. Oakland, California_sentence_115

With the loss of life and an estimated economic loss of US$1.5 billion, this was the worst urban firestorm in American history, until 2017. Oakland, California_sentence_116

During the mid-1990s, Oakland's economy began to recover as it transitioned to new types of jobs. Oakland, California_sentence_117

In addition, the city participated in large development and urban renewal projects, concentrated especially in the downtown area, at the Port of Oakland, and at the Oakland International Airport. Oakland, California_sentence_118

2000s Oakland, California_section_8

After his 1999 inauguration, Oakland Mayor Jerry Brown continued his predecessor Elihu Harris' public policy of supporting downtown housing development in the area defined as the Central Business District in Oakland's 1998 General Plan. Oakland, California_sentence_119

Brown's plan and other redevelopment projects were controversial due to potential rent increases and gentrification, which would displace lower-income residents from downtown Oakland into outlying neighborhoods and cities. Oakland, California_sentence_120

Due to allegations of misconduct by the Oakland Police Department, the City of Oakland has paid claims for a total of US$57 million during the 2001–2011 timeframe to plaintiffs claiming police abuse; this is the largest sum paid by any city in California. Oakland, California_sentence_121

On October 10, 2011, protesters and civic activists began "Occupy Oakland" demonstrations at Frank Ogawa Plaza in Downtown Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_122

African-Americans dropped to 28% of Oakland's population in 2010, from nearly half in 1980, due to fast-rising rents and an extreme housing crisis in the region. Oakland, California_sentence_123

Oakland is the second U.S. city, after Denver, to decriminalize psilocybin mushrooms. Oakland, California_sentence_124

In June 2019, the City Council passed the resolution in a unanimous vote ending the investigation and imposition of criminal penalties for use and possession of natural entheogens. Oakland, California_sentence_125

In November 2019, two homeless mothers and their children moved into a vacant three bedroom house in West Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_126

The group, calling themselves Moms 4 Housing, said their goal was to protest what they said was a large number of vacant houses in Oakland owned by redevelopment companies while the city experienced a housing crisis. Oakland, California_sentence_127

Two months later they were evicted from the house by three dozen sheriff's deputies, as hundreds of supporters demonstrated in favor of the women. Oakland, California_sentence_128

The incident received nationwide coverage. Oakland, California_sentence_129

The company that owns the house later said they would sell it to a nonprofit affordable housing group. Oakland, California_sentence_130

As of 2019, Oakland's per-capita homeless rate is higher than San Francisco and Berkeley. Oakland, California_sentence_131

Geography and Cityscape Oakland, California_section_9

Oakland is in the eastern region of the San Francisco Bay. Oakland, California_sentence_132

In 1991, the City Hall tower was at (NAD83). Oakland, California_sentence_133

(The building still exists, but like the rest of the Bay Area, it has shifted northwest perhaps 0.6 meters in the last twenty years.) Oakland, California_sentence_134

The United States Census Bureau says the city's total area is 78.0 square miles (202 km), including 55.8 square miles (145 km) of land and 22.2 square miles (57 km) (28.48 percent) of water. Oakland, California_sentence_135

Oakland's highest point is near Grizzly Peak Blvd, east of Berkeley, just over 1,760 feet (540 m) above sea level at about . Oakland, California_sentence_136

Oakland has 19 miles (31 km) of shoreline, but Radio Beach is the only beach in Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_137

Oaklanders refer to their city's terrain as "the flatlands" and "the hills". Oakland, California_sentence_138

Until recent waves of gentrification, these terms also symbolized Oakland's deep economic divide, with "the hills" being more affluent communities. Oakland, California_sentence_139

About two-thirds of Oakland lies in the flat plain of the East Bay, with one-third rising into the foothills and hills of the East Bay range. Oakland, California_sentence_140

Ruptures along the nearby San Andreas Fault caused severe earth movement in the San Francisco Bay Area in 1906 and 1989. Oakland, California_sentence_141

San Andreas quakes induces creep (movement occurring on earthquake faults) in the Hayward fault, which runs directly through Oakland, Berkeley, San Jose and other Bay Area cities. Oakland, California_sentence_142

Neighborhoods Oakland, California_section_10

Main article: List of neighborhoods in Oakland, California Oakland, California_sentence_143

Oakland has more than 50 distinct neighborhoods. Oakland, California_sentence_144

The city's greater divisions include downtown Oakland and its greater Central Business District, Lake Merritt, East Oakland, North Oakland, West Oakland, and the Oakland Hills. Oakland, California_sentence_145

East Oakland, which includes the East Oakland Hills, encompasses more than half of Oakland's land area, stretching from Lakeshore Avenue on the east shore of Lake Merritt southeast to the San Leandro border. Oakland, California_sentence_146

North Oakland encompasses the neighborhoods between downtown and Berkeley and Emeryville. Oakland, California_sentence_147

West Oakland is the area between downtown and the Bay, partially surrounded by the Oakland Point, and encompassing the Port of Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_148

In 2011, Oakland was ranked the 10th most walkable city in the United States. Oakland, California_sentence_149

Lake Merritt, an urban estuary near downtown, is a mix of fresh and salt water draining in and out from the Oakland Harbor at the San Francisco Bay and one of Oakland's most notable features. Oakland, California_sentence_150

It was designated the United States' first official wildlife refuge in 1870. Oakland, California_sentence_151

Originally a marsh-lined wildlife haven, Lake Merritt was dredged and bordered with parks from the 1890s to the 1910s. Oakland, California_sentence_152

Despite this reduction in habitat, Oakland is home to a number of rare and endangered species, many of which are localized to serpentine soils and bedrock. Oakland, California_sentence_153

Lake Merritt is surrounded by residential and business districts, including downtown and Grand Lake. Oakland, California_sentence_154

The city of Piedmont, incorporated in Oakland's central foothills after the 1906 earthquake, is a small independent city surrounded by the city of Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_155

Climate and Vegetation Oakland, California_section_11

Oakland has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate with an average of 260 sunny days per year. Oakland, California_sentence_156

In general, the city features warm, dry summers, and mild, wet winters. Oakland, California_sentence_157

Lake Merritt, a large estuary centrally located east of Downtown, was announced as the United States' first official wildlife refuge. Oakland, California_sentence_158

Based on data gathered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oakland is ranked No. Oakland, California_sentence_159

1 in climate among U.S. cities. Oakland, California_sentence_160

Oakland's climate is typified by the temperate and seasonal Mediterranean climate. Oakland, California_sentence_161

Summers are usually dry and warm and winters are mild and damp. Oakland, California_sentence_162

It has features found in both nearby coastal cities such as San Francisco and inland cities such as San Jose, making it warmer than San Francisco and cooler than San Jose. Oakland, California_sentence_163

Its position on San Francisco Bay across from the Bay Bridge means the northern part of the city can have cooling maritime fog. Oakland, California_sentence_164

It is far enough inland that the fog often burns off by midday, allowing it to have typically sunny California days. Oakland, California_sentence_165

The hills tend to have more fog than the flatlands, as the fog drifts down from Berkeley. Oakland, California_sentence_166

The U.S. Oakland, California_sentence_167 Weather Bureau kept weather records in downtown Oakland from October 4, 1894, to July 31, 1958. Oakland, California_sentence_168

During that time, the record high temperature was 104 °F (40 °C) on June 24, 1957, and the record low temperature was 24 °F (−4 °C) on January 23, 1949. Oakland, California_sentence_169

Dry, warm offshore "Diablo" winds (similar to the Santa Ana winds of Southern California) sometimes occur, especially in fall, and raise the fire danger. Oakland, California_sentence_170

In 1991, such an episode allowed the catastrophic Oakland Hills fire to spread and consume many homes. Oakland, California_sentence_171

The wettest year was 1940 with 38.65 inches (982 mm) and the driest year was 1910 with 12.02 inches (305 mm). Oakland, California_sentence_172

The most rainfall in one month was 15.35 inches (390 mm) in January 1911. Oakland, California_sentence_173

The most rainfall in 24 hours was 4.27 inches (108 mm) on February 12, 1904. Oakland, California_sentence_174

Rainfall near the bayfront is only 23 inches (580 mm), but is higher in the Oakland Hills to the east (up to 30 inches [760 mm]). Oakland, California_sentence_175

The higher rainfall in the hills supports woods of oak, madrona, pine, fir and a few redwood groves in the wetter areas. Oakland, California_sentence_176

Before being logged in the 19th century, some of the tallest redwood trees in California (used for navigation by ships entering the Golden Gate) may have stood in the Oakland Hills. Oakland, California_sentence_177

One old stump 30 feet (9.1 m) in diameter can be seen near Redwood Regional Park. Oakland, California_sentence_178

Sunny, drier slopes are grassy or covered in scattered oaks and chaparral brush. Oakland, California_sentence_179

Australian eucalyptus trees have been extensively planted in many areas, as they come from a similar climate. Oakland, California_sentence_180

The National Weather Service today has two official weather stations in Oakland: Oakland International Airport and the Oakland Museum (established 1970). Oakland, California_sentence_181

Demographics Oakland, California_section_12

Race and ethnicity Oakland, California_section_13

Oakland, California_table_general_1

Racial compositionOakland, California_header_cell_1_0_0 2018Oakland, California_header_cell_1_0_1 2010Oakland, California_header_cell_1_0_2 1990Oakland, California_header_cell_1_0_3 1970Oakland, California_header_cell_1_0_4 1940Oakland, California_header_cell_1_0_5
WhiteOakland, California_cell_1_1_0 35.1%Oakland, California_cell_1_1_1 34.5%Oakland, California_cell_1_1_2 32.5%Oakland, California_cell_1_1_3 59.1%Oakland, California_cell_1_1_4 95.3%Oakland, California_cell_1_1_5
—Non-HispanicOakland, California_cell_1_2_0 29.0%Oakland, California_cell_1_2_1 25.9%Oakland, California_cell_1_2_2 28.3%Oakland, California_cell_1_2_3 52.0%Oakland, California_cell_1_2_4 n/aOakland, California_cell_1_2_5
Black or African AmericanOakland, California_cell_1_3_0 23.2%Oakland, California_cell_1_3_1 28.0%Oakland, California_cell_1_3_2 43.9%Oakland, California_cell_1_3_3 34.5%Oakland, California_cell_1_3_4 2.8%Oakland, California_cell_1_3_5
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)Oakland, California_cell_1_4_0 26.5%Oakland, California_cell_1_4_1 25.3%Oakland, California_cell_1_4_2 13.9%Oakland, California_cell_1_4_3 7.6%Oakland, California_cell_1_4_4 n/aOakland, California_cell_1_4_5
AsianOakland, California_cell_1_5_0 15.3%Oakland, California_cell_1_5_1 16.8%Oakland, California_cell_1_5_2 14.8%Oakland, California_cell_1_5_3 4.8%Oakland, California_cell_1_5_4 Oakland, California_cell_1_5_5

The 2010 United States Census reported Oakland had a population of 390,724. Oakland, California_sentence_182

The population density was 5,009.2 inhabitants per square mile (1,934.1/km). Oakland, California_sentence_183

The racial makeup of Oakland was 134,925 (34.5%) White (non-Hispanic White 25.9%), 129,471 (28.0%) African American, 3,040 (0.8%) Native American, 65,811 (16.8%) Asian (8.7% Chinese, 2.2% Vietnamese, 1.6% Filipino, 0.7% Cambodian, 0.7% Laotian, 0.6% Korean, 0.5% Japanese, 0.5% Indian, 0.1% Mongolian), 2,222 (0.6%) Pacific Islander (0.3% Tongan), 53,378 (13.7%) from other races, and 21,877 (5.6%) from two or more races. Oakland, California_sentence_184

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 99,068 persons (25.4%). Oakland, California_sentence_185

18.1% of the population were of Mexican descent, 1.9% Salvadoran, 1.3% Guatemalan, and 0.7% Puerto Rican. Oakland, California_sentence_186

2018 United States Census American Community Survey estimates Oakland, California_section_14

According to 2018 US Census Bureau estimates, Oakland's population rose to 429,114, and was 35.1% White (29.0% Non-Hispanic White and 6.1% Hispanic White), 23.2% Black or African American, 0.9% Native American and Alaskan Native, 15.3% Asian, 0.8% Pacific Islander, 17.8% Some Other Race, and 7.0% from two or more races. Oakland, California_sentence_187

If Hispanics are treated as a separate category from race, Oakland's population was 29.0% White, 22.8% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American and Alaskan Native, 15.2% Asian, 0.7% Pacific Islander, 0.3% Some Other Race, 5.2% from two or more races, and 26.5% Hispanic-Latino. Oakland, California_sentence_188

White Americans remain the largest racial/ethnic group at either 35.1% (including White Hispanics) or 29.0% (excluding White Hispanics). Oakland, California_sentence_189

Hispanics have been the second largest racial/ethnic group since 2012 when they displaced the Black population. Oakland, California_sentence_190

By ethnicity, 26.5% of the total population is Hispanic-Latino (of any race) and 73.5% is Non-Hispanic (of any race). Oakland, California_sentence_191

The majority of Hispanics self-identify as Other Race (65.9%) with the remainder choosing White (22.9%), Multiracial (6.9%), Black (1.6%), American Indian and Alaskan Native (2.0%), Asian (0.5%), and Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (0.3%). Oakland, California_sentence_192

The Black population are the third largest group at either 23.2% (including Black Hispanics) or 22.8% excluding Black Hispanics. Oakland, California_sentence_193

The Asian population continues to remain the fourth largest group at 15.2% of the population. Oakland, California_sentence_194

Educational attainment and income Oakland, California_section_15

The greater Oakland area has the fifth largest cluster of "elite zip codes" ranked by the number of households with the highest combination of income and education. Oakland, California_sentence_195

37.9% of residents over 25 years of age have bachelor's degree or higher. Oakland, California_sentence_196

Oakland ranked among the top cities with residents with bachelor's degrees and graduate degrees per square mile. Oakland, California_sentence_197

Oakland ranks in the top 20 of American cities in median household income, with a 2012 value of US$51,863. Oakland, California_sentence_198

In 2012, the median income for a household in the city was US$51,863 and the median income for a family was US$59,459. Oakland, California_sentence_199

The mean income for a household was US$77,888 and the mean income for a family was US$90,948. Oakland, California_sentence_200

Males had a median income of US$50,140 versus US$50,304 for females. Oakland, California_sentence_201

The unemployment rate as of December 2013 was 9.7%. Oakland, California_sentence_202

In 2007 approximately 15.3 percent of families and 17.0 percent of the general population were below the poverty line, including 27.9 percent of those under age 18 and 13.1 percent of those age 65 or over. Oakland, California_sentence_203

0.7% of the population is homeless. Oakland, California_sentence_204

Home ownership is 41% and 14% of rental units are subsidized. Oakland, California_sentence_205

As of the census of 2000, 19.4% of the population and 16.2% of families were below the poverty line. Oakland, California_sentence_206

Out of the total population, 27.9% of those under the age of 18 and 13.1% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Oakland, California_sentence_207

Households Oakland, California_section_16

The census reported 382,586 people (97.9% of the population) lived in households, 5,675 (1.5%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 2,463 (0.6%) were institutionalized. Oakland, California_sentence_208

There were 153,791 households, out of which 44,762 (29.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 50,797 (33.0%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 24,122 (15.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 8,799 (5.7%) had a male householder with no wife present. Oakland, California_sentence_209

There were 11,289 (7.3%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 3,442 (2.2%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. Oakland, California_sentence_210

52,103 households (33.9%) were made up of individuals, and 13,778 (9.0%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. Oakland, California_sentence_211

The average household size was 2.49. Oakland, California_sentence_212

There were 83,718 families (54.4% of all households); the average family size was 3.27. Oakland, California_sentence_213

The population was spread out, with 83,120 people (21.3%) under the age of 18, 36,272 people (9.3%) aged 18 to 24, 129,139 people (33.1%) aged 25 to 44, 98,634 people (25.2%) aged 45 to 64, and 43,559 people (11.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. Oakland, California_sentence_214

The median age was 36.2 years. Oakland, California_sentence_215

For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. Oakland, California_sentence_216

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males. Oakland, California_sentence_217

There were 169,710 housing units at an average density of 2,175.7 per square mile (840.0/km), of which 153,791 were occupied, of which 63,142 (41.1%) were owner-occupied, and 90,649 (58.9%) were occupied by renters. Oakland, California_sentence_218

The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.0%; the rental vacancy rate was 8.5%. Oakland, California_sentence_219

166,662 people (42.7% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 215,924 people (55.3%) lived in rental housing units. Oakland, California_sentence_220

Shifting of cultures Oakland, California_section_17

Oakland has consistently ranked as one of the most ethnically diverse major cities in the country. Oakland, California_sentence_221

A 2019 analysis by WalletHub showed that Oakland was the most ethnoracially diverse city in the United States. Oakland, California_sentence_222

The city's formerly most populous ethnic group, whites, declined from 95.3% in 1940 to 32.5% by 1990, due to a combination of factors, including suburbanization. Oakland, California_sentence_223

Oakland became a destination for African Americans in the Great Migration during and after World War II as they gained high-paying jobs in the defense industry. Oakland, California_sentence_224

Blacks have formed a plurality in Oakland for many years, peaking in 1980 at about 47% of the population. Oakland, California_sentence_225

Oakland's black population decreased by nearly 25 percent between 2000 and 2010. Oakland, California_sentence_226

The city's demographics have changed due to a combination of rising housing prices associated with gentrification and with blacks relocating to better housing in Bay Area suburbs or moving to the Southern United States in a reverse migration, where conditions are considered to have improved. Oakland, California_sentence_227

This trends and cultural shifts have led to a decline among some of Oakland's long standing black institutions, such as churches, businesses and nightclubs, which had developed during the growing years of the 1950s through 1970. Oakland, California_sentence_228

In the 2010 census African Americans maintained their status as Oakland's single largest ethnic group, with 27% of the population, followed by non-Hispanic whites at 25.9%, and Hispanics of any race at 25.4%. Oakland, California_sentence_229

Ethnic Asians constitute 17%, followed by smaller minority groups. Oakland, California_sentence_230

Many immigrants have settled in the city. Oakland, California_sentence_231

Immigrants and others have marched by the thousands down Oakland's International Boulevard in support of legal reforms benefiting undocumented immigrants. Oakland, California_sentence_232

An analysis by the Urban Institute of U.S. Oakland, California_sentence_233 Census 2000 numbers showed Oakland had the third-highest concentration of gays and lesbians among the 50 largest U.S. cities, behind San Francisco and Seattle. Oakland, California_sentence_234

Census data showed that among incorporated places that have at least 500 female couples, Oakland had the nation's largest proportion. Oakland, California_sentence_235

In the 2000 census, 2,650 lesbian couples identified as such in Oakland; one in every 41 Oakland couples identified as a same-sex female partnership. Oakland, California_sentence_236

Gentrification Oakland, California_section_18

As of 2020, the San Francisco-Oakland Metro shows indications of having the greatest intensity of gentrification nationally, with over 31% of eligible neighborhoods gentrifying. Oakland, California_sentence_237

Gentrifying neighborhoods showed significant increases in median home value, median household income, percentage of college educated residents, but also in economic inequality. Oakland, California_sentence_238

Historically low-income neighborhoods have been rapidly changed by new, higher-income residents as high-wage tech workers and expensive housing have continued to push lower-wage residents out of Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_239

In West Oakland, for example, median household income rose from $80,700 to $86,300 between 2010 and 2017, while the percent of population with four-year degrees rose from one-third to nearly one-half, according to the National Community Reinvestment Coalition. Oakland, California_sentence_240

Big tech companies have continued to transform the communities and culture of Oakland as modern apartments have appeared, housing prices have spiked, and many prior working-class residents have moved to suburbs further inland. Oakland, California_sentence_241

According to 2015 data compiled by the , 91% of low-income households of color were either in neighborhoods that were gentrifying or were at risk of gentrification at the time. Oakland, California_sentence_242

The number was higher for individual low-income communities, with 96% of Native American households in neighborhoods that either experienced gentrification or were at risk of being gentrified, followed by Latino households at 94%, Black households at 92%, and Asian or Pacific Islander households at 88%. Oakland, California_sentence_243

Economy Oakland, California_section_19

Further information: List of companies based in Oakland, California Oakland, California_sentence_244

Oakland is a major West Coast port, and the fifth busiest in the United States by cargo volume. Oakland, California_sentence_245

The Port of Oakland handles 99% of all containerized goods moving through Northern California, representing $41 billion worth of international trade. Oakland, California_sentence_246

There are nearly 200,000 jobs related to marine cargo transport in the Oakland area. Oakland, California_sentence_247

These jobs range from minimum wage hourly positions to Transportation Storage and Distribution Managers who earn an annual average salary of US$91,520. Oakland, California_sentence_248

The Port of Oakland was an early innovator/pioneer in the technologies of Intermodal Containerized Shipping. Oakland, California_sentence_249

The city is also home to several major corporations including Kaiser Permanente, Clorox, and Dreyer's ice cream. Oakland, California_sentence_250

Tech companies such as Ask.com and Pandora Radio are in Oakland, and in recent years many start-up high tech and green energy companies have found a home in the downtown neighborhoods of Uptown, City Center, Jack London Square and Lake Merritt Financial District. Oakland, California_sentence_251

In 2014, Oakland was the fifth ranked city for tech entrepreneurs by total venture capital investment. Oakland, California_sentence_252

In 2015 Uber announced plans to build and house 3,000 employees in a new office at the site of the old Sears building, which is being redeveloped with plans to open in late 2017. Oakland, California_sentence_253

As of 2013, the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward metropolitan area has a gross domestic product (GDP) of US$360.4 billion, ranking eighth among metropolitan areas in the United States. Oakland, California_sentence_254

In 2014, Oakland was amongst the best cities to start a career, the highest ranked city in California after San Francisco. Oakland, California_sentence_255

Additionally, Oakland ranked fourth in cities with professional opportunities. Oakland, California_sentence_256

Numerous companies in San Francisco continue to expand in or migrate over to Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_257

Oakland experienced an increase of both its population and of land values in the early-to-mid first decade of the 21st century. Oakland, California_sentence_258

The 10k Plan, which began during former mayor Elihu Harris' administration, and intensified during former mayor Jerry Brown's administration resulted in several thousand units of new multi-family housing and development. Oakland, California_sentence_259

Top employers Oakland, California_section_20

As of 2019, the top employers in the city were: Oakland, California_sentence_260

Oakland, California_table_general_2

#Oakland, California_header_cell_2_0_0 EmployerOakland, California_header_cell_2_0_1 # of EmployeesOakland, California_header_cell_2_0_2
1Oakland, California_cell_2_1_0 Kaiser PermanenteOakland, California_cell_2_1_1 12,000+Oakland, California_cell_2_1_2
2Oakland, California_cell_2_2_0 County of AlamedaOakland, California_cell_2_2_1 8,000-10,000Oakland, California_cell_2_2_2
3Oakland, California_cell_2_3_0 Oakland Unified School DistrictOakland, California_cell_2_3_1 5,000-5,500Oakland, California_cell_2_3_2
4Oakland, California_cell_2_4_0 City of OaklandOakland, California_cell_2_4_1 4000-4500Oakland, California_cell_2_4_2
5Oakland, California_cell_2_5_0 Bay Area Rapid TransitOakland, California_cell_2_5_1 3,500-4,000Oakland, California_cell_2_5_2
6Oakland, California_cell_2_6_0 State of CaliforniaOakland, California_cell_2_6_1 3,000-3,500Oakland, California_cell_2_6_2
7Oakland, California_cell_2_7_0 United Parcel ServiceOakland, California_cell_2_7_1 2,500-3,000Oakland, California_cell_2_7_2
8Oakland, California_cell_2_8_0 Southwest AirlinesOakland, California_cell_2_8_1 2,500-3,000Oakland, California_cell_2_8_2
9Oakland, California_cell_2_9_0 Children's Hospital OaklandOakland, California_cell_2_9_1 2,500-3,000Oakland, California_cell_2_9_2
10Oakland, California_cell_2_10_0 Internal Revenue ServiceOakland, California_cell_2_10_1 2,500-3,000Oakland, California_cell_2_10_2

Tourism Oakland, California_section_21

In 2013, over 2.5 million people visited Oakland, injecting US$1.3 billion into the economy. Oakland, California_sentence_261

Oakland has been experiencing an increase in hotel demand. Oakland, California_sentence_262

Occupancy is 74%, while RevPAR (Revenue Per Available Room) increased by 14%, the highest increase of any big city in the western region of the United States. Oakland, California_sentence_263

Both Oakland and San Francisco were forecasted to experience the highest increases in ADR (Average daily rate). Oakland, California_sentence_264

In recent years, Oakland has gained national recognition as a travel destination. Oakland, California_sentence_265

In 2012, Oakland was named the top North American city to visit, highlighting its growing number of sophisticated restaurants and bars, top music venues, and increasing nightlife appeal. Oakland, California_sentence_266

Oakland also took the No. Oakland, California_sentence_267

16 spot in "America's Coolest Cities", ranked by metrics like entertainment options and recreational opportunities per capita, etc. Oakland, California_sentence_268

In 2013, Oakland topped the No. Oakland, California_sentence_269

1 spot in "America's Most Exciting Cities", notably having the most movie theaters, theater companies, and museums per square mile. Oakland, California_sentence_270

In "America's Most Hipster Cities", Oakland took the number-5 spot, cited for luring San Francisco "hippies" into the city. Oakland, California_sentence_271

Oakland has also increased its travel destination allure internationally. Oakland, California_sentence_272

Arts and culture Oakland, California_section_22

Oakland has a significant art scene and claims the highest concentration of artists per capita in the United States. Oakland, California_sentence_273

In 2013, Oakland was designated as one of America's top twelve art communities, recognizing Downtown (including Uptown), Chinatown, Old Oakland, and Jack London Square as communities "that have most successfully combined art, artists and venues for creativity and expression with independent businesses, retail shops and restaurants, and a walkable lifestyle to make vibrant neighborhoods." Oakland, California_sentence_274

Galleries exist in various parts of Oakland, with the newest additions centered mostly in the Uptown area. Oakland, California_sentence_275

Oakland ranked 11th in cities for designers and artists. Oakland, California_sentence_276

The city is a renowned culinary hotbed, offering both a wide variety and innovative approaches to diverse cuisines in restaurants and markets, often featuring locally grown produce and international styles such as French, Italian, Portuguese/Spanish, Ethiopian, Asian, Latin American, as well as Caribbean, Southern United States/Louisiana Creole, etc., all of which reflects the culinary traditions of the city's ethnically diverse population. Oakland, California_sentence_277

Historically a focal point of the West Coast blues and jazz scenes, Oakland is also home to musicians representing such genres as rhythm and blues, gospel, funk, punk, heavy metal, Rap/Gangsta rap, and hip hop. Oakland, California_sentence_278

Attractions Oakland, California_section_23

Free walking tours are Oakland, California_sentence_279

Nightlife Oakland, California_section_24

Downtown Oakland has an assortment of bars and nightclubs. Oakland, California_sentence_280

They include dive bars, dance clubs, modern lounges and jazz bars. Oakland, California_sentence_281

The Paramount Theater features headlining musical tours and productions, while Fox Oakland Theatre draws various musical genres including jam bands, rock, punk, blues, jazz, and reggae. Oakland, California_sentence_282

The Paramount and Fox theaters often book simultaneous events, creating busy nights uptown. Oakland, California_sentence_283

In 2012, Oakland was dubbed a "New Sin City", following its 2010 decision to relax its cabaret laws, which gave a boost to its nightclub and bar scene. Oakland, California_sentence_284

Recent years have seen the growth of the Oakland Art Murmur event, occurring in the Uptown neighborhood the first Friday evening of every month. Oakland, California_sentence_285

The event attracts around 20,000 people along twenty city blocks, featuring live performances, food trucks, and over 30 galleries and venues. Oakland, California_sentence_286

"There is no there there" Oakland, California_section_25

Gertrude Stein wrote about Oakland in her 1937 book Everybody's Autobiography "There is no there there", upon learning that the neighborhood where she lived as a child had been torn down to make way for an industrial park. Oakland, California_sentence_287

The quote is sometimes misconstrued to refer to Oakland as a whole. Oakland, California_sentence_288

Modern-day Oakland has made steps to rebuke Stein's claim with a statue downtown titled There In 2005 a sculpture called HERETHERE was installed by the City of Berkeley on the Berkeley-Oakland border at Martin Luther King Jr. Way. Oakland, California_sentence_289

The sculpture consists of eight-foot-tall letters spelling "HERE" and "THERE" in front of the BART tracks as they descend from their elevated section in Oakland to the subway through Berkeley. Oakland, California_sentence_290

Sports Oakland, California_section_26

Oakland currently has professional teams in three sports: baseball, soccer, indoor football. Oakland, California_sentence_291

The Oakland Athletics MLB club won three consecutive World Series championships in 1972, 1973, and 1974, and appeared in another three consecutive World Series from 1988 to 1990, winning their fourth championship in 1989. Oakland, California_sentence_292

On November 28, 2018, the Athletics announced plans to build a new ballpark at Howard Terminal, set to open in 2023. Oakland, California_sentence_293

The Oakland Roots SC are a soccer team that was formed in 2018. Oakland, California_sentence_294

The Roots began play in 2019 in a new third division professional league called National Independent Soccer Association, however, the team announced that it would move to the second division and play in the USL Championship from the 2021 season onwards. Oakland, California_sentence_295

In 2020, the Oakland Panthers of the Indoor Football League will begin play. Oakland, California_sentence_296

Oakland's former football team, the Oakland Raiders of the National Football League (NFL), won Super Bowl XI in 1976, Super Bowl XV in 1980, and Super Bowl XVIII in 1983, while they were in Los Angeles. Oakland, California_sentence_297

They also appeared in Super Bowl II in 1967 and Super Bowl XXXVII in 2002. Oakland, California_sentence_298

The Raiders left Oakland for Los Angeles in 1982, where they won a third Super Bowl championship and returned to Oakland in 1995. Oakland, California_sentence_299

The Raiders have since relocated to Las Vegas and are now known as the Las Vegas Raiders. Oakland, California_sentence_300

Oakland's former basketball team, the Golden State Warriors won the 1974–75, 2014–15, 2016–17, and the 2017–18 NBA championships, while losing in 2016 and 2019. Oakland, California_sentence_301

The Warriors announced in April 2014 that they would leave Oakland once their new arena was built across the Bay in San Francisco. Oakland, California_sentence_302

In 2019, the Warriors moved to Chase Center across the Bay. Oakland, California_sentence_303

Since the team remained in the Bay Area, they decided not to revert to the San Francisco Warriors name it had in its first stint with the city. Oakland, California_sentence_304

Oakland, California_table_general_3

ClubOakland, California_header_cell_3_0_0 SportOakland, California_header_cell_3_0_1 FoundedOakland, California_header_cell_3_0_2 LeagueOakland, California_header_cell_3_0_3 VenueOakland, California_header_cell_3_0_4
Oakland AthleticsOakland, California_cell_3_1_0 BaseballOakland, California_cell_3_1_1 1901 (in Oakland since 1968)Oakland, California_cell_3_1_2 Major League BaseballOakland, California_cell_3_1_3 Oakland ColiseumOakland, California_cell_3_1_4
Oakland Roots SCOakland, California_cell_3_2_0 SoccerOakland, California_cell_3_2_1 2019Oakland, California_cell_3_2_2 National Independent Soccer Association, (to join USL Championship in 2021)Oakland, California_cell_3_2_3 Laney CollegeOakland, California_cell_3_2_4
Oakland PanthersOakland, California_cell_3_3_0 Arena footballOakland, California_cell_3_3_1 2020Oakland, California_cell_3_3_2 Indoor Football LeagueOakland, California_cell_3_3_3 Oakland ArenaOakland, California_cell_3_3_4

Oakland's former sports teams include: Oakland, California_sentence_305

Oakland, California_unordered_list_0

Parks and recreation Oakland, California_section_27

Parks Oakland, California_section_28

Oakland has many parks and recreation centers which total 5,937 acres (2,403 ha). Oakland, California_sentence_306

In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation organization, reported that Oakland had the 18th best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities. Oakland, California_sentence_307

In 2013, Oakland ranked 4th among American cities as an urban destination for nature lovers. Oakland, California_sentence_308

Some of the city's most notable parks include: Oakland, California_sentence_309

Oakland, California_unordered_list_1

Additionally, the following seven East Bay Regional Parks are entirely or partially in the city of Oakland: Oakland, California_sentence_310

Oakland, California_unordered_list_2

Places of worship Oakland, California_section_29

Major places of worship in Oakland include – Oakland, California_sentence_311

Law and government Oakland, California_section_30

See also: Government of Alameda County, California Oakland, California_sentence_312

Oakland has a mayor-council government. Oakland, California_sentence_313

The mayor is elected at-large for a four-year term. Oakland, California_sentence_314

The Oakland City Council has eight council members representing seven districts in Oakland with one member elected at-large and others from single-member districts; council members serve staggered four-year terms. Oakland, California_sentence_315

The mayor appoints a city administrator, subject to the confirmation by the City Council, who is the city's chief administrative officer. Oakland, California_sentence_316

Other city officers include: city attorney (elected), city auditor (elected), and city clerk (appointed by city administrator). Oakland, California_sentence_317

Oakland's mayor is limited to two terms. Oakland, California_sentence_318

There are no term limits for the city council. Oakland, California_sentence_319

Council member Larry Reid, also serving as vice-mayor, was elected to a fifth term in November 2012. Oakland, California_sentence_320

Oakland City Hall was evacuated after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake until US$80M seismic retrofit and hazard abatement work was complete in 1995. Oakland, California_sentence_321

City offices had to be housed in leased space and other locations. Oakland, California_sentence_322

Jean Quan was elected mayor in November 2010, beating Don Perata and Rebecca Kaplan in the city's first ranked choice balloting. Oakland, California_sentence_323

This new system is intended to increase voters' ability to choose preferred candidates, as they can combine ranked votes when several candidates are competing. Oakland, California_sentence_324

Oakland is also part of Alameda County, for which the Government of Alameda County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California law, and the Charter of the County of Alameda. Oakland, California_sentence_325

The County government provides countywide services such as elections and voter registration, law enforcement, jails, vital records, property records, tax collection, public health, and social services. Oakland, California_sentence_326

The County government is primarily composed of the elected five-member Board of Supervisors, other elected offices including the Sheriff/Coroner, the District Attorney, Assessor, Auditor-Controller/County Clerk/Recorder, and Treasurer/Tax Collector, and numerous county departments and entities under the supervision of the County Administrator. Oakland, California_sentence_327

In the California State Legislature, Oakland is in the 9th Senate District, represented by Democrat Nancy Skinner, and is split between the 15th and 18th Assembly districts, represented by Buffy Wicks and Rob Bonta, respectively. Oakland, California_sentence_328

In the United States House of Representatives, Oakland is in California's 13th congressional district, represented by Democrat Barbara Lee. Oakland, California_sentence_329

Politics Oakland, California_section_31

Oakland was a Republican Party bastion from the 1860s to the 1950s, with positions expressed by the Republican-oriented Oakland Tribune newspaper. Oakland, California_sentence_330

At the time, the GOP was more moderate than it has become in the 21st century, and some members belonged to a progressive tradition across the Northern Tier of states. Oakland, California_sentence_331

In the 1960s, the majority of voters began to favor liberal policies and the Democratic Party. Oakland, California_sentence_332

Oakland has the second highest percentage of registered Democrats of any of the incorporated cities in Alameda County, with Berkeley coming in first. Oakland, California_sentence_333

The last Republican presidential candidate to receive at least one-third of vote in Oakland was Richard Nixon in 1972. Oakland, California_sentence_334

Since then, the Republican percentage of the vote has declined in each successive election. Oakland, California_sentence_335

According to the California Secretary of State, as of February 10, 2019, Oakland has 245,111 registered voters. Oakland, California_sentence_336

Of those, 159,771 (65.2%) are registered Democrats, 9,544 (3.9%) are registered Republicans, and 65,416 (26.7%) have declined to state a political party. Oakland, California_sentence_337

Oakland is widely regarded as being one of the most liberal major cities in the nation. Oakland, California_sentence_338

The Cook Partisan Voting Index of Congressional District 13, which includes Oakland and Berkeley, is D+40, making it the most Democratic congressional district in California and the fourth most Democratic district in the US. Oakland, California_sentence_339

Crime Oakland, California_section_32

Main article: Crime in Oakland, California Oakland, California_sentence_340

Substantial progress has been made in reducing the city's historically high crime rate. Oakland, California_sentence_341

Gun crime is primarily concentrated in certain poor minority neighborhoods with nearly all homicides committed by criminals with guns. Oakland, California_sentence_342

Oakland's crime rate had begun to escalate during the late 1960s; and by the end of the 1970s, during the drug wars, the city's per capita murder rate had risen to twice that of San Francisco or New York City. Oakland, California_sentence_343

The primary factor in the rising crime rate has been the dramatic increase of street narcotics sales and use since the 1970s, with Oakland becoming a major west-coast hub for heroin and cocaine distribution. Oakland, California_sentence_344

Subsequent battle for control over the lucrative narcotics trade incited gang conflicts and violence, with shootings becoming a regular occurrence. Oakland, California_sentence_345

A concurrent rise in rape, robbery, burglary, auto-theft and other crimes occurred as well. Oakland, California_sentence_346

Prior to 1960, there had been successful government-funded social programs whereby rebellious teens were enrolled in youth centers that would teach them proper values and improve their behavior. Oakland, California_sentence_347

However, similar programs since then have been inconsistent. Oakland, California_sentence_348

By the 1970s, the police and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) used military tactics such as SWAT teams, infiltration and counter intelligence in an attempt to counter groups such as the Black Panthers (responsible for several police ambushes), the S.L.A. Oakland, California_sentence_349

and organized drug gangs such as the "69 Mob", with increases in arrests, prosecutions, and imprisonment. Oakland, California_sentence_350

During the first decade of the 21st century, Oakland has consistently been listed as one of the most dangerous large cities in the United States, but in the latter part of the decade, the homicide rate dropped four years in a row, and violent crime in general had dropped 27%. Oakland, California_sentence_351

During 2011 there were increases in both categories. Oakland, California_sentence_352

In 2012 Oakland reported 131 homicides, the highest number since 2006, when 148 killings were recorded. Oakland, California_sentence_353

Since 2012 there have been continued decreases in various categories of crime, including homicides. Oakland, California_sentence_354

In 2013, there was a 33% decline in homicides from the previous year, allowing Oakland to record its lowest homicide count since 2004. Oakland, California_sentence_355

Aggravated assaults were down 10%; and rapes declined by 27%, the lowest level of that crime in eight years. Oakland, California_sentence_356

In its crime statistics released for the year 2016, the Oakland Police Department reported a total of 93 murders. Oakland, California_sentence_357

That total for 2016 still constitutes a 29% drop in homicides when compared to the city's reported murders for 2012. Oakland, California_sentence_358

Homicides declined further in 2017 to 72, the second lowest number of homicides since 1985, as did the number of shootings. Oakland, California_sentence_359

Oakland's police force has dropped to 747 officers, down from more than 800 in 2009. Oakland, California_sentence_360

It is below the 925 recommended by the city's strategic plan, and far below the approximately 1,200 recommended by an independent study commissioned by the city in the mid-1990s. Oakland, California_sentence_361

The city has recently started to rebuild its force and recently graduated 34 officers. Oakland, California_sentence_362

The Oakland Police Department is committed to improved public safety by increasing police presence during peak crime hours, improving intelligence gathering, and moving more aggressively to arrest violent crime suspects. Oakland, California_sentence_363

Among Oakland's 35 police patrol beats, violent crime remains a serious problem in specific East and West Oakland neighborhoods. Oakland, California_sentence_364

In 2008, homicides were concentrated: 72% occurred in three City Council districts, District 3 in West Oakland and Districts 6 and 7 in East Oakland, although these districts have 44% of Oakland's residents. Oakland, California_sentence_365

In 2012, Oakland implemented Operation Ceasefire, a gang violence reduction plan used in other cities, based in part on the research and strategies of author David M. Kennedy. Oakland, California_sentence_366

Education Oakland, California_section_33

Primary and secondary education Oakland, California_section_34

The Oakland Unified School District (OUSD), which covers the city except for Sheffield Village, operates most of Oakland's public schools. Oakland, California_sentence_367

Due to financial troubles and administrative failures, it was in receivership by the state of California from 2002 to 2008. Oakland, California_sentence_368

As of 2015, the Oakland Unified School District includes 86 division-run schools and 32 charter schools; the district also manages several adult education programs. Oakland, California_sentence_369

As of 2015 there are 48,181 K–12 students; among division-run schools, there are 4,600 plus employees. Oakland, California_sentence_370

OUSD test scores historically lag behind the rest of California, in particular due to a high proportion of English-language learners. Oakland, California_sentence_371

Some individual schools have much better performance than the citywide average. Oakland, California_sentence_372

As of 2013, for example, over half the students at Hillcrest Elementary School in the Montclair upper hills neighborhood performed at the "advanced" level in the English portion of the test, and students at Lincoln Elementary School in the Chinatown neighborhood performed at the "advanced" level in the math portion. Oakland, California_sentence_373

Oakland's three largest public high schools are Oakland High School, Oakland Technical High School, and Skyline High School. Oakland, California_sentence_374

Other Oakland public high schools include Castlemont High School, Fremont High School, and McClymonds High School, briefly known as Castlemont Community of Small Schools, Fremont Federation of High Schools, and McClymonds Educational Complex, respectively. Oakland, California_sentence_375

Among charter schools in the district, North Oakland Community Charter School (NOCCS), an elementary and middle school, is one of the few public progressive schools in the country. Oakland, California_sentence_376

Other charter schools include the Oakland Military Institute, Oakland School for the Arts, Bay Area Technology School, East Bay Innovation Academy, and Oakland Charter Academy. Oakland, California_sentence_377

There are several religious and secular private high schools, including The College Preparatory School, Head-Royce School, Bishop O'Dowd High School, Holy Names High School, St. Elizabeth High School and Oakland Hebrew Day School. Oakland, California_sentence_378

Catholic schools in Oakland are operated by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oakland also include eight K–8 schools (plus one in Piedmont on the Oakland city border). Oakland, California_sentence_379

Northern Light School is a private nonprofit elementary and middle school. Oakland, California_sentence_380

Bentley School is an Independent Co-educational K–12, college preparatory school on two campuses in Oakland and Lafayette, California. Oakland, California_sentence_381

Funding Oakland, California_section_35

In 2017, the Oakland Unified School District has received funding from Pandora in partnership with Little Kids Rock, towards expanding music education programs within the schools. Oakland, California_sentence_382

The result from these donations has given teachers from 20 additional Oakland- area schools the ability to participate in an eight-hour professional development workshop, and receive music education instruction from Little Kids Rock. Oakland, California_sentence_383

The donation includes providing new instruments, that will benefit over 2000 Oakland students. Oakland, California_sentence_384

Colleges and universities Oakland, California_section_36

Accredited colleges and universities include: Oakland, California_sentence_385

Oakland, California_unordered_list_3

  • Oakland is also the home of the headquarters of the University of California system, the University of California Office of the President.Oakland, California_item_3_28

In 2001, the SFSU Oakland Multimedia Center was opened, allowing San Francisco State University to conduct classes near downtown Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_386

The Oakland Higher Education Consortium and the City of Oakland's Community and Economic Development Agency (CEDA) opened the Oakland Higher Education Center downtown in 2002 to provide "access to multiple higher education service providers within a shared urban facility." Oakland, California_sentence_387

Member schools include primary user California State University, East Bay as well as Lincoln University, New College of California, Saint Mary's College of California, SFSU Multimedia Studies Program, UC Berkeley Extension, University of Phoenix and Peralta Community College District. Oakland, California_sentence_388

Media Oakland, California_section_37

Main article: List of television stations in the San Francisco Bay Area Oakland, California_sentence_389

Oakland is served by major television stations broadcasting primarily out of San Francisco and San Jose. Oakland, California_sentence_390

The region's Fox O&O, KTVU 2, is based in (and licensed to) Oakland at Jack London Square along with co-owned independent station KICU-TV 36 (licensed to San Jose). Oakland, California_sentence_391

In addition, the city is served by various AM and FM radio stations as well; AM stations KKSF 910, KMKY 1310 and KNEW 960 are licensed to Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_392

Oakland was served by the Oakland Tribune, which published its first newspaper on February 21, 1874. Oakland, California_sentence_393

The Tribune Tower, which features a large clock, is an Oakland landmark. Oakland, California_sentence_394

At key times throughout the day (8:00 am, noon and 5:00 pm), the clock tower carillon plays a variety of classic melodies, which change daily. Oakland, California_sentence_395

In 2007, the Oakland Tribune moved its offices from the tower to an East Oakland location, before folding in 2011. Oakland, California_sentence_396

The East Bay Express, a locally owned free weekly paper, is based in Jack London Square and distributed throughout the East Bay. Oakland, California_sentence_397

Oaklandwiki is a thriving (mostly) English-language LocalWiki. Oakland, California_sentence_398

Infrastructure Oakland, California_section_38

Transportation Oakland, California_section_39

Air and rail Oakland, California_section_40

Oakland residents have access to the three major airports of the San Francisco Bay Area: Oakland International Airport, San Francisco International Airport, and San Jose International Airport. Oakland, California_sentence_399

Oakland International Airport, within Oakland's city limits, is 4 mi (6.4 km) south of downtown Oakland and serves domestic and international destinations. Oakland, California_sentence_400

AC Transit provides 24-hour service to the airport, and BART's Coliseum–Oakland International Airport automated guideway transit line provides frequent service between the airport and Oakland Coliseum station. Oakland, California_sentence_401

The city has regional and long-distance passenger train service provided by Amtrak, with stations near Jack London Square and the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum. Oakland, California_sentence_402

Amtrak's California Zephyr has its western terminus at the nearby Emeryville station. Oakland, California_sentence_403

Historically, the city was served by several train companies, which terminated in different terminals. Oakland, California_sentence_404

Santa Fe trains terminated at its Oakland depot, actually located within the city limits of Emeryville at 40th and San Pablo. Oakland, California_sentence_405

Southern Pacific trains ended at the 16th Street Station. Oakland, California_sentence_406

Western Pacific trains ended at the 3rd and Washington station. Oakland, California_sentence_407

However, a common feature was that the different railroads continued one more stop to a station at Oakland Pier. Oakland, California_sentence_408

From this latter point passengers would ride ferries to San Francisco. Oakland, California_sentence_409

Mass transit and bicycling Oakland, California_section_41

The most recent census data compiled in 2007 before gasoline price spikes in 2008, show 24.3 percent of Oaklanders used public transportation, walked or used "other means" to commute to work, not including telecommuting, with 17 percent of Oakland households being "car free" and/or statistically categorized as having "no vehicles available." Oakland, California_sentence_410

Bus transit service in Oakland and the inner East Bay is provided by the Alameda and Contra Costa Transit District, AC Transit. Oakland, California_sentence_411

The district originated in 1958 after the conspiratorial dissolution of the Key System of streetcars. Oakland, California_sentence_412

Many AC Transit lines follow old routes of the Key System. Oakland, California_sentence_413

Intercity bus companies that serve Oakland include Greyhound, BoltBus, Megabus, USAsia, and Hoang Transportation. Oakland, California_sentence_414

The metropolitan area is served by Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) from eight stations in Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_415

The system has headquarters in Oakland, with major transfer hubs at MacArthur and 19th Street stations. Oakland, California_sentence_416

BART's headquarters was in a building above the Lake Merritt BART station until 2006, when it relocated to the Kaiser Center due to seismic safety concerns. Oakland, California_sentence_417

The Alameda / Oakland Ferry operates ferry service from Jack London Square to Alameda, Oracle Park, Pier 41, the San Francisco Ferry Building, and the South San Francisco Ferry Terminal. Oakland, California_sentence_418

Oakland licenses taxi cabs, and has zoned cab stands in its downtown, including a bicycle pedi-cab service. Oakland, California_sentence_419

The Oakland City Council adopted a Bicycle Master Plan in 1999 as a part of the Land Use and Transportation (LUTE) element of Oakland's 1998 General Plan. Oakland, California_sentence_420

The creation of the plan was to promote alternatives to the private automobile. Oakland, California_sentence_421

The Oakland City Council reaffirmed the bike plan in 2005, revised it in 2007, and reaffirmed it in 2012. Oakland, California_sentence_422

From 1999 to 2007, the city installed 900 bike racks throughout Oakland, accommodating over 2,000 bicycles. Oakland, California_sentence_423

By the end of 2017, over 160 bikeway miles and 9,900 bike parking spaces were constructed. Oakland, California_sentence_424

Facilities for parking thousands of bicycles have been installed downtown and in other commercial districts throughout Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_425

According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2011 American Community Survey, Oakland came in 7th place out of the 100 largest cities in the nation by percentage of people that chose to commute by bike in 2011. Oakland, California_sentence_426

Motorized scooters Oakland, California_section_42

In July 2019, the City of Oakland Department of Transportation announced that it had issued official permits for the deployment of shared e-scooters to four companies: Bird, Clevr, Lime, and Lyft. Oakland, California_sentence_427

Oakland requires these operators to educate users on the correct and safe use of scooters, to distribute the scooters equitably throughout the city, to ensure accessibility, and to provide insurance and indemnification. Oakland, California_sentence_428

Bridges, freeways, and tunnels Oakland, California_section_43

Oakland is served by several major highways: Eastbound Bay Bridge traffic entering Oakland then splits into three freeways at the MacArthur Maze freeway interchange: Interstate 580 (MacArthur Freeway) heads southeast toward Hayward and eventually to the California Central Valley; Interstate 880 (Nimitz Freeway) runs south to San Jose; and the Eastshore Freeway (Interstate 80/I-580) runs north, providing connections to Sacramento and San Rafael, respectively. Oakland, California_sentence_429

Interstate 980 (Williams Freeway) begins its eastbound journey at I-880 in Downtown Oakland before turning into State Route 24 (Grove Shafter Freeway) at I-580. Oakland, California_sentence_430

State Route 13 begins as the Warren Freeway at I-580, and runs through a scenic valley in the Montclair District before entering Berkeley. Oakland, California_sentence_431

A stub of a planned freeway was constructed at the High Street exit from the Nimitz Freeway, but that freeway extension plan was abandoned. Oakland, California_sentence_432

At the time of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, the Cypress Street Viaduct double-deck segment of the Nimitz Freeway collapsed, killing 42 people. Oakland, California_sentence_433

The old freeway segment had passed through the middle of West Oakland, forming a barrier between West Oakland neighborhoods. Oakland, California_sentence_434

Following the earthquake, this section was rerouted around the perimeter of West Oakland and rebuilt in 1997–2001. Oakland, California_sentence_435

The east span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge also suffered damage from the quake when a 50-foot (15-m) section of the upper deck collapsed onto the lower deck; the damaged section was repaired within a month of the earthquake. Oakland, California_sentence_436

As a result of Loma Prieta, a significant seismic retrofit was performed on the western span of the Bay Bridge. Oakland, California_sentence_437

The eastern span has now been replaced with a dramatic single-tower self-anchoring suspension span. Oakland, California_sentence_438

Two underwater tunnels, the Webster and Posey Tubes, connect the main island of Alameda to downtown Oakland, coming above ground in Chinatown. Oakland, California_sentence_439

In addition, the Park Street, Fruitvale, and High Street bridges connect Alameda to East Oakland over the Oakland Estuary. Oakland, California_sentence_440

In the hills, the Leimert Bridge crosses Dimond Canyon, connecting the Oakmore neighborhood to Park Boulevard. Oakland, California_sentence_441

The Caldecott Tunnel carries Highway 24 through the Berkeley Hills, connecting central Contra Costa County to Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_442

The Caldecott has four bores. Oakland, California_sentence_443

Freight rail Oakland, California_section_44

Freight service, which consists primarily of moving shipping containers to and from the Port of Oakland, is provided today by Union Pacific Railroad (UP), and to a lesser extent by BNSF Railway (which now shares the tracks of the UP between Richmond and Oakland). Oakland, California_sentence_444

Historically, Oakland was served by several railroads. Oakland, California_sentence_445

Besides the transcontinental line of the Southern Pacific, there was also the Santa Fe (whose Oakland terminal was actually in Emeryville), the Western Pacific Railroad (who built a pier adjacent to the SP's), and the Sacramento Northern Railroad (eventually absorbed by the Western Pacific, which in turn was absorbed by UP in 1983). Oakland, California_sentence_446

Shipping Oakland, California_section_45

As one of the three major ports on the West Coast of the United States, the Port of Oakland is the largest seaport on San Francisco Bay and the fifth busiest container port in the United States. Oakland, California_sentence_447

It was one of the earliest seaports to switch to containerization and to intermodal container transfer, thereby displacing the Port of San Francisco, which never modernized its waterfront. Oakland, California_sentence_448

One of the earlier limitations to growth was the inability to transfer containers to rail lines, all cranes historically operating between ocean vessels and trucks. Oakland, California_sentence_449

In the 1980s, the Port of Oakland began the evaluation of development of an intermodal container transfer capability, i.e., facilities that now allow trans-loading of containers from vessels to either trucks or rail modes. Oakland, California_sentence_450

Utilities Oakland, California_section_46

Water and sewage treatment are provided by East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). Oakland, California_sentence_451

Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG & E) provides natural gas and electricity service. Oakland, California_sentence_452

Municipal garbage collection is franchised to Waste Management, Inc. Oakland, California_sentence_453

Telecommunications and subscriber television services are provided by multiple private corporations and other service providers in accordance with the competitive objectives of the Telecommunications Act of 1996. Oakland, California_sentence_454

Oakland tops the list of the 50 largest US cities using electricity from renewable sources. Oakland, California_sentence_455

Healthcare Oakland, California_section_47

Originating in Oakland, Kaiser Permanente is an HMO started in 1942, during World War II, by industrialist Henry J. Kaiser to provide medical care for Kaiser Shipyards workers. Oakland, California_sentence_456

It is the largest managed care organization in the United States and the largest non-governmental health care provider in the world. Oakland, California_sentence_457

It is headquartered at One Kaiser Plaza in Downtown Oakland and maintains a large medical center in the Piedmont Avenue neighborhood. Oakland, California_sentence_458

Alta Bates Summit Medical Center, an East Bay hospital system, maintains its Summit Campus in the neighborhood known as "Pill Hill" north of downtown. Oakland, California_sentence_459

Until 2000, it was the Summit Medical Center before merging with Berkeley-based Alta Bates. Oakland, California_sentence_460

All campuses now operate under the Sutter Health network. Oakland, California_sentence_461

Alameda County Medical Center is operated by the county and provides medical services to county residents, including the medically indigent who do not have health insurance. Oakland, California_sentence_462

The main campus, Highland Hospital in East Oakland, is the trauma center for the northern area of the East Bay. Oakland, California_sentence_463

Children's Hospital Oakland is the primary medical center specializing in pediatrics in the East Bay. Oakland, California_sentence_464

It is a designated Level I pediatric trauma center and the only independent children's hospital in Northern California. Oakland, California_sentence_465

There are also several Community health centers in Oakland. Oakland, California_sentence_466

Some examples include Lifelong Medical Care, Asian Health Services, and Roots Community Health Center. Oakland, California_sentence_467

Notable people Oakland, California_section_48

For a more comprehensive list, see List of people from Oakland, California. Oakland, California_sentence_468

International relations Oakland, California_section_49

Sister cities Oakland, California_section_50

Oakland has 13 sister cities: Oakland, California_sentence_469

Oakland, California_table_general_4

CityOakland, California_header_cell_4_0_0 DivisionOakland, California_header_cell_4_0_1 CountryOakland, California_header_cell_4_0_2 Year of PartnershipOakland, California_header_cell_4_0_3
FukuokaOakland, California_cell_4_1_0 Fukuoka PrefectureOakland, California_cell_4_1_1 JapanOakland, California_cell_4_1_2 1962Oakland, California_cell_4_1_3
Sekondi-TakoradiOakland, California_cell_4_2_0 WesternOakland, California_cell_4_2_1 GhanaOakland, California_cell_4_2_2 1975Oakland, California_cell_4_2_3
NakhodkaOakland, California_cell_4_3_0 Primorsky KraiOakland, California_cell_4_3_1 RussiaOakland, California_cell_4_3_2 1975Oakland, California_cell_4_3_3
DalianOakland, California_cell_4_4_0 LiaoningOakland, California_cell_4_4_1 ChinaOakland, California_cell_4_4_2 1982Oakland, California_cell_4_4_3
FunchalOakland, California_cell_4_5_0 MadeiraOakland, California_cell_4_5_1 PortugalOakland, California_cell_4_5_2 1999Oakland, California_cell_4_5_3
Santiago de CubaOakland, California_cell_4_6_0 Santiago de CubaOakland, California_cell_4_6_1 CubaOakland, California_cell_4_6_2 2000Oakland, California_cell_4_6_3
Da NangOakland, California_cell_4_7_0 N/AOakland, California_cell_4_7_1 VietnamOakland, California_cell_4_7_2 2005Oakland, California_cell_4_7_3
Benin CityOakland, California_cell_4_8_0 EdoOakland, California_cell_4_8_1 NigeriaOakland, California_cell_4_8_2 2010Oakland, California_cell_4_8_3
Port-de-PaixOakland, California_cell_4_9_0 Nord-OuestOakland, California_cell_4_9_1 HaitiOakland, California_cell_4_9_2 2011Oakland, California_cell_4_9_3
OakleighOakland, California_cell_4_10_0 City of MonashOakland, California_cell_4_10_1 AustraliaOakland, California_cell_4_10_2 Oakland, California_cell_4_10_3
FoshanOakland, California_cell_4_11_0 GuangdongOakland, California_cell_4_11_1 ChinaOakland, California_cell_4_11_2 Oakland, California_cell_4_11_3
BauchiOakland, California_cell_4_12_0 BauchiOakland, California_cell_4_12_1 NigeriaOakland, California_cell_4_12_2 Oakland, California_cell_4_12_3
Ocho RiosOakland, California_cell_4_13_0 Saint AnnOakland, California_cell_4_13_1 JamaicaOakland, California_cell_4_13_2 Oakland, California_cell_4_13_3

Friendship cities Oakland, California_section_51

Oakland has 18 friendship cities. Oakland, California_sentence_470

Oakland, California_sentence_471

Oakland, California_unordered_list_4

See also Oakland, California_section_52

Oakland, California_unordered_list_5

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oakland, California.