Ocetá Páramo

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Ocetá Páramo_table_infobox_0

Ocetá PáramoOcetá Páramo_header_cell_0_0_0
EcologyOcetá Páramo_header_cell_0_1_0
RealmOcetá Páramo_header_cell_0_2_0 NeotropicOcetá Páramo_cell_0_2_1
BiomeOcetá Páramo_header_cell_0_3_0 PáramoOcetá Páramo_cell_0_3_1
BordersOcetá Páramo_header_cell_0_4_0 Pisba National Natural Park and Siscuinsí LakeOcetá Páramo_cell_0_4_1
AnimalsOcetá Páramo_header_cell_0_5_0 Andean condor, black agouti, eastern cottontail, mountain paca, spectacled bear, white-tailed deerOcetá Páramo_cell_0_5_1
GeographyOcetá Páramo_header_cell_0_6_0
AreaOcetá Páramo_header_cell_0_7_0 57.711 km (22.282 sq mi)Ocetá Páramo_cell_0_7_1
CountryOcetá Páramo_header_cell_0_8_0 ColombiaOcetá Páramo_cell_0_8_1
StateOcetá Páramo_header_cell_0_9_0 Monguí, Mongua, Tópaga

Sugamuxi Province, BoyacáOcetá Páramo_cell_0_9_1

ElevationOcetá Páramo_header_cell_0_10_0 2,950 metres (9,680 ft) to 3,950 metres (12,960 ft)Ocetá Páramo_cell_0_10_1
CoordinatesOcetá Páramo_header_cell_0_11_0 Ocetá Páramo_cell_0_11_1
GeologyOcetá Páramo_header_cell_0_12_0 Paleocene: Socha Formation

Cretaceous: Guaduas, Guadalupe & Chipaque Formations Basin: El Cocuy sub-basin Orogen: Eastern Ranges Mountain range: AndesOcetá Páramo_cell_0_12_1

RiversOcetá Páramo_header_cell_0_13_0 Calicanto, Morro & Tejar RiversOcetá Páramo_cell_0_13_1
Climate typeOcetá Páramo_header_cell_0_14_0 CfOcetá Páramo_cell_0_14_1

The Ocetá Páramo (Spanish: Páramo de Ocetá) is a páramo at altitudes between 2,950 metres (9,680 ft) and 3,950 metres (12,960 ft) in the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_0

It covers parts of the municipalities Monguí, Mongua and Tópaga, belonging to the Sugamuxi Province, Boyacá. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_1

The Ocetá Páramo is known for its collection of frailejones and other flora, as well as Andean fauna. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_2

Hiking tours from Monguí or Mongua to the páramo take a full day. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_3

The Páramo de Ocetá in the times before the Spanish conquest of the Muisca was inhabited by the Muisca, loyal to the iraca of Suamox, who considered the region sacred. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_4

Myths and legends exist from pre-Columbian and Spanish colonial times and in the lower part of the páramo the Muisca women gave birth in little man-made pools (Tortolitas). Ocetá Páramo_sentence_5

The Ocetá Páramo is considered the most beautiful páramo in the world and one of the treasures of Colombia. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_6

Description Ocetá Páramo_section_0

The Ocetá Páramo is considered the most beautiful páramo in the world and one of the national treasures of Colombia. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_7

It is located at 230 kilometres (140 mi) from the Colombian capital Bogotá and 93 kilometres (58 mi) from the departmental capital Tunja. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_8

Colombia is the country with the most páramos in the world; more than 60% of the Andean ecosystem is found within Colombian territories. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_9

Boyacá is the department where 18.3% of the national total area is located. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_10

Geography and climate Ocetá Páramo_section_1

The Ocetá Páramo is situated in the Eastern Ranges of the Colombian Andes at altitudes between 2,950 metres (9,680 ft) and 3,950 metres (12,960 ft). Ocetá Páramo_sentence_11

The páramo with an area of 5,771.1 hectares (14,261 acres) lies east of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, southwest of the Pisba National Natural Park and north of Siscuinsí Lake. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_12

Farther to the northeast are the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy and to the southwest Lake Tota. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_13

The climate varies between 0 °C (32 °F) in winter nights and 17 °C (63 °F) on sunny days. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_14

Foggy blankets are common in the area. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_15

Páramos are "sponges"; sources of water for lower lying terrains and the Ocetá Páramo is no exception. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_16

In the upper part of the páramo, marshes and small lakes exist. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_17

The biggest waterbody is the Laguna Negra and the Calicanto, Tejar and Morro Rivers as well as numerous creeks (quebradas) have their origin on the Páramo de Ocetá. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_18

The Penagos waterfall feeds the Laguna Negra. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_19

Ocetá Páramo_unordered_list_0

  • Ocetá Páramo_item_0_0
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_0_1
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_0_2
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_0_3
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_0_4
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_0_5

Geology Ocetá Páramo_section_2

The Ocetá Páramo is part of the El Cocuy sub-basin, an inverted basin in the Eastern Ranges. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_20

During the Hauterivian, the El Cocuy and Tablazo sub-basins formed a continuous basin due to the flooding of the Santander-Floresta paleohigh. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_21

The main uplift in the Eastern Ranges occurred between the late Oligocene and Pleistocene, with increased tectonic uplift in the Plio-Pleistocene. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_22

The Neogene compression led to the formation of alluvial fans in the intermontane valleys of the Eastern Cordillera. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_23

Pollen analysis has shown the transition from lowland tropical forests to colder mountainous vegetation over the last 5 million years. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_24

The youngest uplifted eastern chain of the Colombian Andes formed the provenance area for the Magdalena River. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_25

In the vicinity of the area of Ocetá, to the southwest in Iza and Paipa for the Eastern Cordillera unique volcanic and magmatic activity is noted from 4.7 to 2.1 Ma. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_26

The stratigraphical units encountered on the Ocetá Páramo are Paleocene sandstones and shales of the Socha Formation in the Peña de Ortí, and the Late Cretaceous Guadalupe sandstone and shale formations, Guaduas Formation, and the organic shales of the Chipaque Formation. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_27

The Guaduas Formation contains coal seams that are mined in the area. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_28

The Cretaceous-Paleocene Guaduas Formation is the most important source for the rich coal deposits in the Andean interior of Colombia. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_29

During the Miocene, establishing the current ecosystem in the Pliocene, the vegetation became that of a páramo. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_30

Ocetá Páramo_unordered_list_1

  • Ocetá Páramo_item_1_6
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_1_7
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_1_8
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_1_9
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_1_10
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_1_11

Flora Ocetá Páramo_section_3

The typical flora of a páramo are frailejones, that are plants of the genus Espeletia. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_31

The lower altitude parts of the páramo are characterised by Espeletia barclayana, Espeletia jaramilloi, Espeletia congestiflora and Espeletia argentea, while Espeletia grandiflora is growing in a wider altitude distribution. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_32

Chusquea tessellata is characteristic of the Eastern Ranges. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_33

On the Ocetá Páramo, formerly written as Oseta, various species have been described by Thomas van der Hammen; Bryum argenteum, Breutelia polygastrica, Calamagrostis effusa, Ceratodon stenocarpus, Didymodon laevigatus, Leptodontium flexifolium and Sphagnum sancto-josephense. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_34

Other flora occurring on the páramo are Pentacalia vernicosa, Ageratina tinifolia, Bidens andicola, Lupinus luisanae var. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_35 ocetensis, Viola sp., Arnica sp. and various types of mosses and lychen. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_36

Ocetá Páramo_unordered_list_2

  • Ocetá Páramo_item_2_12
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_2_13
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_2_14
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_2_15
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_2_16
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_2_17

Fauna Ocetá Páramo_section_4

Among the fauna that can be observed on the páramo are Andean condor, black agouti, eastern cottontail, frogs, mountain paca, spectacled bear, white-tailed deer. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_37

The spectacled bear is very rare and possibly extinct. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_38

The white tailed deer, the main ingredient of the diet of the Muisca and pre-Muisca, has been extensively hunted and captured over time. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_39

Ocetá Páramo_unordered_list_3

  • Ocetá Páramo_item_3_18
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_3_19
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_3_20
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_3_21
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_3_22
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_3_23

History Ocetá Páramo_section_5

The Páramo de Ocetá was a sacred place for the Muisca, who inhabited the Altiplano Cundiboyacense and surrounding areas before the Spanish conquest. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_40

The region of Monguí was populated by the Sanoa tribe. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_41

Sights Ocetá Páramo_section_6

Along the route from Monguí to the highest point of the Ocetá Páramo, a series of sights are present. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_42

From most of the route, to the (south)west, a view of the Duitama-Sogamoso Valley, especially the settlements of Tibasosa, Nobsa and Duitama, is visible. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_43

From the Mirador de Cóndores and the Cerro de Águilas on clear days it is possible to see the snowy peaks of the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy and even the Llanos Orientales. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_44

Tortolitas Ocetá Páramo_section_7

The Tortolitas (English: "Sweethearts") are oval-shaped depressions that were made by the Muisca. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_45

They served as "baths" where the Muisca women bore their babies. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_46

Close to the Tortolitas, Muisca petroglyphs have been found. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_47

Ocetá Páramo_unordered_list_4

  • Ocetá Páramo_item_4_24
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_4_25
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_4_26
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_4_27
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_4_28
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_4_29

Peña de Otí Ocetá Páramo_section_8

The Peña de Otí (English: "Rock of Otí") is an outcrop of alternating shales and sandstones of the Socha Formation. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_48

It is observed to the southwest from the main trail leading to the Mirador de los Cóndores on the páramo. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_49

The rocks of the Peña de Otí were used to construct the churches and convent in Monguí. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_50

Legends about the Peña include tales of witches dancing with the devil on October 31, the origin of the scratches on the rock face from the devil who was riding a donkey on the hilltop and fell down, when the hoofs created the scratches and that the hill opened one day revealing the Calicanto Bridge and church made of gold. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_51

The end of the world would come when the hill closed again. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_52

Caja del Rey Ocetá Páramo_section_9

The Caja del Rey (English: "The King's Box") is a monolith of about 8 metres (26 ft) high, 8 metres (26 ft) wide and 15 metres (49 ft) long. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_53

Legend says it is a box of rock with a lid on top where the cacique Sanoha hid a fifteen-year-old girl inside, who during a night in April exited naked. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_54

The monolith contains an upper part where a natural fractured zone has been excavated more by humans. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_55

The rock is also a viewpoint for the western area. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_56

Ciudad de Piedra Ocetá Páramo_section_10

Ciudad de Piedra or Ciudad Perdida (English: "The Stone or Lost City"), not to be confused with its famous counterpart in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, is a series of rock formations of 15 metres (49 ft) high, 20 metres (66 ft) wide and 200 metres (660 ft) long. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_57

In the Ciudad de Piedra, a tabular stone, thought to have served for human sacrifices, called Mesa de los Sacrificios is present. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_58

El Pulpito del Diablo (English: "The Devil's Pulpit") is a raised mesa-type hill to the south of the main hiking trail on the Páramo de Ocetá. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_59

Ocetá Páramo_unordered_list_5

  • Ocetá Páramo_item_5_30
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_5_31
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_5_32
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_5_33
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_5_34
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_5_35

Playa de los Frailejones Ocetá Páramo_section_11

The Playa or Valle de Frailejones or Jardines de Ocetá (English: "Frailejon Beach or Valley" or "Ocetá Gardens") is a relatively flat portion on the páramo where a large quantity of frailejones are growing. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_60

The frailejones grow 1 centimetre (0.39 in) a year. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_61

Cerro de Águilas Ocetá Páramo_section_12

The Cerro de Águilas (English: "Eagles Hill") is a hill on the páramo consisting of alternating shales and sandstone formations of the Guadalupe Group. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_62

Mirador de Cóndores Ocetá Páramo_section_13

The Mirador de Cóndores (English: "Condor Viewpoint") is the highest point of the páramo and offers a view on the Laguna Negra. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_63

Andean condors can be sighted from this viewpoint. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_64

Laguna Negra Ocetá Páramo_section_14

Laguna Negra (English: "Black Lake") is a permanent lake on the páramo that can be viewed from the Cerro de Águilas or the Mirador de Cóndores. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_65

The lake drains towards Mongua and it is possible to reach from that village. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_66

Legend tells that a young boy is living in the lake, whose singing can be heard close to the Penagos waterfall. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_67

Tourism Ocetá Páramo_section_15

The Ocetá Páramo is mostly accessed from Monguí along the Camino de la Otra Vida; a full-day hike, ascending and back descending 1,000 metres (3,300 ft), that takes between six and eleven hours. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_68

A steep and pebbly access to the Ocetá Páramo is indicated with a gate called Portal de la Gloria. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_69

It is possible to access the páramo by horse and do wild camping on the páramo. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_70

The use of a trained guide is recommended, as the journey contains many paths and the sudden mist can be cold and dangerous due to the loss of orientation. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_71

The best months to visit the páramo are November and December. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_72

An alternative route towards the Ocetá Páramo starts in Mongua and reaches the Laguna Negra first. Ocetá Páramo_sentence_73

Ocetá Páramo_unordered_list_6

  • Ocetá Páramo_item_6_36
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_6_37
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_6_38
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_6_39
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_6_40
  • Ocetá Páramo_item_6_41

Named after Ocetá Ocetá Páramo_section_16

Ocetá Páramo_unordered_list_7

  • A hotel in the town of MonguíOcetá Páramo_item_7_42
  • A hotel in Tunja, the capital of BoyacáOcetá Páramo_item_7_43

See also Ocetá Páramo_section_17

Ocetá Páramo_unordered_list_8

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ocetá Páramo.