This article is about the U.S. state of Ohio.
For other uses, see Ohio (disambiguation).
|Admitted to the Union||March 1, 1803 (17th,
declared retroactively on August 7, 1953)
|Largest metro||Greater Cincinnati
Greater Columbus (see footnotes)
|Governor||Mike DeWine (R)|
|Lieutenant Governor||Jon A. Husted (R)|
|Lower house||House of Representatives|
|Judiciary||Supreme Court of Ohio|
|U.S. senators||Sherrod Brown (D)
Rob Portman (R)
|U.S. House delegation||12 Republicans
4 Democrats (list)
|Total||44,825 sq mi (116,096 km)|
|Land||40,948 sq mi (106,156 km)|
|Water||3,877 sq mi (10,040 km) 8.7%|
|Length||220 mi (355 km)|
|Width||220 mi (355 km)|
|Elevation||850 ft (260 m)|
|Highest elevation (Campbell Hill)||1,549 ft (472 m)|
|Lowest elevation (Ohio River at Indiana border)||455 ft (139 m)|
|Density||282/sq mi (109/km)|
|Median household income||$54,021|
|Demonym(s)||Ohioan; Buckeye (colloq.)|
|Official language||De jure: None
De facto: English
|Spoken language||English 93.3%
Spanish 2.2% Other 4.5%
|Time zone||UTC-05:00 (Eastern)|
|Summer (DST)||UTC-04:00 (EDT)|
|ISO 3166 code||US-OH|
|Traditional abbreviation||O., Oh.|
|Latitude||38°24′ N to 41°59′ N|
|Longitude||80°31′ W to 84°49′ W|
Ohio is historically known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes".
Ohio rose from the land west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transitioning to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the governor; the legislative branch, consisting of the bicameral Ohio General Assembly; and the judicial branch, led by the state Supreme Court.
Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives.
Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP (2015).
It is the third largest US state for manufacturing and is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan.
|Ohio state symbols|
|Flower||Red carnation (1904)|
|Mammal||White-tailed deer (1987)|
|Reptile||Black racer snake (1995)|
|Beverage||Tomato juice (1965)|
|Fossil||Isotelus maximus, a trilobite (1985)|
|Gemstone||Ohio flint (1965)|
|Slogan||So Much to Discover|
|Other||Wild flower: Great white trillium (1986)
|State route marker|
Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion.
Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways.
Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity.
To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles (502 km) of coastline, which allows for numerous cargo ports.
Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River (with the border being at the 1792 low-water mark on the north side of the river), and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie.
Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia.
In 1980, the U.S. held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Supreme CourtVirginia (which at the time included what is now Kentucky and West Virginia), the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky (and, by implication, West Virginia) is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792.
Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has also changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River.
This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau.
Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests.
The rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit.
Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, and distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region".
This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia.
While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there (1.476 million people.)
The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. , and the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Lawrence RiverGulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and then the Mississippi.
The worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913.
As a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles (52 km), was the largest artificial lake in the world.
Ohio's canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states.
Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state.
See also: Climate change in Ohio
The climate of Ohio is a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa/Dfb) throughout most of the state, except in the extreme southern counties of Ohio's Bluegrass region section, which are located on the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate (Cfa) and Upland South region of the United States.
Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold.
Precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round.
Although predominantly not in a subtropical climate, some warmer-climate flora and fauna do reach well into Ohio.
For instance, some trees with more southern ranges, such as the blackjack oak, Quercus marilandica, are found at their northernmost in Ohio just north of the Ohio River.
Also evidencing this climatic transition from a subtropical to continental climate, several plants such as the Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Albizia julibrissin (mimosa), Crape Myrtle, and even the occasional Needle Palm are hardy landscape materials regularly used as street, yard, and garden plantings in the Bluegrass region of Ohio; but these same plants will simply not thrive in much of the rest of the state.
This interesting change may be observed while traveling through Ohio on Interstate 75 from Cincinnati to Toledo; the observant traveler of this diverse state may even catch a glimpse of Cincinnati's common wall lizard, one of the few examples of permanent "subtropical" fauna in Ohio.
|Location||Region||July (°F)||July (°C)||January (°F)||January (°C)|
Although few have registered as noticeable to the average resident, more than 200 earthquakes with a magnitude of 2.0 or higher have occurred in Ohio since 1776.
The most substantial known earthquake in Ohio history was the Anna (Shelby County) earthquake, which occurred on March 9, 1937.
It was centered in western Ohio, and had a magnitude of 5.4, and was of intensity VIII.
Other significant earthquakes in Ohio include: one of magnitude 4.8 near Lima on September 19, 1884; one of magnitude 4.2 near Portsmouth on May 17, 1901; and one of 5.0 in LeRoy Township in Lake County on January 31, 1986, which continued to trigger 13 aftershocks of magnitude 0.5 to 2.4 for two months.
Notable Ohio earthquakes in the 21st century include one occurring on December 31, 2011, approximately 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) northwest of Youngstown, and one occurring on June 10, 2019, approximately 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) north-northwest of Eastlake under Lake Erie; both registered a 4.0 magnitude.
See also: List of cities in Ohio
However, other Ohio cities function as economic and cultural centers of metropolitan areas.
Akron, Canton, Cleveland, Mansfield, and Youngstown are in the Northeast, known for major industrial companies Goodyear Tire and Rubber and Timken, top ranked colleges Case Western Reserve University and Kent State University, the Cleveland Clinic, and cultural attractions including the Cleveland Museum of Art, Big Five group Cleveland Orchestra, Playhouse Square, the Pro Football Hall of Fame, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
It is home of Miami University and the University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati Union Terminal, Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, and various Fortune 500 companies including Procter & Gamble, Kroger, Macy's, Inc., and Fifth Third Bank.
Metropolitan and micropolitan areas
|Ohio Rank||U.S. Rank||Metropolitan statistical area||2018 Estimate||2010 Census||Change||Counties|
|1||28||Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area||2,190,209||2,179,082||+0.51%||Brown, Butler, Clermont, Clinton, Hamilton, Warren|
|2||32||Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area||2,106,541||2,078,725||+1.34%||Delaware, Fairfield, Franklin, Hocking, Licking, Madison, Morrow, Perry, Pickaway, Union|
|3||33||Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area||2,057,009||2,058,844||−0.09%||Cuyahoga, Geauga, Lake, Lorain, Medina|
|4||73||Dayton, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area||806,548||799,232||+0.92%||Greene, Miami, Montgomery|
|5||82||Akron, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area||704,845||703,200||+0.23%||Portage, Summit|
The Cincinnati metropolitan area extends into Kentucky and Indiana, the Steubenville metropolitan area extends into West Virginia, the Toledo metropolitan area extends into Michigan, and the Youngstown metropolitan area extends into Pennsylvania.
Other metropolitan areas that contain cities in Ohio include:
- Huntington–Ashland metropolitan area
- Lima metropolitan area, Ohio
- Mansfield Metropolitan Statistical Area
- Toledo metropolitan area
- Weirton–Steubenville metropolitan area
- Wheeling, West Virginia metropolitan area
Ohio cities that function as centers of United States micropolitan areas include:
Archeological evidence of spear points of both the Folsom and Clovis types indicate that the Ohio Valley was inhabited by nomadic people as early as 13,000 BC.
These early nomads disappeared from Ohio by 1,000 BC.
Between 1,000 and 800 BC, the sedentary Adena culture emerged.
The Adena were able to establish "semi-permanent" villages because they domesticated plants, including, sunflowers, and "grew squash and possibly corn"; with hunting and gathering, this cultivation supported more settled, complex villages.
Around 100 BC, the Adena evolved into the Hopewell people who were also mound builders.
They were also a prolific trading society, their trading network spanning a third of the continent.
The Hopewell disappeared from the Ohio Valley about 600 AD.
The Mississippian Culture rose as the Hopewell Culture declined.
Many Siouan-speaking peoples from the plains and east coast claim them as ancestors and say they lived throughout the Ohio region until approximately the 13th century.
All three cultures disappeared in the 17th century.
Their origins are unknown.
The Shawnees may have absorbed the Fort Ancient people.
It is also possible that the Monongahela held no land in Ohio during the Colonial Era.
The Mississippian Culture were close to and traded extensively with the Fort Ancient people.
Indians in the Ohio Valley were greatly affected by the aggressive tactics of the Iroquois Confederation, based in central and western New York.
After the Beaver Wars in the mid-17th century, the Iroquois claimed much of the Ohio country as hunting and, more importantly, beaver-trapping ground.
After the devastation of epidemics and war in the mid-17th century, which largely emptied the Ohio country of indigenous people by the mid-to-late 17th century, the land gradually became repopulated by the mostly Algonquian.
Many of these Ohio-country nations were multi-ethnic (sometimes multi-linguistic) societies born out of the earlier devastation brought about by disease, war, and subsequent social instability.
By the 18th century, they were part of a larger global economy brought about by European entry into the fur trade.
The indigenous nations to inhabit Ohio in the historical period included the Iroquoian, the Algonquian & the Siouan.
Most Native Peoples who remained in Ohio were slowly bought out and convinced to leave, or ordered to do so by law, in the early 19th century with the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
Colonial and Revolutionary eras
Main articles: New France, Canada (New France), Ohio Country, French and Indian War, Treaty of Paris (1763), Province of Quebec (1763–1791), Indian Reserve (1763), American Revolutionary War, Western theater of the American Revolutionary War, and Treaty of Paris (1783)
In the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Britain ceded all claims to Ohio country to the United States.
Slavery was not permitted in the new territory.
Following the Ohio Company, the Miami Company (also referred to as the "Symmes Purchase") claimed the southwestern section, and the Connecticut Land Company surveyed and settled the Connecticut Western Reserve in present-day Northeast Ohio.
Territorial surveyors from Fort Steuben began surveying an area of eastern Ohio called the Seven Ranges at about the same time.
As Ohio prepared for statehood, the Indiana Territory was created, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula and a sliver of southeastern Indiana called "The Gore".
Under the Northwest Ordinance, areas could be defined and admitted as states once their population reached 60,000.
Although Ohio's population was only 45,000 in December 1801, Congress determined that it was growing rapidly and had already begun the path to statehood.
In regards to the Leni Lenape natives, Congress decided that 10,000 acres on the Muskingum River in the present state of Ohio would "be set apart and the property thereof be vested in the Moravian Brethren ... or a society of the said Brethren for civilizing the Indians and promoting Christianity".
Rufus Putnam, the "Father of Ohio"
He was one of the most highly respected men in the early years of the United States.
In 1776, Putnam created a method of building portable fortifications, which enabled the Continental Army to drive the British from Boston.
George Washington was so impressed that he made Putnam his chief engineer.
This land was used to serve as compensation for what was owed to Revolutionary War veterans.
It was also at Putnam's recommendation that the land would be surveyed and laid out in townships of six miles square.
Putnam organized and led the first group of veterans to the territory.
Putnam and Cutler insisted that the Northwest Territory would be free territory – no slavery.
They were both from Puritan New England, and the Puritans strongly believed that slavery was morally wrong.
The Northwest Territory doubled the size of the United States, and establishing it as free of slavery proved to be of tremendous importance in the following decades.
It encompassed what became Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and part of Minnesota.
Had those states been slave states, and their electoral votes gone to Abraham Lincoln's main competitor, Lincoln would not have been elected president.
The Civil War would not have been fought.
And, even if eventually there had been a civil war, the North would probably have lost.
Putnam, in the Puritan tradition, was influential in establishing education in the Northwest Territory.
Substantial amounts of land were set aside for schools.
Putnam had been one of the primary benefactors in the founding of Leicester Academy in Massachusetts, and similarly, in 1798, he created the plan for the construction of the Muskingum Academy (now Marietta College) in Ohio.
In 1780, the directors of the Ohio Company appointed him superintendent of all its affairs relating to settlement north of the Ohio River.
In 1796, he was commissioned by President George Washington as Surveyor-General of United States Lands.
In 1788, he served as a judge in the Northwest Territory's first court.
In 1802, he served in the convention to form a constitution for the State of Ohio.
Statehood and settlement
Main articles: Admission to the Union and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union
On February 19, 1803, U.S. president Thomas Jefferson signed an act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution.
However, Congress had never passed a resolution formally admitting Ohio as the 17th state.
The current custom of Congress declaring an official date of statehood did not begin until 1812, with Louisiana's admission as the 18th state.
Although no formal resolution of admission was required, when the oversight was discovered in 1953, as Ohio began preparations for celebrating its sesquicentennial, Ohio congressman George H. Bender introduced a bill in Congress to admit Ohio to the Union retroactive to March 1, 1803, the date on which the Ohio General Assembly first convened.
At a special session at the old state capital in Chillicothe, the Ohio state legislature approved a new petition for statehood which was delivered to Washington, D.C., on horseback.
On August 7, 1953 (the year of Ohio's 150th anniversary), President Eisenhower signed a congressional joint resolution that officially declared March 1, 1803, the date of Ohio's admittance into the Union.
Chillicothe was the capital from 1803 to 1810.
The capital was then moved to Zanesville for two years, as part of a state legislative compromise to get a bill passed.
The capital was then moved back to Chillicothe, which was the capital from 1812 to 1816.
Finally, the capital was moved to Columbus, to have it near the geographic center of the state.
Although many Native Americans had migrated west to evade American encroachment, others remained settled in the state, sometimes assimilating in part.
Only one person was injured in the conflict.
Congress intervened, making Michigan's admittance as a state conditional on ending the conflict.
In exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip, Michigan was given the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula, in addition to the eastern third which was already considered part of the state.
Civil War and growth
Ohio's central position and its population gave it an important place during the Civil War.
The Ohio River was a vital artery for troop and supply movements, as were Ohio's railroads.
The industry of Ohio made the state one of the most important states in the Union during the Civil war.
Ohio contributed more soldiers per-capita than any other state in the Union.
In 1862, the state's morale was badly shaken in the aftermath of the Battle of Shiloh, a costly victory in which Ohio forces suffered 2,000 casualties.
Later that year, when Confederate troops under the leadership of Stonewall Jackson threatened Washington, D.C., Ohio governor David Tod still could recruit 5,000 volunteers to provide three months of service.
From July 12 to July 23, 1863, Southern Ohio and Indiana were attacked in Morgan's Raid.
While this raid was insignificant and small, it aroused fear among people in Ohio and Indiana.
Almost 35,000 Ohioans died in the conflict, and 30,000 were physically wounded.
In 1912 a Constitutional Convention was held with Charles Burleigh Galbreath as secretary.
The result reflected the concerns of the Progressive Era.
It introduced the initiative and the referendum.
Also, it allowed the General Assembly to put questions on the ballot for the people to ratify laws and constitutional amendments originating in the Legislature.
Under the Jeffersonian principle that laws should be reviewed once a generation, the constitution provided for a recurring question to appear on Ohio's general election ballots every 20 years.
The question asks whether a new convention is required.
Although the question has appeared in 1932, 1952, 1972, and 1992, it has never been approved.
Instead, constitutional amendments have been proposed by petition to the legislature hundreds of times and adopted in a majority of cases.
From just over 45,000 residents in 1800, Ohio's population grew faster than 10% per decade (except for the 1940 census) until the 1970 census, which recorded just over 10.65 million Ohioans.
Growth then slowed for the next four decades.
Ohio's population growth lags that of the entire United States, and Caucasians are found in a greater density than the US average.
This is approximately 6,346 feet (1,934 m) south and west of Ohio's population center in 1990.
As of 2011, 27.6% of Ohio's children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups.
6.2% of Ohio's population is under five years of age, 23.7 percent under 18 years of age, and 14.1 percent were 65 or older.
Females made up approximately 51.2 percent of the population.
Note: Births in table do not add up because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
|White||109,749 (79.0%)||110,003 (78.9%)||109,566 (78.7%)||...||...||...|
|> Non-Hispanic White||104,059 (74.9%)||104,102 (74.6%)||103,586 (74.4%)||100,225 (72.6%)||98,762 (72.1%)||97,423 (72.1%)|
|Black||24,952 (18.0%)||24,931 (17.9%)||25,078 (18.0%)||22,337 (16.2%)||22,431 (16.4%)||22,201 (16.4%)|
|Asian||3,915 (2.8%)||4,232 (3.0%)||4,367 (3.1%)||4,311 (3.1%)||4,380 (3.2%)||4,285 (3.2%)|
|American Indian||320 (0.2%)||301 (0.2%)||253 (0.2%)||128 (0.1%)||177 (0.1%)||169 (0.1%)|
|Hispanic (of any race)||6,504 (4.7%)||6,884 (4.9%)||6,974 (5.0%)||7,420 (5.4%)||7,468 (5.5%)||7,432 (5.5%)|
|Total Ohio||138,936 (100%)||139,467 (100%)||139,264 (100%)||138,085 (100%)||136,832 (100%)||135,134 (100%)|
- Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.
According to the 2010 United States Census, the racial composition of Ohio was the following:
- White American: 82.7% (Non-Hispanic Whites: 81.1%)
- Black or African American: 12.2%
- Native American: 0.2%
- Asian: 1.7% (0.6% Indian, 0.4% Chinese, 0.1% Filipino, 0.1% Korean, 0.1% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese)
- Pacific Islander: 0.03%
- Two or more races: 2.1%
- Some other race: 1.1%
- Hispanic or Latinos (of any race) make up 3.1% (1.5% Mexican, 0.8% Puerto Rican, 0.1% Guatemalan, 0.1% Cuban)
|Native Hawaiian and||–||–||–|
|Two or more races||–||1.4%||2.1%|
In 2010, there were 469,700 foreign-born residents in Ohio, corresponding to 4.1% of the total population.
Of these, 229,049 (2.0%) were naturalized US citizens and 240,699 (2.1%) were not.
The largest groups were: Mexico (54,166), India (50,256), China (34,901), Germany (19,219), Philippines (16,410), United Kingdom (15,917), Canada (14,223), Russia (11,763), South Korea (11,307), and Ukraine (10,681).
Though predominantly white, Ohio has large black populations in all major metropolitan areas throughout the state, Ohio has a significant Hispanic population made up of Mexicans in Toledo and Columbus, and Puerto Ricans in Cleveland and Columbus, and also has a significant and diverse Asian population in Columbus.
The largest ancestry groups (which the Census defines as not including racial terms) in the state are:
- 26.5% German
- 14.1% Irish
- 9.0% English
- 6.4% Italian
- 3.8% Polish
- 2.5% French
- 1.9% Scottish
- 1.7% Hungarian
- 1.6% Dutch
- 1.5% Mexican
- 1.2% Slovak
- 1.1% Welsh
- 1.1% Scotch-Irish
Ancestries claimed by less than 1% of the population include Sub-Saharan African, Puerto Rican, Swiss, Swedish, Arab, Greek, Norwegian, Romanian, Austrian, Lithuanian, Finnish, West Indian, Portuguese and Slovene.
About 6.7% of the population age 5 years and older reported speaking a language other than English, with 2.2% of the population speaking Spanish, 2.6% speaking other Indo-European languages, 1.1% speaking Asian and Austronesian languages, and 0.8% speaking other languages.
Ohio also had the nation's largest population of Slovene speakers, second largest of Slovak speakers, second largest of Pennsylvania Dutch (German) speakers, and the third largest of Serbian speakers.
According to a Pew Forum poll, as of 2008, 76% of Ohioans identified as Christian.
17% of the population is unaffiliated with any religious body.
According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), in 2010 the largest denominations by adherents were the Catholic Church with 1,992,567; the United Methodist Church with 496,232; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 223,253, the Southern Baptist Convention with 171,000, the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ with 141,311, the United Church of Christ with 118,000, and the Presbyterian Church (USA) with 110,000.
With about 70,000 people in 2015 Ohio had the second largest Amish population of all states of the US.
According to the same data, a majority of Ohioans, 55%, feel religion is "very important", 30% that it is "somewhat important", and 15% that religion is "not too important/not important at all".
36% of Ohioans indicate that they attend religious services at least once weekly, 35% occasionally, and 27% seldom or never.
Main article: Economy of Ohio
See also: Ohio locations by per capita income
According to the U.S. , the total number for employment in 2016 was 4,790,178. Census Bureau
The total number of unique employer establishments was 252,201, while the total number of nonemployer establishments was 785,833.
In 2010, Ohio was ranked second in the country for best business climate by Site Selection magazine, based on a business-activity database.
The state has also won three consecutive Governor's Cup awards from the magazine, based on business growth and developments.
As of 2016, Ohio's gross domestic product (GDP) was $626 billion.
This ranks Ohio's economy as the seventh-largest of all fifty states and the District of Columbia.
The Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council ranked the state No.
10 for best business-friendly tax systems in their Business Tax Index 2009, including a top corporate tax and capital gains rate that were both ranked No.
6 at 1.9%.
Ohio was ranked No.
11 by the council for best friendly-policy states according to their Small Business Survival Index 2009.
The Directorship's Boardroom Guide ranked the state No.
13 overall for best business climate, including No.
7 for best litigation climate.
Forbes ranked the state No.
8 for best regulatory environment in 2009.
Ohio has five of the top 115 colleges in the nation, according to U.S. 's 2010 rankings, and was ranked No. News and World Report
8 by the same magazine in 2008 for best high schools.
Ohio's unemployment rate stands at 4.5% as of February 2018, down from 10.7% in May 2010.
The state still lacks 45,000 jobs compared to the pre-recession numbers of 2007.
The labor force participation as of April 2015 is 63%, slightly above the national average.
Ohio's per capita income stands at $34,874.
As of 2016, Ohio's median household income is $52,334, and 14.6% of the population is below the poverty line
Ohio has the third largest manufacturing workforce behind California and Texas.
Ohio has the largest bioscience sector in the Midwest, and is a national leader in the "green" economy.
Ohio is the largest producer in the country of plastics, rubber, fabricated metals, electrical equipment, and appliances.
5,212,000 Ohioans are currently employed by wage or salary.
By employment, Ohio's largest sector is trade/transportation/utilities, which employs 1,010,000 Ohioans, or 19.4% of Ohio's workforce, while the health care and education sector employs 825,000 Ohioans (15.8%).
Government employs 787,000 Ohioans (15.1%), manufacturing employs 669,000 Ohioans (12.9%), and professional and technical services employs 638,000 Ohioans (12.2%).
Ohio's manufacturing sector is the third-largest of all fifty United States states in terms of gross domestic product.
Fifty-nine of the United States' top 1,000 publicly traded companies (by revenue in 2008) are headquartered in Ohio, including Procter & Gamble, Goodyear Tire & Rubber, AK Steel, Timken, Abercrombie & Fitch, and Wendy's.
Ohio is also one of 41 states with its own lottery, the Ohio Lottery.
The Ohio Lottery has contributed over $15.5 billion to public education in its 34-year history.
Many major east–west transportation corridors go through Ohio.
One of those pioneer routes, known in the early 20th century as "Main Market Route 3", was chosen in 1913 to become part of the historic Lincoln Highway which was the first road across America, connecting New York City to San Francisco.
The arrival of the Lincoln Highway to Ohio was a major influence on the development of the state.
Upon the advent of the federal numbered highway system in 1926, the Lincoln Highway through Ohio became U.S. . Route 30
Ohio has a highly developed network of roads and interstate highways.
Major east-west through routes include the Ohio Turnpike (I-80/I-90) in the north, I-76 through Akron to Pennsylvania, I-70 through Columbus and Dayton, and the Appalachian Highway (State Route 32) running from West Virginia to Cincinnati.
Major north–south routes include I-75 in the west through Toledo, Dayton, and Cincinnati, I-71 through the middle of the state from Cleveland through Columbus and Cincinnati into Kentucky, and I-77 in the eastern part of the state from Cleveland through Akron, Canton, New Philadelphia and Marietta south into West Virginia.
Interstate 75 between Cincinnati and Dayton is one of the heaviest traveled sections of interstate in Ohio.
Ohio also has a highly developed network of signed state bicycle routes.
Many of them follow rail trails, with conversion ongoing.
The Ohio to Erie Trail (route 1) connects Cincinnati, Columbus, and Cleveland.
Ohio has several long-distance hiking trails, the most prominent of which is the Buckeye Trail which extends 1,444 mi (2,324 km) in a loop around the state of Ohio.
Part of it is on roads and part is on wooded trail.
Additionally, the North Country Trail (the longest of the eleven National Scenic Trails authorized by Congress) and the American Discovery Trail (a system of recreational trails and roads that collectively form a coast-to-coast route across the mid-tier of the United States) pass through Ohio.
Much of these two trails coincide with the Buckeye Trail.
Ohio has extensive railroads, though today most are only utilized by freight companies.
Major cities in the north and south of Ohio lie on Amtrak intercity rail lines.
The Cardinal serves Cincinnati.
Columbus is the largest city in the United States without any form of passenger rail.
See also: List of airports in Ohio
Ohio has four international airports, four commercial, and two military.
The four international include Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, John Glenn Columbus International Airport, Dayton International Airport, and Rickenbacker International Airport (one of two military airfields).
The other military airfield is Wright Patterson Air Force Base which is one of the largest Air Force bases in the United States.
Cincinnati's primary airport, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport, is in Hebron, Kentucky, and therefore is not included in Ohio airport lists.
- List of Interstate Highways in Ohio
- List of U.S. Routes in Ohio
- List of state routes in Ohio
- List of Ohio train stations
- List of Ohio railroads
- List of rivers of Ohio
- Historic Ohio Canals
Law and government
Main article: Government of Ohio
The state government of Ohio consists of the executive, judicial, and legislative branches.
The executive branch is headed by the governor of Ohio.
A lieutenant governor succeeds the governor in the event of any removal from office, and performs any duties assigned by the governor.
The current lieutenant governor is Jon A. Husted.
There are three levels of the Ohio state judiciary.
The lowest level is the court of common pleas: each county maintains its own constitutionally mandated court of common pleas, which maintain jurisdiction over "all justiciable matters".
The intermediate-level court system is the district court system.
Twelve courts of appeals exist, each retaining jurisdiction over appeals from common pleas, municipal, and county courts in a set geographical area.
A case heard in this system is decided by a three-judge panel, and each judge is elected.
The state's highest-ranking court is the Ohio Supreme Court.
A seven-justice panel composes the court, which, by its own discretion, hears appeals from the courts of appeals, and retains original jurisdiction over limited matters.
The Senate is composed of 33 districts, each of which is represented by one senator.
Each senator represents approximately 330,000 constituents.
The House of Representatives is composed of 99 members.
Main article: Politics of Ohio
"Mother of presidents"
Eight US presidents hailed from Ohio at the time of their elections, giving rise to its nickname "mother of presidents", a sobriquet it shares with Virginia.
It is also termed "modern mother of presidents", in contrast to Virginia's status as the origin of presidents earlier in American history.
Seven presidents were born in Ohio, making it second to Virginia's eight.
Virginia-born William Henry Harrison lived most of his life in Ohio and is also buried there.
The seven presidents born in Ohio were Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison (grandson of William Henry Harrison), William McKinley, William Howard Taft and Warren G. Harding.
All seven were Republicans.
As a swing state, Ohio is usually targeted by both major-party campaigns, especially in competitive elections.
Pivotal in the election of 1888, Ohio has been a regular swing state since 1980.
Additionally, Ohio is considered a bellwether.
Historian R. Douglas Hurt asserts that not since Virginia "had a state made such a mark on national political affairs".
The Economist notes that "This slice of the mid-west contains a bit of everything American—part north-eastern and part southern, part urban and part rural, part hardscrabble poverty and part booming suburb", Since 1896, Ohio has had only three misses in the general election (Thomas E. Dewey in 1944, Richard Nixon in 1960, and Donald Trump in 2020) and had the longest perfect streak of any state, voting for the winning presidential candidate in each election from 1964 to 2016, and in 33 of the 38 held since the Civil War.
No Republican has ever won the presidency without winning Ohio.
They are disproportionate in age, with a million more over 65 than there are 18- to 24-year-olds.
Since the 2010 midterm elections, Ohio's voter demographic has leaned towards the Republican Party.
The governor, Mike DeWine, is Republican, as well as all other non-judicial statewide elected officials, including Lieutenant Governor Jon A. Husted, Attorney General Dave Yost, State Auditor Keith Faber, Secretary of State Frank LaRose and State Treasurer Robert Sprague.
Losing two seats in the U.S. following the 2010 Census, Ohio has had 16 seats for the three presidential elections of the decade in 2012, 2016 and 2020. House of Representatives
As of the 2018 midterms, twelve federal representatives are Republicans while four are Democrats.
Since 1994, the state has had a policy of purging infrequent voters from its rolls.
In June, the federal district court ruled for the plaintiffs and entered a preliminary injunction applicable only to the November 2016 election.
The preliminary injunction was upheld in September by the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit.
Had it not been upheld, thousands of voters would have been purged from the rolls just a few weeks before the election.
Still, it has been estimated that the state has removed up to two million voters since 2011.
Substantively, Ohio's system is similar to those found in other states.
At the State level, the Ohio Department of Education, which is overseen by the Ohio State Board of Education, governs primary and secondary educational institutions.
At the municipal level, there are approximately 700 school districts statewide.
The system averages an annual enrollment of more than 400,000 students, making it one of the five largest state university systems in the U.S.
Colleges and universities
Main article: List of colleges and universities in Ohio
- 13 state universities
- Bowling Green State University (Bowling Green)
- Central State University (Wilberforce)
- Cleveland State University (Cleveland)
- Kent State University (Kent)
- Miami University (Oxford)
- The Ohio State University (Columbus)
- Ohio University (Athens)
- Shawnee State University (Portsmouth)
- University of Akron (Akron)
- University of Cincinnati (Cincinnati)
- University of Toledo (Toledo)
- Wright State University (Fairborn)
- Youngstown State University (Youngstown)
- 24 state university branch and regional campuses
- 46 private colleges and universities
- 6 free-standing state-assisted medical schools
- Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University
- Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University
- Northeast Ohio Medical University
- The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health
- University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
- University of Toledo College of Medicine (formerly Medical University of Ohio)
- 15 community colleges
- 8 technical colleges
- 24 independent non-profit colleges
Ohio is home to some of the nation's highest-ranked public libraries.
The 2008 study by Thomas J. Hennen Jr. ranked Ohio as number one in a state-by-state comparison.
For 2008, 31 of Ohio's library systems were all ranked in the top ten for American cities of their population category.
- 500,000 books or more
The Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN) is an organization that provides Ohio residents with internet access to their 251 public libraries.
OPLIN also provides Ohioans with free home access to high-quality, subscription research databases.
Ohio also offers the OhioLINK program, allowing Ohio's libraries (particularly those from colleges and universities) access to materials for the other libraries.
The program is largely successful in allowing researchers for access to books and other media that might not be otherwise available.
Main article: Music of Ohio
Popular musicians from Ohio include Mamie Smith, Dean Martin, Dave Grohl, Tyler Joseph and Josh Dun of Twenty One Pilots, Frankie Yankovic, Doris Day, The McGuire Sisters, The Isley Brothers, Bobby Womack, Howard Hewett, Shirley Murdock, Boz Scaggs, John Legend, Marilyn Manson, Nine Inch Nails, Dan Auerbach and Patrick Carney of The Black Keys, Griffin Layne, Joe Dolce, Kid Cudi, Benjamin Orr of The Cars, Chrissie Hynde of The Pretenders, William "Bootsy" Collins, Stephanie Eulinberg of Kid Rock's Twisted Brown Trucker Band, and Devo.
Five Ohio musicians are Rock and Roll Hall of Fame members.
Dayton is also home to a ballet, orchestra, and opera, collectively known as the Dayton Performing Arts Alliance.
The Columbus Association for the Performing Arts manages seven historic Columbus area theaters.
The full list includes:
Among its notable collections are works by Master of San Baudelio, Jorge Ingles, Sandro Botticelli (Judith with Head of Holofernes), Matteo di Giovanni, Domenico Tintoretto (Portrait of Venetian dux Marino Grimani), Mattia Preti, Bernardo Strozzi, Frans Hals, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (St. Thomas of Villanueva), Peter Paul Rubens (Samson and Delilah) and Aert van der Neer.
The museum also has a large collection of paintings by American painter Frank Duveneck (Elizabeth B. Duveneck).
It is the fourth-wealthiest art museum in the United States.
The Columbus Museum of Art holds nineteenth and early twentieth-century American and European art, including early Cubist paintings by Pablo Picasso and Juan Gris, works by François Boucher, Paul Cézanne, Mary Cassatt, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Edgar Degas, Henri Matisse, Claude Monet, Edward Hopper, and Norman Rockwell, and installations by Mel Chin, Josiah McElheny, Susan Philipsz, and Allan Sekula.
Also in Columbus, the Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum collection includes 450,000 original cartoons, 36,000 books, 51,000 serial titles, and 3,000 feet (910 m) of manuscript materials, plus 2.5 million comic strip clippings and tear sheets, making it the largest research library for cartoon art.
Main article: Sports in Ohio
Professional sports teams
Ohio is home to eight professional sports teams across the five different major leagues in the United States.
Current teams include the Cincinnati Reds and Cleveland Indians of Major League Baseball, the Columbus Crew SC and FC Cincinnati of Major League Soccer, the Cleveland Cavaliers of the National Basketball Association, the Cincinnati Bengals and Cleveland Browns of the National Football League, and the Columbus Blue Jackets of the National Hockey League.
Ohio has brought home seven World Series titles (Reds 1919, 1940, 1975, 1976, 1990; Indians 1920, 1948), two MLS Cups (Crew 2008, 2020), one NBA Championship (Cavaliers 2016), and nine NFL Championships (Pros 1920; Bulldogs 1922, 1923, 1924; Rams 1945; Browns 1950, 1954, 1955, 1964).
No Ohio team has made an appearance in the Stanley Cup Finals.
Ohio played a central role in the development of both Major League Baseball and the National Football League.
Baseball's first fully professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings of 1869, were organized in Ohio.
An informal early-20th-century American football association, the Ohio League, was the direct predecessor of the NFL, although neither of Ohio's modern NFL franchises trace their roots to an Ohio League club.
The Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course has hosted several auto racing championships, including CART World Series, IndyCar Series, NASCAR Nationwide Series, Can-Am, Formula 5000, IMSA GT Championship, American Le Mans Series and Rolex Sports Car Series.
The Grand Prix of Cleveland also hosted CART races from 1982 to 2007.
Main article: List of college athletic programs in Ohio
It has also experienced considerable success in the secondary and tertiary tiers of college football divisions.
The program has produced seven Heisman Trophy winners, forty conference titles, and eight undisputed national championships.
The MAC headquarters are in Cleveland.
Other Division I schools, either part of the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision or not fielding in football include the Cleveland State Vikings, Xavier Musketeers, Wright State Raiders, and Youngstown State Penguins.
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio.