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This article is about the U.S. state of Ohio. Ohio_sentence_0

For other uses, see Ohio (disambiguation). Ohio_sentence_1


CountryOhio_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesOhio_cell_0_1_1
Admitted to the UnionOhio_header_cell_0_2_0 March 1, 1803 (17th,

declared retroactively on August 7, 1953)Ohio_cell_0_2_1


(and largest city)Ohio_header_cell_0_3_0

Largest metroOhio_header_cell_0_4_0 Greater Cincinnati

Greater Columbus (see footnotes)Ohio_cell_0_4_1

GovernorOhio_header_cell_0_6_0 Mike DeWine (R)Ohio_cell_0_6_1
Lieutenant GovernorOhio_header_cell_0_7_0 Jon A. Husted (R)Ohio_cell_0_7_1
LegislatureOhio_header_cell_0_8_0 General AssemblyOhio_cell_0_8_1
Upper houseOhio_header_cell_0_9_0 SenateOhio_cell_0_9_1
Lower houseOhio_header_cell_0_10_0 House of RepresentativesOhio_cell_0_10_1
JudiciaryOhio_header_cell_0_11_0 Supreme Court of OhioOhio_cell_0_11_1
U.S. senatorsOhio_header_cell_0_12_0 Sherrod Brown (D)

Rob Portman (R)Ohio_cell_0_12_1

U.S. House delegationOhio_header_cell_0_13_0 12 Republicans
4 Democrats (list)Ohio_cell_0_13_1
TotalOhio_header_cell_0_15_0 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km)Ohio_cell_0_15_1
LandOhio_header_cell_0_16_0 40,948 sq mi (106,156 km)Ohio_cell_0_16_1
WaterOhio_header_cell_0_17_0 3,877 sq mi (10,040 km)  8.7%Ohio_cell_0_17_1
Area rankOhio_header_cell_0_18_0 34thOhio_cell_0_18_1
LengthOhio_header_cell_0_20_0 220 mi (355 km)Ohio_cell_0_20_1
WidthOhio_header_cell_0_21_0 220 mi (355 km)Ohio_cell_0_21_1
ElevationOhio_header_cell_0_22_0 850 ft (260 m)Ohio_cell_0_22_1
Highest elevation (Campbell Hill)Ohio_header_cell_0_23_0 1,549 ft (472 m)Ohio_cell_0_23_1
Lowest elevation (Ohio River at Indiana border)Ohio_header_cell_0_24_0 455 ft (139 m)Ohio_cell_0_24_1
Population (2019)Ohio_header_cell_0_25_0
TotalOhio_header_cell_0_26_0 11,689,100Ohio_cell_0_26_1
RankOhio_header_cell_0_27_0 7thOhio_cell_0_27_1
DensityOhio_header_cell_0_28_0 282/sq mi (109/km)Ohio_cell_0_28_1
Density rankOhio_header_cell_0_29_0 10thOhio_cell_0_29_1
Median household incomeOhio_header_cell_0_30_0 $54,021Ohio_cell_0_30_1
Income rankOhio_header_cell_0_31_0 36thOhio_cell_0_31_1
Demonym(s)Ohio_header_cell_0_32_0 Ohioan; Buckeye (colloq.)Ohio_cell_0_32_1
Official languageOhio_header_cell_0_34_0 De jure: None

De facto: EnglishOhio_cell_0_34_1

Spoken languageOhio_header_cell_0_35_0 English 93.3%

Spanish 2.2% Other 4.5%Ohio_cell_0_35_1

Time zoneOhio_header_cell_0_36_0 UTC-05:00 (Eastern)Ohio_cell_0_36_1
Summer (DST)Ohio_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC-04:00 (EDT)Ohio_cell_0_37_1
USPS abbreviationOhio_header_cell_0_38_0 OHOhio_cell_0_38_1
ISO 3166 codeOhio_header_cell_0_39_0 US-OHOhio_cell_0_39_1
Traditional abbreviationOhio_header_cell_0_40_0 O., Oh.Ohio_cell_0_40_1
LatitudeOhio_header_cell_0_41_0 38°24′ N to 41°59′ NOhio_cell_0_41_1
LongitudeOhio_header_cell_0_42_0 80°31′ W to 84°49′ WOhio_cell_0_42_1
WebsiteOhio_header_cell_0_43_0 Ohio_cell_0_43_1

Ohio /oʊˈhaɪoʊ/ (listen) is a state in the East North Central region of the Midwestern United States. Ohio_sentence_2

Of the fifty states, it is the 34th-largest by area, the seventh-most populous, and the tenth-most densely populated. Ohio_sentence_3

The state's capital and largest city is Columbus, with the Columbus metro area, Greater Cincinnati, and Greater Cleveland being the largest metropolitan areas. Ohio_sentence_4

Ohio is bordered by Lake Erie to the north, Pennsylvania to the east, West Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Indiana to the west, and Michigan to the northwest. Ohio_sentence_5

The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river", or "large creek". Ohio_sentence_6

Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, and the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio_sentence_7

Ohio is historically known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes". Ohio_sentence_8

Ohio rose from the land west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transitioning to a more information and service based economy in the 21st. Ohio_sentence_9

The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the governor; the legislative branch, consisting of the bicameral Ohio General Assembly; and the judicial branch, led by the state Supreme Court. Ohio_sentence_10

Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio_sentence_11

The state is known for its status as both a swing state and a bellwether in national elections. Ohio_sentence_12

Seven presidents of the United States have come from Ohio. Ohio_sentence_13

Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP (2015). Ohio_sentence_14

It is the third largest US state for manufacturing and is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio_sentence_15

Geography Ohio_section_0

Further information: List of Ohio counties, List of cities in Ohio, List of villages in Ohio, List of Ohio townships, Ohio public lands, and List of lakes in Ohio Ohio_sentence_16


Ohio state symbolsOhio_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaOhio_header_cell_1_1_0
AmphibianOhio_header_cell_1_2_0 Spotted salamanderOhio_cell_1_2_1
BirdOhio_header_cell_1_3_0 Cardinal (1933)Ohio_cell_1_3_1
FlowerOhio_header_cell_1_4_0 Red carnation (1904)Ohio_cell_1_4_1
InsectOhio_header_cell_1_5_0 Ladybug (1975)Ohio_cell_1_5_1
MammalOhio_header_cell_1_6_0 White-tailed deer (1987)Ohio_cell_1_6_1
ReptileOhio_header_cell_1_7_0 Black racer snake (1995)Ohio_cell_1_7_1
TreeOhio_header_cell_1_8_0 Buckeye (1953)Ohio_cell_1_8_1
Inanimate insigniaOhio_header_cell_1_9_0
BeverageOhio_header_cell_1_10_0 Tomato juice (1965)Ohio_cell_1_10_1
FossilOhio_header_cell_1_11_0 Isotelus maximus, a trilobite (1985)Ohio_cell_1_11_1
GemstoneOhio_header_cell_1_12_0 Ohio flint (1965)Ohio_cell_1_12_1
SloganOhio_header_cell_1_13_0 So Much to DiscoverOhio_cell_1_13_1
OtherOhio_header_cell_1_14_0 Wild flower: Great white trillium (1986)

Fruit: PawpawOhio_cell_1_14_1

State route markerOhio_header_cell_1_15_0
State quarterOhio_header_cell_1_16_0

Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Ohio_sentence_17

Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio_sentence_18

Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. Ohio_sentence_19

To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles (502 km) of coastline, which allows for numerous cargo ports. Ohio_sentence_20

Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River (with the border being at the 1792 low-water mark on the north side of the river), and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio_sentence_21

Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, and West Virginia on the southeast. Ohio_sentence_22

Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Ohio_sentence_23

Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. Ohio_sentence_24

In 1980, the U.S. Ohio_sentence_25 Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia (which at the time included what is now Kentucky and West Virginia), the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky (and, by implication, West Virginia) is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio_sentence_26

Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark. Ohio_sentence_27

The border with Michigan has also changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Ohio_sentence_28

Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. Ohio_sentence_29

This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Ohio_sentence_30

Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests. Ohio_sentence_31

The rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Ohio_sentence_32

Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, and distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state. Ohio_sentence_33

In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region". Ohio_sentence_34

This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. Ohio_sentence_35

While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there (1.476 million people.) Ohio_sentence_36

Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, and Scioto River. Ohio_sentence_37

The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Ohio_sentence_38 Lawrence River, and the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and then the Mississippi. Ohio_sentence_39

The worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Ohio_sentence_40

Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton. Ohio_sentence_41

As a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States. Ohio_sentence_42

Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the canal-building era of 1820–1850. Ohio_sentence_43

For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles (52 km), was the largest artificial lake in the world. Ohio_sentence_44

Ohio's canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Ohio_sentence_45

Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state. Ohio_sentence_46

Climate Ohio_section_1

See also: Climate change in Ohio Ohio_sentence_47

The climate of Ohio is a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa/Dfb) throughout most of the state, except in the extreme southern counties of Ohio's Bluegrass region section, which are located on the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate (Cfa) and Upland South region of the United States. Ohio_sentence_48

Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold. Ohio_sentence_49

Precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round. Ohio_sentence_50

Severe weather is not uncommon in the state, although there are typically fewer tornado reports in Ohio than in states located in what is known as the Tornado Alley. Ohio_sentence_51

Severe lake effect snowstorms are also not uncommon on the southeast shore of Lake Erie, which is located in an area designated as the Snowbelt. Ohio_sentence_52

Although predominantly not in a subtropical climate, some warmer-climate flora and fauna do reach well into Ohio. Ohio_sentence_53

For instance, some trees with more southern ranges, such as the blackjack oak, Quercus marilandica, are found at their northernmost in Ohio just north of the Ohio River. Ohio_sentence_54

Also evidencing this climatic transition from a subtropical to continental climate, several plants such as the Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), Albizia julibrissin (mimosa), Crape Myrtle, and even the occasional Needle Palm are hardy landscape materials regularly used as street, yard, and garden plantings in the Bluegrass region of Ohio; but these same plants will simply not thrive in much of the rest of the state. Ohio_sentence_55

This interesting change may be observed while traveling through Ohio on Interstate 75 from Cincinnati to Toledo; the observant traveler of this diverse state may even catch a glimpse of Cincinnati's common wall lizard, one of the few examples of permanent "subtropical" fauna in Ohio. Ohio_sentence_56

Due to flooding resulting in severely damaged highways, Governor Mike DeWine declared a state of emergency in 37 Ohio counties in 2019. Ohio_sentence_57


Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in OhioOhio_table_caption_2
LocationOhio_header_cell_2_0_0 RegionOhio_header_cell_2_0_1 July (°F)Ohio_header_cell_2_0_2 July (°C)Ohio_header_cell_2_0_3 January (°F)Ohio_header_cell_2_0_4 January (°C)Ohio_header_cell_2_0_5
AthensOhio_cell_2_1_0 AppalachianOhio_cell_2_1_1 85/61Ohio_cell_2_1_2 29/16Ohio_cell_2_1_3 40/21Ohio_cell_2_1_4 4/−6Ohio_cell_2_1_5
CantonOhio_cell_2_2_0 NortheastOhio_cell_2_2_1 82/62Ohio_cell_2_2_2 28/16Ohio_cell_2_2_3 33/19Ohio_cell_2_2_4 1/−7Ohio_cell_2_2_5
CincinnatiOhio_cell_2_3_0 SouthwestOhio_cell_2_3_1 86/66Ohio_cell_2_3_2 30/19Ohio_cell_2_3_3 39/23Ohio_cell_2_3_4 3/−5Ohio_cell_2_3_5
ClevelandOhio_cell_2_4_0 NortheastOhio_cell_2_4_1 82/64Ohio_cell_2_4_2 28/18Ohio_cell_2_4_3 34/21Ohio_cell_2_4_4 1/−5Ohio_cell_2_4_5
ColumbusOhio_cell_2_5_0 CentralOhio_cell_2_5_1 85/65Ohio_cell_2_5_2 29/18Ohio_cell_2_5_3 36/22Ohio_cell_2_5_4 2/−5Ohio_cell_2_5_5
DaytonOhio_cell_2_6_0 Miami ValleyOhio_cell_2_6_1 87/67Ohio_cell_2_6_2 31/19Ohio_cell_2_6_3 36/22Ohio_cell_2_6_4 2/−5Ohio_cell_2_6_5
ToledoOhio_cell_2_7_0 NorthwestOhio_cell_2_7_1 84/62Ohio_cell_2_7_2 29/17Ohio_cell_2_7_3 32/18Ohio_cell_2_7_4 0/−7Ohio_cell_2_7_5

Records Ohio_section_2

The highest recorded temperature was 113 °F (45 °C), near Gallipolis on July 21, 1934. Ohio_sentence_58

The lowest recorded temperature was −39 °F (−39 °C), at Milligan on February 10, 1899, during the Great Blizzard of 1899. Ohio_sentence_59

Earthquakes Ohio_section_3

Although few have registered as noticeable to the average resident, more than 200 earthquakes with a magnitude of 2.0 or higher have occurred in Ohio since 1776. Ohio_sentence_60

The Western Ohio Seismic Zone and a portion of the Southern Great Lakes Seismic Zone are located in the state, and numerous faults lie under the surface. Ohio_sentence_61

The most substantial known earthquake in Ohio history was the Anna (Shelby County) earthquake, which occurred on March 9, 1937. Ohio_sentence_62

It was centered in western Ohio, and had a magnitude of 5.4, and was of intensity VIII. Ohio_sentence_63

Other significant earthquakes in Ohio include: one of magnitude 4.8 near Lima on September 19, 1884; one of magnitude 4.2 near Portsmouth on May 17, 1901; and one of 5.0 in LeRoy Township in Lake County on January 31, 1986, which continued to trigger 13 aftershocks of magnitude 0.5 to 2.4 for two months. Ohio_sentence_64

Notable Ohio earthquakes in the 21st century include one occurring on December 31, 2011, approximately 4 kilometers (2.5 mi) northwest of Youngstown, and one occurring on June 10, 2019, approximately 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) north-northwest of Eastlake under Lake Erie; both registered a 4.0 magnitude. Ohio_sentence_65

Major cities Ohio_section_4

See also: List of cities in Ohio Ohio_sentence_66

Columbus is the capital of Ohio, located near the geographic center of the state and well known for The Ohio State University. Ohio_sentence_67

However, other Ohio cities function as economic and cultural centers of metropolitan areas. Ohio_sentence_68

Akron, Canton, Cleveland, Mansfield, and Youngstown are in the Northeast, known for major industrial companies Goodyear Tire and Rubber and Timken, top ranked colleges Case Western Reserve University and Kent State University, the Cleveland Clinic, and cultural attractions including the Cleveland Museum of Art, Big Five group Cleveland Orchestra, Playhouse Square, the Pro Football Hall of Fame, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Ohio_sentence_69

Lima and Toledo are the major cities in Northwest Ohio. Ohio_sentence_70

Northwest Ohio is known for its glass making industry, and is home to Owens Corning and Owens-Illinois, two Fortune 500 corporations. Ohio_sentence_71

Dayton and Springfield are located in the Miami Valley, which is home to the University of Dayton, the Dayton Ballet, and the extensive Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Ohio_sentence_72

Cincinnati anchors Southwest Ohio and is the largest economy in the state. Ohio_sentence_73

It is home of Miami University and the University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati Union Terminal, Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, and various Fortune 500 companies including Procter & Gamble, Kroger, Macy's, Inc., and Fifth Third Bank. Ohio_sentence_74

Steubenville is the only metropolitan city in Appalachian Ohio, which is home to Hocking Hills State Park. Ohio_sentence_75

Metropolitan and micropolitan areas Ohio_section_5


Largest metropolitan statistical areas in OhioOhio_table_caption_3
Ohio RankOhio_header_cell_3_0_0 U.S. RankOhio_header_cell_3_0_1 Metropolitan statistical areaOhio_header_cell_3_0_2 2018 EstimateOhio_header_cell_3_0_3 2010 CensusOhio_header_cell_3_0_4 ChangeOhio_header_cell_3_0_5 CountiesOhio_header_cell_3_0_6
1Ohio_cell_3_1_0 28Ohio_cell_3_1_1 Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical AreaOhio_cell_3_1_2 2,190,209Ohio_cell_3_1_3 2,179,082Ohio_cell_3_1_4 +0.51%Ohio_cell_3_1_5 Brown, Butler, Clermont, Clinton, Hamilton, WarrenOhio_cell_3_1_6
2Ohio_cell_3_2_0 32Ohio_cell_3_2_1 Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical AreaOhio_cell_3_2_2 2,106,541Ohio_cell_3_2_3 2,078,725Ohio_cell_3_2_4 +1.34%Ohio_cell_3_2_5 Delaware, Fairfield, Franklin, Hocking, Licking, Madison, Morrow, Perry, Pickaway, UnionOhio_cell_3_2_6
3Ohio_cell_3_3_0 33Ohio_cell_3_3_1 Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical AreaOhio_cell_3_3_2 2,057,009Ohio_cell_3_3_3 2,058,844Ohio_cell_3_3_4 −0.09%Ohio_cell_3_3_5 Cuyahoga, Geauga, Lake, Lorain, MedinaOhio_cell_3_3_6
4Ohio_cell_3_4_0 73Ohio_cell_3_4_1 Dayton, OH Metropolitan Statistical AreaOhio_cell_3_4_2 806,548Ohio_cell_3_4_3 799,232Ohio_cell_3_4_4 +0.92%Ohio_cell_3_4_5 Greene, Miami, MontgomeryOhio_cell_3_4_6
5Ohio_cell_3_5_0 82Ohio_cell_3_5_1 Akron, OH Metropolitan Statistical AreaOhio_cell_3_5_2 704,845Ohio_cell_3_5_3 703,200Ohio_cell_3_5_4 +0.23%Ohio_cell_3_5_5 Portage, SummitOhio_cell_3_5_6


Largest combined statistical areas in OhioOhio_table_caption_4
Ohio RankOhio_header_cell_4_0_0 U.S. RankOhio_header_cell_4_0_1 Combined statistical areasOhio_header_cell_4_0_2 2018 EstimateOhio_header_cell_4_0_3 2010 CensusOhio_header_cell_4_0_4 ChangeOhio_header_cell_4_0_5 SubdivisionsOhio_header_cell_4_0_6
1Ohio_cell_4_1_0 16Ohio_cell_4_1_1 Cleveland-Akron-Canton, OH Combined Statistical AreaOhio_cell_4_1_2 3,483,297Ohio_cell_4_1_3 3,515,646Ohio_cell_4_1_4 −0.92%Ohio_cell_4_1_5 Cleveland-Elyria, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area

Akron, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area Canton-Massillon, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area Ashtabula, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area New Philadelphia-Dover, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area Sandusky, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area Norwalk, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaOhio_cell_4_1_6

2Ohio_cell_4_2_0 24Ohio_cell_4_2_1 Columbus-Marion-Zanesville, OH Combined Statistical AreaOhio_cell_4_2_2 2,509,850Ohio_cell_4_2_3 2,308,509Ohio_cell_4_2_4 +8.72%Ohio_cell_4_2_5 Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area

Zanesville, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area Chillicothe, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area Marion, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area Mount Vernon, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area Bellefontaine, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area Cambridge, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area Washington Court House, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaOhio_cell_4_2_6

3Ohio_cell_4_3_0 28Ohio_cell_4_3_1 Cincinnati-Wilmington-Maysville, OH-KY-IN Combined Statistical AreaOhio_cell_4_3_2 2,249,416Ohio_cell_4_3_3 2,174,110Ohio_cell_4_3_4 +3.46%Ohio_cell_4_3_5 Cincinnati, OH-KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area

Wilmington, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area Maysville, KY Micropolitan Statistical AreaOhio_cell_4_3_6

4Ohio_cell_4_4_0 52Ohio_cell_4_4_1 Dayton-Springfield-Sidney, OH Combined Statistical AreaOhio_cell_4_4_2 1,079,837Ohio_cell_4_4_3 1,080,044Ohio_cell_4_4_4 −0.02%Ohio_cell_4_4_5 Dayton, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area

Springfield, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area Greenville, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area Sidney, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area Urbana, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaOhio_cell_4_4_6

5Ohio_cell_4_5_0 74Ohio_cell_4_5_1 Youngstown-Warren, OH-PA Combined Statistical AreaOhio_cell_4_5_2 641,617Ohio_cell_4_5_3 673,614Ohio_cell_4_5_4 −4.75%Ohio_cell_4_5_5 Youngstown-Warren-Boardman, OH-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area

Salem, OH Micropolitan Statistical AreaOhio_cell_4_5_6

The Cincinnati metropolitan area extends into Kentucky and Indiana, the Steubenville metropolitan area extends into West Virginia, the Toledo metropolitan area extends into Michigan, and the Youngstown metropolitan area extends into Pennsylvania. Ohio_sentence_76

Other metropolitan areas that contain cities in Ohio include: Ohio_sentence_77


Ohio cities that function as centers of United States micropolitan areas include: Ohio_sentence_78

History Ohio_section_6

Main articles: Prehistory of Ohio and History of Ohio Ohio_sentence_79

Native Americans Ohio_section_7

Archeological evidence of spear points of both the Folsom and Clovis types indicate that the Ohio Valley was inhabited by nomadic people as early as 13,000 BC. Ohio_sentence_80

These early nomads disappeared from Ohio by 1,000 BC. Ohio_sentence_81

Between 1,000 and 800 BC, the sedentary Adena culture emerged. Ohio_sentence_82

The Adena were able to establish "semi-permanent" villages because they domesticated plants, including, sunflowers, and "grew squash and possibly corn"; with hunting and gathering, this cultivation supported more settled, complex villages. Ohio_sentence_83

The most notable remnant of the Adena culture is the Great Serpent Mound, located in Adams County, Ohio. Ohio_sentence_84

Around 100 BC, the Adena evolved into the Hopewell people who were also mound builders. Ohio_sentence_85

Their complex, large and technologically sophisticated earthworks can be found in modern-day Marietta, Newark, and Circleville. Ohio_sentence_86

They were also a prolific trading society, their trading network spanning a third of the continent. Ohio_sentence_87

The Hopewell disappeared from the Ohio Valley about 600 AD. Ohio_sentence_88

The Mississippian Culture rose as the Hopewell Culture declined. Ohio_sentence_89

Many Siouan-speaking peoples from the plains and east coast claim them as ancestors and say they lived throughout the Ohio region until approximately the 13th century. Ohio_sentence_90

There were three other cultures contemporaneous with the Mississippians: the Fort Ancient people, the Whittlesey Focus people and the Monongahela Culture. Ohio_sentence_91

All three cultures disappeared in the 17th century. Ohio_sentence_92

Their origins are unknown. Ohio_sentence_93

The Shawnees may have absorbed the Fort Ancient people. Ohio_sentence_94

It is also possible that the Monongahela held no land in Ohio during the Colonial Era. Ohio_sentence_95

The Mississippian Culture were close to and traded extensively with the Fort Ancient people. Ohio_sentence_96

Indians in the Ohio Valley were greatly affected by the aggressive tactics of the Iroquois Confederation, based in central and western New York. Ohio_sentence_97

After the Beaver Wars in the mid-17th century, the Iroquois claimed much of the Ohio country as hunting and, more importantly, beaver-trapping ground. Ohio_sentence_98

After the devastation of epidemics and war in the mid-17th century, which largely emptied the Ohio country of indigenous people by the mid-to-late 17th century, the land gradually became repopulated by the mostly Algonquian. Ohio_sentence_99

Many of these Ohio-country nations were multi-ethnic (sometimes multi-linguistic) societies born out of the earlier devastation brought about by disease, war, and subsequent social instability. Ohio_sentence_100

They subsisted on agriculture (corn, sunflowers, beans, etc.) supplemented by seasonal hunts. Ohio_sentence_101

By the 18th century, they were part of a larger global economy brought about by European entry into the fur trade. Ohio_sentence_102

The indigenous nations to inhabit Ohio in the historical period included the Iroquoian, the Algonquian & the Siouan. Ohio_sentence_103

Ohio country was also the site of Indian massacres, such as the Yellow Creek Massacre, Gnadenhutten and Pontiac's Rebellion school massacre. Ohio_sentence_104

Most Native Peoples who remained in Ohio were slowly bought out and convinced to leave, or ordered to do so by law, in the early 19th century with the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Ohio_sentence_105

Colonial and Revolutionary eras Ohio_section_8

Main articles: New France, Canada (New France), Ohio Country, French and Indian War, Treaty of Paris (1763), Province of Quebec (1763–1791), Indian Reserve (1763), American Revolutionary War, Western theater of the American Revolutionary War, and Treaty of Paris (1783) Ohio_sentence_106

During the 18th century, the French set up a system of trading posts to control the fur trade in the region. Ohio_sentence_107

Beginning in 1754, France and Great Britain fought the French and Indian War. Ohio_sentence_108

As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the French ceded control of Ohio and the remainder of the Old Northwest to Great Britain. Ohio_sentence_109

In the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Britain ceded all claims to Ohio country to the United States. Ohio_sentence_110

Northwest Territory Ohio_section_9

Main articles: Northwest Ordinance and Northwest Territory Ohio_sentence_111

The United States created the Northwest Territory under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Ohio_sentence_112

Slavery was not permitted in the new territory. Ohio_sentence_113

Settlement began with the founding of Marietta by the Ohio Company of Associates, which had been formed by a group of American Revolutionary War veterans. Ohio_sentence_114

Following the Ohio Company, the Miami Company (also referred to as the "Symmes Purchase") claimed the southwestern section, and the Connecticut Land Company surveyed and settled the Connecticut Western Reserve in present-day Northeast Ohio. Ohio_sentence_115

Territorial surveyors from Fort Steuben began surveying an area of eastern Ohio called the Seven Ranges at about the same time. Ohio_sentence_116

The old Northwest Territory originally included areas previously known as Ohio Country and Illinois Country. Ohio_sentence_117

As Ohio prepared for statehood, the Indiana Territory was created, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and the eastern tip of the Upper Peninsula and a sliver of southeastern Indiana called "The Gore". Ohio_sentence_118

The coalition of Native American tribes, known as the Western Confederacy, was forced to cede extensive territory, including much of present-day Ohio, in the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. Ohio_sentence_119

Under the Northwest Ordinance, areas could be defined and admitted as states once their population reached 60,000. Ohio_sentence_120

Although Ohio's population was only 45,000 in December 1801, Congress determined that it was growing rapidly and had already begun the path to statehood. Ohio_sentence_121

In regards to the Leni Lenape natives, Congress decided that 10,000 acres on the Muskingum River in the present state of Ohio would "be set apart and the property thereof be vested in the Moravian Brethren ... or a society of the said Brethren for civilizing the Indians and promoting Christianity". Ohio_sentence_122

Rufus Putnam, the "Father of Ohio" Ohio_section_10

Rufus Putnam served in important capacities in both the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. Ohio_sentence_123

He was one of the most highly respected men in the early years of the United States. Ohio_sentence_124

In 1776, Putnam created a method of building portable fortifications, which enabled the Continental Army to drive the British from Boston. Ohio_sentence_125

George Washington was so impressed that he made Putnam his chief engineer. Ohio_sentence_126

After the war, Putnam and Manasseh Cutler were instrumental in creating the Northwest Ordinance, which opened up the Northwest Territory for settlement. Ohio_sentence_127

This land was used to serve as compensation for what was owed to Revolutionary War veterans. Ohio_sentence_128

It was also at Putnam's recommendation that the land would be surveyed and laid out in townships of six miles square. Ohio_sentence_129

Putnam organized and led the first group of veterans to the territory. Ohio_sentence_130

They settled at Marietta, Ohio, where they built a large fort called Campus Martius. Ohio_sentence_131

Putnam and Cutler insisted that the Northwest Territory would be free territory – no slavery. Ohio_sentence_132

They were both from Puritan New England, and the Puritans strongly believed that slavery was morally wrong. Ohio_sentence_133

The Northwest Territory doubled the size of the United States, and establishing it as free of slavery proved to be of tremendous importance in the following decades. Ohio_sentence_134

It encompassed what became Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin and part of Minnesota. Ohio_sentence_135

Had those states been slave states, and their electoral votes gone to Abraham Lincoln's main competitor, Lincoln would not have been elected president. Ohio_sentence_136

The Civil War would not have been fought. Ohio_sentence_137

And, even if eventually there had been a civil war, the North would probably have lost. Ohio_sentence_138

Putnam, in the Puritan tradition, was influential in establishing education in the Northwest Territory. Ohio_sentence_139

Substantial amounts of land were set aside for schools. Ohio_sentence_140

Putnam had been one of the primary benefactors in the founding of Leicester Academy in Massachusetts, and similarly, in 1798, he created the plan for the construction of the Muskingum Academy (now Marietta College) in Ohio. Ohio_sentence_141

In 1780, the directors of the Ohio Company appointed him superintendent of all its affairs relating to settlement north of the Ohio River. Ohio_sentence_142

In 1796, he was commissioned by President George Washington as Surveyor-General of United States Lands. Ohio_sentence_143

In 1788, he served as a judge in the Northwest Territory's first court. Ohio_sentence_144

In 1802, he served in the convention to form a constitution for the State of Ohio. Ohio_sentence_145

Statehood and settlement Ohio_section_11

Main articles: Admission to the Union and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Ohio_sentence_146

On February 19, 1803, U.S. president Thomas Jefferson signed an act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution. Ohio_sentence_147

However, Congress had never passed a resolution formally admitting Ohio as the 17th state. Ohio_sentence_148

The current custom of Congress declaring an official date of statehood did not begin until 1812, with Louisiana's admission as the 18th state. Ohio_sentence_149

Although no formal resolution of admission was required, when the oversight was discovered in 1953, as Ohio began preparations for celebrating its sesquicentennial, Ohio congressman George H. Bender introduced a bill in Congress to admit Ohio to the Union retroactive to March 1, 1803, the date on which the Ohio General Assembly first convened. Ohio_sentence_150

At a special session at the old state capital in Chillicothe, the Ohio state legislature approved a new petition for statehood which was delivered to Washington, D.C., on horseback. Ohio_sentence_151

On August 7, 1953 (the year of Ohio's 150th anniversary), President Eisenhower signed a congressional joint resolution that officially declared March 1, 1803, the date of Ohio's admittance into the Union. Ohio_sentence_152

Ohio has had three capital cities: Chillicothe, Zanesville, and Columbus. Ohio_sentence_153

Chillicothe was the capital from 1803 to 1810. Ohio_sentence_154

The capital was then moved to Zanesville for two years, as part of a state legislative compromise to get a bill passed. Ohio_sentence_155

The capital was then moved back to Chillicothe, which was the capital from 1812 to 1816. Ohio_sentence_156

Finally, the capital was moved to Columbus, to have it near the geographic center of the state. Ohio_sentence_157

Although many Native Americans had migrated west to evade American encroachment, others remained settled in the state, sometimes assimilating in part. Ohio_sentence_158

In 1830 under President Andrew Jackson, the US government forced Indian Removal of most tribes to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. Ohio_sentence_159

In 1835, Ohio fought with Michigan in the Toledo War, a mostly bloodless boundary war over the Toledo Strip. Ohio_sentence_160

Only one person was injured in the conflict. Ohio_sentence_161

Congress intervened, making Michigan's admittance as a state conditional on ending the conflict. Ohio_sentence_162

In exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip, Michigan was given the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula, in addition to the eastern third which was already considered part of the state. Ohio_sentence_163

Civil War and growth Ohio_section_12

Ohio's central position and its population gave it an important place during the Civil War. Ohio_sentence_164

The Ohio River was a vital artery for troop and supply movements, as were Ohio's railroads. Ohio_sentence_165

The industry of Ohio made the state one of the most important states in the Union during the Civil war. Ohio_sentence_166

Ohio contributed more soldiers per-capita than any other state in the Union. Ohio_sentence_167

In 1862, the state's morale was badly shaken in the aftermath of the Battle of Shiloh, a costly victory in which Ohio forces suffered 2,000 casualties. Ohio_sentence_168

Later that year, when Confederate troops under the leadership of Stonewall Jackson threatened Washington, D.C., Ohio governor David Tod still could recruit 5,000 volunteers to provide three months of service. Ohio_sentence_169

From July 12 to July 23, 1863, Southern Ohio and Indiana were attacked in Morgan's Raid. Ohio_sentence_170

While this raid was insignificant and small, it aroused fear among people in Ohio and Indiana. Ohio_sentence_171

Almost 35,000 Ohioans died in the conflict, and 30,000 were physically wounded. Ohio_sentence_172

By the end of the Civil War, the Union's top three generals–Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Philip Sheridan–were all from Ohio. Ohio_sentence_173

Industrialization Ohio_section_13

In 1912 a Constitutional Convention was held with Charles Burleigh Galbreath as secretary. Ohio_sentence_174

The result reflected the concerns of the Progressive Era. Ohio_sentence_175

It introduced the initiative and the referendum. Ohio_sentence_176

Also, it allowed the General Assembly to put questions on the ballot for the people to ratify laws and constitutional amendments originating in the Legislature. Ohio_sentence_177

Under the Jeffersonian principle that laws should be reviewed once a generation, the constitution provided for a recurring question to appear on Ohio's general election ballots every 20 years. Ohio_sentence_178

The question asks whether a new convention is required. Ohio_sentence_179

Although the question has appeared in 1932, 1952, 1972, and 1992, it has never been approved. Ohio_sentence_180

Instead, constitutional amendments have been proposed by petition to the legislature hundreds of times and adopted in a majority of cases. Ohio_sentence_181

Demographics Ohio_section_14

Population Ohio_section_15

From just over 45,000 residents in 1800, Ohio's population grew faster than 10% per decade (except for the 1940 census) until the 1970 census, which recorded just over 10.65 million Ohioans. Ohio_sentence_182

Growth then slowed for the next four decades. Ohio_sentence_183

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Ohio was 11,689,100 on July 1, 2019, a 1.32% increase since the 2010 United States Census. Ohio_sentence_184

Ohio's population growth lags that of the entire United States, and Caucasians are found in a greater density than the US average. Ohio_sentence_185

As of 2000, Ohio's center of population is located in Morrow County, in the county seat of Mount Gilead. Ohio_sentence_186

This is approximately 6,346 feet (1,934 m) south and west of Ohio's population center in 1990. Ohio_sentence_187

As of 2011, 27.6% of Ohio's children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups. Ohio_sentence_188

6.2% of Ohio's population is under five years of age, 23.7 percent under 18 years of age, and 14.1 percent were 65 or older. Ohio_sentence_189

Females made up approximately 51.2 percent of the population. Ohio_sentence_190

Birth data Ohio_section_16

Note: Births in table do not add up because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Ohio_sentence_191


Live births by single race/ethnicity of motherOhio_table_caption_5
RaceOhio_header_cell_5_0_0 2013Ohio_header_cell_5_0_1 2014Ohio_header_cell_5_0_2 2015Ohio_header_cell_5_0_3 2016Ohio_header_cell_5_0_4 2017Ohio_header_cell_5_0_5 2018Ohio_header_cell_5_0_6
WhiteOhio_cell_5_1_0 109,749 (79.0%)Ohio_cell_5_1_1 110,003 (78.9%)Ohio_cell_5_1_2 109,566 (78.7%)Ohio_cell_5_1_3 ...Ohio_cell_5_1_4 ...Ohio_cell_5_1_5 ...Ohio_cell_5_1_6
> Non-Hispanic WhiteOhio_cell_5_2_0 104,059 (74.9%)Ohio_cell_5_2_1 104,102 (74.6%)Ohio_cell_5_2_2 103,586 (74.4%)Ohio_cell_5_2_3 100,225 (72.6%)Ohio_cell_5_2_4 98,762 (72.1%)Ohio_cell_5_2_5 97,423 (72.1%)Ohio_cell_5_2_6
BlackOhio_cell_5_3_0 24,952 (18.0%)Ohio_cell_5_3_1 24,931 (17.9%)Ohio_cell_5_3_2 25,078 (18.0%)Ohio_cell_5_3_3 22,337 (16.2%)Ohio_cell_5_3_4 22,431 (16.4%)Ohio_cell_5_3_5 22,201 (16.4%)Ohio_cell_5_3_6
AsianOhio_cell_5_4_0 3,915 (2.8%)Ohio_cell_5_4_1 4,232 (3.0%)Ohio_cell_5_4_2 4,367 (3.1%)Ohio_cell_5_4_3 4,311 (3.1%)Ohio_cell_5_4_4 4,380 (3.2%)Ohio_cell_5_4_5 4,285 (3.2%)Ohio_cell_5_4_6
American IndianOhio_cell_5_5_0 320 (0.2%)Ohio_cell_5_5_1 301 (0.2%)Ohio_cell_5_5_2 253 (0.2%)Ohio_cell_5_5_3 128 (0.1%)Ohio_cell_5_5_4 177 (0.1%)Ohio_cell_5_5_5 169 (0.1%)Ohio_cell_5_5_6
Hispanic (of any race)Ohio_cell_5_6_0 6,504 (4.7%)Ohio_cell_5_6_1 6,884 (4.9%)Ohio_cell_5_6_2 6,974 (5.0%)Ohio_cell_5_6_3 7,420 (5.4%)Ohio_cell_5_6_4 7,468 (5.5%)Ohio_cell_5_6_5 7,432 (5.5%)Ohio_cell_5_6_6
Total OhioOhio_cell_5_7_0 138,936 (100%)Ohio_cell_5_7_1 139,467 (100%)Ohio_cell_5_7_2 139,264 (100%)Ohio_cell_5_7_3 138,085 (100%)Ohio_cell_5_7_4 136,832 (100%)Ohio_cell_5_7_5 135,134 (100%)Ohio_cell_5_7_6


  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.Ohio_item_1_6

Ancestry Ohio_section_17

According to the 2010 United States Census, the racial composition of Ohio was the following: Ohio_sentence_192



Ohio racial breakdown of populationOhio_table_caption_6
Racial compositionOhio_header_cell_6_0_0 1990Ohio_header_cell_6_0_1 2000Ohio_header_cell_6_0_2 2010Ohio_header_cell_6_0_3
WhiteOhio_cell_6_1_0 87.8%Ohio_cell_6_1_1 85.0%Ohio_cell_6_1_2 82.7%Ohio_cell_6_1_3
African AmericanOhio_cell_6_2_0 10.6%Ohio_cell_6_2_1 11.5%Ohio_cell_6_2_2 12.2%Ohio_cell_6_2_3
AsianOhio_cell_6_3_0 0.8%Ohio_cell_6_3_1 1.2%Ohio_cell_6_3_2 1.7%Ohio_cell_6_3_3
NativeOhio_cell_6_4_0 0.2%Ohio_cell_6_4_1 0.2%Ohio_cell_6_4_2 0.2%Ohio_cell_6_4_3
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderOhio_cell_6_5_0

Ohio_cell_6_5_1 Ohio_cell_6_5_2 Ohio_cell_6_5_3
Other raceOhio_cell_6_6_0 0.5%Ohio_cell_6_6_1 0.8%Ohio_cell_6_6_2 1.1%Ohio_cell_6_6_3
Two or more racesOhio_cell_6_7_0 Ohio_cell_6_7_1 1.4%Ohio_cell_6_7_2 2.1%Ohio_cell_6_7_3

In 2010, there were 469,700 foreign-born residents in Ohio, corresponding to 4.1% of the total population. Ohio_sentence_193

Of these, 229,049 (2.0%) were naturalized US citizens and 240,699 (2.1%) were not. Ohio_sentence_194

The largest groups were: Mexico (54,166), India (50,256), China (34,901), Germany (19,219), Philippines (16,410), United Kingdom (15,917), Canada (14,223), Russia (11,763), South Korea (11,307), and Ukraine (10,681). Ohio_sentence_195

Though predominantly white, Ohio has large black populations in all major metropolitan areas throughout the state, Ohio has a significant Hispanic population made up of Mexicans in Toledo and Columbus, and Puerto Ricans in Cleveland and Columbus, and also has a significant and diverse Asian population in Columbus. Ohio_sentence_196

The largest ancestry groups (which the Census defines as not including racial terms) in the state are: Ohio_sentence_197


Ancestries claimed by less than 1% of the population include Sub-Saharan African, Puerto Rican, Swiss, Swedish, Arab, Greek, Norwegian, Romanian, Austrian, Lithuanian, Finnish, West Indian, Portuguese and Slovene. Ohio_sentence_198

Languages Ohio_section_18

About 6.7% of the population age 5 years and older reported speaking a language other than English, with 2.2% of the population speaking Spanish, 2.6% speaking other Indo-European languages, 1.1% speaking Asian and Austronesian languages, and 0.8% speaking other languages. Ohio_sentence_199

Numerically: 10,100,586 spoke English, 239,229 Spanish, 55,970 German, 38,990 Chinese, 33,125 Arabic, and 32,019 French. Ohio_sentence_200

In addition 59,881 spoke a Slavic language and 42,673 spoke another West Germanic language according to the 2010 Census. Ohio_sentence_201

Ohio also had the nation's largest population of Slovene speakers, second largest of Slovak speakers, second largest of Pennsylvania Dutch (German) speakers, and the third largest of Serbian speakers. Ohio_sentence_202

Religion Ohio_section_19

According to a Pew Forum poll, as of 2008, 76% of Ohioans identified as Christian. Ohio_sentence_203

Specifically, 26% of Ohio's population identified as Evangelical Protestant, 22% as Mainline Protestant, and 21% as Catholic. Ohio_sentence_204

17% of the population is unaffiliated with any religious body. Ohio_sentence_205

Small minorities of Jews (1%), Jehovah's Witnesses (1%), Muslims (1%), Hindus (<1%), Buddhists (1%), Mormons (1%), and other faiths (1-1.5%) exist. Ohio_sentence_206

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), in 2010 the largest denominations by adherents were the Catholic Church with 1,992,567; the United Methodist Church with 496,232; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 223,253, the Southern Baptist Convention with 171,000, the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ with 141,311, the United Church of Christ with 118,000, and the Presbyterian Church (USA) with 110,000. Ohio_sentence_207

With about 70,000 people in 2015 Ohio had the second largest Amish population of all states of the US. Ohio_sentence_208

According to the same data, a majority of Ohioans, 55%, feel religion is "very important", 30% that it is "somewhat important", and 15% that religion is "not too important/not important at all". Ohio_sentence_209

36% of Ohioans indicate that they attend religious services at least once weekly, 35% occasionally, and 27% seldom or never. Ohio_sentence_210

Economy Ohio_section_20

Main article: Economy of Ohio Ohio_sentence_211

See also: Ohio locations by per capita income Ohio_sentence_212

According to the U.S. Ohio_sentence_213 Census Bureau, the total number for employment in 2016 was 4,790,178. Ohio_sentence_214

The total number of unique employer establishments was 252,201, while the total number of nonemployer establishments was 785,833. Ohio_sentence_215

In 2010, Ohio was ranked second in the country for best business climate by Site Selection magazine, based on a business-activity database. Ohio_sentence_216

The state has also won three consecutive Governor's Cup awards from the magazine, based on business growth and developments. Ohio_sentence_217

As of 2016, Ohio's gross domestic product (GDP) was $626 billion. Ohio_sentence_218

This ranks Ohio's economy as the seventh-largest of all fifty states and the District of Columbia. Ohio_sentence_219

The Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council ranked the state No. Ohio_sentence_220

10 for best business-friendly tax systems in their Business Tax Index 2009, including a top corporate tax and capital gains rate that were both ranked No. Ohio_sentence_221

6 at 1.9%. Ohio_sentence_222

Ohio was ranked No. Ohio_sentence_223

11 by the council for best friendly-policy states according to their Small Business Survival Index 2009. Ohio_sentence_224

The Directorship's Boardroom Guide ranked the state No. Ohio_sentence_225

13 overall for best business climate, including No. Ohio_sentence_226

7 for best litigation climate. Ohio_sentence_227

Forbes ranked the state No. Ohio_sentence_228

8 for best regulatory environment in 2009. Ohio_sentence_229

Ohio has five of the top 115 colleges in the nation, according to U.S. Ohio_sentence_230 News and World Report's 2010 rankings, and was ranked No. Ohio_sentence_231

8 by the same magazine in 2008 for best high schools. Ohio_sentence_232

Ohio's unemployment rate stands at 4.5% as of February 2018, down from 10.7% in May 2010. Ohio_sentence_233

The state still lacks 45,000 jobs compared to the pre-recession numbers of 2007. Ohio_sentence_234

The labor force participation as of April 2015 is 63%, slightly above the national average. Ohio_sentence_235

Ohio's per capita income stands at $34,874. Ohio_sentence_236

As of 2016, Ohio's median household income is $52,334, and 14.6% of the population is below the poverty line Ohio_sentence_237

The manufacturing and financial activities sectors each compose 18.3% of Ohio's GDP, making them Ohio's largest industries by percentage of GDP. Ohio_sentence_238

Ohio has the third largest manufacturing workforce behind California and Texas. Ohio_sentence_239

Ohio has the largest bioscience sector in the Midwest, and is a national leader in the "green" economy. Ohio_sentence_240

Ohio is the largest producer in the country of plastics, rubber, fabricated metals, electrical equipment, and appliances. Ohio_sentence_241

5,212,000 Ohioans are currently employed by wage or salary. Ohio_sentence_242

By employment, Ohio's largest sector is trade/transportation/utilities, which employs 1,010,000 Ohioans, or 19.4% of Ohio's workforce, while the health care and education sector employs 825,000 Ohioans (15.8%). Ohio_sentence_243

Government employs 787,000 Ohioans (15.1%), manufacturing employs 669,000 Ohioans (12.9%), and professional and technical services employs 638,000 Ohioans (12.2%). Ohio_sentence_244

Ohio's manufacturing sector is the third-largest of all fifty United States states in terms of gross domestic product. Ohio_sentence_245

Fifty-nine of the United States' top 1,000 publicly traded companies (by revenue in 2008) are headquartered in Ohio, including Procter & Gamble, Goodyear Tire & Rubber, AK Steel, Timken, Abercrombie & Fitch, and Wendy's. Ohio_sentence_246

Ohio is also one of 41 states with its own lottery, the Ohio Lottery. Ohio_sentence_247

The Ohio Lottery has contributed over $15.5 billion to public education in its 34-year history. Ohio_sentence_248

Transportation Ohio_section_21

Ground travel Ohio_section_22

Many major east–west transportation corridors go through Ohio. Ohio_sentence_249

One of those pioneer routes, known in the early 20th century as "Main Market Route 3", was chosen in 1913 to become part of the historic Lincoln Highway which was the first road across America, connecting New York City to San Francisco. Ohio_sentence_250

In Ohio, the Lincoln Highway linked many towns and cities together, including Canton, Mansfield, Wooster, Lima, and Van Wert. Ohio_sentence_251

The arrival of the Lincoln Highway to Ohio was a major influence on the development of the state. Ohio_sentence_252

Upon the advent of the federal numbered highway system in 1926, the Lincoln Highway through Ohio became U.S. Ohio_sentence_253 Route 30. Ohio_sentence_254

Ohio also is home to 228 miles (367 km) of the Historic National Road, now U.S. Ohio_sentence_255 Route 40. Ohio_sentence_256

Ohio has a highly developed network of roads and interstate highways. Ohio_sentence_257

Major east-west through routes include the Ohio Turnpike (I-80/I-90) in the north, I-76 through Akron to Pennsylvania, I-70 through Columbus and Dayton, and the Appalachian Highway (State Route 32) running from West Virginia to Cincinnati. Ohio_sentence_258

Major north–south routes include I-75 in the west through Toledo, Dayton, and Cincinnati, I-71 through the middle of the state from Cleveland through Columbus and Cincinnati into Kentucky, and I-77 in the eastern part of the state from Cleveland through Akron, Canton, New Philadelphia and Marietta south into West Virginia. Ohio_sentence_259

Interstate 75 between Cincinnati and Dayton is one of the heaviest traveled sections of interstate in Ohio. Ohio_sentence_260

Ohio also has a highly developed network of signed state bicycle routes. Ohio_sentence_261

Many of them follow rail trails, with conversion ongoing. Ohio_sentence_262

The Ohio to Erie Trail (route 1) connects Cincinnati, Columbus, and Cleveland. Ohio_sentence_263

U.S. Ohio_sentence_264 Bicycle Route 50 traverses Ohio from Steubenville to the Indiana state line outside Richmond. Ohio_sentence_265

Ohio has several long-distance hiking trails, the most prominent of which is the Buckeye Trail which extends 1,444 mi (2,324 km) in a loop around the state of Ohio. Ohio_sentence_266

Part of it is on roads and part is on wooded trail. Ohio_sentence_267

Additionally, the North Country Trail (the longest of the eleven National Scenic Trails authorized by Congress) and the American Discovery Trail (a system of recreational trails and roads that collectively form a coast-to-coast route across the mid-tier of the United States) pass through Ohio. Ohio_sentence_268

Much of these two trails coincide with the Buckeye Trail. Ohio_sentence_269

Ohio has extensive railroads, though today most are only utilized by freight companies. Ohio_sentence_270

Major cities in the north and south of Ohio lie on Amtrak intercity rail lines. Ohio_sentence_271

The Capitol Limited and the Lake Shore Limited serve Toledo, Cleveland and other northern Ohio cities. Ohio_sentence_272

The Cardinal serves Cincinnati. Ohio_sentence_273

Columbus is the largest city in the United States without any form of passenger rail. Ohio_sentence_274

Its Union Station last had an inter-city train in 1979 with the National Limited. Ohio_sentence_275

Mass transit exists in many forms in Ohio cities, primarily through bus systems, though Cleveland has light and heavy rail through the GCRTA, and Cincinnati reestablished a streetcar line in 2016. Ohio_sentence_276

Air travel Ohio_section_23

See also: List of airports in Ohio Ohio_sentence_277

Ohio has four international airports, four commercial, and two military. Ohio_sentence_278

The four international include Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, John Glenn Columbus International Airport, Dayton International Airport, and Rickenbacker International Airport (one of two military airfields). Ohio_sentence_279

The other military airfield is Wright Patterson Air Force Base which is one of the largest Air Force bases in the United States. Ohio_sentence_280

Other major airports are located in Toledo and Akron. Ohio_sentence_281

Cincinnati's primary airport, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport, is in Hebron, Kentucky, and therefore is not included in Ohio airport lists. Ohio_sentence_282

Transportation lists Ohio_section_24


Law and government Ohio_section_25

Main article: Government of Ohio Ohio_sentence_283

The state government of Ohio consists of the executive, judicial, and legislative branches. Ohio_sentence_284

Executive branch Ohio_section_26

The executive branch is headed by the governor of Ohio. Ohio_sentence_285

The current governor is Mike DeWine since 2019, a member of the Republican Party. Ohio_sentence_286

A lieutenant governor succeeds the governor in the event of any removal from office, and performs any duties assigned by the governor. Ohio_sentence_287

The current lieutenant governor is Jon A. Husted. Ohio_sentence_288

The other elected constitutional offices in the executive branch are the secretary of state (Frank LaRose), auditor (Keith Faber), treasurer (Robert Sprague), and attorney general (Dave Yost). Ohio_sentence_289

Judicial branch Ohio_section_27

There are three levels of the Ohio state judiciary. Ohio_sentence_290

The lowest level is the court of common pleas: each county maintains its own constitutionally mandated court of common pleas, which maintain jurisdiction over "all justiciable matters". Ohio_sentence_291

The intermediate-level court system is the district court system. Ohio_sentence_292

Twelve courts of appeals exist, each retaining jurisdiction over appeals from common pleas, municipal, and county courts in a set geographical area. Ohio_sentence_293

A case heard in this system is decided by a three-judge panel, and each judge is elected. Ohio_sentence_294

The state's highest-ranking court is the Ohio Supreme Court. Ohio_sentence_295

A seven-justice panel composes the court, which, by its own discretion, hears appeals from the courts of appeals, and retains original jurisdiction over limited matters. Ohio_sentence_296

Legislative branch Ohio_section_28

The Ohio General Assembly is a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and House of Representatives. Ohio_sentence_297

The Senate is composed of 33 districts, each of which is represented by one senator. Ohio_sentence_298

Each senator represents approximately 330,000 constituents. Ohio_sentence_299

The House of Representatives is composed of 99 members. Ohio_sentence_300

Politics Ohio_section_29

Main article: Politics of Ohio Ohio_sentence_301

See also: Elections in Ohio and Political party strength in Ohio Ohio_sentence_302

"Mother of presidents" Ohio_section_30

Eight US presidents hailed from Ohio at the time of their elections, giving rise to its nickname "mother of presidents", a sobriquet it shares with Virginia. Ohio_sentence_303

It is also termed "modern mother of presidents", in contrast to Virginia's status as the origin of presidents earlier in American history. Ohio_sentence_304

Seven presidents were born in Ohio, making it second to Virginia's eight. Ohio_sentence_305

Virginia-born William Henry Harrison lived most of his life in Ohio and is also buried there. Ohio_sentence_306

Harrison conducted his political career while living on the family compound, founded by his father-in-law, John Cleves Symmes, in North Bend, Ohio. Ohio_sentence_307

The seven presidents born in Ohio were Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison (grandson of William Henry Harrison), William McKinley, William Howard Taft and Warren G. Harding. Ohio_sentence_308

All seven were Republicans. Ohio_sentence_309

Swing state Ohio_section_31

Ohio is considered a swing state, being won by either the Democratic or Republican candidates reasonably each election. Ohio_sentence_310

As a swing state, Ohio is usually targeted by both major-party campaigns, especially in competitive elections. Ohio_sentence_311

Pivotal in the election of 1888, Ohio has been a regular swing state since 1980. Ohio_sentence_312

Additionally, Ohio is considered a bellwether. Ohio_sentence_313

Historian R. Douglas Hurt asserts that not since Virginia "had a state made such a mark on national political affairs". Ohio_sentence_314

The Economist notes that "This slice of the mid-west contains a bit of everything American—part north-eastern and part southern, part urban and part rural, part hardscrabble poverty and part booming suburb", Since 1896, Ohio has had only three misses in the general election (Thomas E. Dewey in 1944, Richard Nixon in 1960, and Donald Trump in 2020) and had the longest perfect streak of any state, voting for the winning presidential candidate in each election from 1964 to 2016, and in 33 of the 38 held since the Civil War. Ohio_sentence_315

No Republican has ever won the presidency without winning Ohio. Ohio_sentence_316

As of 2019, there are more than 7.8 million registered Ohioan voters, with 1.3 million Democrats and 1.9 million Republicans. Ohio_sentence_317

They are disproportionate in age, with a million more over 65 than there are 18- to 24-year-olds. Ohio_sentence_318

Since the 2010 midterm elections, Ohio's voter demographic has leaned towards the Republican Party. Ohio_sentence_319

The governor, Mike DeWine, is Republican, as well as all other non-judicial statewide elected officials, including Lieutenant Governor Jon A. Husted, Attorney General Dave Yost, State Auditor Keith Faber, Secretary of State Frank LaRose and State Treasurer Robert Sprague. Ohio_sentence_320

In the Ohio State Senate the Republicans are the majority, 24–9, and in the Ohio House of Representatives the Republicans control the delegation 61–38. Ohio_sentence_321

Losing two seats in the U.S. Ohio_sentence_322 House of Representatives following the 2010 Census, Ohio has had 16 seats for the three presidential elections of the decade in 2012, 2016 and 2020. Ohio_sentence_323

As of the 2018 midterms, twelve federal representatives are Republicans while four are Democrats. Ohio_sentence_324

Marcy Kaptur (D-09) is the most senior member of the Ohio delegation to the U.S. House of Representatives. Ohio_sentence_325

The senior U.S. Ohio_sentence_326 senator, Sherrod Brown, is a Democrat, while the junior, Rob Portman, is a Republican. Ohio_sentence_327

Voter suppression Ohio_section_32

Since 1994, the state has had a policy of purging infrequent voters from its rolls. Ohio_sentence_328

In April 2016, a lawsuit was filed, challenging this policy on the grounds that it violated the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA) of 1993 and the Help America Vote Act of 2002. Ohio_sentence_329

In June, the federal district court ruled for the plaintiffs and entered a preliminary injunction applicable only to the November 2016 election. Ohio_sentence_330

The preliminary injunction was upheld in September by the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. Ohio_sentence_331

Had it not been upheld, thousands of voters would have been purged from the rolls just a few weeks before the election. Ohio_sentence_332

Still, it has been estimated that the state has removed up to two million voters since 2011. Ohio_sentence_333

Education Ohio_section_33

Ohio's system of public education is outlined in Article VI of the state constitution, and in Title XXXIII of the Ohio Revised Code. Ohio_sentence_334

Ohio University, the first university in the Northwest Territory, was also the first public institution in Ohio. Ohio_sentence_335

Substantively, Ohio's system is similar to those found in other states. Ohio_sentence_336

At the State level, the Ohio Department of Education, which is overseen by the Ohio State Board of Education, governs primary and secondary educational institutions. Ohio_sentence_337

At the municipal level, there are approximately 700 school districts statewide. Ohio_sentence_338

The Ohio Board of Regents coordinates and assists with Ohio's institutions of higher education which have recently been reorganized into the University System of Ohio under Governor Strickland. Ohio_sentence_339

The system averages an annual enrollment of more than 400,000 students, making it one of the five largest state university systems in the U.S. Ohio_sentence_340

Colleges and universities Ohio_section_34

Main article: List of colleges and universities in Ohio Ohio_sentence_341

Ohio schools consistently ranking in the top 50 nationally of the U.S. Ohio_sentence_342 News & World Report of liberal arts colleges are Kenyon College, Oberlin College, and Denison University. Ohio_sentence_343

Ranking in the top 100 nationally of the U.S. News & World Report of national research universities are Case Western Reserve University, Ohio State University and Miami University. Ohio_sentence_344


Libraries Ohio_section_35

Ohio is home to some of the nation's highest-ranked public libraries. Ohio_sentence_345

The 2008 study by Thomas J. Hennen Jr. ranked Ohio as number one in a state-by-state comparison. Ohio_sentence_346

For 2008, 31 of Ohio's library systems were all ranked in the top ten for American cities of their population category. Ohio_sentence_347


The Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN) is an organization that provides Ohio residents with internet access to their 251 public libraries. Ohio_sentence_348

OPLIN also provides Ohioans with free home access to high-quality, subscription research databases. Ohio_sentence_349

Ohio also offers the OhioLINK program, allowing Ohio's libraries (particularly those from colleges and universities) access to materials for the other libraries. Ohio_sentence_350

The program is largely successful in allowing researchers for access to books and other media that might not be otherwise available. Ohio_sentence_351

Culture Ohio_section_36

Arts Ohio_section_37

Music Ohio_section_38

Main article: Music of Ohio Ohio_sentence_352

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame are both located in Cleveland. Ohio_sentence_353

Cleveland disc jockey Alan Freed is credited with coining the term and promoting rock and roll in the early 1950s. Ohio_sentence_354

Cincinnati is home to the American Classical Music Hall of Fame and Museum. Ohio_sentence_355

Popular musicians from Ohio include Mamie Smith, Dean Martin, Dave Grohl, Tyler Joseph and Josh Dun of Twenty One Pilots, Frankie Yankovic, Doris Day, The McGuire Sisters, The Isley Brothers, Bobby Womack, Howard Hewett, Shirley Murdock, Boz Scaggs, John Legend, Marilyn Manson, Nine Inch Nails, Dan Auerbach and Patrick Carney of The Black Keys, Griffin Layne, Joe Dolce, Kid Cudi, Benjamin Orr of The Cars, Chrissie Hynde of The Pretenders, William "Bootsy" Collins, Stephanie Eulinberg of Kid Rock's Twisted Brown Trucker Band, and Devo. Ohio_sentence_356

Five Ohio musicians are Rock and Roll Hall of Fame members. Ohio_sentence_357

Performance arts Ohio_section_39

Playhouse Square in downtown Cleveland is the second largest performing arts center in the United States, home to ten theaters. Ohio_sentence_358

The Cleveland Orchestra is one of the historic Big Five orchestras in the U.S., and is considered one of the best worldwide. Ohio_sentence_359

Many other Ohio cities are home to their own orchestras, including Akron, Blue Ash, Canton, Cincinnati, Columbus, Dayton, Toledo, and Youngstown. Ohio_sentence_360

Cincinnati is home to its own ballet, symphony orchestra, pops orchestra, and opera, all housed at the Cincinnati Music Hall. Ohio_sentence_361

Dayton is also home to a ballet, orchestra, and opera, collectively known as the Dayton Performing Arts Alliance. Ohio_sentence_362

The Columbus Association for the Performing Arts manages seven historic Columbus area theaters. Ohio_sentence_363

Visual arts Ohio_section_40

Ohio is home to 30 art institutions, including the Columbus Museum of Art, Cincinnati Art Museum, Cleveland Museum of Art, and other entities. Ohio_sentence_364

The full list includes: Ohio_sentence_365

The Cincinnati Art Museum holds over 100,000 works spanning 6,000 years of human history, being among the most comprehensive collections in the Midwest. Ohio_sentence_366

Among its notable collections are works by Master of San Baudelio, Jorge Ingles, Sandro Botticelli (Judith with Head of Holofernes), Matteo di Giovanni, Domenico Tintoretto (Portrait of Venetian dux Marino Grimani), Mattia Preti, Bernardo Strozzi, Frans Hals, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (St. Thomas of Villanueva), Peter Paul Rubens (Samson and Delilah) and Aert van der Neer. Ohio_sentence_367

The collection also includes works by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, Claude Monet (Rocks At Belle Isle), and Pablo Picasso. Ohio_sentence_368

The museum also has a large collection of paintings by American painter Frank Duveneck (Elizabeth B. Duveneck). Ohio_sentence_369

The Cleveland Museum of Art is internationally renowned for its substantial holdings of Asian and Egyptian art, and has a permanent collection of more than 61,000 works from around the world. Ohio_sentence_370

It is the fourth-wealthiest art museum in the United States. Ohio_sentence_371

The Columbus Museum of Art holds nineteenth and early twentieth-century American and European art, including early Cubist paintings by Pablo Picasso and Juan Gris, works by François Boucher, Paul Cézanne, Mary Cassatt, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Edgar Degas, Henri Matisse, Claude Monet, Edward Hopper, and Norman Rockwell, and installations by Mel Chin, Josiah McElheny, Susan Philipsz, and Allan Sekula. Ohio_sentence_372

Also in Columbus, the Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum collection includes 450,000 original cartoons, 36,000 books, 51,000 serial titles, and 3,000 feet (910 m) of manuscript materials, plus 2.5 million comic strip clippings and tear sheets, making it the largest research library for cartoon art. Ohio_sentence_373

Youngstown's Butler Institute of American Art was the first museum to be dedicated exclusively to American art. Ohio_sentence_374

Sports Ohio_section_41

Main article: Sports in Ohio Ohio_sentence_375

Professional sports teams Ohio_section_42

Ohio is home to eight professional sports teams across the five different major leagues in the United States. Ohio_sentence_376

Current teams include the Cincinnati Reds and Cleveland Indians of Major League Baseball, the Columbus Crew SC and FC Cincinnati of Major League Soccer, the Cleveland Cavaliers of the National Basketball Association, the Cincinnati Bengals and Cleveland Browns of the National Football League, and the Columbus Blue Jackets of the National Hockey League. Ohio_sentence_377

Ohio has brought home seven World Series titles (Reds 1919, 1940, 1975, 1976, 1990; Indians 1920, 1948), two MLS Cups (Crew 2008, 2020), one NBA Championship (Cavaliers 2016), and nine NFL Championships (Pros 1920; Bulldogs 1922, 1923, 1924; Rams 1945; Browns 1950, 1954, 1955, 1964). Ohio_sentence_378

Despite this success in the NFL in the first half of the 20th century, no Ohio team has won the Super Bowl since its inception in 1967 or made an appearance since 1989. Ohio_sentence_379

No Ohio team has made an appearance in the Stanley Cup Finals. Ohio_sentence_380

Ohio played a central role in the development of both Major League Baseball and the National Football League. Ohio_sentence_381

Baseball's first fully professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings of 1869, were organized in Ohio. Ohio_sentence_382

An informal early-20th-century American football association, the Ohio League, was the direct predecessor of the NFL, although neither of Ohio's modern NFL franchises trace their roots to an Ohio League club. Ohio_sentence_383

The Pro Football Hall of Fame is located in Canton. Ohio_sentence_384

On a smaller scale, Ohio hosts minor league baseball, arena football, indoor football, mid-level hockey, and lower division soccer. Ohio_sentence_385

Winter Guard International has hosted national championships in the UD Arena at the University of Dayton in Dayton, Ohio from 1983 – 1989, 1991 – 1996, 1998 – 2000, 2002 – 2003, and 2005 – 2020. Ohio_sentence_386

Individual sports Ohio_section_43

The Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course has hosted several auto racing championships, including CART World Series, IndyCar Series, NASCAR Nationwide Series, Can-Am, Formula 5000, IMSA GT Championship, American Le Mans Series and Rolex Sports Car Series. Ohio_sentence_387

The Grand Prix of Cleveland also hosted CART races from 1982 to 2007. Ohio_sentence_388

The Eldora Speedway is a major dirt oval that hosts NASCAR Camping World Truck Series, World of Outlaws Sprint Cars and USAC Silver Crown Series races. Ohio_sentence_389

Ohio hosts two PGA Tour events, the WGC-Bridgestone Invitational and Memorial Tournament. Ohio_sentence_390

The Cincinnati Masters is an ATP World Tour Masters 1000 and WTA Premier 5 tennis tournament. Ohio_sentence_391

College sports Ohio_section_44

Main article: List of college athletic programs in Ohio Ohio_sentence_392

Ohio has eight NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision college football teams, divided among three different conferences. Ohio_sentence_393

It has also experienced considerable success in the secondary and tertiary tiers of college football divisions. Ohio_sentence_394

There is only one program in the Power Five conferences, the Ohio State Buckeyes, who play in the Big Ten Conference. Ohio_sentence_395

The football team is fifth in all-time winning percentage, with a 922–326–53 overall record and a 24–26 bowl record as of 2019. Ohio_sentence_396

The program has produced seven Heisman Trophy winners, forty conference titles, and eight undisputed national championships. Ohio_sentence_397

The men's basketball program has appeared in the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament 27 times. Ohio_sentence_398

In the Group of Five conferences, the Cincinnati Bearcats play as a member of the American Athletic Conference. Ohio_sentence_399

Their men's basketball team has over 1,800 wins, 33 March Madness appearances, and is currently on a nine-year streak of appearances as of 2019. Ohio_sentence_400

Six teams are represented in the Mid-American Conference: the Akron Zips, Bowling Green Falcons, Kent State Golden Flashes, Miami RedHawks, Ohio Bobcats and the Toledo Rockets. Ohio_sentence_401

The MAC headquarters are in Cleveland. Ohio_sentence_402

The Cincinnati–Miami rivalry game has been played in southwest Ohio every year since 1888, and is the oldest current non-conference NCAA football rivalry. Ohio_sentence_403

Other Division I schools, either part of the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision or not fielding in football include the Cleveland State Vikings, Xavier Musketeers, Wright State Raiders, and Youngstown State Penguins. Ohio_sentence_404

Xavier's men's basketball has performed particularly well, with 27 March Madness appearances. Ohio_sentence_405

Youngstown State's football has the third most NCAA Division I Football Championship wins, with 3. Ohio_sentence_406

There are 12 NCAA Division II universities and 22 NCAA Division III universities in Ohio. Ohio_sentence_407

See also Ohio_section_45


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohio.