Old Norse

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The term Old Norse can also refer specifically to Old West Norse. Old Norse_sentence_0

For other uses, see Norse. Old Norse_sentence_1

Not to be confused with Old North. Old Norse_sentence_2

Old Norse_table_infobox_0

Old NorseOld Norse_header_cell_0_0_0
Native toOld Norse_header_cell_0_1_0 Scandinavia, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Greenland and other Norse settlementsOld Norse_cell_0_1_1
RegionOld Norse_header_cell_0_2_0 Nordic countries, Great Britain, Ireland, Isle of Man, Normandy, Newfoundland, the Volga and places in-betweenOld Norse_cell_0_2_1
EthnicityOld Norse_header_cell_0_3_0 Vikings and their descendantsOld Norse_cell_0_3_1
EraOld Norse_header_cell_0_4_0 Evolved from Proto-Norse in the 7th century, developed into the various North Germanic languages by the 15th centuryOld Norse_cell_0_4_1
Language familyOld Norse_header_cell_0_5_0 Indo-EuropeanOld Norse_cell_0_5_1
Early formOld Norse_header_cell_0_6_0 Proto-NorseOld Norse_cell_0_6_1
Writing systemOld Norse_header_cell_0_7_0 Runic, later Latin (Old Norse alphabet)Old Norse_cell_0_7_1
Language codesOld Norse_header_cell_0_8_0
ISO 639-2Old Norse_header_cell_0_9_0 Old Norse_cell_0_9_1
ISO 639-3Old Norse_header_cell_0_10_0 Old Norse_cell_0_10_1
GlottologOld Norse_header_cell_0_11_0 Old Norse_cell_0_11_1

Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements from about the 7th to the 15th centuries. Old Norse_sentence_3

The Proto-Norse language developed into Old Norse by the 8th century, and Old Norse began to develop into the modern North Germanic languages in the mid-to-late 14th century, ending the language phase known as Old Norse. Old Norse_sentence_4

These dates, however, are not absolute, since written Old Norse is found well into the 15th century. Old Norse_sentence_5

Old Norse was divided into three dialects: Old West Norse, Old East Norse, and Old Gutnish. Old Norse_sentence_6

Old West and East Norse formed a dialect continuum, with no clear geographical boundary between them. Old Norse_sentence_7

For example, Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway, although Old Norwegian is classified as Old West Norse, and Old West Norse traits were found in western Sweden. Old Norse_sentence_8

Most speakers spoke Old East Norse in what is present-day Denmark and Sweden. Old Norse_sentence_9

Old Gutnish, the more obscure dialectal branch, is sometimes included in the Old East Norse dialect due to geographical associations. Old Norse_sentence_10

It developed its own unique features and shared in changes to both other branches. Old Norse_sentence_11

The 12th-century Icelandic Gray Goose Laws state that Swedes, Norwegians, Icelanders, and Danes spoke the same language, dǫnsk tunga ("Danish tongue"; speakers of Old East Norse would have said dansk tunga). Old Norse_sentence_12

Another term was norrœnt mál ("northern speech"). Old Norse_sentence_13

Today Old Norse has developed into the modern North Germanic languages Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian, Danish, and Swedish, of which Norwegian, Danish and Swedish retain considerable mutual intelligibility. Old Norse_sentence_14

Geographical distribution Old Norse_section_0

Old Icelandic was very close to Old Norwegian, and together they formed the Old West Norse dialect, which was also spoken in settlements in Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man, and northwest England, and in Norse settlements in Normandy. Old Norse_sentence_15

The Old East Norse dialect was spoken in Denmark, Sweden, settlements in Kievan Rus', eastern England, and Danish settlements in Normandy. Old Norse_sentence_16

The Old Gutnish dialect was spoken in Gotland and in various settlements in the East. Old Norse_sentence_17

In the 11th century, Old Norse was the most widely spoken European language, ranging from Vinland in the West to the Volga River in the East. Old Norse_sentence_18

In Kievan Rus', it survived the longest in Veliky Novgorod, probably lasting into the 13th century there. Old Norse_sentence_19

The age of the Swedish-speaking population of Finland is strongly contested, but at latest by the time of the Second Swedish Crusade in the 13th century, Swedish settlement had spread the language into the region. Old Norse_sentence_20

Modern descendants Old Norse_section_1

Main article: North Germanic languages Old Norse_sentence_21

The modern descendants of the Old West Norse dialect are the West Scandinavian languages of Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian, and the extinct Norn language of Orkney and Shetland; the descendants of the Old East Norse dialect are the East Scandinavian languages of Danish and Swedish. Old Norse_sentence_22

Norwegian is descended from Old West Norse, but over the centuries it has been heavily influenced by East Norse, particularly during the Denmark–Norway union. Old Norse_sentence_23

Among these, the grammar of Icelandic and Faroese have changed the least from Old Norse in the last thousand years. Old Norse_sentence_24

In contrast, the pronunciation of both Icelandic and Faroese have changed considerably from Old Norse. Old Norse_sentence_25

With Danish rule of the Faroe Islands, Faroese has also been influenced by Danish. Old Norse_sentence_26

Old Norse also had an influence on English dialects and Lowland Scots, which contain many Old Norse loanwords. Old Norse_sentence_27

It also influenced the development of the Norman language, and through it and to a smaller extent, that of modern French. Old Norse_sentence_28

Written modern Icelandic derives from the Old Norse phonemic writing system. Old Norse_sentence_29

Contemporary Icelandic-speakers can read Old Norse, which varies slightly in spelling as well as semantics and word order. Old Norse_sentence_30

However, pronunciation, particularly of the vowel phonemes, has changed at least as much in Icelandic as in the other North Germanic languages. Old Norse_sentence_31

Faroese retains many similarities but is influenced by Danish, Norwegian, and Gaelic (Scottish and/or Irish). Old Norse_sentence_32

Although Swedish, Danish and Norwegian have diverged the most, they still retain considerable mutual intelligibility. Old Norse_sentence_33

Speakers of modern Swedish, Norwegian and Danish can mostly understand each other without studying their neighboring languages, particularly if speaking slowly. Old Norse_sentence_34

The languages are also sufficiently similar in writing that they can mostly be understood across borders. Old Norse_sentence_35

This could be because these languages have been mutually affected by each other, as well as having a similar development influenced by Middle Low German. Old Norse_sentence_36

Other influenced languages Old Norse_section_2

Various other languages, which are not closely related, have been heavily influenced by Norse, particularly the Norman language. Old Norse_sentence_37

Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Lithuanian, Latvian, Finnish and Estonian also have a number of Norse loanwords; the words Rus and Russia, according to one theory, may be named after the Rus' people, a Norse tribe, probably from present-day east-central Sweden. Old Norse_sentence_38

The current Finnish and Estonian words for Sweden are Ruotsi and Rootsi, respectively. Old Norse_sentence_39

A number of loanwords have been introduced into Irish, many associated with fishing and sailing. Old Norse_sentence_40

A similar influence is found in Scottish Gaelic, with over one hundred loanwords estimated to be in the language, many of which are related to fishing and sailing. Old Norse_sentence_41

Phonology Old Norse_section_3

Vowels Old Norse_section_4

The vowel phonemes mostly come in pairs of long and short. Old Norse_sentence_42

The standardized orthography marks the long vowels with an acute accent. Old Norse_sentence_43

In medieval manuscripts, it is often unmarked but sometimes marked with an accent or through gemination. Old Norse_sentence_44

Old Norse had nasalized versions of all ten vowel places. Old Norse_sentence_45

These occurred as allophones of the vowels before nasal consonants and in places where a nasal had followed it in an older form of the word, before it was absorbed into a neighboring sound. Old Norse_sentence_46

If the nasal was absorbed by a stressed vowel, it would also lengthen the vowel. Old Norse_sentence_47

These nasalizations also occurred in the other Germanic languages, but were not retained long. Old Norse_sentence_48

They were noted in the First Grammatical Treatise, and otherwise might have remained unknown. Old Norse_sentence_49

The First Grammarian marked these with a dot above the letter. Old Norse_sentence_50

This notation did not catch on, and would soon be obsolete. Old Norse_sentence_51

Nasal and oral vowels probably merged around the 11th century in most of Old East Norse. Old Norse_sentence_52

However, the distinction still holds in Dalecarlian dialects. Old Norse_sentence_53

The dots in the following vowel table separate the oral from nasal phonemes. Old Norse_sentence_54

Old Norse_table_general_1

Generic vowel system c. 9th–12th centuriesOld Norse_table_caption_1
Old Norse_header_cell_1_0_0 Front vowelsOld Norse_header_cell_1_0_1 Back vowelsOld Norse_header_cell_1_0_5
UnroundedOld Norse_header_cell_1_1_0 RoundedOld Norse_header_cell_1_1_2 UnroundedOld Norse_header_cell_1_1_4 RoundedOld Norse_header_cell_1_1_6
CloseOld Norse_header_cell_1_2_0 i ĩOld Norse_cell_1_2_1 iː ĩːOld Norse_cell_1_2_2 yOld Norse_cell_1_2_3 yː ỹːOld Norse_cell_1_2_4 Old Norse_cell_1_2_5 Old Norse_cell_1_2_6 u ũOld Norse_cell_1_2_7 uː ũːOld Norse_cell_1_2_8
MidOld Norse_header_cell_1_3_0 eOld Norse_cell_1_3_1 eː ẽːOld Norse_cell_1_3_2 ø ø̃Old Norse_cell_1_3_3 øː ø̃ːOld Norse_cell_1_3_4 Old Norse_cell_1_3_5 Old Norse_cell_1_3_6 o õOld Norse_cell_1_3_7 oː õːOld Norse_cell_1_3_8
Open, open-midOld Norse_header_cell_1_4_0 ɛ ɛ̃Old Norse_cell_1_4_1 ɛː ɛ̃ːOld Norse_cell_1_4_2 œ œ̃Old Norse_cell_1_4_3 Old Norse_cell_1_4_4 a ãOld Norse_cell_1_4_5 aː ãːOld Norse_cell_1_4_6 ɔ ɔ̃Old Norse_cell_1_4_7 ɔː ɔ̃ːOld Norse_cell_1_4_8

Note: The open or open-mid vowels may be transcribed differently: Old Norse_sentence_55

Old Norse_unordered_list_0

  • /æ/ = /ɛ/Old Norse_item_0_0
  • /ɒ/ = /ɔ/Old Norse_item_0_1
  • /ɑ/ = /a/Old Norse_item_0_2

Sometime around the 13th century, /ɔ/ (spelled ǫ) merged with /ø/ or /o/ in most dialects except Old Danish, and Icelandic where /ɔ/ (ǫ) merged with /ø/. Old Norse_sentence_56

This can be determined by their distinction within the 12th-century First Grammatical Treatise but not within the early 13th-century Prose Edda. Old Norse_sentence_57

The nasal vowels, also noted in the First Grammatical Treatise, are assumed to have been lost in most dialects by this time (but notably they are retained in Elfdalian). Old Norse_sentence_58

See Old Icelandic for the mergers of /øː/ (spelled œ) with /ɛː/ (spelled æ) and /ɛ/ (spelled ę) with /e/ (e). Old Norse_sentence_59

Old Norse_table_general_2

Generic vowel system c. 13th–14th centuriesOld Norse_table_caption_2
Old Norse_header_cell_2_0_0 Front vowelsOld Norse_header_cell_2_0_1 Back vowelsOld Norse_header_cell_2_0_5
UnroundedOld Norse_header_cell_2_1_0 RoundedOld Norse_header_cell_2_1_2 UnroundedOld Norse_header_cell_2_1_4 RoundedOld Norse_header_cell_2_1_6
HighOld Norse_header_cell_2_2_0 iOld Norse_cell_2_2_1 Old Norse_cell_2_2_2 yOld Norse_cell_2_2_3 Old Norse_cell_2_2_4 Old Norse_cell_2_2_5 Old Norse_cell_2_2_6 uOld Norse_cell_2_2_7 Old Norse_cell_2_2_8
MidOld Norse_header_cell_2_3_0 eOld Norse_cell_2_3_1 Old Norse_cell_2_3_2 øOld Norse_cell_2_3_3 øːOld Norse_cell_2_3_4 Old Norse_cell_2_3_5 Old Norse_cell_2_3_6 oOld Norse_cell_2_3_7 Old Norse_cell_2_3_8
Low/Low-midOld Norse_header_cell_2_4_0 ɛOld Norse_cell_2_4_1 ɛːOld Norse_cell_2_4_2 Old Norse_cell_2_4_3 Old Norse_cell_2_4_4 aOld Norse_cell_2_4_5 Old Norse_cell_2_4_6 Old Norse_cell_2_4_7 Old Norse_cell_2_4_8

Old Norse had three diphthong phonemes: /ɛi/, /ɔu/, /øy ~ ɛy/ (spelled ei, au, ey respectively). Old Norse_sentence_60

In East Norse these would monophthongize and merge with /eː/ and /øː/; whereas in West Norse and its descendants the diphthongs remained. Old Norse_sentence_61

Old Norse_table_general_3

History of Old Norse and Old Icelandic vowelsOld Norse_table_caption_3
Proto-GermanicOld Norse_header_cell_3_0_0 Northwest GermanicOld Norse_header_cell_3_0_1 Primitive Old West NorseOld Norse_header_cell_3_0_2 Old Icelandic

(1st Grammarian)Old Norse_header_cell_3_0_3

Later Old IcelandicOld Norse_header_cell_3_0_4 Example (Old Norse)Old Norse_header_cell_3_0_5
aOld Norse_cell_3_1_0 aOld Norse_cell_3_1_1 a ⟨a⟩Old Norse_cell_3_1_2 aOld Norse_cell_3_1_3 aOld Norse_cell_3_1_4 land "land" < *landąOld Norse_cell_3_1_5
aOld Norse_cell_3_2_0 a (+i-mut)Old Norse_cell_3_2_1 ɛ ⟨ę⟩Old Norse_cell_3_2_2 e ⟨e⟩Old Norse_cell_3_2_3 eOld Norse_cell_3_2_4 menn "men" < *mannizOld Norse_cell_3_2_5
aOld Norse_cell_3_3_0 a (+u/w-mut)Old Norse_cell_3_3_1 ɔ ⟨ǫ⟩Old Norse_cell_3_3_2 ɔOld Norse_cell_3_3_3 ø ⟨ö⟩Old Norse_cell_3_3_4 lǫnd "lands" < *landu < *landō; söngr "song" < sǫngr < *sangwazOld Norse_cell_3_3_5
aOld Norse_cell_3_4_0 a (+i-mut +w-mut)Old Norse_cell_3_4_1 œ ⟨ø₂⟩Old Norse_cell_3_4_2 øOld Norse_cell_3_4_3 ø ⟨ö⟩Old Norse_cell_3_4_4 gøra "to make" < *garwijanąOld Norse_cell_3_4_5
æː ⟨ē⟩Old Norse_cell_3_5_0 Old Norse_cell_3_5_1 aː ⟨á⟩Old Norse_cell_3_5_2 Old Norse_cell_3_5_3 Old Norse_cell_3_5_4 láta "to let" < *lētanąOld Norse_cell_3_5_5
æː ⟨ē⟩Old Norse_cell_3_6_0 aː (+i-mut)Old Norse_cell_3_6_1 ɛː ⟨æ⟩Old Norse_cell_3_6_2 ɛːOld Norse_cell_3_6_3 ɛːOld Norse_cell_3_6_4 mæla "to speak" < *mālijan < *mēlijanąOld Norse_cell_3_6_5
æː ⟨ē⟩Old Norse_cell_3_7_0 aː (+u-mut)Old Norse_cell_3_7_1 ɔː ⟨ǫ́⟩Old Norse_cell_3_7_2 ɔːOld Norse_cell_3_7_3 aː ⟨á⟩Old Norse_cell_3_7_4 mǫ́l "meals" < *mālu < *mēlōOld Norse_cell_3_7_5
eOld Norse_cell_3_8_0 eOld Norse_cell_3_8_1 e ⟨e⟩Old Norse_cell_3_8_2 eOld Norse_cell_3_8_3 eOld Norse_cell_3_8_4 sex "six" < *seks; bresta "to burst" < *brestanąOld Norse_cell_3_8_5
eOld Norse_cell_3_9_0 e (+u/w-mut)Old Norse_cell_3_9_1 ø ⟨ø₁⟩Old Norse_cell_3_9_2 øOld Norse_cell_3_9_3 ø ⟨ö⟩Old Norse_cell_3_9_4 tøgr "ten" < *teguzOld Norse_cell_3_9_5
eOld Norse_cell_3_10_0 e (broken)Old Norse_cell_3_10_1 ea ⟨ea⟩Old Norse_cell_3_10_2 ja ⟨ja⟩Old Norse_cell_3_10_3 jaOld Norse_cell_3_10_4 gjalda "to repay" < *geldanąOld Norse_cell_3_10_5
eOld Norse_cell_3_11_0 e (broken +u/w-mut)Old Norse_cell_3_11_1 eo/io ⟨eo⟩/⟨io⟩Old Norse_cell_3_11_2 jo > jɔ ⟨jǫ⟩Old Norse_cell_3_11_3 jø ⟨jö⟩Old Norse_cell_3_11_4 skjǫldr "shield" < *skelduzOld Norse_cell_3_11_5
eː ⟨ē₂⟩Old Norse_cell_3_12_0 Old Norse_cell_3_12_1 eː ⟨é⟩Old Norse_cell_3_12_2 Old Norse_cell_3_12_3 Old Norse_cell_3_12_4 lét "let (past tense)" < *lē₂tOld Norse_cell_3_12_5
iOld Norse_cell_3_13_0 iOld Norse_cell_3_13_1 i ⟨i⟩Old Norse_cell_3_13_2 iOld Norse_cell_3_13_3 iOld Norse_cell_3_13_4 mikill "great" < *mikilazOld Norse_cell_3_13_5
iOld Norse_cell_3_14_0 i (+w-mut)Old Norse_cell_3_14_1 y ⟨y⟩Old Norse_cell_3_14_2 yOld Norse_cell_3_14_3 y(ː)Old Norse_cell_3_14_4 slyngva "to sling" < *slingwanąOld Norse_cell_3_14_5
Old Norse_cell_3_15_0 Old Norse_cell_3_15_1 iː ⟨í⟩Old Norse_cell_3_15_2 Old Norse_cell_3_15_3 Old Norse_cell_3_15_4 líta "to look" < *lītanąOld Norse_cell_3_15_5
Old Norse_cell_3_16_0 Old Norse_cell_3_16_1 oː ⟨ó⟩Old Norse_cell_3_16_2 Old Norse_cell_3_16_3 Old Norse_cell_3_16_4 fór "went" < *fōr; mót "meeting" < mōtąOld Norse_cell_3_16_5
Old Norse_cell_3_17_0 oː (+i-mut)Old Norse_cell_3_17_1 øː ⟨œ⟩Old Norse_cell_3_17_2 øːOld Norse_cell_3_17_3 ɛː ⟨æ⟩Old Norse_cell_3_17_4 mœðr "mothers" < *mōdrizOld Norse_cell_3_17_5
uOld Norse_cell_3_18_0 uOld Norse_cell_3_18_1 u ⟨u⟩Old Norse_cell_3_18_2 uOld Norse_cell_3_18_3 uOld Norse_cell_3_18_4 una "to be content" < *unanąOld Norse_cell_3_18_5
uOld Norse_cell_3_19_0 u (+i-mut)Old Norse_cell_3_19_1 y ⟨y⟩Old Norse_cell_3_19_2 yOld Norse_cell_3_19_3 yOld Norse_cell_3_19_4 kyn "race" < *kunjąOld Norse_cell_3_19_5
uOld Norse_cell_3_20_0 u (+a-mut)Old Norse_cell_3_20_1 o ⟨o⟩Old Norse_cell_3_20_2 oOld Norse_cell_3_20_3 oOld Norse_cell_3_20_4 fogl/fugl "bird" < *fuglaz; morginn "morning" < *murganazOld Norse_cell_3_20_5
Old Norse_cell_3_21_0 Old Norse_cell_3_21_1 uː ⟨ú⟩Old Norse_cell_3_21_2 Old Norse_cell_3_21_3 Old Norse_cell_3_21_4 drúpa "to droop" < *drūpanąOld Norse_cell_3_21_5
Old Norse_cell_3_22_0 uː (+i-mut)Old Norse_cell_3_22_1 yː ⟨ý⟩Old Norse_cell_3_22_2 Old Norse_cell_3_22_3 Old Norse_cell_3_22_4 mýss "mice" < mūsizOld Norse_cell_3_22_5
aiOld Norse_cell_3_23_0 aiOld Norse_cell_3_23_1 ai > ɛi ⟨ei⟩Old Norse_cell_3_23_2 ɛiOld Norse_cell_3_23_3 ɛiOld Norse_cell_3_23_4 bein, Gut. bain "bone" < *bainąOld Norse_cell_3_23_5
aiOld Norse_cell_3_24_0 ai (+w-mut)Old Norse_cell_3_24_1 øy ⟨ey⟩, ⟨øy⟩Old Norse_cell_3_24_2 øy ⟨ey⟩Old Norse_cell_3_24_3 ɛyOld Norse_cell_3_24_4 kveykva "to kindle" < *kwaikwanąOld Norse_cell_3_24_5
auOld Norse_cell_3_25_0 auOld Norse_cell_3_25_1 au > ɔu ⟨au⟩Old Norse_cell_3_25_2 ɔu ⟨au⟩Old Norse_cell_3_25_3 auOld Norse_cell_3_25_4 lauss "loose" < *lausazOld Norse_cell_3_25_5
auOld Norse_cell_3_26_0 au (+i-mut)Old Norse_cell_3_26_1 øy ⟨ey⟩, ⟨øy⟩Old Norse_cell_3_26_2 øy ⟨ey⟩Old Norse_cell_3_26_3 ɛyOld Norse_cell_3_26_4 leysa "to loosen" < *lausijanąOld Norse_cell_3_26_5
euOld Norse_cell_3_27_0 euOld Norse_cell_3_27_1 eu ⟨eu⟩Old Norse_cell_3_27_2 juː ⟨jú⟩Old Norse_cell_3_27_3 juːOld Norse_cell_3_27_4 djúpr "deep" < *deupazOld Norse_cell_3_27_5
euOld Norse_cell_3_28_0 eu (+dental)Old Norse_cell_3_28_1 eo ⟨eo⟩Old Norse_cell_3_28_2 joː ⟨jó⟩Old Norse_cell_3_28_3 juːOld Norse_cell_3_28_4 bjóða/bjúða "to offer" < *beudanąOld Norse_cell_3_28_5
Old Norse_cell_3_29_0 Old Norse_cell_3_29_1 Old Norse_cell_3_29_2 Old Norse_cell_3_29_3 VOld Norse_cell_3_29_4 komȧ < *kwemaną "to come, arrive"; OWN vėtr/vėttr < vintr < *wintruz "winter"Old Norse_cell_3_29_5
ṼːOld Norse_cell_3_30_0 ṼːOld Norse_cell_3_30_1 ṼːOld Norse_cell_3_30_2 ṼːOld Norse_cell_3_30_3 Old Norse_cell_3_30_4 hȧ́r "shark" < *hanhaz; ȯ́rar "our" (pl.) < *unseraz; ø̇́rȧ "younger" (acc. neut. wk.) < *junhiząOld Norse_cell_3_30_5

Consonants Old Norse_section_5

Old Norse has six plosive phonemes, /p/ being rare word-initially and /d/ and /b/ pronounced as voiced fricative allophones between vowels except in compound words (e.g. veðrabati), already in the Proto-Germanic language (e.g. *b *[β] > [v] between vowels). Old Norse_sentence_62

The /ɡ/ phoneme was pronounced as [ɡ] after an n or another g and as [k] before /s/ and /t/. Old Norse_sentence_63

Some accounts have it a voiced velar fricative [ɣ] in all cases, and others have that realisation only in the middle of words and between vowels (with it otherwise being realised [ɡ]). Old Norse_sentence_64

The Old East Norse /ʀ/ was an apical consonant, with its precise position is unknown; it is reconstructed as a palatal sibilant. Old Norse_sentence_65

It descended from Proto-Germanic /z/ and eventually developed into /r/, as had already occurred in Old West Norse. Old Norse_sentence_66

Old Norse_table_general_4

Old Norse_header_cell_4_0_0 LabialOld Norse_header_cell_4_0_1 DentalOld Norse_header_cell_4_0_2 AlveolarOld Norse_header_cell_4_0_3 PostalveolarOld Norse_header_cell_4_0_4 PalatalOld Norse_header_cell_4_0_5 VelarOld Norse_header_cell_4_0_6 LabiovelarOld Norse_header_cell_4_0_7 GlottalOld Norse_header_cell_4_0_8
PlosiveOld Norse_header_cell_4_1_0 p bOld Norse_cell_4_1_1 t dOld Norse_cell_4_1_2 Old Norse_cell_4_1_3 Old Norse_cell_4_1_4 Old Norse_cell_4_1_5 k ɡOld Norse_cell_4_1_6 Old Norse_cell_4_1_7 Old Norse_cell_4_1_8
NasalOld Norse_header_cell_4_2_0 mOld Norse_cell_4_2_1 nOld Norse_cell_4_2_2 Old Norse_cell_4_2_3 Old Norse_cell_4_2_4 Old Norse_cell_4_2_5 (ŋ)Old Norse_cell_4_2_6 Old Norse_cell_4_2_7 Old Norse_cell_4_2_8
FricativeOld Norse_header_cell_4_3_0 f (v)Old Norse_cell_4_3_1 θ (ð)Old Norse_cell_4_3_2 sOld Norse_cell_4_3_3 ʀOld Norse_cell_4_3_4 Old Norse_cell_4_3_5 (ɣ)Old Norse_cell_4_3_6 Old Norse_cell_4_3_7 hOld Norse_cell_4_3_8
TrillOld Norse_header_cell_4_4_0 Old Norse_cell_4_4_1 Old Norse_cell_4_4_2 rOld Norse_cell_4_4_3 Old Norse_cell_4_4_4 Old Norse_cell_4_4_5 Old Norse_cell_4_4_6 Old Norse_cell_4_4_7 Old Norse_cell_4_4_8
ApproximantOld Norse_header_cell_4_5_0 Old Norse_cell_4_5_1 Old Norse_cell_4_5_2 Old Norse_cell_4_5_3 Old Norse_cell_4_5_4 jOld Norse_cell_4_5_5 Old Norse_cell_4_5_6 wOld Norse_cell_4_5_7 Old Norse_cell_4_5_8
Lateral approximantOld Norse_header_cell_4_6_0 Old Norse_cell_4_6_1 Old Norse_cell_4_6_2 lOld Norse_cell_4_6_3 Old Norse_cell_4_6_4 Old Norse_cell_4_6_5 Old Norse_cell_4_6_6 Old Norse_cell_4_6_7 Old Norse_cell_4_6_8

The consonant digraphs hl, hr, hn occurred word-initially. Old Norse_sentence_67

It is unclear whether they were sequences of two consonants (with the first element realised as /h/ or perhaps /x/) or as single voiceless sonorants /l̥/, /r̥/ and /n̥/ respectively. Old Norse_sentence_68

In Old Norwegian, Old Danish and later Old Swedish, the groups hl, hr, hn were reduced to plain l, r, n, which suggests that they had most likely already been pronounced as voiceless sonorants by Old Norse times. Old Norse_sentence_69

The pronunciation of hv is unclear, but it may have been /xʷ/ (the Proto-Germanic pronunciation), /hʷ/ or the similar phoneme /ʍ/. Old Norse_sentence_70

Unlike the three other digraphs, it was retained much longer in all dialects. Old Norse_sentence_71

Without ever developing into a voiceless sonorant in Icelandic, it instead underwent fortition to a plosive /kv/, which suggests that instead of being a voiceless sonorant, it retained a stronger frication. Old Norse_sentence_72

Orthography Old Norse_section_6

Main article: Old Norse orthography Old Norse_sentence_73

Unlike Proto-Norse, which was written with the Elder Futhark, runic Old Norse was originally written with the Younger Futhark, which had only 16 letters. Old Norse_sentence_74

Because of the limited number of runes, several runes were used for different sounds, and long and short vowels were not distinguished in writing. Old Norse_sentence_75

Medieval runes came into use some time later. Old Norse_sentence_76

As for the Latin alphabet, there was no standardized orthography in use in the Middle Ages. Old Norse_sentence_77

A modified version of the letter wynn called vend was used briefly for the sounds /u/, /v/, and /w/. Old Norse_sentence_78

Long vowels were sometimes marked with acutes but also sometimes left unmarked or geminated. Old Norse_sentence_79

The standardized Old Norse spelling was created in the 19th century and is, for the most part, phonemic. Old Norse_sentence_80

The most notable deviation is that the nonphonemic difference between the voiced and the voiceless dental fricative is marked. Old Norse_sentence_81

The oldest texts and runic inscriptions use þ exclusively. Old Norse_sentence_82

Long vowels are denoted with acutes. Old Norse_sentence_83

Most other letters are written with the same glyph as the IPA phoneme, except as shown in the table below. Old Norse_sentence_84

Accent Old Norse_section_7

See also: Danish stød, Norwegian tonal stress, and Swedish tonal stress Old Norse_sentence_85

Primary stress in Old Norse falls on the word stem, so that hyrjar would be pronounced /ˈhyr.jar/. Old Norse_sentence_86

In compound words, secondary stress falls on the second stem (e.g. , /ˈlɛːɾ.iˌswɛinː/). Old Norse_sentence_87

Phonological processes Old Norse_section_8

Ablaut Old Norse_section_9

Ablaut patterns are groups of vowels which are swapped, or ablauted, in the nucleus of a word. Old Norse_sentence_88

Strong verbs ablaut the lemma's nucleus to derive the past forms of the verb. Old Norse_sentence_89

This parallels English conjugation, where, e.g., the nucleus of sing becomes sang in the past tense and sung in the past participle. Old Norse_sentence_90

Some verbs are derived by ablaut, as the present-in-past verbs do by consequence of being derived from the past tense forms of strong verbs. Old Norse_sentence_91

Umlaut Old Norse_section_10

See also: Germanic umlaut and Old Norse morphophonology Old Norse_sentence_92

Umlaut or mutation is an assimilatory process acting on vowels preceding a vowel or semivowel of a different vowel backness. Old Norse_sentence_93

In the case of i-umlaut and ʀ-umlaut, this entails a fronting of back vowels, with retention of lip rounding. Old Norse_sentence_94

In the case of u-umlaut, this entails labialization of unrounded vowels. Old Norse_sentence_95

Umlaut is phonemic and in many situations grammatically significant as a side effect of losing the Proto-Germanic morphological suffixes whose vowels created the umlaut allophones. Old Norse_sentence_96

Some /y/, /yː/, /ø/, /øː/, /ɛ/, /ɛː/, /øy/, and all /ɛi/ were obtained by i-umlaut from /u/, /uː/, /o/, /oː/, /a/, /aː/, /au/, and /ai/ respectively. Old Norse_sentence_97

Others were formed via ʀ-umlaut from /u/, /uː/, /a/, /aː/, and /au/. Old Norse_sentence_98

Some /y/, /yː/, /ø/, /øː/, and all /ɔ/, /ɔː/ were obtained by u-umlaut from /i/, /iː/, /e/, /eː/, and /a/, /aː/ respectively. Old Norse_sentence_99

See Old Icelandic for information on /ɔː/. Old Norse_sentence_100

/œ/ was obtained through a simultaneous u- and i-umlaut of /a/. Old Norse_sentence_101

It appears in words like (gjǫra, geyra), from Proto-Germanic , and commonly in verbs with a velar consonant before the suffix like < . Old Norse_sentence_102

OEN often preserves the original value of the vowel directly preceding runic ʀ while OWN receives ʀ-umlaut. Old Norse_sentence_103

Compare runic OEN glaʀ, haʀi, hrauʀ with OWN gler, heri (later héri), hrøyrr/hreyrr ("glass", "hare", "pile of rocks"). Old Norse_sentence_104

U-umlaut Old Norse_section_11

U-umlaut is more common in Old West Norse in both phonemic and allophonic positions, while it only occurs sparsely in post-runic Old East Norse and even in runic Old East Norse. Old Norse_sentence_105

Compare West Old Norse (accusative of faðir, 'father'), (guardian/caretaker), (eagle), ('earth', Modern Icelandic: ), ('milk', Modern Icelandic: ) with Old Swedish faður, varðer, ørn, jorð, miolk and Modern Swedish , , , , with the latter two demonstrating the u-umlaut found in Swedish. Old Norse_sentence_106

This is still a major difference between Swedish and Faroese and Icelandic today. Old Norse_sentence_107

Plurals of neuters do not have u-umlaut at all in Swedish, but in Faroese and Icelandic they do, for example the Faroese and Icelandic plurals of the word , and respectively, in contrast to the Swedish plural and numerous other examples. Old Norse_sentence_108

That also applies to almost all feminine nouns, for example the largest feminine noun group, the o-stem nouns (except the Swedish noun jord mentioned above), and even i-stem nouns and root nouns, such as Old West Norse mǫrk ( in Icelandic) in comparison with Modern and Old Swedish . Old Norse_sentence_109

Breaking Old Norse_section_12

See also: Vowel breaking Old Norse_sentence_110

Vowel breaking, or fracture, caused a front vowel to be split into a semivowel-vowel sequence before a back vowel in the following syllable. Old Norse_sentence_111

While West Norse only broke e, East Norse also broke i. Old Norse_sentence_112

The change was blocked by a v, l, or r preceding the potentially-broken vowel. Old Norse_sentence_113

Some /ja/ or /jɔ/ and /jaː/ or /jɔː/ result from breaking of /e/ and /eː/ respectively. Old Norse_sentence_114

Assimilation or elision of inflectional ʀ Old Norse_section_13

When a noun, pronoun, adjective, or verb has a long vowel or diphthong in the accented syllable and its stem ends in a single l, n, or s, the r (or the elder r- or z-variant ʀ) in an ending is assimilated. Old Norse_sentence_115

When the accented vowel is short, the ending is dropped. Old Norse_sentence_116

The nominative of the strong masculine declension and some i-stem feminine nouns uses one such -r (ʀ). Old Norse_sentence_117

Óðin-r (Óðin-ʀ) becomes Óðinn instead of *Óðinr (*Óðinʀ). Old Norse_sentence_118

The verb blása 'to blow', has third person present tense blæss for "[he] blows" rather than *blæsr (*blæsʀ). Old Norse_sentence_119

Similarly, the verb skína 'to shine' had present tense third person skínn (rather than *skínr, *skínʀ); while kala 'to cool down' had present tense third person kell (rather than *kelr, *kelʀ). Old Norse_sentence_120

The rule is not absolute, with certain counter-examples such as vinr, which has the synonym vin, yet retains the unabsorbed version, and jǫtunn, where assimilation takes place even though the root vowel, ǫ, is short. Old Norse_sentence_121

The clusters */Clʀ, Csʀ, Cnʀ, Crʀ/ cannot yield */Clː, Csː, Cnː, Crː/ respectively, instead /Cl, Cs, Cn, Cr/. Old Norse_sentence_122

The effect of this shortening can result in the lack of distinction between some forms of the noun. Old Norse_sentence_123

In the case of vetr, the nominative and accusative singular and plural forms are identical. Old Norse_sentence_124

The nominative singular and nominative and accusative plural would otherwise have been OWN *vetrr, OEN *vintrʀ. Old Norse_sentence_125

These forms are impossible because the cluster */Crʀ/ cannot be realized as /Crː/, nor as */Crʀ/, nor as */Cʀː/. Old Norse_sentence_126

The same shortening as in vetr also occurs in lax = laks (as opposed to *lakss, *laksʀ), botn (as opposed to *botnn, *botnʀ), and jarl (as opposed to *jarll, *jarlʀ). Old Norse_sentence_127

Furthermore, wherever the cluster */rʀ/ is expected to exist, such as in the male names Ragnarr, Steinarr (supposedly *Ragnarʀ, *Steinarʀ), the result is apparently always /rː/ rather than */rʀ/ or */ʀː/. Old Norse_sentence_128

This is observable in the Runic corpus. Old Norse_sentence_129

Phonotactics Old Norse_section_14

Blocking of ii, uu Old Norse_section_15

I/j adjacent to i, e, their u-umlauts, and æ was not possible, nor u/v adjacent to u, o, their i-umlauts, and ǫ. Old Norse_sentence_130

At the beginning of words, this manifested as a dropping of the initial j or v. Compare ON orð, úlfr, ár with English word, wolf, year. Old Norse_sentence_131

In inflections, this manifested as the dropping of the inflectional vowels. Old Norse_sentence_132

Thus, klæði + dat -i remains klæði, and sjáum in Icelandic progressed to sjǫ́um > sjǫ́m > sjám. Old Norse_sentence_133

The jj and ww of Proto-Germanic became ggj and ggv respectively in Old Norse, a change known as Holtzmann's law. Old Norse_sentence_134

Epenthesis Old Norse_section_16

An epenthetic vowel became popular by 1200 in Old Danish, 1250 in Old Swedish and Norwegian, and 1300 in Old Icelandic. Old Norse_sentence_135

An unstressed vowel was used which varied by dialect. Old Norse_sentence_136

Old Norwegian exhibited all three: /u/ was used in West Norwegian south of Bergen, as in aftur, aftor (older ); North of Bergen, /i/ appeared in aftir, after; and East Norwegian used /a/, after, aftær. Old Norse_sentence_137

Grammar Old Norse_section_17

Old Norse was a moderately inflected language with high levels of nominal and verbal inflection. Old Norse_sentence_138

Most of the fused morphemes are retained in modern Icelandic, especially in regard to noun case declensions, whereas modern Norwegian in comparison has moved towards more analytical word structures. Old Norse_sentence_139

Gender Old Norse_section_18

Further information: Grammatical gender Old Norse_sentence_140

Old Norse had three grammatical genders – masculine, feminine and neuter. Old Norse_sentence_141

Adjectives or pronouns referring to a noun must mirror the gender of that noun, so that one says, "heill maðr!" Old Norse_sentence_142

but, "heilt barn!" Old Norse_sentence_143

As in other languages, the grammatical gender of an impersonal noun is generally unrelated to an expected natural gender of that noun. Old Norse_sentence_144

While indeed karl, "man" is masculine, kona, "woman", is feminine, and hús, house, is neuter, so also are hrafn and kráka, for "raven" and "crow", masculine and feminine respectively, even in reference to a female raven or a male crow. Old Norse_sentence_145

All neuter words have identical nominative and accusative forms, and all feminine words have identical nominative and accusative plurals. Old Norse_sentence_146

The gender of some words' plurals does not agree with that of their singulars, such as lim and mund. Old Norse_sentence_147

Some words, such as hungr, have multiple genders, evidenced by their determiners being declined in different genders within a given sentence. Old Norse_sentence_148

Morphology Old Norse_section_19

Main article: Old Norse morphology Old Norse_sentence_149

Nouns, adjectives and pronouns were declined in four grammatical cases – nominative, accusative, genitive and dative – in singular and plural numbers. Old Norse_sentence_150

Adjectives and pronouns were additionally declined in three grammatical genders. Old Norse_sentence_151

Some pronouns (first and second person) could have dual number in addition to singular and plural. Old Norse_sentence_152

The genitive was used partitively and in compounds and kennings (e.g., Urðarbrunnr, the well of Urðr; Lokasenna, the gibing of Loki). Old Norse_sentence_153

There were several classes of nouns within each gender. Old Norse_sentence_154

The following is an example of the "strong" inflectional paradigms: Old Norse_sentence_155

Old Norse_table_general_5

The strong masculine noun armr (English arm)Old Norse_header_cell_5_0_0
CaseOld Norse_header_cell_5_1_0 SingularOld Norse_header_cell_5_1_1 PluralOld Norse_header_cell_5_1_2
NominativeOld Norse_cell_5_2_0 armrOld Norse_cell_5_2_1 armarOld Norse_cell_5_2_2
AccusativeOld Norse_cell_5_3_0 armOld Norse_cell_5_3_1 armaOld Norse_cell_5_3_2
GenitiveOld Norse_cell_5_4_0 armsOld Norse_cell_5_4_1
DativeOld Norse_cell_5_5_0 armiOld Norse_cell_5_5_1 ǫrmum/armumOld Norse_cell_5_5_2

Old Norse_table_general_6

The feminine noun hǫll (OWN), hall (OEN) (English hall)Old Norse_header_cell_6_0_0
CaseOld Norse_header_cell_6_1_0 SingularOld Norse_header_cell_6_1_1 PluralOld Norse_header_cell_6_1_2
Nominative-AccusativeOld Norse_cell_6_2_0 hǫll/hallOld Norse_cell_6_2_1 hallir/hallar (OEN)Old Norse_cell_6_2_2
GenitiveOld Norse_cell_6_3_0 hallarOld Norse_cell_6_3_1 hallaOld Norse_cell_6_3_2
DativeOld Norse_cell_6_4_0 hǫllu/halluOld Norse_cell_6_4_1 hǫllum/hallumOld Norse_cell_6_4_2

Old Norse_table_general_7

The neuter noun troll (English troll):Old Norse_header_cell_7_0_0
CaseOld Norse_header_cell_7_1_0 SingularOld Norse_header_cell_7_1_1 PluralOld Norse_header_cell_7_1_2
Nominative-AccusativeOld Norse_cell_7_2_0 trollOld Norse_cell_7_2_1 trollOld Norse_cell_7_2_2
GenitiveOld Norse_cell_7_3_0 trollsOld Norse_cell_7_3_1 trollaOld Norse_cell_7_3_2
DativeOld Norse_cell_7_4_0 trolliOld Norse_cell_7_4_1 trollumOld Norse_cell_7_4_2

The numerous "weak" noun paradigms had a much higher degree of syncretism between the different cases; i.e., they had fewer forms than the "strong" nouns. Old Norse_sentence_156

A definite article was realised as a suffix that retained an independent declension; e.g., troll (a troll) – trollit (the troll), hǫll (a hall) – hǫllin (the hall), armr (an arm) – armrinn (the arm). Old Norse_sentence_157

This definite article, however, was a separate word and did not become attached to the noun before later stages of the Old Norse period. Old Norse_sentence_158

Texts Old Norse_section_20

The earliest inscriptions in Old Norse are runic, from the 8th century. Old Norse_sentence_159

Runes continued to be commonly used until the 15th century and have been recorded to be in use in some form as late as the 19th century in some parts of Sweden. Old Norse_sentence_160

With the conversion to Christianity in the 11th century came the Latin alphabet. Old Norse_sentence_161

The oldest preserved texts in Old Norse in the Latin alphabet date from the middle of the 12th century. Old Norse_sentence_162

Subsequently, Old Norse became the vehicle of a large and varied body of vernacular literature. Old Norse_sentence_163

Most of the surviving literature was written in Iceland. Old Norse_sentence_164

Best known are the Norse sagas, the Icelanders' sagas and the mythological literature, but there also survives a large body of religious literature, translations into Old Norse of courtly romances, classical mythology, and the Old Testament, as well as instructional material, grammatical treatises and a large body of letters and official documents. Old Norse_sentence_165

Dialects Old Norse_section_21

Most of the innovations that appeared in Old Norse spread evenly through the Old Norse area. Old Norse_sentence_166

As a result, the dialects were very similar and considered to be the same language, a language that they sometimes called the Danish tongue (Dǫnsk tunga), sometimes Norse language (Norrœnt mál), as evidenced in the following two quotes from Heimskringla by Snorri Sturluson: Old Norse_sentence_167

However, some changes were geographically limited and so created a dialectal difference between Old West Norse and Old East Norse. Old Norse_sentence_168

As Proto-Norse evolved into Old Norse, in the 8th century, the effects of the umlauts seem to have been very much the same over the whole Old Norse area. Old Norse_sentence_169

But in later dialects of the language a split occurred mainly between west and east as the use of umlauts began to vary. Old Norse_sentence_170

The typical umlauts (for example fylla from *fullijan) were better preserved in the West due to later generalizations in the east where many instances of umlaut were removed (many archaic Eastern texts as well as eastern runic inscriptions however portray the same extent of umlauts as in later Western Old Norse). Old Norse_sentence_171

All the while, the changes resulting in breaking (for example hiarta from *hertō) were more influential in the East probably once again due to generalizations within the inflectional system. Old Norse_sentence_172

This difference was one of the greatest reasons behind the dialectalization that took place in the 9th and 10th centuries, shaping an Old West Norse dialect in Norway and the Atlantic settlements and an Old East Norse dialect in Denmark and Sweden. Old Norse_sentence_173

Old West Norse and Old Gutnish did not take part in the monophthongization which changed æi (ei) into ē, øy (ey) and au into ø̄, nor did certain peripheral dialects of Swedish, as seen in modern Ostrobothnian dialects. Old Norse_sentence_174

Another difference was that Old West Norse lost certain combinations of consonants. Old Norse_sentence_175

The combinations -mp-, -nt-, and -nk- were assimilated into -pp-, -tt- and -kk- in Old West Norse, but this phenomenon was limited in Old East Norse. Old Norse_sentence_176

Here is a comparison between the two dialects as well as Old Gutnish. Old Norse_sentence_177

It is a transcription from one of the Funbo Runestones (U 990) from the eleventh century (translation: 'Veðr and Thane and Gunnar raised this stone after Haursi, their father. Old Norse_sentence_178

God help his spirit'): Old Norse_sentence_179

The OEN original text above is transliterated according to traditional scholarly methods, wherein u-umlaut is not regarded in runic Old East Norse. Old Norse_sentence_180

Modern studies have shown that the positions where it applies are the same as for runic Old West Norse. Old Norse_sentence_181

An alternative and probably more accurate transliteration would therefore render the text in OEN as such: Old Norse_sentence_182

Some past participles and other words underwent i-umlaut in Old West Norse but not in Old East Norse dialects. Old Norse_sentence_183

Examples of that are Icelandic slegið/sleginn and tekið/tekinn, which in Swedish are / and /. Old Norse_sentence_184

This can also be seen in the Icelandic and Norwegian words and ("strong"), which in Swedish is as in Old Swedish. Old Norse_sentence_185

These differences can also be seen in comparison between Norwegian and Swedish. Old Norse_sentence_186

Old West Norse Old Norse_section_22

Old West Norse is by far the best attested variety of Old Norse. Old Norse_sentence_187

The term Old Norse is often used to refer to Old West Norse specifically, in which case the subject of this article receives another name, such as Old Scandinavian. Old Norse_sentence_188

The combinations -mp-, -nt-, and -nk- mostly merged to -pp-, -tt- and -kk- in Old West Norse around the 7th century, marking the first distinction between the Eastern and Western dialects. Old Norse_sentence_189

The following table illustrates this: Old Norse_sentence_190

Old Norse_table_general_8

EnglishOld Norse_header_cell_8_0_0 Old West NorseOld Norse_header_cell_8_0_1 Old East NorseOld Norse_header_cell_8_0_2 Proto-NorseOld Norse_header_cell_8_0_3
mushroomOld Norse_cell_8_1_0 s(v)ǫpprOld Norse_cell_8_1_1 svamperOld Norse_cell_8_1_2 *swampuzOld Norse_cell_8_1_3
steepOld Norse_cell_8_2_0 brattrOld Norse_cell_8_2_1 branterOld Norse_cell_8_2_2 *brantazOld Norse_cell_8_2_3
widowOld Norse_cell_8_3_0 ekkjaOld Norse_cell_8_3_1 ænkiaOld Norse_cell_8_3_2 *ain(a)kjōnOld Norse_cell_8_3_3
to shrinkOld Norse_cell_8_4_0 Old Norse_cell_8_4_1 krimpaOld Norse_cell_8_4_2 *krimpanOld Norse_cell_8_4_3
to sprintOld Norse_cell_8_5_0 sprettaOld Norse_cell_8_5_1 sprintaOld Norse_cell_8_5_2 *sprintanOld Norse_cell_8_5_3
to sinkOld Norse_cell_8_6_0 søkkvaOld Norse_cell_8_6_1 sænkvaOld Norse_cell_8_6_2 *sankwianOld Norse_cell_8_6_3

An early difference between Old West Norse and the other dialects was that Old West Norse had the forms bú, "dwelling", kú, "cow" (accusative) and trú, "faith", whereas Old East Norse had bó, kó and tró. Old Norse_sentence_191

Old West Norse was also characterized by the preservation of u-umlaut, which meant that, for example, Proto-Norse *tanþu, "tooth", was pronounced tǫnn and not tann as in post-runic Old East Norse; OWN gǫ́s and runic OEN gǫ́s, while post-runic OEN gás "goose". Old Norse_sentence_192

The earliest body of text appears in runic inscriptions and in poems composed c. 900 by Þjóðólfr of Hvinir (although the poems are not preserved in contemporary sources, but only in much later manuscripts). Old Norse_sentence_193

The earliest manuscripts are from the period 1150–1200 and concern both legal, religious and historical matters. Old Norse_sentence_194

During the 12th and 13th centuries, Trøndelag and Western Norway were the most important areas of the Norwegian kingdom and they shaped Old West Norse as an archaic language with a rich set of declensions. Old Norse_sentence_195

In the body of text that has survived into the modern day from until c. 1300, Old West Norse had little dialect variation, and Old Icelandic does not diverge much more than the Old Norwegian dialects do from each other. Old Norse_sentence_196

Old Norwegian differentiated early from Old Icelandic by the loss of the consonant h in initial position before l, n and r; thus whereas Old Icelandic manuscripts might use the form hnefi, "fist", Old Norwegian manuscripts might use nefi. Old Norse_sentence_197

From the late 13th century, Old Icelandic and Old Norwegian started to diverge more. Old Norse_sentence_198

After c. 1350, the Black Death and following social upheavals seem to have accelerated language changes in Norway. Old Norse_sentence_199

From the late 14th century, the language used in Norway is generally referred to as Middle Norwegian. Old Norse_sentence_200

Old West Norse underwent a lengthening of initial vowels at some point, especially in Norwegian, so that OWN eta became éta, ONW akr > ákr, OIC ek > ék. Old Norse_sentence_201

Old Icelandic Old Norse_section_23

In Iceland, initial /w/ before /ɾ/ was lost: compare Icelandic with Norwegian vrangr, OEN vrangʀ. Old Norse_sentence_202

The change is shared with Old Gutnish. Old Norse_sentence_203

A specifically Icelandic sound, the long, u-umlauted A, spelled Ǫ́ and pronounced /ɔː/, developed around the early 11th century. Old Norse_sentence_204

It was short-lived, being marked in the Grammatical Treatises and remaining until the end of the 12th century. Old Norse_sentence_205

/w/ merged with /v/ during the 12th century, which caused /v/ to become an independent phoneme from /f/ and the written distinction of ⟨v⟩ for /v/ from medial and final ⟨f⟩ to become merely etymological. Old Norse_sentence_206

Around the 13th century, Œ/Ǿ (/øː/, which had probably already lowered to /œː/) merged to Æ (/ɛː/). Old Norse_sentence_207

Thus, pre-13th-century grœnn 'green' became modern Icelandic grænn. Old Norse_sentence_208

The 12th-century Gray Goose Laws manuscripts distinguish the vowels, and so the Codex Regius copy does as well. Old Norse_sentence_209

However, the 13th-century Codex Regius copy of the Poetic Edda probably relied on newer and/or poorer quality sources. Old Norse_sentence_210

Demonstrating either difficulty with or total lack of natural distinction, the manuscripts show separation of the two phonemes in some places, but they frequently confuse the letters chosen to distinguish them in others. Old Norse_sentence_211

Towards the end of the 13th century, Ę (/ɛ/) merged to E (/e/). Old Norse_sentence_212

Old Norwegian Old Norse_section_24

Further information: Old Norwegian Old Norse_sentence_213

Around the 11th century, Old Norwegian ⟨hl⟩, ⟨hn⟩, and ⟨hr⟩ became ⟨l⟩, ⟨n⟩ and ⟨r⟩. Old Norse_sentence_214

It is debatable whether the ⟨hC⟩ sequences represented a consonant cluster (/hC/) or devoicing (/C̥/). Old Norse_sentence_215

Orthographic evidence suggests that in a confined dialect of Old Norwegian, /ɔ/ may have been unrounded before /u/ and that u-umlaut was reversed unless the u had been eliminated: ǫll, ǫllum > ǫll, allum. Old Norse_sentence_216

Greenlandic Norse Old Norse_section_25

Further information: Greenlandic Norse Old Norse_sentence_217

This dialect of Old West Norse was spoken by Icelandic colonies in Greenland. Old Norse_sentence_218

When the colonies died out around the 15th century, the dialect went with it. Old Norse_sentence_219

The phoneme /θ/ and some instances of /ð/ merged to /t/ and so Old Icelandic Þórðr became Tortr. Old Norse_sentence_220

Text example Old Norse_section_26

Further information: Old Norse orthography Old Norse_sentence_221

The following text is from Alexanders saga, an Alexander romance. Old Norse_sentence_222

The manuscript, AM 519 a 4to, is dated c. 1280. Old Norse_sentence_223

The facsimile demonstrates the sigla used by scribes to write Old Norse. Old Norse_sentence_224

Many of them were borrowed from Latin. Old Norse_sentence_225

Without familiarity with these abbreviations, the facsimile will be unreadable to many. Old Norse_sentence_226

In addition, reading the manuscript itself requires familiarity with the letterforms of the native script. Old Norse_sentence_227

The abbreviations are expanded in a version with normalized spelling like that of the standard normalization system. Old Norse_sentence_228

Compared to the spelling of the same text in Modern Icelandic, pronunciation has changed greatly, but spelling has changed little since Icelandic orthography was intentionally modelled after Old Norse in the 19th century. Old Norse_sentence_229

Old Norse_table_general_9

Digital facsimile of the manuscript textOld Norse_header_cell_9_0_0 The same text with normalized spellingOld Norse_header_cell_9_0_1 The same text in Modern IcelandicOld Norse_header_cell_9_0_2
[...] ſem oꝩın͛ h̅ſ brıgzloðo h̅o̅ epꞇ͛ þͥ ſe̅ ſıðaʀ mon ſagꞇ verða. Þeſſı ſveın̅ aͬ.* ꝩar ıſcola ſeꞇꞇr ſem ſıðꝩenıa e͛ ꞇıl rıkra man̅a vꞇan-lanꝺz aꞇ laꞇa g͛a vıð boꝛn̅ ſíıƞ́ Meıſꞇarı ꝩar h̅o̅ ꝼengın̅ ſa e͛ arıſꞇoꞇıleſ heꞇ. h̅ ꝩar harðla goðꝛ clercr ⁊ en̅ meſꞇı ſpekıngr aꞇ ꝩıꞇı. ⁊ er h̅ ꝩͬ .xíí. veꞇᷓ gamall aꞇ allꝺrı nalıga alroſcın̅ aꞇ ꝩıꞇı. en ſꞇoꝛhvgaðꝛ u̅ ꝼᷓm alla ſına ıaꝼnallꝺꝛa.Old Norse_cell_9_1_0 [...] sem óvinir hans brigzluðu honum eftir því, sem síðarr man sagt verða. þessi sveinn Alexander var í skóla settr, sem siðvenja er til ríkra manna útanlands at láta gera við bǫrn sín. meistari var honum fenginn sá, er Aristoteles hét. hann var harðla góðr klerkr ok inn mesti spekingr at viti. ok er hann var tólv vetra gamall at aldri, náliga alroskinn at viti, en stórhugaðr umfram alla sína jafnaldra, [...]Old Norse_cell_9_1_1 [...] sem óvinir hans brigsluðu honum eftir því, sem síðar mun sagt verða. Þessi sveinn Alexander var í skóla settur, sem siðvenja er til ríkra manna utanlands að láta gera við börn sín. Meistari var honum fenginn sá, er Aristóteles hét. Hann var harla góður klerkur og hinn mesti spekingur að viti og er hann var tólf vetra gamall að aldri, nálega alroskinn að viti, en stórhugaður umfram alla sína jafnaldra, [...]Old Norse_cell_9_1_2
  • a printed in uncial. Old Norse_sentence_230

Uncials not encoded separately in Unicode as of this section's writing. Old Norse_sentence_231

Old East Norse Old Norse_section_27

Old East Norse, between 800 and 1100, is called Runic Swedish in Sweden and Runic Danish in Denmark, but for geographical rather than linguistic reasons. Old Norse_sentence_232

Any differences between the two were minute at best during the more ancient stages of this dialect group. Old Norse_sentence_233

Changes had a tendency to occur earlier in the Danish region. Old Norse_sentence_234

Even today many Old Danish changes have still not taken place in modern Swedish. Old Norse_sentence_235

Swedish is therefore the more conservative of the two in both the ancient and the modern languages, sometimes by a profound margin but in general, differences are still minute. Old Norse_sentence_236

The language is called "runic" because the body of text appears in runes. Old Norse_sentence_237

Runic Old East Norse is characteristically conservative in form, especially Swedish (which is still true for modern Swedish compared to Danish). Old Norse_sentence_238

In essence it matches or surpasses the conservatism of post-runic Old West Norse, which in turn is generally more conservative than post-runic Old East Norse. Old Norse_sentence_239

While typically "Eastern" in structure, many later post-runic changes and trademarks of OEN had yet to happen. Old Norse_sentence_240

The phoneme ʀ, which evolved during the Proto-Norse period from z, was still clearly separated from r in most positions, even when being geminated, while in OWN it had already merged with r. Old Norse_sentence_241

The Proto-Germanic phoneme /w/ was preserved in initial sounds in Old East Norse (w-), unlike in West Norse where it developed into /v/. Old Norse_sentence_242

It survived in rural Swedish dialects in the provinces of Skåne, Halland, Västergötland and south of Bohuslän into the 18th, 19th and 20th century. Old Norse_sentence_243

It is still preserved in the Dalecarlian dialects in the province of Dalarna, Sweden, and in Jutlandic dialects in Denmark. Old Norse_sentence_244

The /w/-phoneme did also occur after consonants (kw-, tw- etc.) in Old East Norse and did so into modern times in said Swedish dialects, as well as in the Westro- and North Bothnian tongues in northern Sweden. Old Norse_sentence_245

Monophthongization of æi > ē and øy, au > ø̄ started in mid-10th-century Denmark. Old Norse_sentence_246

Compare runic OEN: fæigʀ, gæiʀʀ, haugʀ, møydōmʀ, diūʀ; with Post-runic OEN: fēgher, gēr, hø̄gher, mø̄dōmber, diūr; OWN: , , , meydómr, dýr; from PN *faigiaz, *gaizaz, *haugaz, *mawi- + dōmaz 'maidendom; virginity', *diuza '(wild) animal'. Old Norse_sentence_247

Feminine o-stems often preserve the plural ending -aʀ, while in OWN they more often merge with the feminine i-stems: (runic OEN) *sōlaʀ, *hafnaʀ/*hamnaʀ, *wāgaʀ versus OWN sólir, hafnir and vágir (modern Swedish solar, hamnar, vågar ("suns, havens, scales"); Danish has mainly lost the distinction between the two stems, with both endings now being rendered as -er or -e alternatively for the o-stems). Old Norse_sentence_248

Vice versa, masculine i-stems with the root ending in either g or k tended to shift the plural ending to that of the ja-stems while OEN kept the original: drængiaʀ, *ælgiaʀ and *bænkiaʀ versus OWN , elgir ("elks") and (modern Danish , , , modern Swedish , älgar, bänkar). Old Norse_sentence_249

The plural ending of ja-stems were mostly preserved while those of OEN often acquired that of the i-stems: *bæðiaʀ, *bækkiaʀ, *wæfiaʀ versus OWN beðir ("beds"), , (modern Swedish bäddar, bäckar, vävar). Old Norse_sentence_250

Old Danish Old Norse_section_28

Further information: History of Danish Old Norse_sentence_251

Until the early 12th century, Old East Norse was very much a uniform dialect. Old Norse_sentence_252

It was in Denmark that the first innovations appeared that would differentiate Old Danish from Old Swedish (, Old East Nordic, pp. 1856, 1859) as these innovations spread north unevenly (unlike the earlier changes that spread more evenly over the East Norse area), creating a series of isoglosses going from Zealand to Svealand. Old Norse_sentence_253

In Old Danish, /hɾ/ merged with /ɾ/ during the 9th century. Old Norse_sentence_254

From the 11th to 14th centuries, the unstressed vowels -a, -o and -e (standard normalization -a, -u and -i) started to merge into -ə, represented with the letter e. This vowel came to be epenthetic, particularly before -ʀ endings. Old Norse_sentence_255

At the same time, the voiceless stop consonants p, t and k became voiced plosives and even fricative consonants. Old Norse_sentence_256

Resulting from these innovations, Danish has kage (cake), tunger (tongues) and gæster (guests) whereas (Standard) Swedish has retained older forms, kaka, tungor and gäster (OEN kaka, tungur, gæstir). Old Norse_sentence_257

Moreover, the Danish pitch accent shared with Norwegian and Swedish changed into stød around this time. Old Norse_sentence_258

Old Swedish Old Norse_section_29

Further information: Old Swedish Old Norse_sentence_259

At the end of the 10th and early 11th century initial h- before l, n and r was still preserved in the middle and northern parts of Sweden, and is sporadically still preserved in some northern dialects as g-, e.g. gly (lukewarm), from hlýʀ. Old Norse_sentence_260

The Dalecarlian dialects developed independently from Old Swedish and as such can be considered separate languages from Swedish. Old Norse_sentence_261

Text example Old Norse_section_30

This is an extract from Västgötalagen, the Westrogothic law. Old Norse_sentence_262

It is the oldest text written as a manuscript found in Sweden and from the 13th century. Old Norse_sentence_263

It is contemporaneous with most of the Icelandic literature. Old Norse_sentence_264

The text marks the beginning of Old Swedish as a distinct dialect. Old Norse_sentence_265

Old Gutnish Old Norse_section_31

Main article: Old Gutnish Old Norse_sentence_266

Due to Gotland's early isolation from the mainland, many features of Old Norse did not spread from or to the island, and Old Gutnish developed as an entirely separate branch from Old East and West Norse. Old Norse_sentence_267

For example, the diphthong ai in aigu, þair and waita was not retroactively umlauted to ei as in e.g. Old Icelandic eigu, þeir and veita. Old Norse_sentence_268

Gutnish also shows dropping of /w/ in initial /wɾ/, which it shares with the Old West Norse dialects (except Old East Norwegian), but which is otherwise abnormal. Old Norse_sentence_269

Breaking was also particularly active in Old Gutnish, leading to e.g. biera versus mainland bera. Old Norse_sentence_270

Text example Old Norse_section_32

The Gutasaga is the longest text surviving from Old Gutnish. Old Norse_sentence_271

It was written in the 13th century and dealt with the early history of the Gotlanders. Old Norse_sentence_272

This part relates to the agreement that the Gotlanders had with the Swedish king sometime before the 9th century: Old Norse_sentence_273

Relationship to other languages Old Norse_section_33

Relationship to English Old Norse_section_34

See also: History of English § Scandinavian influence, and List of English words of Old Norse origin Old Norse_sentence_274

Old English and Old Norse were related languages. Old Norse_sentence_275

It is therefore not surprising that many words in Old Norse look familiar to English speakers; e.g., armr (arm), fótr (foot), land (land), fullr (full), hanga (to hang), standa (to stand). Old Norse_sentence_276

This is because both English and Old Norse stem from a Proto-Germanic mother language. Old Norse_sentence_277

In addition, numerous common, everyday Old Norse words were adopted into the Old English language during the Viking Age. Old Norse_sentence_278

A few examples of Old Norse loanwords in modern English are (English/Viking Age Old East Norse), in some cases even displacing their Old English cognates: Old Norse_sentence_279

Old Norse_unordered_list_1

  • Nouns – anger (angr), bag (baggi), bait (bæit, bæita, bæiti), band (band), bark (bǫrkʀ, stem bark-), birth (byrðr), dirt (drit), dregs (dræggiaʀ), egg (ægg, related to OE. cognate "æg" which became Middle English "eye"/"eai"), fellow (félagi), gap (gap), husband (húsbóndi), cake (kaka), keel (kiǫlʀ, stem also kial-, kil-), kid (kið), knife (knífʀ), law (lǫg, stem lag-), leg (læggʀ), link (hlænkʀ), loan (lán, related to OE. cognate "læn", cf. lend), race (rǫs, stem rás-), root (rót, related to OE. cognate "wyrt", cf. wort), sale (sala), scrap (skrap), seat (sæti), sister (systir, related to OE. cognate "sweostor"), skill (skial/skil), skin (skinn), skirt (skyrta vs. the native English shirt of the same root), sky (ský), slaughter (slátr), snare (snara), steak (stæik), thrift (þrift), tidings (tíðindi), trust (traust), window (vindauga), wing (væ(i)ngʀ)Old Norse_item_1_3
  • Verbs – are (er, displacing OE sind), blend (blanda), call (kalla), cast (kasta), clip (klippa), crawl (krafla), cut (possibly from ON kuta), die (døyia), gasp (gæispa), get (geta), give (gifa/gefa, related to OE. cognate "giefan"), glitter (glitra), hit (hitta), lift (lyfta), raise (ræisa), ransack (rannsaka), rid (ryðia), run (rinna, stem rinn-/rann-/runn-, related to OE. cognate "rinnan"), scare (skirra), scrape (skrapa), seem (søma), sprint (sprinta), take (taka), thrive (þrífa(s)), thrust (þrysta), want (vanta)Old Norse_item_1_4
  • Adjectives – flat (flatr), happy (happ), ill (illr), likely (líklígʀ), loose (lauss), low (lágʀ), meek (miúkʀ), odd (odda), rotten (rotinn/rutinn), scant (skamt), sly (sløgʀ), weak (væikʀ), wrong (vrangʀ)Old Norse_item_1_5
  • Adverbs – thwart/athwart (þvert)Old Norse_item_1_6
  • Prepositions – till (til), fro (frá)Old Norse_item_1_7
  • Conjunction – though/tho (þó)Old Norse_item_1_8
  • Interjection – hail (hæill), wassail (ves hæill)Old Norse_item_1_9
  • Personal pronoun – they (þæiʀ), their (þæiʀa), them (þæim) (for which the Anglo-Saxons said híe, hiera, him)Old Norse_item_1_10
  • Prenominal adjectives – same (sami)Old Norse_item_1_11

In a simple sentence like "They are both weak," the extent of the Old Norse loanwords becomes quite clear (Old East Norse with archaic pronunciation: "Þæiʀ eʀu báðiʀ wæikiʀ" while Old English "híe syndon bégen (þá) wáce"). Old Norse_sentence_280

The words "they" and "weak" are both borrowed from Old Norse, and the word "both" might also be a borrowing, though this is disputed (cf. Old Norse_sentence_281

German beide). Old Norse_sentence_282

While the number of loanwords adopted from the Norse was not as numerous as that of Norman French or Latin, their depth and everyday nature make them a substantial and very important part of everyday English speech as they are part of the very core of the modern English vocabulary. Old Norse_sentence_283

Tracing the origins of words like "bull" and "Thursday" is more difficult. Old Norse_sentence_284

"Bull" may derive from either Old English bula or Old Norse buli, while "Thursday" may be a borrowing or simply derive from the Old English Þunresdæg, which could have been influenced by the Old Norse cognate. Old Norse_sentence_285

The word "are" is from Old English earun/aron, which stems back to Proto-Germanic as well as the Old Norse cognates. Old Norse_sentence_286

Relationship to modern Scandinavian languages Old Norse_section_35

Old Norse_table_general_10

Development of Old Norse vowels to the modern Scandinavian languagesOld Norse_table_caption_10
Old NorseOld Norse_header_cell_10_0_0 Modern

IcelandicOld Norse_header_cell_10_0_1

Modern

FaroeseOld Norse_header_cell_10_0_2

Modern

SwedishOld Norse_header_cell_10_0_3

Modern

DanishOld Norse_header_cell_10_0_4

ExamplesOld Norse_header_cell_10_0_5
a ⟨a⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_1_0 a(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_1_1 a/ɛaːOld Norse_cell_10_1_2 a/ɑː ⟨a⟩;
ɔ/oː ⟨å⟩ (+ld,rd,ng)Old Norse_cell_10_1_3
⟨a⟩;
ɔ/ɔː ⟨å⟩ (+rd)Old Norse_cell_10_1_4
ON "land": Ic/Fa/Sw/Da/No ;
ON  "day": Ic/Fa , Sw/Da/No ;

ON "hard": Ic/Fa , Sw/Da , No ; ON "long": Ic/Fa , Sw , Da/NoOld Norse_cell_10_1_5

ja ⟨ja⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_2_0 ja(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_2_1 ja/jɛaːOld Norse_cell_10_2_2 (j)ɛ(ː) ⟨(j)ä⟩Old Norse_cell_10_2_3 jɛ: ⟨jæ⟩;
jæ: ⟨je⟩ (+r)Old Norse_cell_10_2_4
ON "to help": Ic/Fa , Sw , Da , No , NN ;

ON "heart": Ic/Fa , Sw , Da/NB , NN /Old Norse_cell_10_2_5

aː ⟨á⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_3_0 au(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_3_1 ɔ/ɔaːOld Norse_cell_10_3_2 ɔ/oː ⟨å⟩Old Norse_cell_10_3_3 ɔ/ɒ: ⟨å⟩Old Norse_cell_10_3_4 ON "to let": Ic/Fa , Sw , Da , NoOld Norse_cell_10_3_5
ɛː ⟨æ⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_4_0 ai(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_4_1 a/ɛaːOld Norse_cell_10_4_2 ɛ(ː) ⟨ä⟩Old Norse_cell_10_4_3 Old Norse_cell_10_4_4 ON "to speak": Ic/Fa/NN , No ;
ON  "happy": Ic , Fa , Sw , Da/NoOld Norse_cell_10_4_5
e ⟨e⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_5_0 ɛ(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_5_1 ɛ/eːOld Norse_cell_10_5_2 Old Norse_cell_10_5_3 ON "men": Ic/Fa , Sw , Da , No ;

ON "to bear": Ic/Fa/NN , Sw , Da/No ; ON "way": Ic/Fa , Sw , Da , NoOld Norse_cell_10_5_4

eː ⟨é⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_6_0 jɛ(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_6_1 a/ɛaː ⟨æ⟩Old Norse_cell_10_6_2 Old Norse_cell_10_6_3 ON "let" (past): Ic/NN , Fa , SwOld Norse_cell_10_6_4
i ⟨i⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_7_0 ɪ(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_7_1 ɪ/iːOld Norse_cell_10_7_2 ɪ/iː ⟨i⟩Old Norse_cell_10_7_3 e ⟨i⟩/

eː ⟨e⟩Old Norse_cell_10_7_4

ON "cheek": Ic/Fa/No , Sw/DaOld Norse_cell_10_7_5
iː ⟨í⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_8_0 i(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_8_1 ʊɪ(ː)

ʊt͡ʃː ⟨íggj⟩Old Norse_cell_10_8_2

⟨i⟩Old Norse_cell_10_8_3 ON "time": Ic/Fa , Sw/Da/NoOld Norse_cell_10_8_4
ɔ ⟨ǫ⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_9_0 ø > œ(ː) ⟨ö⟩Old Norse_cell_10_9_1 œ/øː ⟨ø⟩
ɔ/oː ⟨o⟩Old Norse_cell_10_9_2
⟨a⟩;
⟨o⟩; 

⟨ø⟩ (+r); ⟨å⟩ (+ld,rd,ng)Old Norse_cell_10_9_3

Old Norse_cell_10_9_4 ON "hand": Ic , Fa , Sw/NN , Da/NB ;

ON "nose": Ic , Fa , Sw/NN , Da , NB , NN ; ON "eagle": Ic/Sw , Fa/Da/No ; ON "song": Ic , Fa , Sw , Da/NB , NNOld Norse_cell_10_9_5

jɔ ⟨jǫ⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_10_0 jø > jœ(ː) ⟨jö⟩Old Norse_cell_10_10_1 jœ/jøː ⟨jø⟩Old Norse_cell_10_10_2 (j)œ/(j)øː ⟨(j)ø⟩Old Norse_cell_10_10_3 Old Norse_cell_10_10_4 ON "shield": Ic , Fa , Sw , Da/No ;

ON "bear": Ic/Sw , Fa/Da/NNOld Norse_cell_10_10_5

ɔː ⟨ǫ́⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_11_0 aː > au(ː) ⟨á⟩Old Norse_cell_10_11_1 ɔ/ɔaː ⟨á⟩, œ/ɔuː ⟨ó⟩Old Norse_cell_10_11_2 ɔ/oː ⟨å⟩Old Norse_cell_10_11_3 ⟨å⟩Old Norse_cell_10_11_4 ON (*) "toe": Ic/Fa , Sw/Da/NoOld Norse_cell_10_11_5
o ⟨o⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_12_0 ɔ(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_12_1 ɔ/oːOld Norse_cell_10_12_2 ɔ/oː ⟨o⟩Old Norse_cell_10_12_3 Old Norse_cell_10_12_4 ON / "morning": Ic , Fa , Sw/NN , Da/NBOld Norse_cell_10_12_5
oː ⟨ó⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_13_0 ou(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_13_1 œ/ɔuː

ɛkv ⟨ógv⟩Old Norse_cell_10_13_2

ʊ/uː ⟨o⟩Old Norse_cell_10_13_3 ⟨o⟩Old Norse_cell_10_13_4 ON "book": Ic/Fa , Sw/No , DaOld Norse_cell_10_13_5
u ⟨u⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_14_0 ʏ(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_14_1 ʊ/uːOld Norse_cell_10_14_2 ɵ/ʉː ⟨u⟩Old Norse_cell_10_14_3 Old Norse_cell_10_14_4 ON "full": Ic/Fa , Sw/Da/NoOld Norse_cell_10_14_5
uː ⟨ú⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_15_0 u(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_15_1 ʏ/ʉuː

ɪkv ⟨úgv⟩Old Norse_cell_10_15_2

⟨u⟩Old Norse_cell_10_15_3 ON "house": Ic/Fa , Sw/Da/NoOld Norse_cell_10_15_4
jó ⟨jó⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_16_0 jou(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_16_1 jœ/jɔuː

(j)ɛkv ⟨(j)ógv⟩Old Norse_cell_10_16_2

jɵ/jʉː ⟨ju⟩Old Norse_cell_10_16_3 ⟨y⟩Old Norse_cell_10_16_4 ON "to offer, command": Ic/Fa , Sw , Da/No , NNOld Norse_cell_10_16_5
jú ⟨jú⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_17_0 ju(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_17_1 jʏ/jʉuː

(j)ɪkv ⟨(j)úgv⟩Old Norse_cell_10_17_2

ON "deep": Ic/Fa , Sw/No , Da , NBOld Norse_cell_10_17_3
ø ⟨ø⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_18_0 ø > œ(ː) ⟨ö⟩Old Norse_cell_10_18_1 œ/øː ⟨ø⟩Old Norse_cell_10_18_2 œ/øː ⟨ö⟩Old Norse_cell_10_18_3 Old Norse_cell_10_18_4 ON "to prepare": SwOld Norse_cell_10_18_5
øː ⟨œ⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_19_0 ɛː > ai(ː) ⟨æ⟩Old Norse_cell_10_19_1 ⟨ø⟩Old Norse_cell_10_19_2 ON "green": Ic , Fa , Sw , Da/NN , NoOld Norse_cell_10_19_3
y ⟨y⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_20_0 ɪ(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_20_1 ɪ/iːOld Norse_cell_10_20_2 ⟨ö⟩;

⟨y⟩Old Norse_cell_10_20_3

Old Norse_cell_10_20_4 ON "door": Ic/Fa , Sw , Da/No

ON "to fill": Ic/Fa/NN/Sw , Da , NoOld Norse_cell_10_20_5

yː ⟨ý⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_21_0 i(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_21_1 ʊɪ(ː)

ʊt͡ʃː ⟨ýggj⟩Old Norse_cell_10_21_2

ʏ/yː ⟨y⟩Old Norse_cell_10_21_3 ⟨y⟩Old Norse_cell_10_21_4 ON "dear": Ic , Fa , Sw/Da/NoOld Norse_cell_10_21_5
ɛi ⟨ei⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_22_0 ei(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_22_1 aɪ(ː)

at͡ʃː ⟨eiggj⟩Old Norse_cell_10_22_2

e(ː) ⟨e⟩Old Norse_cell_10_22_3 ⟨e⟩Old Norse_cell_10_22_4 ON "stone": Ic , Fa , Sw/Da/NB , NoOld Norse_cell_10_22_5
œy ⟨ey⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_23_0 ei(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_23_1 ɔɪ(ː) ⟨oy⟩

ɔt͡ʃː ⟨oyggj⟩Old Norse_cell_10_23_2

œ/øː ⟨ö⟩Old Norse_cell_10_23_3 ⟨ø⟩Old Norse_cell_10_23_4 ON "island": Ic , Fa , Sw , Da , NoOld Norse_cell_10_23_5
ɔu ⟨au⟩Old Norse_header_cell_10_24_0 øy(ː)Old Norse_cell_10_24_1 ɛ/ɛɪː ⟨ey⟩

ɛt͡ʃː ⟨eyggj⟩Old Norse_cell_10_24_2

ON "dream": Ic , Fa , Sw , Da/NB , NNOld Norse_cell_10_24_3

See also Old Norse_section_36

Old Norse_unordered_list_2

Dialectal information Old Norse_section_37

Old Norse_unordered_list_3


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Old Norse.