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This article is about the Canadian province. Ontario_sentence_0

For other uses, see Ontario (disambiguation). Ontario_sentence_1


CountryOntario_header_cell_0_1_0 CanadaOntario_cell_0_1_1
ConfederationOntario_header_cell_0_2_0 July 1, 1867 (1st, with Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick)Ontario_cell_0_2_1
CapitalOntario_header_cell_0_3_0 TorontoOntario_cell_0_3_1
Largest cityOntario_header_cell_0_4_0 TorontoOntario_cell_0_4_1
Largest metroOntario_header_cell_0_5_0 Greater Toronto AreaOntario_cell_0_5_1
TypeOntario_header_cell_0_7_0 Constitutional monarchyOntario_cell_0_7_1
Lieutenant GovernorOntario_header_cell_0_8_0 Elizabeth DowdeswellOntario_cell_0_8_1
PremierOntario_header_cell_0_9_0 Doug Ford (PC)Ontario_cell_0_9_1
LegislatureOntario_header_cell_0_10_0 Legislative Assembly of OntarioOntario_cell_0_10_1
Federal representationOntario_header_cell_0_11_0 Parliament of CanadaOntario_cell_0_11_1
House seatsOntario_header_cell_0_12_0 121 of 338 (35.8%)Ontario_cell_0_12_1
Senate seatsOntario_header_cell_0_13_0 24 of 105 (22.9%)Ontario_cell_0_13_1
TotalOntario_header_cell_0_15_0 1,076,395 km (415,598 sq mi)Ontario_cell_0_15_1
LandOntario_header_cell_0_16_0 917,741 km (354,342 sq mi)Ontario_cell_0_16_1
WaterOntario_header_cell_0_17_0 158,654 km (61,257 sq mi)  14.7%Ontario_cell_0_17_1
Area rankOntario_header_cell_0_18_0 Ranked 4thOntario_cell_0_18_1
Ontario_header_cell_0_19_0 10.8% of CanadaOntario_cell_0_19_1
Population (2016)Ontario_header_cell_0_20_0
TotalOntario_header_cell_0_21_0 13,448,494Ontario_cell_0_21_1
Estimate (2020 Q3)Ontario_header_cell_0_22_0 14,734,014Ontario_cell_0_22_1
RankOntario_header_cell_0_23_0 Ranked 1stOntario_cell_0_23_1
DensityOntario_header_cell_0_24_0 14.65/km (37.9/sq mi)Ontario_cell_0_24_1
Demonym(s)Ontario_header_cell_0_25_0 OntarianOntario_cell_0_25_1
Official languagesOntario_header_cell_0_26_0 English (de facto)Ontario_cell_0_26_1
RankOntario_header_cell_0_28_0 1stOntario_cell_0_28_1
Total (2015)Ontario_header_cell_0_29_0 CA$763.276 billionOntario_cell_0_29_1
Per capitaOntario_header_cell_0_30_0 CA$59,879 (7th)Ontario_cell_0_30_1
HDI (2018)Ontario_header_cell_0_32_0 0.929 — Very high (3rd)Ontario_cell_0_32_1
Time zonesOntario_header_cell_0_33_0
East of 90th meridian westOntario_header_cell_0_34_0 UTC-05:00 (EST)Ontario_cell_0_34_1
Summer (DST)Ontario_header_cell_0_35_0 UTC-04:00 (EDT)Ontario_cell_0_35_1
West of 90th meridian west, except Atikokan and Pickle LakeOntario_header_cell_0_36_0 UTC-06:00 (CST)Ontario_cell_0_36_1
Summer (DST)Ontario_header_cell_0_37_0 UTC-05:00 (CDT)Ontario_cell_0_37_1
Atikokan and Pickle Lake (No DST)Ontario_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC-05:00 (EST)Ontario_cell_0_38_1
Postal abbr.Ontario_header_cell_0_39_0 ONOntario_cell_0_39_1
Postal code prefixOntario_header_cell_0_40_0 K L M N POntario_cell_0_40_1
ISO 3166 codeOntario_header_cell_0_41_0 CA-ONOntario_cell_0_41_1
FlowerOntario_header_cell_0_42_0 White trilliumOntario_cell_0_42_1
TreeOntario_header_cell_0_43_0 Eastern white pineOntario_cell_0_43_1
BirdOntario_header_cell_0_44_0 Common loonOntario_cell_0_44_1

Ontario is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. Ontario_sentence_2

Located in Central Canada, it is Canada's most populous province, with 38.3 percent of the country's population, and is the second-largest province by total area (after Quebec). Ontario_sentence_3

Ontario is Canada's fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included. Ontario_sentence_4

It is home to the nation's capital city, Ottawa, and the nation's most populous city, Toronto, which is also Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario_sentence_5

Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, and Quebec to the east and northeast, and to the south by the U.S. Ontario_sentence_6 states of (from west to east) Minnesota, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Ontario_sentence_7

Almost all of Ontario's 2,700 km (1,678 mi) border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the westerly Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system. Ontario_sentence_8

These include Rainy River, Pigeon River, Lake Superior, St. Marys River, Lake Huron, St. Ontario_sentence_9 Clair River, Lake St. Clair, Detroit River, Lake Erie, Niagara River, Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall. Ontario_sentence_10

There is only about 1 km (0.6 mi) of land border, made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario_sentence_11

Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into two regions, Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario. Ontario_sentence_12

The great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. Ontario_sentence_13

In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation. Ontario_sentence_14

Etymology Ontario_section_0

The province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron (Wyandot) word meaning "great lake", or possibly skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario_sentence_15

Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes. Ontario_sentence_16

Geography Ontario_section_1

Main article: Geography of Ontario Ontario_sentence_17

See also: List of census divisions of Ontario, Geography of Canada, and List of parks and protected areas of Ontario Ontario_sentence_18

The province consists of three main geographical regions: Ontario_sentence_19


Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands, particularly within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and also above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south. Ontario_sentence_20

The highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres (2,274 ft) above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. Ontario_sentence_21

In the south, elevations of over 500 m (1,640 ft) are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County. Ontario_sentence_22

The Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. Ontario_sentence_23

The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been largely replaced by agriculture, industrial and urban development. Ontario_sentence_24

A well-known geographic feature is Niagara Falls, part of the Niagara Escarpment. Ontario_sentence_25

The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Ontario_sentence_26

Northern Ontario covers approximately 87% of the province's surface area; conversely Southern Ontario contains 94% of the population. Ontario_sentence_27

Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario (near Windsor and Detroit, Michigan) that is the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Ontario_sentence_28

Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend slightly farther. Ontario_sentence_29

All are south of 42°N – slightly farther south than the northern border of California. Ontario_sentence_30

Climate Ontario_section_2

See also: Climate of Ontario Ontario_sentence_31

Ontario's climate varies by season and location. Ontario_sentence_32

Three air sources affect it: cold, dry, arctic air from the north (dominant factor during the winter months, and for a longer part of the year in far northern Ontario); Pacific polar air crossing in from the western Canadian Prairies/US Northern Plains; and warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Ontario_sentence_33

The effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend mainly on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. Ontario_sentence_34

In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario_sentence_35

Ontario has three main climatic regions: Ontario_sentence_36


  • The surrounding Great Lakes greatly influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter, the release of heat stored by the lakes moderates the climate near the shores. This gives parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario (generally south of a line from Sarnia–Toronto) have a moderate humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), similar to the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States. The region has warm to hot, humid summers and cold winters. Annual precipitation ranges from 750–1,000 mm (30–39 in) and is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes, making for abundant snow in some areas. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was hit by more than a metre of snow within 48 hours.Ontario_item_1_3
  • The next climatic region is Central and Eastern Ontario, which has a moderate humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). This region has warm and sometimes hot summers with colder, longer winters, ample snowfall (even in regions not directly in the snowbelts) and annual precipitation similar to the rest of Southern Ontario.Ontario_item_1_4

In the northeastern parts of Ontario, extending south as far as Kirkland Lake, the cold waters of Hudson Bay depress summer temperatures, making it cooler than other locations at similar latitudes. Ontario_sentence_37

The same is true on the northern shore of Lake Superior, which cools hot humid air from the south, leading to cooler summer temperatures. Ontario_sentence_38

Along the eastern shores of Lake Superior and Lake Huron winter temperatures are slightly moderated but come with frequent heavy lake-effect snow squalls that increase seasonal snowfall totals to upwards of 3 m (10 ft) in some places. Ontario_sentence_39

These regions have higher annual precipitation, in some places over 100 cm (39 in). Ontario_sentence_40


  • The northernmost parts of Ontario – primarily north of 50°N – have a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc) with long, severely cold winters and short, cool to warm summers with dramatic temperature changes possible in all seasons. With no major mountain ranges blocking sinking Arctic air masses, temperatures of −40 °C (−40 °F) are not uncommon; snow remains on the ground for sometimes over half the year. Snow accumulation can be high in some areas. Precipitation is generally less than 70 cm (28 in) and peaks in the summer months in the form of rain or thunderstorms.Ontario_item_2_5

Severe thunderstorms peak in summer. Ontario_sentence_41

Windsor, in Southern (Southwestern) Ontario, has the most lightning strikes per year in Canada, averaging 33 days of thunderstorm activity per year. Ontario_sentence_42

In a typical year, Ontario averages 11 confirmed tornado touchdowns. Ontario_sentence_43

However, over the last 4 years, it has had upwards of 20 tornado touchdowns per year, with the highest frequency in the Windsor-Essex – Chatham Kent area, though few are very destructive (the majority between F0 to F2 on the Fujita scale). Ontario_sentence_44

Ontario had a record 29 tornadoes in both 2006 and 2009. Ontario_sentence_45

Tropical depression remnants occasionally bring heavy rains and winds in the south, but are rarely deadly. Ontario_sentence_46

A notable exception was Hurricane Hazel which struck Southern Ontario centred on Toronto, in October 1954. Ontario_sentence_47


Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in OntarioOntario_table_caption_1
CityOntario_header_cell_1_0_0 July (°C)Ontario_header_cell_1_0_1 July (°F)Ontario_header_cell_1_0_2 January (°C)Ontario_header_cell_1_0_3 January (°F)Ontario_header_cell_1_0_4
Windsor (Windsor International Airport)Ontario_cell_1_1_0 28/18Ontario_cell_1_1_1 82/64Ontario_cell_1_1_2 0/−7Ontario_cell_1_1_3 31/19Ontario_cell_1_1_4
Niagara Falls (NPCSH)Ontario_cell_1_2_0 27/17Ontario_cell_1_2_1 81/63Ontario_cell_1_2_2 0/−8Ontario_cell_1_2_3 30/18Ontario_cell_1_2_4
Toronto (The Annex)Ontario_cell_1_3_0 27/18Ontario_cell_1_3_1 80/64Ontario_cell_1_3_2 −1/−7Ontario_cell_1_3_3 30/20Ontario_cell_1_3_4
Midland (Water Pollution Control Plant)Ontario_cell_1_4_0 26/16Ontario_cell_1_4_1 78/61Ontario_cell_1_4_2 −4/–13Ontario_cell_1_4_3 25/8Ontario_cell_1_4_4
Ottawa (Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier International Airport)Ontario_cell_1_5_0 27/16Ontario_cell_1_5_1 80/60Ontario_cell_1_5_2 −6/−14Ontario_cell_1_5_3 22/6Ontario_cell_1_5_4
Sudbury (Sudbury Airport)Ontario_cell_1_6_0 25/13Ontario_cell_1_6_1 77/56Ontario_cell_1_6_2 −8/−19Ontario_cell_1_6_3 18/0Ontario_cell_1_6_4
Emo (Emo Radbourne)Ontario_cell_1_7_0 25/11Ontario_cell_1_7_1 77/52Ontario_cell_1_7_2 −9/–22Ontario_cell_1_7_3 15/–9Ontario_cell_1_7_4
Thunder Bay (Thunder Bay International Airport)Ontario_cell_1_8_0 24/11Ontario_cell_1_8_1 76/52Ontario_cell_1_8_2 −9/−21Ontario_cell_1_8_3 18/−5Ontario_cell_1_8_4
Kenora (Kenora Airport)Ontario_cell_1_9_0 24/15Ontario_cell_1_9_1 76/59Ontario_cell_1_9_2 −11/−21Ontario_cell_1_9_3 12/−5Ontario_cell_1_9_4
Moosonee (UA)Ontario_cell_1_10_0 23/9Ontario_cell_1_10_1 73/48Ontario_cell_1_10_2 −14/–26Ontario_cell_1_10_3 8/–15Ontario_cell_1_10_4

History Ontario_section_3

Main articles: History of Ontario and Upper Canada Ontario_sentence_48

Pre-European contact Ontario_section_4

Prior to the arrival of the Europeans, the region was inhabited by Algonquian (Ojibwe, Cree and Algonquin) in the northern/western portions, and Iroquois and Wyandot (Huron) people more in the south/east. Ontario_sentence_49

During the 17th century, the Algonquians and Hurons fought the Beaver Wars against the Iroquois. Ontario_sentence_50

European contact Ontario_section_5

The French explorer Étienne Brûlé explored part of the area in 1610–12. Ontario_sentence_51

The English explorer Henry Hudson sailed into Hudson Bay in 1611 and claimed the area for England. Ontario_sentence_52

Samuel de Champlain reached Lake Huron in 1615, and French missionaries began to establish posts along the Great Lakes. Ontario_sentence_53

French settlement was hampered by their hostilities with the Iroquois, who allied themselves with the British. Ontario_sentence_54

From 1634 to 1640, Hurons were devastated by European infectious diseases, such as measles and smallpox, to which they had no immunity. Ontario_sentence_55

By 1700, the Iroquois had seceded from Ontario and the Mississaugas of the Ojibwa had settled the north shore of Lake Ontario. Ontario_sentence_56

The remaining Huron settled north of Quebec. Ontario_sentence_57

The British established trading posts on Hudson Bay in the late 17th century and began a struggle for domination of Ontario with the French. Ontario_sentence_58

After the French of New France were defeated during the Seven Years' War, the two powers awarded nearly all of France's North American possessions (New France) to Britain in the 1763 Treaty of Paris, including those lands of Ontario not already claimed by Britain. Ontario_sentence_59

The British annexed the Ontario region to Quebec in 1774. Ontario_sentence_60

The first European settlements were in 1782–1784 when 5,000 American loyalists entered what is now Ontario following the American Revolution. Ontario_sentence_61

The Kingdom of Great Britain granted them 200 acres (81 ha) land and other items with which to rebuild their lives. Ontario_sentence_62

The British also set up reserves in Ontario for the Mohawks who had fought for the British and had lost their land in New York state. Ontario_sentence_63

Other Iroquois, also displaced from New York were resettled in 1784 at the Six Nations reserve at the west end of Lake Ontario. Ontario_sentence_64

The Mississaugas, displaced by European settlements, would later move to Six Nations also. Ontario_sentence_65

The population of Canada west of the St. Lawrence-Ottawa River confluence substantially increased during this period, a fact recognized by the Constitutional Act of 1791, which split Quebec into the Canadas: Upper Canada southwest of the St. Lawrence-Ottawa River confluence, and Lower Canada east of it. Ontario_sentence_66

John Graves Simcoe was appointed Upper Canada's first Lieutenant governor in 1793. Ontario_sentence_67

Upper Canada Ontario_section_6

Main article: Upper Canada Ontario_sentence_68

American troops in the War of 1812 invaded Upper Canada across the Niagara River and the Detroit River, but were defeated and pushed back by the British, Canadian fencibles and militias, and First Nations warriors. Ontario_sentence_69

However, the Americans eventually gained control of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. Ontario_sentence_70

The 1813 Battle of York saw American troops defeat the garrison at the Upper Canada capital of York. Ontario_sentence_71

The Americans looted the town and burned the Upper Canada Parliament Buildings during their brief occupation. Ontario_sentence_72

The British would burn the American capital of Washington, D.C. in 1814. Ontario_sentence_73

After the War of 1812, relative stability allowed for increasing numbers of immigrants to arrive from Europe rather than from the United States. Ontario_sentence_74

As was the case in the previous decades, this immigration shift was encouraged by the colonial leaders. Ontario_sentence_75

Despite affordable and often free land, many arriving newcomers, mostly from Britain and Ireland, found frontier life with the harsh climate difficult, and some of those with the means eventually returned home or went south. Ontario_sentence_76

However, population growth far exceeded emigration in the following decades. Ontario_sentence_77

It was a mostly agrarian-based society, but canal projects and a new network of plank roads spurred greater trade within the colony and with the United States, thereby improving previously damaged relations over time. Ontario_sentence_78

Meanwhile, Ontario's numerous waterways aided travel and transportation into the interior and supplied water power for development. Ontario_sentence_79

As the population increased, so did the industries and transportation networks, which in turn led to further development. Ontario_sentence_80

By the end of the century, Ontario vied with Quebec as the nation's leader in terms of growth in population, industry, arts and communications. Ontario_sentence_81

Unrest in the colony began to chafe against the aristocratic Family Compact who governed while benefiting economically from the region's resources, and who did not allow elected bodies power. Ontario_sentence_82

This resentment spurred republican ideals and sowed the seeds for early Canadian nationalism. Ontario_sentence_83

Accordingly, rebellion in favour of responsible government rose in both regions; Louis-Joseph Papineau led the Lower Canada Rebellion and William Lyon Mackenzie, first Toronto mayor, led the Upper Canada Rebellion. Ontario_sentence_84

In Upper Canada, the rebellion was quickly a failure. Ontario_sentence_85

William Lyon Mackenzie escaped to the United States, where he declared the Republic of Canada on Navy Island on the Niagara River. Ontario_sentence_86

Canada West Ontario_section_7

Main article: Province of Canada Ontario_sentence_87

Although both rebellions were put down in short order, the British government sent Lord Durham to investigate the causes. Ontario_sentence_88

He recommended self-government be granted and Lower and Upper Canada be re-joined in an attempt to assimilate the French Canadians. Ontario_sentence_89

Accordingly, the two colonies were merged into the Province of Canada by the Act of Union 1840, with the capital at Kingston, and Upper Canada becoming known as Canada West. Ontario_sentence_90

Parliamentary self-government was granted in 1848. Ontario_sentence_91

There were heavy waves of immigration in the 1840s, and the population of Canada West more than doubled by 1851 over the previous decade. Ontario_sentence_92

As a result, for the first time, the English-speaking population of Canada West surpassed the French-speaking population of Canada East, tilting the representative balance of power. Ontario_sentence_93

An economic boom in the 1850s coincided with railway expansion across the province, further increasing the economic strength of Central Canada. Ontario_sentence_94

With the repeal of the Corn Laws and a reciprocity agreement in place with the United States, various industries such as timber, mining, farming and alcohol distilling benefited tremendously. Ontario_sentence_95

A political stalemate between the French- and English-speaking legislators, as well as fear of aggression from the United States during and immediately after the American Civil War, led the political elite to hold a series of conferences in the 1860s to effect a broader federal union of all British North American colonies. Ontario_sentence_96

The British North America Act took effect on July 1, 1867, establishing the Dominion of Canada, initially with four provinces: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario. Ontario_sentence_97

The Province of Canada was divided into Ontario and Quebec so that each linguistic group would have its own province. Ontario_sentence_98

Both Quebec and Ontario were required by section 93 of the British North America Act to safeguard existing educational rights and privileges of Protestant and the Catholic minority. Ontario_sentence_99

Thus, separate Catholic schools and school boards were permitted in Ontario. Ontario_sentence_100

However, neither province had a constitutional requirement to protect its French- or English-speaking minority. Ontario_sentence_101

Toronto was formally established as Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario_sentence_102

Provincehood Ontario_section_8

Once constituted as a province, Ontario proceeded to assert its economic and legislative power. Ontario_sentence_103

In 1872, the lawyer Oliver Mowat became Premier of Ontario and remained as premier until 1896. Ontario_sentence_104

He fought for provincial rights, weakening the power of the federal government in provincial matters, usually through well-argued appeals to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Ontario_sentence_105

His battles with the federal government greatly decentralized Canada, giving the provinces far more power than John A. Macdonald had intended. Ontario_sentence_106

He consolidated and expanded Ontario's educational and provincial institutions, created districts in Northern Ontario, and fought to ensure that those parts of Northwestern Ontario not historically part of Upper Canada (the vast areas north and west of the Lake Superior-Hudson Bay watershed, known as the District of Keewatin) would become part of Ontario, a victory embodied in the Canada (Ontario Boundary) Act, 1889. Ontario_sentence_107

He also presided over the emergence of the province into the economic powerhouse of Canada. Ontario_sentence_108

Mowat was the creator of what is often called Empire Ontario. Ontario_sentence_109

Beginning with Sir John A. Macdonald's National Policy (1879) and the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway (1875–1885) through Northern Ontario and the Canadian Prairies to British Columbia, Ontario manufacturing and industry flourished. Ontario_sentence_110

However, population increase slowed after a large recession hit the province in 1893, thus slowing growth drastically but for only a few years. Ontario_sentence_111

Many newly arrived immigrants and others moved west along the railway to the Prairie Provinces and British Columbia, sparsely settling Northern Ontario. Ontario_sentence_112

Mineral exploitation accelerated in the late 19th century, leading to the rise of important mining centres in the northeast, such as Sudbury, Cobalt and Timmins. Ontario_sentence_113

The province harnessed its water power to generate hydro-electric power and created the state-controlled Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, later Ontario Hydro. Ontario_sentence_114

The availability of cheap electric power further facilitated the development of industry. Ontario_sentence_115

The Ford Motor Company of Canada was established in 1904 and the McLaughlin Motor Car Company (later General Motors Canada) was founded in 1907. Ontario_sentence_116

The motor vehicle industry became the most lucrative industry for the Ontario economy during the 20th century. Ontario_sentence_117

In July 1912, the Conservative government of Sir James Whitney issued Regulation 17 which severely limited the availability of French-language schooling to the province's French-speaking minority. Ontario_sentence_118

French Canadians reacted with outrage, journalist Henri Bourassa denouncing the "Prussians of Ontario". Ontario_sentence_119

The regulation was eventually repealed in 1927. Ontario_sentence_120

Influenced by events in the United States, the government of Sir William Hearst introduced prohibition of alcoholic drinks in 1916 with the passing of the Ontario Temperance Act. Ontario_sentence_121

However, residents could distil and retain their own personal supply, and liquor producers could continue distillation and export for sale, allowing this already sizeable industry to strengthen further. Ontario_sentence_122

Ontario became a hotbed for the illegal smuggling of liquor and the biggest supplier into the United States, which was under complete prohibition. Ontario_sentence_123

Prohibition in Ontario came to an end in 1927 with the establishment of the Liquor Control Board of Ontario under the government of Howard Ferguson. Ontario_sentence_124

The sale and consumption of liquor, wine, and beer are still controlled by some of the most extreme laws in North America to ensure strict community standards and revenue generation from the alcohol retail monopoly are upheld. Ontario_sentence_125

The post-World War II period was one of exceptional prosperity and growth. Ontario_sentence_126

Ontario has been the recipients of most immigration to Canada, largely immigrants from war-torn Europe in the 1950s and 1960s and following changes in federal immigration law, a massive influx of non-Europeans since the 1970s. Ontario_sentence_127

From a largely ethnically British province, Ontario has rapidly become culturally very diverse. Ontario_sentence_128

The nationalist movement in Quebec, particularly after the election of the Parti Québécois in 1976, contributed to driving many businesses and English-speaking people out of Quebec to Ontario, and as a result, Toronto surpassed Montreal as the largest city and economic centre of Canada. Ontario_sentence_129

Depressed economic conditions in the Maritime Provinces have also resulted in de-population of those provinces in the 20th century, with heavy migration into Ontario. Ontario_sentence_130

Ontario's official language is English, although there exists a number of French-speaking communities across Ontario. Ontario_sentence_131

French-language services are made available for communities with a sizeable French-speaking population; a service that is ensured under the French Language Services Act of 1989. Ontario_sentence_132

Territorial evolution Ontario_section_9

Until 1763, most of Ontario was considered part of New France by French claim. Ontario_sentence_133

Rupert's Land, defined as the drainage basin of Hudson Bay, was claimed by Britain, and included much of today's Northern Ontario. Ontario_sentence_134

The British defeated the armies of the French colony and its indigenous allies in the French and Indian War, part of the Seven Years' War global conflict. Ontario_sentence_135

Concluding the war, the peace treaty between the European powers, known as the Treaty of Paris 1763, assigned almost all of France's possessions in North America to Britain, including parts that would later become Ontario not already part of Rupert's Land. Ontario_sentence_136

Britain established the first Province of Quebec, encompassing contemporary Quebec and southern Ontario. Ontario_sentence_137

After the American War of Independence, the first reserves for First Nations were established. Ontario_sentence_138

These are situated at Six Nations (1784), Tyendinaga (1793) and Akwesasne (1795). Ontario_sentence_139

Six Nations and Tyendinaga were established by the British for those indigenous groups who had fought on the side of the British, and were expelled from the new United States. Ontario_sentence_140

Akwesasne was a pre-existing Mohawk community and its borders were formalized under the 1795 Jay Treaty. Ontario_sentence_141

In 1788, while part of the Province of Quebec, southern Ontario was divided into four districts: Hesse, Lunenburg, Mecklenburg, and Nassau. Ontario_sentence_142

In 1792, the four districts were renamed: Hesse became the Western District, Lunenburg became the Eastern District, Mecklenburg became the Midland District, and Nassau became the Home District. Ontario_sentence_143

Counties were created within the districts. Ontario_sentence_144

By 1798, there were eight districts: Eastern, Home, Johnstown, London, Midland, Newcastle, Niagara, and Western. Ontario_sentence_145

By 1826, there were eleven districts: Bathurst, Eastern, Gore, Home, Johnstown, London, Midland, Newcastle, Niagara, Ottawa, and Western. Ontario_sentence_146

By 1838, there were twenty districts: Bathurst, Brock, Colbourne, Dalhousie, Eastern, Gore, Home, Huron, Johnstown, London, Midland, Newcastle, Niagara, Ottawa, Prince Edward, Simcoe, Talbot, Victoria, Wellington, and Western. Ontario_sentence_147

In 1849, the districts of southern Ontario were abolished by the Province of Canada, and county governments took over certain municipal responsibilities. Ontario_sentence_148

The Province of Canada also began creating districts in sparsely populated Northern Ontario with the establishment of Algoma District and Nipissing District in 1858. Ontario_sentence_149

The borders of Ontario, its new name in 1867, were provisionally expanded north and west. Ontario_sentence_150

When the Province of Canada was formed, its borders were not entirely clear, and Ontario claimed eventually to reach all the way to the Rocky Mountains and Arctic Ocean. Ontario_sentence_151

With Canada's acquisition of Rupert's Land, Ontario was interested in clearly defining its borders, especially since some of the new areas in which it was interested were rapidly growing. Ontario_sentence_152

After the federal government asked Ontario to pay for construction in the new disputed area, the province asked for an elaboration on its limits, and its boundary was moved north to the 51st parallel north. Ontario_sentence_153

The northern and western boundaries of Ontario were in dispute after Canadian Confederation. Ontario_sentence_154

Ontario's right to Northwestern Ontario was determined by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in 1884 and confirmed by the Canada (Ontario Boundary) Act, 1889 of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Ontario_sentence_155

By 1899, there were seven northern districts: Algoma, Manitoulin, Muskoka, Nipissing, Parry Sound, Rainy River, and Thunder Bay. Ontario_sentence_156

Four more northern districts were created between 1907 and 1912: Cochrane, Kenora, Sudbury and Timiskaming. Ontario_sentence_157

Demographics Ontario_section_10

Main article: Demographics of Ontario Ontario_sentence_158

In the 2016 census, Ontario had a population of 13,448,494 living in 5,169,174 of its 5,598,391 total dwellings, a 4.6 percent change from its 2011 population of 12,851,821. Ontario_sentence_159

With a land area of 908,607.67 km (350,815.38 sq mi), it had a population density of 14.8/km (38.3/sq mi) in 2016. Ontario_sentence_160

The largest population centres in Ontario are Toronto, Ottawa, Hamilton, Kitchener, London and Oshawa which all have more than 300,000 inhabitants. Ontario_sentence_161

The percentages given below add to more than 100 per cent because of dual responses (e.g., "French and Canadian" response generates an entry both in the category "French Canadian" and in the category "Canadian"). Ontario_sentence_162

The majority of Ontarians are of English or other European descent including large Scottish, Irish and Italian communities. Ontario_sentence_163

Slightly less than 5 per cent of the population of Ontario is Franco-Ontarian, that is those whose native tongue is French, although those with French ancestry account for 11 per cent of the population. Ontario_sentence_164

In relation to natural increase or inter-provincial migration, immigration is a huge population growth force in Ontario, as it has been over the last two centuries. Ontario_sentence_165

More recent sources of immigrants with large or growing communities in Ontario include South Asians, Caribbeans, Latin Americans, Europeans, Asians, and Africans. Ontario_sentence_166

Most populations have settled in the larger urban centres. Ontario_sentence_167

In 2011, 25.9 per cent of the population consisted of visible minorities and 2.4 per cent of the population was Indigenous, mostly of First Nations and Métis descent. Ontario_sentence_168

There was also a small number of Inuit people in the province. Ontario_sentence_169

The number of Aboriginal people and visible minorities has been increasing at a faster rate than the general population of Ontario. Ontario_sentence_170

Religion Ontario_section_11

In 2011, the largest religious denominations in Ontario were the Roman Catholic Church (with 31.4% of the population), the United Church of Canada (7.5%), and the Anglican Church (6.1%). Ontario_sentence_171

23.1% of Ontarians had no religious affiliation, making it the second-largest religious grouping in the province after Roman Catholics. Ontario_sentence_172

The major religious groups in Ontario in 2011 were: Ontario_sentence_173


ReligionOntario_header_cell_2_0_0 PeopleOntario_header_cell_2_0_1 %Ontario_header_cell_2_0_2
TotalOntario_header_cell_2_1_0 12,651,795Ontario_header_cell_2_1_1 100Ontario_header_cell_2_1_2
CatholicOntario_cell_2_2_0 3,976,610Ontario_cell_2_2_1 31.4Ontario_cell_2_2_2
No religious affiliationOntario_cell_2_3_0 2,927,790Ontario_cell_2_3_1 23.1Ontario_cell_2_3_2
ProtestantOntario_cell_2_4_0 2,668,665Ontario_cell_2_4_1 21.1Ontario_cell_2_4_2
Other ChristiansOntario_cell_2_5_0 1,224,300Ontario_cell_2_5_1 9.7Ontario_cell_2_5_2
MuslimOntario_cell_2_6_0 581,950Ontario_cell_2_6_1 4.6Ontario_cell_2_6_2
HinduOntario_cell_2_7_0 366,720Ontario_cell_2_7_1 2.9Ontario_cell_2_7_2
Christian OrthodoxOntario_cell_2_8_0 297,710Ontario_cell_2_8_1 2.4Ontario_cell_2_8_2
JewishOntario_cell_2_9_0 195,540Ontario_cell_2_9_1 1.5Ontario_cell_2_9_2
SikhOntario_cell_2_10_0 179,765Ontario_cell_2_10_1 1.4Ontario_cell_2_10_2
BuddhistOntario_cell_2_11_0 163,750Ontario_cell_2_11_1 1.3Ontario_cell_2_11_2
Other religionsOntario_cell_2_12_0 68,985Ontario_cell_2_12_1 0.5Ontario_cell_2_12_2

In Ontario, Catholics are represented by the Assembly of Catholic Bishops of Ontario and the Anglican Protestants by the Ecclesiastical Province of Ontario. Ontario_sentence_174

The Ecclesiastical Province covers most of the geographical province of Ontario Ontario_sentence_175

Language Ontario_section_12

See also: Franco-Ontarian Ontario_sentence_176

The principal language of Ontario is English, the province's de facto official language, with approximately 97.2 per cent of Ontarians having proficiency in the language, although only 69.5 per cent of Ontarians reported English as their mother tongue in the 2016 Census. Ontario_sentence_177

English is one of two official languages of Canada, with the other being French. Ontario_sentence_178

English and French are the official languages of the courts in Ontario. Ontario_sentence_179

Approximately 4.6 per cent of the population were identified as francophones, with 11.5 per cent of Ontarians having proficiency in French. Ontario_sentence_180

Approximately 11.2 per cent of Ontarians reported being bilingual in both official languages of Canada. Ontario_sentence_181

Approximately 2.5 per cent of Ontarians have no proficiency in either English or French. Ontario_sentence_182

Franco-Ontarians are concentrated in the northeastern, eastern, and extreme Southern parts of the province, where under the French Language Services Act, provincial government services are required to be available in French if at least 10 per cent of a designated area's population report French as their native language or if an urban centre has at least 5,000 francophones. Ontario_sentence_183

Other languages spoken by residents include Arabic, Bengali, Cantonese, Dutch, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Hebrew, Italian, Korean, Malayalam, Mandarin, Persian, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Russian, Sinhalese, Somali, Spanish, Tagalog, Telugu, Tamil, Tibetan, Ukrainian, Urdu, and Vietnamese. Ontario_sentence_184

Economy Ontario_section_13

Main article: Economy of Ontario Ontario_sentence_185

Ontario is Canada's leading manufacturing province, accounting for 52% of the total national manufacturing shipments in 2004. Ontario_sentence_186

Ontario's largest trading partner is the American state of Michigan. Ontario_sentence_187

As of April 2012, Moody's bond-rating agency rated Ontario debt at AA2/stable, while S&P rated it AA-. Ontario_sentence_188

Dominion Bond Rating Service rated it AA(low) in January 2013. Ontario_sentence_189

Long known as a bastion of Canadian manufacturing and financial solvency, Ontario's public debt-to-GDP ratio is projected to be 38.4% in fiscal year 2023–2024. Ontario_sentence_190

Mining and the forest products industry, notably pulp and paper, are vital to the economy of Northern Ontario. Ontario_sentence_191

As of 2011, roughly 200,000 ha are clearcut each year; herbicides for hardwood suppression are applied to a third of the total. Ontario_sentence_192

There has been controversy over the Ring of Fire mineral deposit, and whether the province can afford to spend CAD$2.25 billion on a road from the Trans-Canada Highway near Kenora to the deposit, currently valued at CAD$60 billion. Ontario_sentence_193

An abundance of natural resources, excellent transportation links to the North American heartland and the inland Great Lakes making ocean access possible via container ships, have all contributed to making manufacturing the principal industry of the province, found mainly in the Golden Horseshoe region, which is the largest industrialized area in Canada, the southern end of the region being part of the North American Rust Belt. Ontario_sentence_194

Important products include motor vehicles, iron, steel, food, electrical appliances, machinery, chemicals, and paper. Ontario_sentence_195

Hamilton is the largest steel manufacturing city in Canada followed closely by Sault Ste. Ontario_sentence_196 Marie, and Sarnia is the centre for petrochemical production. Ontario_sentence_197

Construction employed more than 6.5% of the province's work force in June 2011. Ontario_sentence_198

Ontario's steel industry was once centred in Hamilton. Ontario_sentence_199

Hamilton harbour, which can be seen from the QEW Skyway bridge, is an industrial wasteland; U.S. Ontario_sentence_200 Steel-owned Stelco announced in the autumn of 2013 that it would close in 2014, with the loss of 875 jobs. Ontario_sentence_201

The move flummoxed a union representative, who seemed puzzled why a plant with capacity of 2 million tons per annum would be shut while Canada imported 8 million tons of steel the previous year. Ontario_sentence_202

Algoma Steel maintains a plant in Sault Ste Marie. Ontario_sentence_203

Ontario surpassed Michigan in car production, assembling 2.696 million vehicles in 2004. Ontario_sentence_204

Ontario has Chrysler plants in Windsor and Bramalea, two GM plants in Oshawa and one in Ingersoll, a Honda assembly plant in Alliston, Ford plants in Oakville and St. Thomas and Toyota assembly plants in Cambridge and Woodstock. Ontario_sentence_205

However, as a result of steeply declining sales, in 2005, General Motors announced massive layoffs at production facilities across North America, including two large GM plants in Oshawa and a drive train facility in St. Ontario_sentence_206 Catharines, that resulted in 8,000 job losses in Ontario alone. Ontario_sentence_207

In 2006, Ford Motor Company announced between 25,000 and 30,000 layoffs phased until 2012; Ontario was spared the worst, but job losses were announced for the St Thomas facility and the Windsor Casting plant. Ontario_sentence_208

However, these losses will be offset by Ford's recent announcement of a hybrid vehicle facility slated to begin production in 2007 at its Oakville plant and GM's re-introduction of the Camaro which will be produced in Oshawa. Ontario_sentence_209

On December 4, 2008 Toyota announced the grand opening of the RAV4 plant in Woodstock, and Honda also plans to add an engine plant at its facility in Alliston. Ontario_sentence_210

Despite these new plants coming online, Ontario has not yet fully recovered following massive layoffs caused by the global recession; its unemployment rate was 7.3% in May 2013, compared to 8.7 percent in January 2010 and approximately 6% in 2007. Ontario_sentence_211

In September 2013, the Ontario government committed CAD$70.9 million to the Ford plant in Oakville, while the federal government committed CAD$71.1mn, to secure 2,800 jobs. Ontario_sentence_212

The province has lost 300,000 manufacturing jobs in the decade from 2003, and the Bank of Canada noted that "while the energy and mining industries have benefitted from these movements, the pressure on the manufacturing sector has intensified, since many firms in this sector were already dealing with growing competition from low-cost economies such as China." Ontario_sentence_213

Toronto, the capital of Ontario, is the centre of Canada's financial services and banking industry. Ontario_sentence_214

Neighbouring cities are home to product distribution, IT centres, and manufacturing industries. Ontario_sentence_215

Canada's Federal Government is the largest single employer in the National Capital Region, which centres on the border cities of Ontario's Ottawa and Quebec's Gatineau. Ontario_sentence_216

The information technology sector is important, particularly in the Silicon Valley North section of Ottawa, home to Canada's largest technology park. Ontario_sentence_217

IT is also important in the Waterloo Region, where the headquarters of BlackBerry is located. Ontario_sentence_218

Tourism contributes heavily to the economy of Central Ontario, peaking during the summer months owing to the abundance of fresh water recreation and wilderness found there in reasonable proximity to the major urban centres. Ontario_sentence_219

At other times of the year, hunting, skiing and snowmobiling are popular. Ontario_sentence_220

This region has some of the most vibrant fall colour displays anywhere on the continent, and tours directed at overseas visitors are organized to see them. Ontario_sentence_221

Tourism also plays a key role in border cities with large casinos, among them Windsor, Cornwall, Sarnia and Niagara Falls, the latter of which attracts millions of US and other international visitors. Ontario_sentence_222

Agriculture Ontario_section_14

Once the dominant industry, agriculture now uses a small percentage of the workforce. Ontario_sentence_223

However, much of the land in southern Ontario is given over to agriculture. Ontario_sentence_224

As the following table shows, while the number of individual farms has steadily decreased and their overall size has shrunk at a lower rate, greater mechanization has supported increased supply to satisfy the ever-increasing demands of a growing population base; this has also meant a gradual increase in the total amount of land used for growing crops. Ontario_sentence_225

Common types of farms reported in the 2001 census include those for cattle, small grains and dairy. Ontario_sentence_226

The fruit- and wine industry is primarily on the Niagara Peninsula, Prince Edward County, and along the northern shore of Lake Erie, where tobacco farms are also situated. Ontario_sentence_227

Market vegetables grow in the rich soils of the Holland Marsh near Newmarket. Ontario_sentence_228

The area near Windsor is also very fertile. Ontario_sentence_229

The Heinz plant in Leamington was taken over in these autumn of 2013 by Warren Buffett and a Brazilian partner, following which it put 740 people out of work. Ontario_sentence_230

Government subsidies followed shortly; Premier Kathleen Wynne offered CAD$200,000 to cushion the blow, and promised that another processed-food operator would soon be found. Ontario_sentence_231

On December 10, 2013, Kellogg's announced layoffs for more than 509 workers at a cereal manufacture plant in London. Ontario_sentence_232

The area defined as the Corn Belt covers much of the southwestern area of the province, extending as far north as close to Goderich, but corn and soy are grown throughout the southern portion of the province. Ontario_sentence_233

Apple orchards are a common sight along the southern shore of Nottawasaga Bay (part of Georgian Bay) near Collingwood and along the northern shore of Lake Ontario near Cobourg. Ontario_sentence_234

Tobacco production, centred in Norfolk County, has decreased, allowing an increase in alternative crops such as hazelnuts and ginseng. Ontario_sentence_235

The Ontario origins of Massey Ferguson, once one of the largest farm-implement manufacturers in the world, indicate the importance agriculture once had to the Canadian economy. Ontario_sentence_236

Southern Ontario's limited supply of agricultural land is going out of production at an increasing rate. Ontario_sentence_237

Urban sprawl and farmland severances contribute to the loss of thousands of acres of productive agricultural land in Ontario each year. Ontario_sentence_238

Over 2,000 farms and 150,000 acres (61,000 ha) of farmland in the GTA alone were lost to production in the two decades between 1976 and 1996. Ontario_sentence_239

This loss represented approximately 18%". Ontario_sentence_240

of Ontario's Class 1 farmland being converted to urban purposes. Ontario_sentence_241

In addition, increasing rural severances provide ever-greater interference with agricultural production. Ontario_sentence_242

In an effort to protect the farmland and green spaces of the National Capital Region, and Greater Toronto Area, the Federal and Provincial Governments introduced greenbelts around Ottawa and the Golden Horseshoe, limiting urban development in these areas. Ontario_sentence_243

Energy Ontario_section_15

See also: Energy policy of Canada, Renewable energy in Canada, and Smart grid Ontario_sentence_244

Ontario's rivers make it rich in hydroelectric energy. Ontario_sentence_245

In 2009, Ontario Power Generation generated 70 percent of the province's electricity, of which 51 percent is nuclear, 39% is hydroelectric and 10% is fossil-fuel derived. Ontario_sentence_246

By 2025, nuclear power is projected to supply 42%, while fossil-fuel-derived generation is projected to decrease slightly over the next 20 years. Ontario_sentence_247

Much of the newer power generation coming online in the last few years is natural gas or combined-cycle natural gas plants. Ontario_sentence_248

OPG is not, however, responsible for the transmission of power, which is under the control of Hydro One. Ontario_sentence_249

Despite its diverse range of power options, problems related to increasing consumption, lack of energy efficiency and aging nuclear reactors, Ontario has been forced in recent years to purchase power from its neighbours Quebec and Michigan to supplement its power needs during peak consumption periods. Ontario_sentence_250

Ontario's basic domestic rate in 2010 was 11.17 cents per kWh; by contrast. Ontario_sentence_251

Quebec's was 6.81. Ontario_sentence_252

In December 2013, the government projected a 42 percent hike by 2018, and 68 percent by 2033. Ontario_sentence_253

Industrial rates are projected to rise by 33% by 2018, and 55% in 2033. Ontario_sentence_254

The Green Energy and Green Economy Act, 2009 (GEA), takes a two-pronged approach to commercializing renewable energy; first, it aims to bring more renewable energy sources to the province; and secondly, it aims to adopt more energy-efficiency measures to help conserve energy. Ontario_sentence_255

The bill envisaged appointing a Renewable Energy Facilitator to provide "one-window" assistance and support to project developers to facilitate project approvals. Ontario_sentence_256

The approvals process for transmission projects would also be and (for the first time in Ontario) the bill would enact standards for renewable energy projects. Ontario_sentence_257

Homeowners would have access to incentives to develop small-scale renewables such as low- or no-interest loans to finance the capital cost of renewable energy generating facilities like solar panels. Ontario_sentence_258

Ontario is home to Niagara Falls, which supplies a large amount of electricity to the province. Ontario_sentence_259

The Bruce Nuclear Generating Station, the largest operational nuclear power plant in the world, is also in Ontario and uses 8 CANDU reactors to generate electricity for the province. Ontario_sentence_260

Ontario had the most wind energy capacity of the country with 4,900 MW of power (41% of Canada capacity). Ontario_sentence_261

Government, law and politics Ontario_section_16

Further information: Monarchy in Ontario, Executive Council of Ontario, and Local government in Ontario Ontario_sentence_262

The British North America Act 1867 section 69 stipulated "There shall be a Legislature for Ontario consisting of the Lieutenant Governor and of One House, styled the Legislative Assembly of Ontario." Ontario_sentence_263

The assembly currently has 124 seats (increased from 107 as of the 42nd Ontario general election) representing ridings elected in a first-past-the-post system across the province. Ontario_sentence_264

The legislative buildings at Queen's Park are the seat of government. Ontario_sentence_265

Following the Westminster system, the leader of the party holding the most seats in the assembly is known as the "Premier and President of the Council" (Executive Council Act R.S.O. Ontario_sentence_266

1990). Ontario_sentence_267

The Premier chooses the cabinet or Executive Council whose members are deemed ministers of the Crown. Ontario_sentence_268

Although the Legislative Assembly Act (R.S.O. Ontario_sentence_269

1990) refers to "members of the assembly", the legislators are now commonly called MPPs (Members of the Provincial Parliament) in English and députés de l'Assemblée législative in French, but they have also been called MLAs (Members of the Legislative Assembly), and both are acceptable. Ontario_sentence_270

The title of Prime Minister of Ontario, correct in French (le Premier ministre), is permissible in English but now generally avoided in favour of the title "Premier" to avoid confusion with the Prime Minister of Canada. Ontario_sentence_271

Law Ontario_section_17

Ontario has grown, from its roots in Upper Canada, into a modern jurisdiction. Ontario_sentence_272

The old titles of the chief law officers, the Attorney-General and the Solicitor-General, remain in use. Ontario_sentence_273

They both are responsible to the Legislature. Ontario_sentence_274

The Attorney-General drafts the laws and is responsible for criminal prosecutions and the administration of justice, while the Solicitor-General is responsible for law enforcement and the police services of the province. Ontario_sentence_275

The Municipal Act, 2001 (Ontario) is the main statute governing the creation, administration and government of municipalities in the Canadian province of Ontario, other than the City of Toronto. Ontario_sentence_276

After being passed in 2001, it came into force on January 1, 2003, replacing the previous Municipal Act. Ontario_sentence_277

Effective January 1, 2007, the Municipal Act, 2001 (the Act) was significantly amended by the Municipal Statute Law Amendment Act, 2006 (Bill 130). Ontario_sentence_278

Politics Ontario_section_18

Main article: Politics of Ontario Ontario_sentence_279

Ontario has numerous political parties which run for election. Ontario_sentence_280

The four main parties are the centre-right Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario, the social democratic Ontario New Democratic Party (NDP), the centre-left Ontario Liberal Party, and Green Party of Ontario. Ontario_sentence_281

The Progressive Conservatives, Liberals and New Democrats have each governed the province, while the Greens elected their first member to the Legislative Assembly in 2018. Ontario_sentence_282

The 2018 provincial election resulted in a Progressive Conservative majority under Doug Ford, who was sworn in to office on June 29. Ontario_sentence_283

Urban areas Ontario_section_19

See also: Golden Horseshoe, National Capital Region (Canada), and Detroit–Windsor Ontario_sentence_284

Statistics Canada's measure of a "metro area", the Census Metropolitan Area (CMA), roughly bundles together population figures from the core municipality with those from "commuter" municipalities. Ontario_sentence_285


CMA (largest other included municipalities in brackets)Ontario_header_cell_3_0_0 2001Ontario_header_cell_3_0_1 2006Ontario_header_cell_3_0_2 2011Ontario_header_cell_3_0_3 2016Ontario_header_cell_3_0_4 % ChangeOntario_header_cell_3_0_5
Toronto CMA (Mississauga, Brampton)Ontario_cell_3_1_0 4,682,897Ontario_cell_3_1_1 5,113,149Ontario_cell_3_1_2 5,583,064Ontario_cell_3_1_3 5,928,040Ontario_cell_3_1_4 6.2Ontario_cell_3_1_5
Ottawa CMA (Gatineau, Clarence-Rockland)Ontario_cell_3_2_0 1,067,800Ontario_cell_3_2_1 1,130,761Ontario_cell_3_2_2 1,254,919Ontario_cell_3_2_3 1,323,783Ontario_cell_3_2_4 4.4Ontario_cell_3_2_5
Hamilton CMA (Burlington, Grimsby)Ontario_cell_3_3_0 662,401Ontario_cell_3_3_1 692,911Ontario_cell_3_3_2 721,053Ontario_cell_3_3_3 747,545Ontario_cell_3_3_4 3.7Ontario_cell_3_3_5
Kitchener CMA (Cambridge, Waterloo)Ontario_cell_3_4_0 414,284Ontario_cell_3_4_1 451,235Ontario_cell_3_4_2 496,383Ontario_cell_3_4_3 523,894Ontario_cell_3_4_4 5.5Ontario_cell_3_4_5
London CMA (St. Thomas, Strathroy-Caradoc)Ontario_cell_3_5_0 435,600Ontario_cell_3_5_1 457,720Ontario_cell_3_5_2 474,786Ontario_cell_3_5_3 494,069Ontario_cell_3_5_4 4.1Ontario_cell_3_5_5
St. Catharines CMA (Niagara Falls, Welland)Ontario_cell_3_6_0 377,009Ontario_cell_3_6_1 390,317Ontario_cell_3_6_2 392,184Ontario_cell_3_6_3 406,074Ontario_cell_3_6_4 3.5Ontario_cell_3_6_5
Oshawa CMA (Whitby, Clarington)Ontario_cell_3_7_0 296,298Ontario_cell_3_7_1 330,594Ontario_cell_3_7_2 356,177Ontario_cell_3_7_3 379,848Ontario_cell_3_7_4 6.6Ontario_cell_3_7_5
Windsor CMA (Lakeshore, LaSalle)Ontario_cell_3_8_0 307,877Ontario_cell_3_8_1 323,342Ontario_cell_3_8_2 319,246Ontario_cell_3_8_3 329,144Ontario_cell_3_8_4 3.1Ontario_cell_3_8_5
Barrie CMA (Innisfil, Springwater)Ontario_cell_3_9_0 148,480Ontario_cell_3_9_1 177,061Ontario_cell_3_9_2 187,013Ontario_cell_3_9_3 197,059Ontario_cell_3_9_4 5.4Ontario_cell_3_9_5
Sudbury CMA (Whitefish Lake, Wanapitei Reserve)Ontario_cell_3_10_0 155,601Ontario_cell_3_10_1 158,258Ontario_cell_3_10_2 160,770Ontario_cell_3_10_3 164,689Ontario_cell_3_10_4 1.0Ontario_cell_3_10_5
Kingston CMAOntario_cell_3_11_0 146,838Ontario_cell_3_11_1 152,358Ontario_cell_3_11_2 159,561Ontario_cell_3_11_3 161,175Ontario_cell_3_11_4 1.0Ontario_cell_3_11_5
  • Parts of Quebec (including Gatineau) are included in the Ottawa CMA. Ontario_sentence_286

The population of the Ottawa CMA, in both provinces, is shown. Ontario_sentence_287



MunicipalityOntario_header_cell_4_0_0 2001Ontario_header_cell_4_0_1 2006Ontario_header_cell_4_0_2 2011Ontario_header_cell_4_0_3 2016Ontario_header_cell_4_0_4
TorontoOntario_cell_4_1_0 2,481,494Ontario_cell_4_1_1 2,503,281Ontario_cell_4_1_2 2,615,060Ontario_cell_4_1_3 2,731,571Ontario_cell_4_1_4
OttawaOntario_cell_4_2_0 774,072Ontario_cell_4_2_1 812,129Ontario_cell_4_2_2 883,391Ontario_cell_4_2_3 934,243Ontario_cell_4_2_4
MississaugaOntario_cell_4_3_0 612,925Ontario_cell_4_3_1 668,549Ontario_cell_4_3_2 713,443Ontario_cell_4_3_3 721,599Ontario_cell_4_3_4
BramptonOntario_cell_4_4_0 325,428Ontario_cell_4_4_1 433,806Ontario_cell_4_4_2 523,911Ontario_cell_4_4_3 593,638Ontario_cell_4_4_4
HamiltonOntario_cell_4_5_0 490,268Ontario_cell_4_5_1 504,559Ontario_cell_4_5_2 519,949Ontario_cell_4_5_3 536,917Ontario_cell_4_5_4
LondonOntario_cell_4_6_0 336,539Ontario_cell_4_6_1 352,395Ontario_cell_4_6_2 366,151Ontario_cell_4_6_3 383,822Ontario_cell_4_6_4
MarkhamOntario_cell_4_7_0 208,615Ontario_cell_4_7_1 261,573Ontario_cell_4_7_2 301,709Ontario_cell_4_7_3 328,996Ontario_cell_4_7_4
VaughanOntario_cell_4_8_0 182,022Ontario_cell_4_8_1 238,866Ontario_cell_4_8_2 288,301Ontario_cell_4_8_3 306,233Ontario_cell_4_8_4
KitchenerOntario_cell_4_9_0 190,399Ontario_cell_4_9_1 204,668Ontario_cell_4_9_2 219,153Ontario_cell_4_9_3 233,222Ontario_cell_4_9_4
WindsorOntario_cell_4_10_0 209,218Ontario_cell_4_10_1 216,473Ontario_cell_4_10_2 210,891Ontario_cell_4_10_3 217,188Ontario_cell_4_10_4

Education Ontario_section_20

Main article: Education in Ontario Ontario_sentence_288

In Canada, education falls under provincial jurisdiction. Ontario_sentence_289

Publicly funded elementary and secondary schools are administered by the Ontario Ministry of Education, while colleges and universities are administered by the Ontario Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities. Ontario_sentence_290

The Minister of Education is Stephen Lecce, and the Minister of Training, Colleges and Universities is Ross Romano. Ontario_sentence_291

Higher education Ontario_section_21

Main article: Higher education in Ontario Ontario_sentence_292

See also: List of colleges in Ontario and List of universities in Ontario Ontario_sentence_293

Higher education in Ontario includes postsecondary education and skills training regulated by the Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities and provided by universities, colleges of applied arts and technology, and private career colleges. Ontario_sentence_294

The minister is Merrilee Fullerton. Ontario_sentence_295

The ministry administers laws covering 22 public universities, 24 public colleges (21 Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology (CAATs) and three Institutes of Technology and Advanced Learning (ITALs)), 17 privately funded religious universities, and over 500 private career colleges. Ontario_sentence_296

The Canadian constitution provides each province with the responsibility for higher education and there is no corresponding national federal ministry of higher education. Ontario_sentence_297

Within Canadian federalism the division of responsibilities and taxing powers between the Ontario and Canadian governments creates the need for co-operation to fund and deliver higher education to students. Ontario_sentence_298

Each higher education system aims to improve participation, access, and mobility for students. Ontario_sentence_299

There are two central organizations that assist with the process of applying to Ontario universities and colleges: the Ontario Universities' Application Centre and Ontario College Application Service. Ontario_sentence_300

While application services are centralized, admission and selection processes vary and are the purview of each institution. Ontario_sentence_301

Admission to many Ontario postsecondary institutions can be highly competitive. Ontario_sentence_302

Upon admission, students may get involved with regional student representation with the Canadian Federation of Students, the Canadian Alliance of Student Associations, the Ontario Undergraduate Student Alliance, or through the College Student Alliance in Ontario. Ontario_sentence_303

Culture Ontario_section_22

In 2019, the government of Ontario passed legislation that established the Poet Laureate of Ontario. Ontario_sentence_304

Songs and slogans Ontario_section_23

In 1973, the first slogan to appear on licence plates in Ontario was "Keep It Beautiful". Ontario_sentence_305

This was replaced by "Yours to Discover" in 1982, apparently inspired by a tourism slogan, "Discover Ontario", dating back to 1927. Ontario_sentence_306

Plates with the French equivalent, Tant à découvrir, were made available to the public beginning in May 2008. Ontario_sentence_307

(From 1988 to 1990, "Ontario Incredible" gave "Yours to Discover" a brief respite.) Ontario_sentence_308

A Place to Stand, a Place to Grow is a song commissioned by the government of Ontario for its pavilion in Expo 67, and an unofficial anthem of the province. Ontario_sentence_309

As a part of the Canada 150 celebrations in 2017, the provincial government unveiled an "updated," rendition of the song. Ontario_sentence_310

In 2007, the provincial tourism agency commissioned a new song, "There's No Place Like This" is featured in television advertising, performed by Ontario artists including Molly Johnson, Brian Byrne, Keshia Chanté, as well as Tomi Swick and Arkells. Ontario_sentence_311

Notable residents Ontario_section_24

Main article: List of people from Ontario Ontario_sentence_312

Professional sports Ontario_section_25

The province has professional sports teams in baseball, basketball, Canadian football, ice hockey, lacrosse, rugby league, rugby union and soccer. Ontario_sentence_313


ClubOntario_header_cell_5_0_0 SportOntario_header_cell_5_0_1 LeagueOntario_header_cell_5_0_2 CityOntario_header_cell_5_0_3 StadiumOntario_header_cell_5_0_4
Atlético OttawaOntario_cell_5_1_0 SoccerOntario_cell_5_1_1 CPLOntario_cell_5_1_2 OttawaOntario_cell_5_1_3 TD Place StadiumOntario_cell_5_1_4
Belleville SenatorsOntario_cell_5_2_0 Ice hockeyOntario_cell_5_2_1 AHLOntario_cell_5_2_2 BellevilleOntario_cell_5_2_3 CAA ArenaOntario_cell_5_2_4
Forge FCOntario_cell_5_3_0 SoccerOntario_cell_5_3_1 CPLOntario_cell_5_3_2 HamiltonOntario_cell_5_3_3 Tim Hortons FieldOntario_cell_5_3_4
Guelph NighthawksOntario_cell_5_4_0 BasketballOntario_cell_5_4_1 CEBLOntario_cell_5_4_2 GuelphOntario_cell_5_4_3 Sleeman CentreOntario_cell_5_4_4
Hamilton Honey BadgersOntario_cell_5_5_0 BasketballOntario_cell_5_5_1 CEBLOntario_cell_5_5_2 HamiltonOntario_cell_5_5_3 FirstOntario CentreOntario_cell_5_5_4
Hamilton Tiger-CatsOntario_cell_5_6_0 FootballOntario_cell_5_6_1 CFLOntario_cell_5_6_2 HamiltonOntario_cell_5_6_3 Tim Hortons FieldOntario_cell_5_6_4
KW TitansOntario_cell_5_7_0 BasketballOntario_cell_5_7_1 NBLCOntario_cell_5_7_2 KitchenerOntario_cell_5_7_3 Kitchener Memorial AuditoriumOntario_cell_5_7_4
London LightningOntario_cell_5_8_0 BasketballOntario_cell_5_8_1 NBLCOntario_cell_5_8_2 LondonOntario_cell_5_8_3 Budweiser GardensOntario_cell_5_8_4
Niagara River LionsOntario_cell_5_9_0 BasketballOntario_cell_5_9_1 CEBLOntario_cell_5_9_2 St. CatharinesOntario_cell_5_9_3 Meridian CentreOntario_cell_5_9_4
Ottawa BlackjacksOntario_cell_5_10_0 BasketballOntario_cell_5_10_1 CEBLOntario_cell_5_10_2 OttawaOntario_cell_5_10_3 TD Place ArenaOntario_cell_5_10_4
Ottawa ChampionsOntario_cell_5_11_0 BaseballOntario_cell_5_11_1 Can-AmOntario_cell_5_11_2 OttawaOntario_cell_5_11_3 Raymond Chabot Grant Thornton ParkOntario_cell_5_11_4
Ottawa RedblacksOntario_cell_5_12_0 FootballOntario_cell_5_12_1 CFLOntario_cell_5_12_2 OttawaOntario_cell_5_12_3 TD Place StadiumOntario_cell_5_12_4
Ottawa SenatorsOntario_cell_5_13_0 Ice hockeyOntario_cell_5_13_1 NHLOntario_cell_5_13_2 OttawaOntario_cell_5_13_3 Canadian Tire CentreOntario_cell_5_13_4
Raptors 905Ontario_cell_5_14_0 BasketballOntario_cell_5_14_1 G LeagueOntario_cell_5_14_2 MississaugaOntario_cell_5_14_3 Paramount Fine Foods CentreOntario_cell_5_14_4
Sudbury FiveOntario_cell_5_15_0 BasketballOntario_cell_5_15_1 NBLCOntario_cell_5_15_2 Greater SudburyOntario_cell_5_15_3 Sudbury Community ArenaOntario_cell_5_15_4
Toronto ArgonautsOntario_cell_5_16_0 FootballOntario_cell_5_16_1 CFLOntario_cell_5_16_2 TorontoOntario_cell_5_16_3 BMO FieldOntario_cell_5_16_4
Toronto ArrowsOntario_cell_5_17_0 Rugby unionOntario_cell_5_17_1 MLROntario_cell_5_17_2 TorontoOntario_cell_5_17_3 Lamport StadiumOntario_cell_5_17_4
Toronto Blue JaysOntario_cell_5_18_0 BaseballOntario_cell_5_18_1 MLBOntario_cell_5_18_2 TorontoOntario_cell_5_18_3 Rogers CentreOntario_cell_5_18_4
Toronto FCOntario_cell_5_19_0 SoccerOntario_cell_5_19_1 MLSOntario_cell_5_19_2 TorontoOntario_cell_5_19_3 BMO FieldOntario_cell_5_19_4
Toronto FC IIOntario_cell_5_20_0 SoccerOntario_cell_5_20_1 USLOntario_cell_5_20_2 TorontoOntario_cell_5_20_3 Lamport StadiumOntario_cell_5_20_4
Toronto Maple LeafsOntario_cell_5_21_0 Ice hockeyOntario_cell_5_21_1 NHLOntario_cell_5_21_2 TorontoOntario_cell_5_21_3 Scotiabank ArenaOntario_cell_5_21_4
Toronto MarliesOntario_cell_5_22_0 Ice hockeyOntario_cell_5_22_1 AHLOntario_cell_5_22_2 TorontoOntario_cell_5_22_3 Coca-Cola ColiseumOntario_cell_5_22_4
Toronto RaptorsOntario_cell_5_23_0 BasketballOntario_cell_5_23_1 NBAOntario_cell_5_23_2 TorontoOntario_cell_5_23_3 Scotiabank ArenaOntario_cell_5_23_4
Toronto RockOntario_cell_5_24_0 LacrosseOntario_cell_5_24_1 NLLOntario_cell_5_24_2 TorontoOntario_cell_5_24_3 Scotiabank ArenaOntario_cell_5_24_4
Toronto WolfpackOntario_cell_5_25_0 Rugby leagueOntario_cell_5_25_1 Super LeagueOntario_cell_5_25_2 TorontoOntario_cell_5_25_3 Lamport StadiumOntario_cell_5_25_4
Windsor ExpressOntario_cell_5_26_0 BasketballOntario_cell_5_26_1 NBLCOntario_cell_5_26_2 WindsorOntario_cell_5_26_3 WFCU CentreOntario_cell_5_26_4
York United FCOntario_cell_5_27_0 SoccerOntario_cell_5_27_1 CPLOntario_cell_5_27_2 TorontoOntario_cell_5_27_3 York Lions StadiumOntario_cell_5_27_4

Transportation Ontario_section_26

Transportation routes in Ontario evolved from early waterway travel and First Nations paths followed by European explorers. Ontario_sentence_314

Ontario has two major east–west routes, both starting from Montreal in the neighbouring province of Quebec. Ontario_sentence_315

The northerly route, which was a major fur trade route, travels west from Montreal along the Ottawa River, then continues northwestward towards Manitoba. Ontario_sentence_316

Major cities on or near the route include Ottawa, North Bay, Sudbury, Sault Ste. Ontario_sentence_317 Marie, and Thunder Bay. Ontario_sentence_318

The southerly route, which was driven by growth in settlements originated by the United Empire Loyalists and later other European immigrants, travels southwest from Montreal along the St. Lawrence River, Lake Ontario, and Lake Erie before entering the United States in Michigan. Ontario_sentence_319

Major cities on or near the route include Kingston, Belleville, Peterborough, Oshawa, Toronto, Mississauga, Kitchener-Waterloo, Hamilton, London, Sarnia, and Windsor. Ontario_sentence_320

This route was also heavily used by immigrants to the Midwestern US particularly in the late 19th century. Ontario_sentence_321

Air travel Ontario_section_27

Important airports in the province include Toronto Pearson International Airport, which is the busiest airport in Canada, handling nearly 50 million passengers in 2018. Ontario_sentence_322

Ottawa Macdonald–Cartier International Airport is Ontario's second largest airport. Ontario_sentence_323

Toronto/Pearson and Ottawa/Macdonald-Cartier form two of the three points in Canada's busiest set of air routes (the third point being Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport). Ontario_sentence_324

In addition to airports in Ottawa, and Toronto, the province also operates three other international airports, the John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport in Hamilton, the Thunder Bay International Airport in Thunder Bay and the London International Airport in London. Ontario_sentence_325

John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport serves as cargo hub, reliever for Pearson, and a hub for ULCC Swoop. Ontario_sentence_326

Most Ontario cities have regional airports, many of which have scheduled commuter flights from Air Canada Jazz or smaller airlines and charter companies – flights from the mid-size cities such as Thunder Bay, Sault Ste. Ontario_sentence_327

Marie, Sudbury, North Bay, Timmins, Windsor, London, and Kingston feed directly into larger airports in Toronto and Ottawa. Ontario_sentence_328

Bearskin Airlines also runs flights along the northerly east–west route, connecting Ottawa, North Bay, Sudbury, Sault Ste. Ontario_sentence_329

Marie, Kitchener and Thunder Bay directly. Ontario_sentence_330

Isolated towns and settlements in the northern areas of the province rely partly or entirely on air service for travel, goods, and even ambulance services (MEDIVAC), since much of the far northern area of the province cannot be reached by road or rail. Ontario_sentence_331

Railways Ontario_section_28

Via Rail operates the inter-regional passenger train service on the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, along with The Canadian, a transcontinental rail service from Southern Ontario to Vancouver, and the Sudbury–White River train. Ontario_sentence_332

Additionally, Amtrak rail connects Ontario with key New York cities including Buffalo, Albany, and New York City. Ontario_sentence_333

Ontario Northland provides rail service to destinations as far north as Moosonee near James Bay, connecting them with the south. Ontario_sentence_334

Freight rail is dominated by the founding cross-country Canadian National Railway and CP Rail companies, which during the 1990s sold many short rail lines from their vast network to private companies operating mostly in the south. Ontario_sentence_335

Regional commuter rail is limited to the provincially owned GO Transit, and serves a train-bus network spanning the Golden Horseshoe region, with Union Station in Toronto serving as the transport hub. Ontario_sentence_336

There are several city rail-transit systems in the Province. Ontario_sentence_337

The Toronto Transit Commission operates subways, as well as streetcars (being one of the busiest streetcar systems in North America). Ontario_sentence_338

OC Transpo operates a light rail metro system in Ottawa. Ontario_sentence_339

In addition, Waterloo region operates a surface light rail system. Ontario_sentence_340

Plans to build a light rail line is also underway in the Regional Municipality of Peel. Ontario_sentence_341

Roads Ontario_section_29

Main article: Roads in Ontario Ontario_sentence_342

400-series highways make up the primary vehicular network in the south of province, and they connect at a number of points to border crossings to the United States, and Quebec, the busiest being the Detroit–Windsor Tunnel and Ambassador Bridge and the Blue Water Bridge (via Highway 402). Ontario_sentence_343

Some of the primary highways along the southern route are Highway 401, Highway 417, and Highway 400, Highway 401 being the busiest highway in North America. Ontario_sentence_344

Other provincial highways and regional roads inter-connect the remainder of the province. Ontario_sentence_345

Waterways Ontario_section_30

See also: Boat building industry in Ontario Ontario_sentence_346

The Saint Lawrence Seaway, which extends across most of the southern portion of the province and connects to the Atlantic Ocean, is the primary water transportation route for cargo, particularly iron ore and grain. Ontario_sentence_347

In the past, the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River were also a major passenger transportation route, but over the past half century passenger travel has been reduced to ferry services and sightseeing cruises. Ontario_sentence_348

Ontario's three largest ports are the Port of Hamilton, Port of Thunder Bay and the Port of Windsor. Ontario_sentence_349

Ontario's only saltwater port is located in the town of Moosonee on James Bay. Ontario_sentence_350

See also Ontario_section_31


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ontario.