Open-source software

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Open-source software shares similarities with free software and is part of the broader term free and open-source software. Open-source software_sentence_0

For broader coverage of this topic, see Open-source-software movement. Open-source software_sentence_1

Open-source software (OSS) is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to use, study, change, and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software_sentence_2

Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. Open-source software_sentence_3

Open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration. Open-source software_sentence_4

Open-source software development can bring in diverse perspectives beyond those of a single company. Open-source software_sentence_5

A 2008 report by the Standish Group stated that adoption of open-source software models has resulted in savings of about $60 billion (£48 billion) per year for consumers. Open-source software_sentence_6

History Open-source software_section_0

Further information: History of free and open-source software Open-source software_sentence_7

End of 1990s: Foundation of the Open Source Initiative Open-source software_section_1

In the early days of computing, programmers and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing. Open-source software_sentence_8

Eventually, the open-source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970–1980. Open-source software_sentence_9

However, academics still often developed software collaboratively. Open-source software_sentence_10

For example, Donald Knuth in 1979 with the TeX typesetting system or Richard Stallman in 1983 with the GNU operating system. Open-source software_sentence_11

In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free-software principles. Open-source software_sentence_12

The paper received significant attention in early 1998, and was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software. Open-source software_sentence_13

This source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox, Thunderbird and KompoZer. Open-source software_sentence_14

Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundation's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry. Open-source software_sentence_15

They concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, and looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code. Open-source software_sentence_16

The new term they chose was "open source", which was soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, and others. Open-source software_sentence_17

The Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles. Open-source software_sentence_18

While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves increasingly threatened by the concept of freely distributed software and universal access to an application's source code. Open-source software_sentence_19

A Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer. Open-source software_sentence_20

I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business." Open-source software_sentence_21

However, while Free and open-source software has historically played a role outside of the mainstream of private software development, companies as large as Microsoft have begun to develop official open-source presences on the Internet. Open-source software_sentence_22

IBM, Oracle, Google, and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market. Open-source software_sentence_23

There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS. Open-source software_sentence_24

The free-software movement was launched in 1983. Open-source software_sentence_25

In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software (OSS) as an expression which is less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world. Open-source software_sentence_26

Software developers may want to publish their software with an open-source license, so that anybody may also develop the same software or understand its internal functioning. Open-source software_sentence_27

With open-source software, generally, anyone is allowed to create modifications of it, port it to new operating systems and instruction set architectures, share it with others or, in some cases, market it. Open-source software_sentence_28

Scholars Casson and Ryan have pointed out several policy-based reasons for adoption of open source – in particular, the heightened value proposition from open source (when compared to most proprietary formats) in the following categories: Open-source software_sentence_29

Open-source software_unordered_list_0

  • SecurityOpen-source software_item_0_0
  • AffordabilityOpen-source software_item_0_1
  • TransparencyOpen-source software_item_0_2
  • PerpetuityOpen-source software_item_0_3
  • InteroperabilityOpen-source software_item_0_4
  • FlexibilityOpen-source software_item_0_5
  • Localization – particularly in the context of local governments (who make software decisions). Casson and Ryan argue that "governments have an inherent responsibility and fiduciary duty to taxpayers" which includes the careful analysis of these factors when deciding to purchase proprietary software or implement an open-source option.Open-source software_item_0_6

The Open Source Definition presents an open-source philosophy and further defines the terms of use, modification and redistribution of open-source software. Open-source software_sentence_30

Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Open-source software_sentence_31

Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition. Open-source software_sentence_32

The most prominent and popular example is the GNU General Public License (GPL), which "allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence", thus also free. Open-source software_sentence_33

The open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, 1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator (as Mozilla). Open-source software_sentence_34

A group of individuals at the session included Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, Tom Paquin, Jamie Zawinski, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Sameer Parekh, Eric Allman, Greg Olson, Paul Vixie, John Ousterhout, Guido van Rossum, Philip Zimmermann, John Gilmore and Eric S. Raymond. Open-source software_sentence_35

They used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the word "free" in English. Open-source software_sentence_36

Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open-source movement, while others do not distinguish between open-source and free software movements. Open-source software_sentence_37

The Free Software Foundation (FSF), started in 1985, intended the word "free" to mean freedom to distribute (or "free as in free speech") and not freedom from cost (or "free as in free beer"). Open-source software_sentence_38

Since a great deal of free software already was (and still is) free of charge, such free software became associated with zero cost, which seemed anti-commercial. Open-source software_sentence_39

The Open Source Initiative (OSI) was formed in February 1998 by Eric Raymond and Bruce Perens. Open-source software_sentence_40

With at least 20 years of evidence from case histories of closed software development versus open development already provided by the Internet developer community, the OSI presented the "open source" case to commercial businesses, like Netscape. Open-source software_sentence_41

The OSI hoped that the use of the label "open source", a term suggested by Christine Peterson of the Foresight Institute at the strategy session, would eliminate ambiguity, particularly for individuals who perceive "free software" as anti-commercial. Open-source software_sentence_42

They sought to bring a higher profile to the practical benefits of freely available source code, and they wanted to bring major software businesses and other high-tech industries into open source. Open-source software_sentence_43

Perens attempted to register "open source" as a service mark for the OSI, but that attempt was impractical by trademark standards. Open-source software_sentence_44

Meanwhile, due to the presentation of Raymond's paper to the upper management at Netscape—Raymond only discovered when he read the press release, and was called by Netscape CEO Jim Barksdale's PA later in the day—Netscape released its Navigator source code as open source, with favorable results. Open-source software_sentence_45

Definitions Open-source software_section_2

The Open Source Initiative's (OSI) definition is recognized by several governments internationally as the standard or de facto definition. Open-source software_sentence_46

In addition, many of the world's largest open-source-software projects and contributors, including Debian, Drupal Association, FreeBSD Foundation, Linux Foundation, OpenSUSE Foundation, Mozilla Foundation, Wikimedia Foundation, Wordpress Foundation have committed to upholding the OSI's mission and Open Source Definition through the OSI Affiliate Agreement. Open-source software_sentence_47

OSI uses The Open Source Definition to determine whether it considers a software license open source. Open-source software_sentence_48

The definition was based on the Debian Free Software Guidelines, written and adapted primarily by Perens. Open-source software_sentence_49

Perens did not base his writing on the "four freedoms" from the Free Software Foundation (FSF), which were only widely available later. Open-source software_sentence_50

Under Perens' definition, open source is a broad software license that makes source code available to the general public with relaxed or non-existent restrictions on the use and modification of the code. Open-source software_sentence_51

It is an explicit "feature" of open source that it puts very few restrictions on the use or distribution by any organization or user, in order to enable the rapid evolution of the software. Open-source software_sentence_52

Despite initially accepting it, Richard Stallman of the FSF now flatly opposes the term "Open Source" being applied to what they refer to as "free software". Open-source software_sentence_53

Although he agrees that the two terms describe "almost the same category of software", Stallman considers equating the terms incorrect and misleading. Open-source software_sentence_54

Stallman also opposes the professed pragmatism of the Open Source Initiative, as he fears that the free software ideals of freedom and community are threatened by compromising on the FSF's idealistic standards for software freedom. Open-source software_sentence_55

The FSF considers free software to be a subset of open-source software, and Richard Stallman explained that DRM software, for example, can be developed as open source, despite that it does not give its users freedom (it restricts them), and thus doesn't qualify as free software. Open-source software_sentence_56

Open-source software licensing Open-source software_section_3

Main article: Open-source license Open-source software_sentence_57

Further information: Free software license Open-source software_sentence_58

See also: Free and open-source software § Licensing, and Software license Open-source software_sentence_59

When an author contributes code to an open-source project (e.g., they do so under an explicit license (e.g., the Apache Contributor License Agreement) or an implicit license (e.g. the open-source license under which the project is already licensing code). Open-source software_sentence_60

Some open-source projects do not take contributed code under a license, but actually require joint assignment of the author's copyright in order to accept code contributions into the project. Open-source software_sentence_61

Examples of free software license / open-source licenses include Apache License, BSD license, GNU General Public License, GNU Lesser General Public License, MIT License, Eclipse Public License and Mozilla Public License. Open-source software_sentence_62

The proliferation of open-source licenses is a negative aspect of the open-source movement because it is often difficult to understand the legal implications of the differences between licenses. Open-source software_sentence_63

With more than 180,000 open-source projects available and more than 1400 unique licenses, the complexity of deciding how to manage open-source use within "closed-source" commercial enterprises has dramatically increased. Open-source software_sentence_64

Some are home-grown, while others are modeled after mainstream FOSS licenses such as Berkeley Software Distribution ("BSD"), Apache, MIT-style (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), or GNU General Public License ("GPL"). Open-source software_sentence_65

In view of this, open-source practitioners are starting to use classification schemes in which FOSS licenses are grouped (typically based on the existence and obligations imposed by the copyleft provision; the strength of the copyleft provision). Open-source software_sentence_66

An important legal milestone for the open source / free software movement was passed in 2008, when the US federal appeals court ruled that free software licenses definitely do set legally binding conditions on the use of copyrighted work, and they are therefore enforceable under existing copyright law. Open-source software_sentence_67

As a result, if end-users violate the licensing conditions, their license disappears, meaning they are infringing copyright. Open-source software_sentence_68

Despite this licensing risk, most commercial software vendors are using open-source software in commercial products while fulfilling the license terms, e.g. leveraging the Apache license. Open-source software_sentence_69

Certifications Open-source software_section_4

Certification can help to build user confidence. Open-source software_sentence_70

Certification could be applied to the simplest component, to a whole software system. Open-source software_sentence_71

The United Nations University International Institute for Software Technology, initiated a project known as "The Global Desktop Project". Open-source software_sentence_72

This project aims to build a desktop interface that every end-user is able to understand and interact with, thus crossing the language and cultural barriers. Open-source software_sentence_73

The project would improve developing nations' access to information systems. Open-source software_sentence_74

UNU/IIST hopes to achieve this without any compromise in the quality of the software by introducing certifications. Open-source software_sentence_75

Open-source software development Open-source software_section_5

Main article: Open-source software development model Open-source software_sentence_76

Development model Open-source software_section_6

In his 1997 essay The Cathedral and the Bazaar, open-source evangelist Eric S. Raymond suggests a model for developing OSS known as the bazaar model. Open-source software_sentence_77

Raymond likens the development of software by traditional methodologies to building a cathedral, "carefully crafted by individual wizards or small bands of mages working in splendid isolation". Open-source software_sentence_78

He suggests that all software should be developed using the bazaar style, which he described as "a great babbling bazaar of differing agendas and approaches." Open-source software_sentence_79

In the traditional model of development, which he called the cathedral model, development takes place in a centralized way. Open-source software_sentence_80

Roles are clearly defined. Open-source software_sentence_81

Roles include people dedicated to designing (the architects), people responsible for managing the project, and people responsible for implementation. Open-source software_sentence_82

Traditional software engineering follows the cathedral model. Open-source software_sentence_83

The bazaar model, however, is different. Open-source software_sentence_84

In this model, roles are not clearly defined. Open-source software_sentence_85

Gregorio Robles suggests that software developed using the bazaar model should exhibit the following patterns: Open-source software_sentence_86

Open-source software_description_list_1

  • Users should be treated as co-developers: The users are treated like co-developers and so they should have access to the source code of the software. Furthermore, users are encouraged to submit additions to the software, code fixes for the software, bug reports, documentation, etc. Having more co-developers increases the rate at which the software evolves. Linus's law states, "Given enough eyeballs all bugs are shallow." This means that if many users view the source code, they will eventually find all bugs and suggest how to fix them. Note that some users have advanced programming skills, and furthermore, each user's machine provides an additional testing environment. This new testing environment offers the ability to find and fix a new bug.Open-source software_item_1_7
  • Early releases: The first version of the software should be released as early as possible so as to increase one's chances of finding co-developers early.Open-source software_item_1_8
  • Frequent integration: Code changes should be integrated (merged into a shared code base) as often as possible so as to avoid the overhead of fixing a large number of bugs at the end of the project life cycle. Some open-source projects have nightly builds where integration is done automatically on a daily basis.Open-source software_item_1_9
  • Several versions: There should be at least two versions of the software. There should be a buggier version with more features and a more stable version with fewer features. The buggy version (also called the development version) is for users who want the immediate use of the latest features, and are willing to accept the risk of using code that is not yet thoroughly tested. The users can then act as co-developers, reporting bugs and providing bug fixes.Open-source software_item_1_10
  • High modularization: The general structure of the software should be modular allowing for parallel development on independent components.Open-source software_item_1_11
  • Dynamic decision-making structure: There is a need for a decision-making structure, whether formal or informal, that makes strategic decisions depending on changing user requirements and other factors. Compare with extreme programming.Open-source software_item_1_12

Data suggests, however, that OSS is not quite as democratic as the bazaar model suggests. Open-source software_sentence_87

An analysis of five billion bytes of free/open-source code by 31,999 developers shows that 74% of the code was written by the most active 10% of authors. Open-source software_sentence_88

The average number of authors involved in a project was 5.1, with the median at 2. Open-source software_sentence_89

Advantages and disadvantages Open-source software_section_7

Open-source software is usually easier to obtain than proprietary software, often resulting in increased use. Open-source software_sentence_90

Additionally, the availability of an open-source implementation of a standard can increase adoption of that standard. Open-source software_sentence_91

It has also helped to build developer loyalty as developers feel empowered and have a sense of ownership of the end product. Open-source software_sentence_92

Moreover, lower costs of marketing and logistical services are needed for OSS. Open-source software_sentence_93

It is a good tool to promote a company's image, including its commercial products. Open-source software_sentence_94

The OSS development approach has helped produce reliable, high quality software quickly and inexpensively. Open-source software_sentence_95

Open-source development offers the potential for a more flexible technology and quicker innovation. Open-source software_sentence_96

It is said to be more reliable since it typically has thousands of independent programmers testing and fixing bugs of the software. Open-source software_sentence_97

Open source is not dependent on the company or author that originally created it. Open-source software_sentence_98

Even if the company fails, the code continues to exist and be developed by its users. Open-source software_sentence_99

Also, it uses open standards accessible to everyone; thus, it does not have the problem of incompatible formats that may exist in proprietary software. Open-source software_sentence_100

It is flexible because modular systems allow programmers to build custom interfaces, or add new abilities to it and it is innovative since open-source programs are the product of collaboration among a large number of different programmers. Open-source software_sentence_101

The mix of divergent perspectives, corporate objectives, and personal goals speeds up innovation. Open-source software_sentence_102

Moreover, free software can be developed in accordance with purely technical requirements. Open-source software_sentence_103

It does not require thinking about commercial pressure that often degrades the quality of the software. Open-source software_sentence_104

Commercial pressures make traditional software developers pay more attention to customers' requirements than to security requirements, since such features are somewhat invisible to the customer. Open-source software_sentence_105

It is sometimes said that the open-source development process may not be well defined and the stages in the development process, such as system testing and documentation may be ignored. Open-source software_sentence_106

However this is only true for small (mostly single programmer) projects. Open-source software_sentence_107

Larger, successful projects do define and enforce at least some rules as they need them to make the teamwork possible. Open-source software_sentence_108

In the most complex projects these rules may be as strict as reviewing even minor change by two independent developers. Open-source software_sentence_109

Not all OSS initiatives have been successful, for example, SourceXchange and Eazel. Open-source software_sentence_110

Software experts and researchers who are not convinced by open source's ability to produce quality systems identify the unclear process, the late defect discovery and the lack of any empirical evidence as the most important problems (collected data concerning productivity and quality). Open-source software_sentence_111

It is also difficult to design a commercially sound business model around the open-source paradigm. Open-source software_sentence_112

Consequently, only technical requirements may be satisfied and not the ones of the market. Open-source software_sentence_113

In terms of security, open source may allow hackers to know about the weaknesses or loopholes of the software more easily than closed-source software. Open-source software_sentence_114

It depends on control mechanisms in order to create effective performance of autonomous agents who participate in virtual organizations. Open-source software_sentence_115

Development tools Open-source software_section_8

In OSS development, tools are used to support the development of the product and the development process itself. Open-source software_sentence_116

Revision control systems such as Concurrent Versions System (CVS) and later Subversion (SVN) and Git are examples of tools, often themselves open source, help manage the source code files and the changes to those files for a software project. Open-source software_sentence_117

The projects are frequently hosted and published on source-code-hosting facilities such as Launchpad. Open-source software_sentence_118

Open-source projects are often loosely organized with "little formalised process modelling or support", but utilities such as issue trackers are often used to organize open-source software development. Open-source software_sentence_119

Commonly used bugtrackers include Bugzilla and Redmine. Open-source software_sentence_120

Tools such as mailing lists and IRC provide means of coordination among developers. Open-source software_sentence_121

Centralized code hosting sites also have social features that allow developers to communicate. Open-source software_sentence_122

Organizations Open-source software_section_9

Some of the "more prominent organizations" involved in OSS development include the Apache Software Foundation, creators of the Apache web server; the Linux Foundation, a nonprofit which as of 2012 employed Linus Torvalds, the creator of the Linux operating system kernel; the Eclipse Foundation, home of the Eclipse software development platform; the Debian Project, creators of the influential Debian GNU/Linux distribution; the Mozilla Foundation, home of the Firefox web browser; and OW2, European-born community developing open-source middleware. Open-source software_sentence_123

New organizations tend to have a more sophisticated governance model and their membership is often formed by legal entity members. Open-source software_sentence_124

Open Source Software Institute is a membership-based, non-profit (501 (c)(6)) organization established in 2001 that promotes the development and implementation of open source software solutions within US Federal, state and local government agencies. Open-source software_sentence_125

OSSI's efforts have focused on promoting adoption of open-source software programs and policies within Federal Government and Defense and Homeland Security communities. Open-source software_sentence_126

Open Source for America is a group created to raise awareness in the United States Federal Government about the benefits of open-source software. Open-source software_sentence_127

Their stated goals are to encourage the government's use of open source software, participation in open-source software projects, and incorporation of open-source community dynamics to increase government transparency. Open-source software_sentence_128

Mil-OSS is a group dedicated to the advancement of OSS use and creation in the military. Open-source software_sentence_129

Funding Open-source software_section_10

Main article: Business models for open-source software Open-source software_sentence_130

Companies whose business center on the development of open-source software employ a variety of business models to solve the challenge of how to make money providing software that is by definition licensed free of charge. Open-source software_sentence_131

Each of these business strategies rests on the premise that users of open-source technologies are willing to purchase additional software features under proprietary licenses, or purchase other services or elements of value that complement the open-source software that is core to the business. Open-source software_sentence_132

This additional value can be, but not limited to, enterprise-grade features and up-time guarantees (often via a service-level agreement) to satisfy business or compliance requirements, performance and efficiency gains by features not yet available in the open source version, legal protection (e.g., indemnification from copyright or patent infringement), or professional support/training/consulting that are typical of proprietary software applications. Open-source software_sentence_133

Comparisons with other software licensing/development models Open-source software_section_11

Closed source / proprietary software Open-source software_section_12

Main article: Comparison of open-source and closed-source software Open-source software_sentence_134

The debate over open source vs. closed source (alternatively called proprietary software) is sometimes heated. Open-source software_sentence_135

The top four reasons (as provided by Open Source Business Conference survey) individuals or organizations choose open-source software are: Open-source software_sentence_136

Open-source software_ordered_list_2

  1. lower costOpen-source software_item_2_13
  2. securityOpen-source software_item_2_14
  3. no vendor 'lock in'Open-source software_item_2_15
  4. better qualityOpen-source software_item_2_16

Since innovative companies no longer rely heavily on software sales, proprietary software has become less of a necessity. Open-source software_sentence_137

As such, things like open-source content management system—or CMS—deployments are becoming more commonplace. Open-source software_sentence_138

In 2009, the US White House switched its CMS system from a proprietary system to Drupal open source CMS. Open-source software_sentence_139

Further, companies like Novell (who traditionally sold software the old-fashioned way) continually debate the benefits of switching to open-source availability, having already switched part of the product offering to open source code. Open-source software_sentence_140

In this way, open-source software provides solutions to unique or specific problems. Open-source software_sentence_141

As such, it is reported that 98% of enterprise-level companies use open-source software offerings in some capacity. Open-source software_sentence_142

With this market shift, more critical systems are beginning to rely on open-source offerings, allowing greater funding (such as US Department of Homeland Security grants) to help "hunt for security bugs." Open-source software_sentence_143

According to a pilot study of organizations adopting (or not adopting) OSS, the following factors of statistical significance were observed in the manager's beliefs: (a) attitudes toward outcomes, (b) the influences and behaviors of others, and (c) their ability to act. Open-source software_sentence_144

Proprietary source distributors have started to develop and contribute to the open-source community due to the market share shift, doing so by the need to reinvent their models in order to remain competitive. Open-source software_sentence_145

Many advocates argue that open-source software is inherently safer because any person can view, edit, and change code. Open-source software_sentence_146

A study of the Linux source code has 0.17 bugs per 1000 lines of code while proprietary software generally scores 20–30 bugs per 1000 lines. Open-source software_sentence_147

Free software Open-source software_section_13

Main article: Alternative terms for free software Open-source software_sentence_148

See also: Comparison of free and open-source software licenses Open-source software_sentence_149

According to the Free software movement's leader, Richard Stallman, the main difference is that by choosing one term over the other (i.e. either "open source" or "free software") one lets others know about what one's goals are: "Open source is a development methodology; free software is a social movement." Open-source software_sentence_150

Nevertheless, there is significant overlap between open source software and free software. Open-source software_sentence_151

The FSF said that the term "open source" fosters an ambiguity of a different kind such that it confuses the mere availability of the source with the freedom to use, modify, and redistribute it. Open-source software_sentence_152

On the other hand, the "free software" term was criticized for the ambiguity of the word "free" as "available at no cost", which was seen as discouraging for business adoption, and for the historical ambiguous usage of the term. Open-source software_sentence_153

Developers have used the alternative terms Free and Open Source Software (FOSS), or Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS), consequently, to describe open-source software that is also free software. Open-source software_sentence_154

While the definition of open source software is very similar to the FSF's free software definition it was based on the Debian Free Software Guidelines, written and adapted primarily by Bruce Perens with input from Eric S. Raymond and others. Open-source software_sentence_155

The term "open source" was originally intended to be trademarkable; however, the term was deemed too descriptive, so no trademark exists. Open-source software_sentence_156

The OSI would prefer that people treat open source as if it were a trademark, and use it only to describe software licensed under an OSI approved license. Open-source software_sentence_157

OSI Certified is a trademark licensed only to people who are distributing software licensed under a license listed on the Open Source Initiative's list. Open-source software_sentence_158

Open-source versus source-available Open-source software_section_14

Main article: Source-available software Open-source software_sentence_159

Although the OSI definition of "open-source software" is widely accepted, a small number of people and organizations use the term to refer to software where the source is available for viewing, but which may not legally be modified or redistributed. Open-source software_sentence_160

Such software is more often referred to as source-available, or as shared source, a term coined by Microsoft in 2001. Open-source software_sentence_161

While in 2007 two of Microsoft's Shared Source Initiative licenses were certified by the OSI, most licenses from the SSI program are still source-available only. Open-source software_sentence_162

Open-sourcing Open-source software_section_15

Open-sourcing is the act of propagating the open source movement, most often referring to releasing previously proprietary software under an open source/free software license, but it may also refer programming Open Source software or installing Open Source software. Open-source software_sentence_163

Notable software packages, previously proprietary, which have been open sourced include: Open-source software_sentence_164

Open-source software_unordered_list_3

Before changing the license of software, distributors usually audit the source code for third party licensed code which they would have to remove or obtain permission for its relicense. Open-source software_sentence_165

Backdoors and other malware should also be removed as they may easily be discovered after release of the code. Open-source software_sentence_166

Current applications and adoption Open-source software_section_16

Main article: Free and open-source software § Adoption Open-source software_sentence_167

See also: Linux adoption and Free software § Adoption Open-source software_sentence_168

Widely used open-source software Open-source software_section_17

Main article: List of free and open-source software packages Open-source software_sentence_169

Open-source software projects are built and maintained by a network of volunteer programmers and are widely used in free as well as commercial products. Open-source software_sentence_170

Prime examples of open-source products are the Apache HTTP Server, the e-commerce platform osCommerce, internet browsers Mozilla Firefox and Chromium (the project where the vast majority of development of the freeware Google Chrome is done) and the full office suite LibreOffice. Open-source software_sentence_171

One of the most successful open-source products is the GNU/Linux operating system, an open-source Unix-like operating system, and its derivative Android, an operating system for mobile devices. Open-source software_sentence_172

In some industries, open-source software is the norm. Open-source software_sentence_173

Extensions for non-software use Open-source software_section_18

Main article: Open source model Open-source software_sentence_174

See also: Open content and Open collaboration Open-source software_sentence_175

While the term "open source" applied originally only to the source code of software, it is now being applied to many other areas such as Open source ecology, a movement to decentralize technologies so that any human can use them. Open-source software_sentence_176

However, it is often misapplied to other areas that have different and competing principles, which overlap only partially. Open-source software_sentence_177

The same principles that underlie open-source software can be found in many other ventures, such as open-source hardware, Wikipedia, and open-access publishing. Open-source software_sentence_178

Collectively, these principles are known as open source, open content, and open collaboration: "any system of innovation or production that relies on goal-oriented yet loosely coordinated participants, who interact to create a product (or service) of economic value, which they make available to contributors and non-contributors alike." Open-source software_sentence_179

This "culture" or ideology takes the view that the principles apply more generally to facilitate concurrent input of different agendas, approaches, and priorities, in contrast with more centralized models of development such as those typically used in commercial companies. Open-source software_sentence_180

See also Open-source software_section_19

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: software.