Orientalism

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For the book by Edward Said, see Orientalism (book). Orientalism_sentence_0

For the discipline that studies the Orient, see Oriental studies. Orientalism_sentence_1

For the period in Ancient Greek art, see Orientalizing period. Orientalism_sentence_2

In art history, literature and cultural studies, Orientalism is the imitation or depiction of aspects in the Eastern world. Orientalism_sentence_3

These depictions are usually done by writers, designers, and artists from the West. Orientalism_sentence_4

In particular, Orientalist painting, depicting more specifically "the Middle East", was one of the many specialisms of 19th-century academic art, and the literature of Western countries took a similar interest in Oriental themes. Orientalism_sentence_5

Since the publication of Edward Said's Orientalism in 1978, much academic discourse has begun to use the term "Orientalism" to refer to a general patronizing Western attitude towards Middle Eastern, Asian, and North African societies. Orientalism_sentence_6

In Said's analysis, the West essentializes these societies as static and undeveloped—thereby fabricating a view of Oriental culture that can be studied, depicted, and reproduced in the service of imperial power. Orientalism_sentence_7

Implicit in this fabrication, writes Said, is the idea that Western society is developed, rational, flexible, and superior. Orientalism_sentence_8

Background Orientalism_section_0

Etymology Orientalism_section_1

Orientalism refers to the Orient, in reference and opposition to the Occident; the East and the West, respectively. Orientalism_sentence_9

The word Orient entered the English language as the Middle French orient. Orientalism_sentence_10

The root word oriēns, from the Latin Oriēns, has synonymous denotations: The eastern part of the world; the sky whence comes the sun; the east; the rising sun, etc.; yet the denotation changed as a term of geography. Orientalism_sentence_11

In the "Monk's Tale" (1375), Geoffrey Chaucer wrote: "That they conquered many regnes grete / In the orient, with many a fair citee." Orientalism_sentence_12

The term orient refers to countries east of the Mediterranean Sea and Southern Europe. Orientalism_sentence_13

In In Place of Fear (1952), Aneurin Bevan used an expanded denotation of the Orient that comprehended East Asia: "the awakening of the Orient under the impact of Western ideas." Orientalism_sentence_14

Edward Said said that Orientalism "enables the political, economic, cultural and social domination of the West, not just during colonial times, but also in the present." Orientalism_sentence_15

Art Orientalism_section_2

In art history, the term Orientalism refers to the works of the Western artists who specialized in Oriental subjects, produced from their travels in Western Asia, during the 19th century. Orientalism_sentence_16

In that time, artists and scholars were described as Orientalists, especially in France, where the dismissive use of the term "Orientalist" was made popular by the art critic Jules-Antoine Castagnary. Orientalism_sentence_17

Despite such social disdain for a style of representational art, the French Society of Orientalist Painters was founded in 1893, with Jean-Léon Gérôme as the honorary president; whereas in Britain, the term Orientalist identified "an artist." Orientalism_sentence_18

The formation of the French Orientalist Painters Society changed the consciousness of practitioners towards the end of the 19th century, since artists could now see themselves as part of a distinct art movement. Orientalism_sentence_19

As an art movement, Orientalist painting is generally treated as one of the many branches of 19th-century academic art; however, many different styles of Orientalist art were in evidence. Orientalism_sentence_20

Art historians tend to identify two broad types of Orientalist artist: the realists who carefully painted what they observed and those who imagined Orientalist scenes without ever leaving the studio. Orientalism_sentence_21

French painters such as Eugène Delacroix (1798–1863) and Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824–1904) are widely regarded as the leading luminaries of the Orientalist movement. Orientalism_sentence_22

Oriental studies Orientalism_section_3

In the 18th and 19th centuries, the term Orientalist identified a scholar who specialized in the languages and literatures of the Eastern world. Orientalism_sentence_23

Among such scholars were British officials of the East India Company, who said that the Arab culture, the culture of India, and the Islamic cultures should be studied as equal to the cultures of Europe. Orientalism_sentence_24

Among such scholars is the philologist William Jones, whose studies of Indo-European languages established modern philology. Orientalism_sentence_25

British imperial strategy in India favored Orientalism as a technique for developing good relations with the natives—until the 1820s, when the influence of "anglicists" such as Thomas Babington Macaulay and John Stuart Mill led to the promotion of Anglocentric education. Orientalism_sentence_26

Additionally, Hebraism and Jewish studies gained popularity among British and German scholars in the 19th and 20th centuries. Orientalism_sentence_27

The academic field of Oriental studies, which comprehended the cultures of the Near East and the Far East, became the fields of Asian studies and Middle Eastern studies. Orientalism_sentence_28

Critical studies Orientalism_section_4

In his book Orientalism (1978), cultural critic Edward Said redefines the term Orientalism to describe a pervasive Western tradition—academic and artistic—of prejudiced outsider-interpretations of the Eastern world, which was shaped by the cultural attitudes of European imperialism in the 18th and 19th centuries. Orientalism_sentence_29

The thesis of Orientalism develops Antonio Gramsci's theory of cultural hegemony, and Michel Foucault's theorisation of discourse (the knowledge-power relation) to criticise the scholarly tradition of Oriental studies. Orientalism_sentence_30

Said criticised contemporary scholars who perpetuated the tradition of outsider-interpretation of Arabo-Islamic cultures, especially Bernard Lewis and Fouad Ajami. Orientalism_sentence_31

Furthermore, Said said that Orientalism, as an "idea of representation is a theoretical one: The Orient is a stage on which the whole East is confined" to make the Eastern world "less fearsome to the West"; and that the developing world, primarily the West, is the cause of colonialism. Orientalism_sentence_32

In Empire: A Very Short Introduction (2000), Stephen Howe agreed with Said that Western nations and their empires were created by the exploitation of underdeveloped countries, and the extraction of wealth and labour from one country to another country. Orientalism_sentence_33

In the academy, the book Orientalism (1978) became a foundational text of post-colonial cultural studies. Orientalism_sentence_34

Moreover, in relation to the cultural institution of citizenship, Orientalism has rendered the concept of citizenship as a problem of epistemology, because citizenship originated as a social institution of the Western world; as such, the problem of defining citizenship reconfigures the idea of Europe in time of crises. Orientalism_sentence_35

The analyses in Said's works are of Orientalism in European literature, especially French literature, and do not analyse visual art and Orientalist painting. Orientalism_sentence_36

In that vein, the art historian Linda Nochlin applied Said's methods of critical analysis to art, "with uneven results". Orientalism_sentence_37

Ibn Warraq (the pen name of an anonymous author critical of Islam) in 2010 published a point-by-point refutation of Nochlin's critique of Jean-Léon Gérôme's The Snake Charmer, and a defense of Orientalist painting in general. Orientalism_sentence_38

There is also a critical trend within the Islamic world, and in 2002 it was estimated that in Saudi Arabia alone there have been, penned by local or foreign scholars, around 200 books critical of Orientalism as well as some 2000 articles. Orientalism_sentence_39

In European architecture and design Orientalism_section_5

Further information: Orientalism in early modern France and Turquerie Orientalism_sentence_40

The Moresque style of Renaissance ornament is a European adaptation of the Islamic arabesque that began in the late 15th century and was to be used in some types of work, such as bookbinding, until almost the present day. Orientalism_sentence_41

Early architectural use of motifs lifted from the Indian subcontinent is known as Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture. Orientalism_sentence_42

One of the earliest examples is the façade of Guildhall, London (1788–1789). Orientalism_sentence_43

The style gained momentum in the west with the publication of views of India by William Hodges, and William and Thomas Daniell from about 1795. Orientalism_sentence_44

Examples of "Hindoo" architecture are Sezincote House (c. 1805) in Gloucestershire, built for a nabob returned from Bengal, and the Royal Pavilion in Brighton. Orientalism_sentence_45

Turquerie, which began as early as the late 15th century, continued until at least the 18th century, and included both the use of "Turkish" styles in the decorative arts, the adoption of Turkish costume at times, and interest in art depicting the Ottoman Empire itself. Orientalism_sentence_46

Venice, the traditional trading partner of the Ottomans, was the earliest centre, with France becoming more prominent in the 18th century. Orientalism_sentence_47

Chinoiserie is the catch-all term for the fashion for Chinese themes in decoration in Western Europe, beginning in the late 17th century and peaking in waves, especially Rococo Chinoiserie, c. 1740–1770. Orientalism_sentence_48

From the Renaissance to the 18th century, Western designers attempted to imitate the technical sophistication of Chinese ceramics with only partial success. Orientalism_sentence_49

Early hints of Chinoiserie appeared in the 17th century in nations with active East India companies: England (the East India Company), Denmark (the Danish East India Company), the Netherlands (the Dutch East India Company) and France (the French East India Company). Orientalism_sentence_50

Tin-glazed pottery made at Delft and other Dutch towns adopted genuine Ming-era blue and white porcelain from the early 17th century. Orientalism_sentence_51

Early ceramic wares made at Meissen and other centers of true porcelain imitated Chinese shapes for dishes, vases and teawares (see Chinese export porcelain). Orientalism_sentence_52

Pleasure pavilions in "Chinese taste" appeared in the formal parterres of late Baroque and Rococo German palaces, and in tile panels at Aranjuez near Madrid. Orientalism_sentence_53

Thomas Chippendale's mahogany tea tables and china cabinets, especially, were embellished with fretwork glazing and railings, c. 1753–70. Orientalism_sentence_54

Sober homages to early Xing scholars' furnishings were also naturalized, as the tang evolved into a mid-Georgian side table and squared slat-back armchairs that suited English gentlemen as well as Chinese scholars. Orientalism_sentence_55

Not every adaptation of Chinese design principles falls within mainstream "chinoiserie". Orientalism_sentence_56

Chinoiserie media included imitations of lacquer and painted tin (tôle) ware that imitated japanning, early painted wallpapers in sheets, and ceramic figurines and table ornaments. Orientalism_sentence_57

Small pagodas appeared on chimneypieces and full-sized ones in gardens. Orientalism_sentence_58

Kew has a magnificent garden pagoda designed by William Chambers. Orientalism_sentence_59

The Wilhelma (1846) in Stuttgart is an example of Moorish Revival architecture. Orientalism_sentence_60

Leighton House, built for the artist Frederic Leighton, has a conventional facade but elaborate Arab-style interiors, including original Islamic tiles and other elements as well as Victorian Orientalizing work. Orientalism_sentence_61

After 1860, Japonism, sparked by the importing of ukiyo-e, became an important influence in the western arts. Orientalism_sentence_62

In particular, many modern French artists such as Claude Monet and Edgar Degas were influenced by the Japanese style. Orientalism_sentence_63

Mary Cassatt, an American artist who worked in France, used elements of combined patterns, flat planes and shifting perspective of Japanese prints in her own images. Orientalism_sentence_64

The paintings of James Abbott McNeill Whistler's The Peacock Room demonstrated how he used aspects of Japanese tradition and are some of the finest works of the genre. Orientalism_sentence_65

California architects Greene and Greene were inspired by Japanese elements in their design of the Gamble House and other buildings. Orientalism_sentence_66

Egyptian Revival architecture became popular in the early and mid-19th century and continued as a minor style into the early 20th century. Orientalism_sentence_67

Moorish Revival architecture began in the early 19th century in the German states and was particularly popular for building synagogues. Orientalism_sentence_68

Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture was a genre that arose in the late 19th century in the British Raj. Orientalism_sentence_69

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Orientalist art Orientalism_section_6

Pre-19th century Orientalism_section_7

Depictions of Islamic "Moors" and " Turks" (imprecisely named Muslim groups of southern Europe, North Africa and West Asia) can be found in Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque art. Orientalism_sentence_70

In Biblical scenes in Early Netherlandish painting, secondary figures, especially Romans, were given exotic costumes that distantly reflected the clothes of the Near East. Orientalism_sentence_71

The Three Magi in Nativity scenes were an especial focus for this. Orientalism_sentence_72

In general art with Biblical settings would not be considered as Orientalist except where contemporary or historicist Middle Eastern detail or settings is a feature of works, as with some paintings by Gentile Bellini and others, and a number of 19th-century works. Orientalism_sentence_73

Renaissance Venice had a phase of particular interest in depictions of the Ottoman Empire in painting and prints. Orientalism_sentence_74

Gentile Bellini, who travelled to Constantinople and painted the Sultan, and Vittore Carpaccio were the leading painters. Orientalism_sentence_75

By then the depictions were more accurate, with men typically dressed all in white. Orientalism_sentence_76

The depiction of Oriental carpets in Renaissance painting sometimes draws from Orientalist interest, but more often just reflects the prestige these expensive objects had in the period. Orientalism_sentence_77

Jean-Étienne Liotard (1702–1789) visited Istanbul and painted numerous pastels of Turkish domestic scenes; he also continued to wear Turkish attire for much of the time when he was back in Europe. Orientalism_sentence_78

The ambitious Scottish 18th-century artist Gavin Hamilton found a solution to the problem of using modern dress, considered unheroic and inelegant, in history painting by using Middle Eastern settings with Europeans wearing local costume, as travelers were advised to do. Orientalism_sentence_79

His huge James Dawkins and Robert Wood Discovering the Ruins of Palmyra (1758, now Edinburgh) elevates tourism to the heroic, with the two travelers wearing what look very like togas. Orientalism_sentence_80

Many travelers had themselves painted in exotic Eastern dress on their return, including Lord Byron, as did many who had never left Europe, including Madame de Pompadour. Orientalism_sentence_81

The growing French interest in exotic Oriental luxury and lack of liberty in the 18th century to some extent reflected a pointed analogy with France's own absolute monarchy. Orientalism_sentence_82

Byron's poetry was highly influential in introducing Europe to the heady cocktail of Romanticism in exotic Oriental settings which was to dominate 19th century Oriental art. Orientalism_sentence_83

French Orientalism Orientalism_section_8

French Orientalist painting was transformed by Napoleon's ultimately unsuccessful invasion of Egypt and Syria in 1798–1801, which stimulated great public interest in Egyptology, and was also recorded in subsequent years by Napoleon's court painters, especially Antoine-Jean Gros, although the Middle Eastern campaign was not one on which he accompanied the army. Orientalism_sentence_84

Two of his most successful paintings, Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims of Jaffa (1804) and Battle of Abukir (1806) focus on the Emperor, as he was by then, but include many Egyptian figures, as does the less effective Napoleon at the Battle of the Pyramids (1810). Orientalism_sentence_85

Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson's La Révolte du Caire (1810) was another large and prominent example. Orientalism_sentence_86

A well-illustrated Description de l'Égypte was published by the French Government in twenty volumes between 1809 and 1828, concentrating on antiquities. Orientalism_sentence_87

Eugène Delacroix's first great success, The Massacre at Chios (1824) was painted before he visited Greece or the East, and followed his friend Théodore Géricault's The Raft of the Medusa in showing a recent incident in distant parts that had aroused public opinion. Orientalism_sentence_88

Greece was still fighting for independence from the Ottomans, and was effectively as exotic as the more Near Eastern parts of the empire. Orientalism_sentence_89

Delacroix followed up with Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi (1827), commemorating a siege of the previous year, and The Death of Sardanapalus, inspired by Lord Byron, which although set in antiquity has been credited with beginning the mixture of sex, violence, lassitude and exoticism which runs through much French Orientalist painting. Orientalism_sentence_90

In 1832, Delacroix finally visited what is now Algeria, recently conquered by the French, and Morocco, as part of a diplomatic mission to the Sultan of Morocco. Orientalism_sentence_91

He was greatly struck by what he saw, comparing the North African way of life to that of the Ancient Romans, and continued to paint subjects from his trip on his return to France. Orientalism_sentence_92

Like many later Orientalist painters, he was frustrated by the difficulty of sketching women, and many of his scenes featured Jews or warriors on horses. Orientalism_sentence_93

However, he was apparently able to get into the women's quarters or harem of a house to sketch what became Women of Algiers; few later harem scenes had this claim to authenticity. Orientalism_sentence_94

When Ingres, the director of the French Académie de peinture, painted a highly colored vision of a Turkish bath, he made his eroticized Orient publicly acceptable by his diffuse generalizing of the female forms (who might all have been the same model). Orientalism_sentence_95

More open sensuality was seen as acceptable in the exotic Orient. Orientalism_sentence_96

This imagery persisted in art into the early 20th century, as evidenced in Henri Matisse's orientalist semi-nudes from his Nice period, and his use of Oriental costumes and patterns. Orientalism_sentence_97

Ingres' pupil Théodore Chassériau (1819–1856) had already achieved success with his nude The Toilette of Esther (1841, Louvre) and equestrian portrait of Ali-Ben-Hamet, Caliph of Constantine and Chief of the Haractas, Followed by his Escort (1846) before he first visited the East, but in later decades the steamship made travel much easier and increasing numbers of artists traveled to the Middle East and beyond, painting a wide range of Oriental scenes. Orientalism_sentence_98

In many of these works, they portrayed the Orient as exotic, colorful and sensual, not to say stereotyped. Orientalism_sentence_99

Such works typically concentrated on Arab, Jewish, and other Semitic cultures, as those were the ones visited by artists as France became more engaged in North Africa. Orientalism_sentence_100

French artists such as Eugène Delacroix, Jean-Léon Gérôme and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres painted many works depicting Islamic culture, often including lounging odalisques. Orientalism_sentence_101

They stressed both lassitude and visual spectacle. Orientalism_sentence_102

Other scenes, especially in genre painting, have been seen as either closely comparable to their equivalents set in modern-day or historical Europe, or as also reflecting an Orientalist mind-set in the Saidian sense of the term. Orientalism_sentence_103

Gérôme was the precursor, and often the master, of a number of French painters in the later part of the century whose works were often frankly salacious, frequently featuring scenes in harems, public baths and slave auctions (the last two also available with classical decor), and responsible, with others, for "the equation of Orientalism with the nude in pornographic mode"; (Gallery, below) Orientalism_sentence_104

British Orientalism Orientalism_section_9

Though British political interest in the territories of the unravelling Ottoman Empire was as intense as in France, it was mostly more discreetly exercised. Orientalism_sentence_105

The origins of British Orientalist 19th-century painting owe more to religion than military conquest or the search for plausible locations for naked women. Orientalism_sentence_106

The leading British genre painter, Sir David Wilkie was 55 when he travelled to Istanbul and Jerusalem in 1840, dying off Gibraltar during the return voyage. Orientalism_sentence_107

Though not noted as a religious painter, Wilkie made the trip with a Protestant agenda to reform religious painting, as he believed that: "a Martin Luther in painting is as much called for as in theology, to sweep away the abuses by which our divine pursuit is encumbered", by which he meant traditional Christian iconography. Orientalism_sentence_108

He hoped to find more authentic settings and decor for Biblical subjects at their original location, though his death prevented more than studies being made. Orientalism_sentence_109

Other artists including the Pre-Raphaelite William Holman Hunt and David Roberts (in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia) had similar motivations, giving an emphasis on realism in British Orientalist art from the start. Orientalism_sentence_110

The French artist James Tissot also used contemporary Middle Eastern landscape and decor for Biblical subjects, with little regard for historical costumes or other fittings. Orientalism_sentence_111

William Holman Hunt produced a number of major paintings of Biblical subjects drawing on his Middle Eastern travels, improvising variants of contemporary Arab costume and furnishings to avoid specifically Islamic styles, and also some landscapes and genre subjects. Orientalism_sentence_112

The biblical subjects included The Scapegoat (1856), The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple (1860), and The Shadow of Death (1871). Orientalism_sentence_113

The Miracle of the Holy Fire (1899) was intended as a picturesque satire on the local Eastern Christians, of whom, like most English visitors, Hunt took a very dim view. Orientalism_sentence_114

His A Street Scene in Cairo; The Lantern-Maker's Courtship (1854–61) is a rare contemporary narrative scene, as the young man feels his fiancé's face, which he is not allowed to see, through her veil, as a Westerner in the background beats his way up the street with his stick. Orientalism_sentence_115

This a rare intrusion of a clearly contemporary figure into an Orientalist scene; mostly they claim the picturesqueness of the historical painting so popular at the time, without the trouble of researching authentic costumes and settings. Orientalism_sentence_116

When Gérôme exhibited For Sale; Slaves at Cairo at the Royal Academy in London in 1871, it was "widely found offensive", perhaps partly because the British liked to think they had successfully suppressed the slave trade in Egypt, also for cruelty and "representing fleshiness for its own sake". Orientalism_sentence_117

But Rana Kabbani believes that "French Orientalist painting, as exemplified by the works of Gérôme, may appear more sensual, gaudy, gory and sexually explicit than its British counterpart, but this is a difference of style not substance ... Orientalism_sentence_118

Similar strains of fascination and repulsion convulsed their artists" Nonetheless, nudity and violence are more evident in British paintings set in the ancient world, and "the iconography of the odalisque ... the Oriental sex slave whose image is offered up to the viewer as freely as she herself supposedly was to her master – is almost entirely French in origin", though taken up with enthusiasm by Italian and other painters. Orientalism_sentence_119

John Frederick Lewis, who lived for several years in a traditional mansion in Cairo, painted highly detailed works showing both realistic genre scenes of Middle Eastern life and more idealized scenes in upper class Egyptian interiors with no traces of Western cultural influence yet apparent. Orientalism_sentence_120

His careful and seemingly affectionate representation of Islamic architecture, furnishings, screens, and costumes set new standards of realism, which influenced other artists, including Gérôme in his later works. Orientalism_sentence_121

He "never painted a nude", and his wife modelled for several of his harem scenes, which, with the rare examples by the classicist painter Lord Leighton, imagine "the harem as a place of almost English domesticity, ... [where]... women's fully clothed respectability suggests a moral healthiness to go with their natural good looks". Orientalism_sentence_122

Other artists concentrated on landscape painting, often of desert scenes, including Richard Dadd and Edward Lear. Orientalism_sentence_123

David Roberts (1796–1864) produced architectural and landscape views, many of antiquities, and published very successful books of lithographs from them. Orientalism_sentence_124

Elsewhere Orientalism_section_10

Russian Orientalist art was largely concerned with the areas of Central Asia that Russia was conquering during the century, and also in historical painting with the Mongols who had dominated Russia for much of the Middle Ages, who were rarely shown in a good light. Orientalism_sentence_125

Nationalist historical painting in Central Europe and the Balkans dwelt on Turkish oppression, with battle scenes and maidens about to be raped. Orientalism_sentence_126

The Saidian analysis has not prevented a strong revival of interest in, and collecting of, 19th century Orientalist works since the 1970s, the latter was in large part led by Middle Eastern buyers. Orientalism_sentence_127

Pop culture Orientalism_section_11

Authors and composers are not commonly referred to as "Orientalist" in the way that artists are, and relatively few specialized in Oriental topics or styles, or are even best known for their works including them. Orientalism_sentence_128

But many major figures, from Mozart to Flaubert, have produced significant works with Oriental subjects or treatments. Orientalism_sentence_129

Lord Byron with his four long "Turkish tales" in poetry, is one of the most important writers to make exotic fantasy Oriental settings a significant theme in the literature of Romanticism. Orientalism_sentence_130

Giuseppe Verdi's opera Aida (1871) is set in Egypt as portrayed through the content and the visual spectacle. Orientalism_sentence_131

"Aida" depicts a militaristic Egypt's tyranny over Ethiopia. Orientalism_sentence_132

Irish Orientalism had a particular character, drawing on various beliefs about early historical links between Ireland and the East, few of which are now regarded as historically correct. Orientalism_sentence_133

The mythical Milesians are one example of this. Orientalism_sentence_134

The Irish were also conscious of the views of other nations seeing them as comparably backward to the East, and Europe's "backyard Orient." Orientalism_sentence_135

In music Orientalism_section_12

Further information: Turkish music (style) Orientalism_sentence_136

In music, Orientalism may be applied to styles occurring in different periods, such as the alla Turca, used by multiple composers including Mozart and Beethoven. Orientalism_sentence_137

The American musicologist Richard Taruskin has identified in 19th-century Russian music a strain of Orientalism: "the East as a sign or metaphor, as imaginary geography, as historical fiction, as the reduced and totalized other against which we construct our (not less reduced and totalized) sense of ourselves." Orientalism_sentence_138

Taruskin concedes Russian composers, unlike those in France and Germany, felt an "ambivalence" to the theme since "Russia was a contiguous empire in which Europeans, living side by side with 'orientals', identified (and intermarried) with them far more than in the case of other colonial powers". Orientalism_sentence_139

Nonetheless, Taruskin characterizes Orientalism in Romantic Russian music as having melodies "full of close little ornaments and melismas," chromatic accompanying lines, drone bass—characteristics which were used by Glinka, Balakirev, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov, Lyapunov, and Rachmaninov. Orientalism_sentence_140

These musical characteristics evoke: Orientalism_sentence_141

Orientalism is also traceable in music that is considered to have effects of exoticism, including the japonisme in Claude Debussy's piano music all the way to the sitar being used in recordings by the Beatles. Orientalism_sentence_142

In the United Kingdom, Gustav Holst composed Beni Mora evoking a languid, heady Arabian atmosphere. Orientalism_sentence_143

Orientalism, in a more camp fashion also found its way into exotica music in the late 1950s, especially the works of Les Baxter, for example, his composition "City of Veils." Orientalism_sentence_144

In literature Orientalism_section_13

The Romantic movement in literature began in 1785 and ended around 1830. Orientalism_sentence_145

The term Romantic references the ideas and culture that writers of the time reflected in their work. Orientalism_sentence_146

During this time, the culture and objects of the East began to have a profound effect on Europe. Orientalism_sentence_147

Extensive traveling by artists and members of the European elite brought travelogues and sensational tales back to the West creating a great interest in all things "foreign." Orientalism_sentence_148

Romantic Orientalism incorporates African and Asian geographic locations, well-known colonial and "native" personalities, folklore, and philosophies to create a literary environment of colonial exploration from a distinctly European worldview. Orientalism_sentence_149

The current trend in analysis of this movement references a belief in this literature as a mode to justify European colonial endeavors with the expansion of territory. Orientalism_sentence_150

In his novel Salammbô, Gustave Flaubert used ancient Carthage in North Africa as a foil to ancient Rome. Orientalism_sentence_151

He portrayed its culture as morally corrupting and suffused with dangerously alluring eroticism. Orientalism_sentence_152

This novel proved hugely influential on later portrayals of ancient Semitic cultures. Orientalism_sentence_153

In film Orientalism_section_14

Said argues that the continuity of Orientalism into the present can be found in influential images, particularly through the Cinema of the United States, as the West has now grown to include the United States. Orientalism_sentence_154

Many blockbuster feature film, such as the Indiana Jones series, The Mummy films, and Disney's Aladdin film series demonstrate the imagined geographies of the East. Orientalism_sentence_155

The films usually portray the lead heroic characters as being from the Western world, while the villains often come from the East. Orientalism_sentence_156

The representation of the Orient has continued in film, although this representation does not necessarily have any truth to it. Orientalism_sentence_157

The overly sexualized character of Princess Jasmine in Aladdin is simply a continuation of the paintings from the 19th century, where women were represented as erotic, sexualized fantasies. Orientalism_sentence_158

In The Tea House of the August Moon (1956), as argued by Pedro Iacobelli, there are tropes of orientalism. Orientalism_sentence_159

He notes, that the film "tells us more about the Americans and the American's image of Okinawa rather than about the Okinawan people." Orientalism_sentence_160

The film characterizes the Okinawans as "merry but backward" and "de-politicized," which ignored the real-life Okinawan political protests over forceful land acquisition by the American military at the time. Orientalism_sentence_161

Kimiko Akita, in Orientalism and the Binary of Fact and Fiction in 'Memoirs of a Geisha', argues that Memoirs of a Geisha (2005) contains orientalist tropes and deep "cultural misrepresentations." Orientalism_sentence_162

She states that Memoirs of a Geisha "reinforces the idea of Japanese culture and geisha as exotic, backward, irrational, dirty, profane, promiscuous, bizarre, and enigmatic." Orientalism_sentence_163

In dance Orientalism_section_15

During the Romantic period of the 19th century, ballet developed a preoccupation with the exotic. Orientalism_sentence_164

This exoticism ranged from ballets set in Scotland to those based on ethereal creatures. Orientalism_sentence_165

By the later part of the century, ballets were capturing the presumed essence of the mysterious East. Orientalism_sentence_166

These ballets often included sexual themes and tended to be based on assumptions of people rather than on concrete facts. Orientalism_sentence_167

Orientalism is apparent in numerous ballets. Orientalism_sentence_168

The Orient motivated several major ballets, which have survived since the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Orientalism_sentence_169

Le Corsaire premiered in 1856 at the Paris Opera, with choreography by Joseph Mazilier. Orientalism_sentence_170

Marius Petipa re-choreographed the ballet for the Maryinsky Ballet in St. Petersburg, Russia in 1899. Orientalism_sentence_171

Its complex storyline, loosely based on Lord Byron's poem, takes place in Turkey and focuses on a love story between a pirate and a beautiful slave girl. Orientalism_sentence_172

Scenes include a bazaar where women are sold to men as slaves, and the Pasha's Palace, which features his harem of wives. Orientalism_sentence_173

In 1877, Marius Petipa choreographed La Bayadère, the love story of an Indian temple dancer and Indian warrior. Orientalism_sentence_174

This ballet was based on Kalidasa's play Sakuntala. Orientalism_sentence_175

La Bayadere used vaguely Indian costuming, and incorporated Indian inspired hand gestures into classical ballet. Orientalism_sentence_176

In addition, it included a 'Hindu Dance,' motivated by Kathak, an Indian dance form. Orientalism_sentence_177

Another ballet, Sheherazade, choreographed by Michel Fokine in 1910 to music by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, is a story involving a shah's wife and her illicit relations with a Golden Slave, originally played by Vaslav Nijinsky. Orientalism_sentence_178

The ballet's controversial fixation on sex includes an orgy in an oriental harem. Orientalism_sentence_179

When the shah discovers the actions of his numerous wives and their lovers, he orders the deaths of those involved. Orientalism_sentence_180

Sheherazade was loosely based on folktales of questionable authenticity. Orientalism_sentence_181

Several lesser-known ballets of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century also reveal Orientalism. Orientalism_sentence_182

For instance, in Petipa's The Pharaoh's Daughter (1862), an Englishman imagines himself, in an opium-induced dream, as an Egyptian boy who wins the love of the Pharaoh's daughter, Aspicia. Orientalism_sentence_183

Aspicia's costume consisted of 'Egyptian' décor on a tutu. Orientalism_sentence_184

Another ballet, Hippolyte Monplaisir's Brahma, which premiered in 1868 in La Scala, Italy, is a story that involves romantic relations between a slave girl and Brahma, the Hindu god, when he visits earth. Orientalism_sentence_185

In addition, in 1909, Serge Diagilev included Cléopâtre in the Ballets Russes' repertory. Orientalism_sentence_186

With its theme of sex, this revision of Fokine's Une Nuit d'Egypte combined the "exoticism and grandeur" that audiences of this time craved. Orientalism_sentence_187

As one of the pioneers of modern dance in America, Ruth St Denis also explored Orientalism in her dancing. Orientalism_sentence_188

Her dances were not authentic; she drew inspiration from photographs, books, and later from museums in Europe. Orientalism_sentence_189

Yet, the exoticism of her dances catered to the interests of society women in America. Orientalism_sentence_190

She included Radha and The Cobras in her 'Indian' program in 1906. Orientalism_sentence_191

In addition, she found success in Europe with another Indian-themed ballet, The Nautch in 1908. Orientalism_sentence_192

In 1909, upon her return to America, St Denis created her first 'Egyptian' work, Egypta. Orientalism_sentence_193

Her preference for Orientalism continued, culminating with Ishtar of the Seven Gates in 1923, about a Babylonian goddess. Orientalism_sentence_194

While Orientalism in dance climaxed in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, it is still present in modern times. Orientalism_sentence_195

For instance, major ballet companies regularly perform Le Corsaire, La Bayadere, and Sheherazade. Orientalism_sentence_196

Furthermore, Orientalism is also found within newer versions of ballets. Orientalism_sentence_197

In versions of The Nutcracker, such as the 2010 American Ballet Theatre production, the Chinese dance uses an arm position with the arms bent at a ninety-degree angle and the index fingers pointed upwards, while the Arabian dance uses two dimensional bent arm movements. Orientalism_sentence_198

Inspired by ballets of the past, stereotypical 'Oriental' movements and arm positions have developed and remain. Orientalism_sentence_199

Religion Orientalism_section_16

An exchange of Western and Eastern ideas about spirituality developed as the West traded with and established colonies in Asia. Orientalism_sentence_200

The first Western translation of a Sanskrit text appeared in 1785, marking the growing interest in Indian culture and languages. Orientalism_sentence_201

Translations of the Upanishads, which Arthur Schopenhauer called "the consolation of my life", first appeared in 1801 and 1802. Orientalism_sentence_202

Early translations also appeared in other European languages. Orientalism_sentence_203

19th-century transcendentalism was influenced by Asian spirituality, prompting Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882) to pioneer the idea of spirituality as a distinct field. Orientalism_sentence_204

A major force in the mutual influence of Eastern and Western spirituality and religiosity was the Theosophical Society, a group searching for ancient wisdom from the East and spreading Eastern religious ideas in the West. Orientalism_sentence_205

One of its salient features was the belief in "Masters of Wisdom", "beings, human or once human, who have transcended the normal frontiers of knowledge, and who make their wisdom available to others". Orientalism_sentence_206

The Theosophical Society also spread Western ideas in the East, contributing to its modernisation and a growing nationalism in the Asian colonies. Orientalism_sentence_207

The Theosophical Society had a major influence on Buddhist modernism and Hindu reform movements. Orientalism_sentence_208

Between 1878 and 1882, the Society and the Arya Samaj were united as the Theosophical Society of the Arya Samaj. Orientalism_sentence_209

Helena Blavatsky, along with H. Orientalism_sentence_210 S. Olcott and Anagarika Dharmapala, was instrumental in the Western transmission and revival of Theravada Buddhism. Orientalism_sentence_211

Another major influence was Vivekananda, who popularised his modernised interpretation of Advaita Vedanta during the later 19th and early 20th century in both India and the West, emphasising anubhava ("personal experience") over scriptural authority. Orientalism_sentence_212

Eastern views of the West and Western views of the East Orientalism_section_17

The concept of Orientalism has been adopted by scholars in East-Central and Eastern Europe, among them Maria Todorova, Attila Melegh, Tomasz Zarycki, and Dariusz Skórczewski as an analytical tool for exploring the images of East-Central and Eastern European societies in cultural discourses of the West in the 19th century and during the Soviet domination. Orientalism_sentence_213

The term "re-orientalism" was used by Lisa Lau and Ana Cristina Mendes to refer to how Eastern self-representation is based on western referential points: Orientalism_sentence_214

Occidentalism Orientalism_section_18

The term occidentalism is often used to refer to negative views of the Western world found in Eastern societies and is founded on the sense of nationalism that spread in reaction to colonialism. Orientalism_sentence_215

Edward Said has been accused of Occidentalizing the west in his critique of Orientalism; of being guilty of falsely characterizing the West in the same way that he accuses Western scholars of falsely characterizing the East. Orientalism_sentence_216

Said essentialized the West by creating a homogenous image of the area. Orientalism_sentence_217

Currently, the West consists not only of Europe, but also the United States, which has become more influential and dominant over the years. Orientalism_sentence_218

Othering Orientalism_section_19

The action of othering cultures occurs when groups are labeled as different due to characteristics that distinguish them from the perceived norm. Orientalism_sentence_219

Edward Said, author of the book Orientalism, argued that western powers and influential individuals such as social scientists and artists othered "the Orient." Orientalism_sentence_220

The evolution of ideologies is often initially embedded in the language, and continues to ripple through the fabric of society by taking over the culture, economy and political sphere. Orientalism_sentence_221

Much of Said's criticism of Western Orientalism is based on what he describes as articularizing trends. Orientalism_sentence_222

These ideologies are present in Asian works by Indian, Chinese, and Japanese writers and artists, in their views of Western culture and tradition. Orientalism_sentence_223

A particularly significant development is the manner in which Orientalism has taken shape in non-Western cinema, as for instance in Hindi-language cinema. Orientalism_sentence_224

See also Orientalism_section_20

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orientalism.