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NamesOrthodontics_header_cell_0_1_0 OrthodontistOrthodontics_cell_0_1_1
Occupation typeOrthodontics_header_cell_0_2_0 SpecialtyOrthodontics_cell_0_2_1
Activity sectorsOrthodontics_header_cell_0_3_0 DentistryOrthodontics_cell_0_3_1
Education requiredOrthodontics_header_cell_0_5_0 Dental degree, specialty trainingOrthodontics_cell_0_5_1
Fields of


Private practices, hospitalsOrthodontics_cell_0_6_1

Orthodontics is a specialty of dentistry that deals with the diagnosis, prevention, and correction of malpositioned teeth and jaws, and misaligned bite patterns. Orthodontics_sentence_0

It can also focus on modifying facial growth, known as dentofacial orthopedics. Orthodontics_sentence_1

Abnormal alignment of the teeth and jaws is common. Orthodontics_sentence_2

Nearly 50% of the population, according to the American Association of Orthodontics, has malocclusions severe enough to benefit from orthodontic treatment. Orthodontics_sentence_3

although this figure decreases to less than 10% according to the same AAO statement when referring to medically necessary orthodontics. Orthodontics_sentence_4

There is a lack of strong scientific evidence for the health benefits of orthodontic treatment - a fact the academic journals and professional associations in the field of orthodontics were slow to admit. Orthodontics_sentence_5

Treatment can take several months to a few years, it involves the use of dental braces and other appliances to slowly move the teeth and jaws around. Orthodontics_sentence_6

If the malocclusion is very severe, jaw surgery may be used. Orthodontics_sentence_7

Treatment is usually started before a person reaches adulthood since bones can more easily be moved around in children. Orthodontics_sentence_8

History Orthodontics_section_0

Orthodontics as a modern science dates back to the mid 1800s. Orthodontics_sentence_9

Influential contributors to the field include Norman William Kingsley (1829–1913) and Edward Angle (1855–1930). Orthodontics_sentence_10

Angle created the first simple system for classifying malocclusions, a system which is still used today. Orthodontics_sentence_11

Until the mid 1970s, braces were made by wrapping metal around each tooth. Orthodontics_sentence_12

With advancements in adhesives it became possible to bond metal brackets to the teeth instead. Orthodontics_sentence_13

Methods Orthodontics_section_1

A typical treatment for incorrectly positioned teeth (malocclusion) takes about 1 to 3 years to complete, with braces being altered slightly every 4 to 10 weeks by the specialists called orthodontists. Orthodontics_sentence_14

Orthodontists are dental specialists who are University-trained in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of dental and facial irregularities. Orthodontics_sentence_15

They provide a wide range of treatment options to straighten crooked teeth, fix bad bites and align the jaws correctly. Orthodontics_sentence_16

Multiple methods exist for adjusting malocclusion. Orthodontics_sentence_17

In growing patients there are more options for treating skeletal discrepancies, either promoting or restricting growth using functional appliances, orthodontic headgear or a reverse pull facemask. Orthodontics_sentence_18

Most orthodontic work is started during the early permanent dentition stage before skeletal growth is completed. Orthodontics_sentence_19

If skeletal growth has completed, jaw surgery can be an option. Orthodontics_sentence_20

Sometimes teeth are extracted to aid the orthodontic treatment (teeth are extracted in about half of all the cases, most commonly the premolars). Orthodontics_sentence_21

Orthodontic therapy can include the use of fixed or removable appliances. Orthodontics_sentence_22

The majority of orthodontic therapy is delivered using appliances that are fixed in place, for example with braces that are bonded to the teeth with adhesives. Orthodontics_sentence_23

Fixed appliances can have a greater mechanical control of the teeth and the treatment outcome is greater with the use of fixed appliances. Orthodontics_sentence_24

Fixed appliances are, for example, used to rotate teeth that don't fit the arch shape of the other teeth, to move multiple teeth to different places, to change the angle of teeth, or to change the position of the root of the tooth. Orthodontics_sentence_25

It is not preferable if the patient has poor oral hygiene (as that can result in decalcification, tooth decay, and other problems), if the patient isn't motivated (as treatment lasts several months and commitment to oral hygiene is required), or if the malocclusions are mild. Orthodontics_sentence_26

Braces Orthodontics_section_2

Braces are usually placed on the front side of the teeth, but may also be placed on the side facing the tongue (called lingual braces). Orthodontics_sentence_27

Brackets made out of stainless steel or porcelain are bonded to the center of the teeth using an adhesive. Orthodontics_sentence_28

Wires are placed in a slot in the brackets which allows for controlled movement in all three dimensions. Orthodontics_sentence_29

Apart from wires, forces can be applied using elastic bands, and springs may be used to push teeth apart or to close a gap. Orthodontics_sentence_30

Several teeth may be tied together with ligatures and different kinds of hooks can be placed to allow for connecting an elastic band. Orthodontics_sentence_31

Clear aligners are an alternative to braces, but insufficient evidence exists to determine their effectiveness. Orthodontics_sentence_32

Treatment Duration Orthodontics_section_3

The time required for braces varies from person to person, depending on the severity of the problem; the amount of room available; the distance the teeth must travel; the health of the teeth, gums, and supporting bone; and how closely the patient follows instructions. Orthodontics_sentence_33

On average, however, once the braces are put on, they usually remain in place for one to three years. Orthodontics_sentence_34

After braces are removed, most patients will need to wear a retainer all the time for the first six months, then only during sleep for many years. Orthodontics_sentence_35

Headgear Orthodontics_section_4

Orthodontic headgear—sometimes referred to as an "extra-oral appliance"—is a treatment approach that requires the patient to have a device strapped onto his or her head to help correct malocclusion—typically used when the teeth do not align properly. Orthodontics_sentence_36

Headgear is most often used along with braces or other orthodontic appliances. Orthodontics_sentence_37

While braces correct the position of teeth, orthodontic headgear—which as the name suggests is worn on or is strapped onto the patient's head—is most often added to orthodontic treatment to help alter the alignment of the jaw, although there are some situations in which such an appliance can help move teeth, particularly molars. Orthodontics_sentence_38

Whatever the purpose, orthodontic headgear works by exerting tension on the braces via hooks, a facebow, coils, elastic bands, metal orthodontic bands, and other attachable appliances directly into the patient's mouth. Orthodontics_sentence_39

It is most effective for children and teenagers because their jaws are still developing and can be easily manipulated. Orthodontics_sentence_40

(If an adult is fitted with headgear, it is usually to help correct the position of teeth that have shifted after other teeth have been extracted.) Orthodontics_sentence_41

Thus Headgear is typically used to treat a number of jaw alignment or bite problems such as overbite and underbite. Orthodontics_sentence_42

Palatal expansion Orthodontics_section_5

Palatal expansion can be achieved using either fixed or removable appliances. Orthodontics_sentence_43

Jaw surgery Orthodontics_section_6

Jaw surgery may be required to fix severe malocclusions. Orthodontics_sentence_44

The bone is broken during surgery and is stabilised with titanium (or bioresorbable) plates and screws to allow for healing to take place. Orthodontics_sentence_45

After surgery, regular orthodontic treatment is used to move the teeth into their final position. Orthodontics_sentence_46

During treatment Orthodontics_section_7

To reduce pain during the orthodontic treatment, low level laser therapy (LLLT), vibratory devices, chewing adjuncts, brainwave musics or cognitive behavioral therapy can be used. Orthodontics_sentence_47

However, the supporting evidence is of low quality and the results are inconclusive. Orthodontics_sentence_48

Post treatment Orthodontics_section_8

After orthodontic treatment has completed, there is a tendency for teeth to return, or relapse, back to their pre-treatment positions. Orthodontics_sentence_49

Over 50% of patients have some reversion to pre-treatment positions within 10 years following treatment. Orthodontics_sentence_50

To prevent relapse, the majority of patients will be offered a retainer once treatment has completed, and will benefit from wearing their retainers. Orthodontics_sentence_51

Retainers can be either fixed or removable. Orthodontics_sentence_52

Removable retainers Orthodontics_section_9

Removable retainers are made from a clear plastic, and they are custom-fitted for the patient's mouth. Orthodontics_sentence_53

It has a tight fit and holds all of the teeth in position. Orthodontics_sentence_54

There are many types of brands for clear retainers including, Zendura Retainer, Essix Retainer and Vivera Retainer. Orthodontics_sentence_55

Hawley retainer is also a removable orthodontic appliance made from a combination of plastic and metal that is molded custom to fit the patient's mouth. Orthodontics_sentence_56

Removable retainers will be worn for different periods of time depending on patient need to stabilise the dentition. Orthodontics_sentence_57

Fixed retainers Orthodontics_section_10

Fixed retainers are a simple wire fixed to the tongue-facing part of the incisors using dental adhesive and can be specifically useful to prevent rotation in incisors. Orthodontics_sentence_58

Other types of fixed retainers can include labial or lingual braces, with brackets fixed to the teeth. Orthodontics_sentence_59


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Training Orthodontics_section_11

There are several speciality areas in dentistry, but the speciality of orthodontics was the first to be recognized within dentistry. Orthodontics_sentence_60

Specifically, the American Dental Association recognized orthodontics as a speciality in the 1950s. Orthodontics_sentence_61

Each country has their own system for training and registering orthodontic specialists. Orthodontics_sentence_62

Australia Orthodontics_section_12

In Australia, to obtain an accredited three-year full-time university degree in orthodontics you will need to be a qualified dentist (complete an AHPRA registered general dental degree) with a minimum of two years clinical experience. Orthodontics_sentence_63

There are several universities in Australia that offer orthodontic programs: University of Adelaide, University of Melbourne, University of Sydney, University of Queensland, University of Western Australia, University of Otago. Orthodontics_sentence_64

Orthodontic Courses are accredited by the Australian Dental Council and reviewed by the Australian Society of Orthodontists (ASO). Orthodontics_sentence_65

Prospective applicants should obtain information from the relevant institution before applying for admission. Orthodontics_sentence_66

After completing a degree in orthodontics, specialists are required to be registered with the Australian Health Practitioners Regulation Agency (AHPRA) in order to practise. Orthodontics_sentence_67

Bangladesh Orthodontics_section_13

Dhaka Dental College in Bangladesh is one of the many schools recognized by the Bangladesh Medical and Dental Council (BM&DC) that offer post-graduation orthodontic courses. Orthodontics_sentence_68

Before applying to any post-graduation training courses, an applicant must have completed the Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) examination from any dental college. Orthodontics_sentence_69

After application, the applicant must take an admissions test held by the specific college. Orthodontics_sentence_70

When successful, selected candidates undergo training for six months. Orthodontics_sentence_71

Canada Orthodontics_section_14

In Canada, obtaining a dental degree, such as a Doctor of Dental Surgery (DDS) or Doctor of Medical Dentistry (DMD), would be required before being accepted by a school for orthodontic training. Orthodontics_sentence_72

Currently, there are 10 schools in the country offering the orthodontic specialty. Orthodontics_sentence_73

Candidates should contact the individual school directly to obtain the most recent pre-requisites before entry. Orthodontics_sentence_74

The Canadian Dental Association expects orthodontists to complete at least two years of post-doctoral, specialty training in orthodontics in an accredited program, after graduating from their dental degree. Orthodontics_sentence_75

Pakistan Orthodontics_section_15

In Pakistan to be enrolled as a student or resident in postgraduation orthodontic course approved by Pakistan Medical and Dental Council, the dentist must graduate with a Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) or equivalent degree. Orthodontics_sentence_76

Pakistan Medical & Dental Council (PMDC) has a recognized program in Orthodontics as Master in Dental Surgery (MDS) orthodontics and FCPS orthodontics as 4 years post graduate degree programs, the latter of which is conducted by CPSP Pakistan. Orthodontics_sentence_77

United States Orthodontics_section_16

Similar to Canada, there are several colleges and universities in the United States that offer orthodontic programs. Orthodontics_sentence_78

Every school has a different enrollment process, but every applicant is required to have graduated with a DDS or DMD from an accredited dental school. Orthodontics_sentence_79

Entrance into an accredited orthodontics program is extremely competitive, and begins by passing a national or state licensing exam. Orthodontics_sentence_80

The program generally lasts for two to three years, and by the final year, graduates are to complete the written American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) exam. Orthodontics_sentence_81

This exam is also broken down into two components: a written exam and a clinical exam. Orthodontics_sentence_82

The written exam is a comprehensive exam that tests for the applicant's knowledge of basic sciences and clinical concepts. Orthodontics_sentence_83

The clinical exam, however, consists of a Board Case Oral Examination (BCOE), a Case Report Examination (CRE), and a Case Report Oral Examination (CROE). Orthodontics_sentence_84

Once certified, certification must then be renewed every ten years. Orthodontics_sentence_85

Orthodontic programs can award the Master of Science degree, Doctor of Science degree, or Doctor of Philosophy degree depending on the school and individual research requirements. Orthodontics_sentence_86

United Kingdom Orthodontics_section_17

Throughout the United Kingdom, there are several Orthodontic Specialty Training Registrar posts available. Orthodontics_sentence_87

The program is full-time for three years, and upon completion, trainees graduate with a degree at the Masters or Doctorate level. Orthodontics_sentence_88

Training may take place within hospital departments that are linked to recognized dental schools. Orthodontics_sentence_89

Obtaining a Certificate of Completion of Specialty Training (CCST) allows an orthodontic specialist to be registered under the General Dental Council (GDC). Orthodontics_sentence_90

An orthodontic specialist can provide care within a primary care setting, but to work at a hospital as an orthodontic consultant, higher level training is further required as a post-CCST trainee. Orthodontics_sentence_91

To work within a university setting, as an academic consultant, completing research toward obtaining a PhD is also required. Orthodontics_sentence_92

See also Orthodontics_section_18


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthodontics.