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This article is about adherence to accepted belief, especially in Christianity. Orthodoxy_sentence_0

For the book by G. Orthodoxy_sentence_1 K. Chesterton, see Orthodoxy (book). Orthodoxy_sentence_2

For the Churches most often called "Orthodox", see Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodox Churches. Orthodoxy_sentence_3

For other uses, see Orthodox. Orthodoxy_sentence_4

Orthodoxy (from Greek: ὀρθοδοξία, orthodoxía, 'righteous/correct opinion') is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion. Orthodoxy_sentence_5

Orthodoxy within Christianity is a spectrum wherein different Churches accept different forms of creeds and councils. Orthodoxy_sentence_6

Such difference of opinions has occurred due to the language and cultural barriers that the Church Fathers had to face when expressing a theological opinion. Orthodoxy_sentence_7

The Eastern Orthodox Churches adheres to the orthodoxy portrayed in the first seven ecumenical councils, while the Oriental Orthodox Churches finds their Orthodoxy in the first three ecumenical councils. Orthodoxy_sentence_8

In some English-speaking countries, Jews who adhere to all the traditions and commandments as legislated in the Talmud are often called Orthodox Jews. Orthodoxy_sentence_9

Religions Orthodoxy_section_0

Buddhism Orthodoxy_section_1

Main article: Theravada Orthodoxy_sentence_10

The historical Buddha was known to denounce mere attachment to scriptures or dogmatic principles, as it was mentioned in the Kalama Sutta. Orthodoxy_sentence_11

Moreover, the Theravada school of Buddhism follows strict adherence to the Pāli Canon (tripiṭaka) and the commentaries such as the Visuddhimagga. Orthodoxy_sentence_12

Hence, the Theravada school came to be considered the most orthodox of all Buddhist schools, as it is known to be highly conservative especially within the discipline and practice of the Vinaya. Orthodoxy_sentence_13

Christianity Orthodoxy_section_2

Main articles: Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodox Churches Orthodoxy_sentence_14

In classical Christian usage, the term orthodox refers to the set of doctrines which were believed by the early Christians. Orthodoxy_sentence_15

A series of ecumenical councils were held over a period of several centuries to try to formalize these doctrines. Orthodoxy_sentence_16

The most significant of these early decisions was that between the Homoousian doctrine of Athanasius and Eustathius (which became Trinitarianism) and the Heteroousian doctrine of Arius and Eusebius (Arianism). Orthodoxy_sentence_17

The Homoousian doctrine, which defined Jesus as both God and man with the canons of the 431 Council of Ephesus, won out in the Church and was referred to as orthodoxy in most Christian contexts, since this was the viewpoint of previous Christian Church Fathers and was reaffirmed at these councils. Orthodoxy_sentence_18

(The minority of nontrinitarian Christians object to this terminology.) Orthodoxy_sentence_19

Following the 1054 Great Schism, both the Western Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church continued to consider themselves uniquely orthodox and catholic. Orthodoxy_sentence_20

Augustine wrote in On True Religion: "Religion is to be sought…only among those who are called Catholic or orthodox Christians, that is, guardians of truth and followers of right." Orthodoxy_sentence_21

Over time, the Western Church gradually identified with the "Catholic" label, and people of Western Europe gradually associated the "Orthodox" label with the Eastern Church (in some languages the "Catholic" label is not necessarily identified with the Western Church). Orthodoxy_sentence_22

This was in note of the fact that both Catholic and Orthodox were in use as ecclesiastical adjectives as early as the 2nd and 4th centuries respectively. Orthodoxy_sentence_23

Much earlier, the earliest Oriental Orthodox Churches had split from Chalcedonian Christianity after the Council of Chalcedon (AD 451), because of several christological differences. Orthodoxy_sentence_24

Since then, Oriental Orthodox Churches are maintaining the orthodox designation as a symbol of their theological traditions. Orthodoxy_sentence_25

Hinduism Orthodoxy_section_3

Main article: Orthodox Hinduism Orthodoxy_sentence_26

See also: Āstika and nāstika Orthodoxy_sentence_27

Orthodoxy does not exist in Hinduism, as the word Hindu itself collectively refers to the various beliefs of people who lived beyond the Sindhu river of the Indus Valley Civilization. Orthodoxy_sentence_28

It is a synthesis of the accepted teachings of each of thousands of gurus, who others equate to prophets, and has no founder, no authority or command, but recommendations. Orthodoxy_sentence_29

The term most equivalent to orthodoxy at best has the meaning of "commonly accepted" traditions rather than the usual meaning of "conforming to a doctrine", for example, what people of middle eastern faiths attempt to equate as doctrine in Hindu philosophies is Sanatana Dharma, but which at best can be translated to mean "ageless traditions", hence denoting that they are accepted not through doctrine and force but through multi-generational tests of adoption and retention based on circumstantial attrition through millennia. Orthodoxy_sentence_30

Islam Orthodoxy_section_4

Main article: Sunni Islam Orthodoxy_sentence_31

Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam". Orthodoxy_sentence_32

However, other scholars of Islam, such as John Burton believe that there is no such thing as "orthodox Islam." Orthodoxy_sentence_33

Judaism Orthodoxy_section_5

Main article: Orthodox Judaism Orthodoxy_sentence_34

Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to fully maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization. Orthodoxy_sentence_35

Theologically, it is chiefly defined by regarding the Torah, both Written and Oral, as literally revealed by God on biblical Mount Sinai and faithfully transmitted ever since. Orthodoxy_sentence_36

The movement advocates a strict observance of halakha (Jewish Law), which is to be interpreted only according to received methods due to its divine character. Orthodoxy_sentence_37

Orthodoxy considers halakha as eternal and beyond historical influence, being applied differently to changing circumstances but basically unchangeable in itself. Orthodoxy_sentence_38

Orthodox Judaism is not a centralized denomination. Orthodoxy_sentence_39

Relations between its different subgroups are sometimes strained and the exact limits of Orthodoxy are subject to intense debate. Orthodoxy_sentence_40

Very roughly, it may be divided between Haredi Judaism, which is more conservative and reclusive, and Modern Orthodox Judaism, which is relatively open to outer society. Orthodoxy_sentence_41

Each of those is itself formed of independent streams. Orthodoxy_sentence_42

They are almost uniformly exclusionist, regarding Orthodoxy as the only authentic form of Judaism and rejecting all non-Orthodox interpretations as illegitimate. Orthodoxy_sentence_43

Others Orthodoxy_section_6

Kemetic Orthodoxy is a denomination of Kemetism, a reform reconstruction of Egyptian polytheism for modern followers. Orthodoxy_sentence_44

It claims to derive a spiritual lineage from the Ancient Egyptian religion. Orthodoxy_sentence_45

There are organizations of Slavic Native Faith (Rodnovery) which characterize the religion as Orthodoxy, and by other terms. Orthodoxy_sentence_46

Non-religious contexts Orthodoxy_section_7

Outside the context of religion, the term orthodoxy is often used to refer to any commonly held belief or set of beliefs in some field, in particular when these tenets, possibly referred to as "dogmas", are being challenged. Orthodoxy_sentence_47

In this sense, the term has a mildly pejorative connotation. Orthodoxy_sentence_48

Among various "orthodoxies" in distinctive fields, the most commonly used terms are: Orthodoxy_sentence_49


  • Political orthodoxyOrthodoxy_item_0_0
  • Social orthodoxyOrthodoxy_item_0_1
  • Economic orthodoxyOrthodoxy_item_0_2
  • Scientific orthodoxyOrthodoxy_item_0_3
  • Artistic orthodoxyOrthodoxy_item_0_4

The terms orthodox and orthodoxy are also used more broadly to refer to things other than ideas and beliefs. Orthodoxy_sentence_50

A new and unusual way of solving a problem could be referred to as unorthodox, while a common and 'normal' way of solving a problem would be referred to as orthodox. Orthodoxy_sentence_51

Related concepts Orthodoxy_section_8

Orthodoxy is opposed to heterodoxy ('other teaching') or heresy. Orthodoxy_sentence_52

People who deviate from orthodoxy by professing a doctrine considered to be false are called heretics, while those who, perhaps without professing heretical beliefs, break from the perceived main body of believers are called schismatics. Orthodoxy_sentence_53

The term employed sometimes depends on the aspect most in view: if one is addressing corporate unity, the emphasis may be on schism; if one is addressing doctrinal coherence, the emphasis may be on heresy. Orthodoxy_sentence_54

A deviation lighter than heresy is commonly called error, in the sense of not being grave enough to cause total estrangement, while yet seriously affecting communion. Orthodoxy_sentence_55

Sometimes error is also used to cover both full heresies and minor errors. Orthodoxy_sentence_56

Doctrine or practices not regarded as essential to faith, with which Christians can legitimately disagree, are known as adiaphora. Orthodoxy_sentence_57

The concept of orthodoxy is prevalent in many forms of organized monotheism. Orthodoxy_sentence_58

However, orthodox belief is not usually overly emphasized in polytheistic or animist religions, in which there is often little or no concept of dogma, and varied interpretations of doctrine and theology are tolerated and sometimes even encouraged within certain contexts. Orthodoxy_sentence_59

Syncretism, for example, plays a much wider role in non-monotheistic (and particularly, non-scriptural) religion. Orthodoxy_sentence_60

The prevailing governing norm within polytheism is often orthopraxy ('right practice') rather than the "right belief" of orthodoxy. Orthodoxy_sentence_61

See also Orthodoxy_section_9

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orthodoxy.