Ottoman Empire

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"Turkish Empire" redirects here. Ottoman Empire_sentence_0

For empires with Turkic origins, see List of Turkic dynasties and countries. Ottoman Empire_sentence_1

Not to be confused with Ottoman Caliphate. Ottoman Empire_sentence_2

Ottoman Empire_table_infobox_0

The Sublime Ottoman State

دولت عليه عثمانیه‎ Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīyeOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_0_0

CapitalOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_1_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_1_1
Common languagesOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_2_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_2_1
ReligionOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_3_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_3_1
Demonym(s)Ottoman Empire_header_cell_0_4_0 OttomanOttoman Empire_cell_0_4_1
GovernmentOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_5_0 Absolute monarchy

(1299–1876; 1878–1908; 1920–1922) and caliphate (1517–1924) Constitutional monarchy (1876–1878; 1908–1920)Ottoman Empire_cell_0_5_1

SultanOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_6_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_6_1
c.1299–1323/4 (first)Ottoman Empire_header_cell_0_7_0 Osman IOttoman Empire_cell_0_7_1
1918–1922 (last)Ottoman Empire_header_cell_0_8_0 Mehmed VIOttoman Empire_cell_0_8_1
CaliphOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_9_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_9_1
1517–1520 (first)Ottoman Empire_header_cell_0_10_0 Selim IOttoman Empire_cell_0_10_1
1922–1924 (last)Ottoman Empire_header_cell_0_11_0 Abdülmecid IIOttoman Empire_cell_0_11_1
Grand VizierOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_12_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_12_1
1320–1331 (first)Ottoman Empire_header_cell_0_13_0 Alaeddin PashaOttoman Empire_cell_0_13_1
1920–1922 (last)Ottoman Empire_header_cell_0_14_0 Ahmet Tevfik PashaOttoman Empire_cell_0_14_1
LegislatureOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_15_0 General AssemblyOttoman Empire_cell_0_15_1
Unelected upper houseOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_16_0 Chamber of NotablesOttoman Empire_cell_0_16_1
Elected lower houseOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_17_0 Chamber of DeputiesOttoman Empire_cell_0_17_1
HistoryOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_18_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_18_1
FoundedOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_19_0 c. 1299Ottoman Empire_cell_0_19_1
InterregnumOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_20_0 1402–1413Ottoman Empire_cell_0_20_1
Transformation to empireOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_21_0 1453Ottoman Empire_cell_0_21_1
1st ConstitutionalOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_22_0 1876–1878Ottoman Empire_cell_0_22_1
2nd ConstitutionalOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_23_0 1908–1920Ottoman Empire_cell_0_23_1
Raid on the Sublime PorteOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_24_0 23 January 1913Ottoman Empire_cell_0_24_1
Sultanate abolishedOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_25_0 1 November 1922Ottoman Empire_cell_0_25_1
Republic of Turkey establishedOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_26_0 29 October 1923Ottoman Empire_cell_0_26_1
Caliphate abolishedOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_27_0 3 March 1924Ottoman Empire_cell_0_27_1
AreaOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_28_0
1451Ottoman Empire_header_cell_0_29_0 690,000 km (270,000 sq mi)Ottoman Empire_cell_0_29_1
1521Ottoman Empire_header_cell_0_30_0 3,400,000 km (1,300,000 sq mi)Ottoman Empire_cell_0_30_1
1683Ottoman Empire_header_cell_0_31_0 5,200,000 km (2,000,000 sq mi)Ottoman Empire_cell_0_31_1
1844Ottoman Empire_header_cell_0_32_0 2,938,365 km (1,134,509 sq mi)Ottoman Empire_cell_0_32_1
PopulationOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_33_0
1912Ottoman Empire_header_cell_0_34_0 24,000,000Ottoman Empire_cell_0_34_1
CurrencyOttoman Empire_header_cell_0_35_0 Akçe, Para, Sultani, Kuruş, LiraOttoman Empire_cell_0_35_1
Preceded by

Succeeded by

Sultanate of Rum

Anatolian beyliks

Byzantine Empire

Kingdom of Bosnia

Second Bulgarian Empire

Serbian Despotate

Kingdom of Hungary

Kingdom of Croatia

League of Lezhë

Mamluk Sultanate

Hafsid Kingdom

Safavid Empire

Hospitaller Tripoli

Kingdom of Tlemcen

Empire of Trebizond

Principality of Samtskhe

Despotate of the Morea



Hellenic Republic

Caucasus Viceroyalty

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Revolutionary Serbia


Kingdom of Romania

Principality of Bulgaria

Eastern Rumelia

Emirate of Asir

Kingdom of Hejaz


Mandatory Iraq

French Algeria

British Cyprus

French Tunisia

Italian Tripolitania

Italian Cyrenaica

Sheikhdom of Kuwait

Kingdom of Yemen

Sultanate of EgyptOttoman Empire_cell_0_36_0

Preceded byOttoman Empire_cell_0_37_0 Succeeded byOttoman Empire_cell_0_37_1
Sultanate of Rum

Anatolian beyliks

Byzantine Empire

Kingdom of Bosnia

Second Bulgarian Empire

Serbian Despotate

Kingdom of Hungary

Kingdom of Croatia

League of Lezhë

Mamluk Sultanate

Hafsid Kingdom

Safavid Empire

Hospitaller Tripoli

Kingdom of Tlemcen

Empire of Trebizond

Principality of Samtskhe

Despotate of the Morea

ZetaOttoman Empire_cell_0_38_0


Hellenic Republic

Caucasus Viceroyalty

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Revolutionary Serbia


Kingdom of Romania

Principality of Bulgaria

Eastern Rumelia

Emirate of Asir

Kingdom of Hejaz


Mandatory Iraq

French Algeria

British Cyprus

French Tunisia

Italian Tripolitania

Italian Cyrenaica

Sheikhdom of Kuwait

Kingdom of Yemen

Sultanate of EgyptOttoman Empire_cell_0_38_1

Ottoman Empire_cell_0_39_0 Sultanate of RumOttoman Empire_cell_0_39_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_40_0 Anatolian beyliksOttoman Empire_cell_0_40_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_41_0 Byzantine EmpireOttoman Empire_cell_0_41_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_42_0 Kingdom of BosniaOttoman Empire_cell_0_42_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_43_0 Second Bulgarian EmpireOttoman Empire_cell_0_43_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_44_0 Serbian DespotateOttoman Empire_cell_0_44_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_45_0 Kingdom of HungaryOttoman Empire_cell_0_45_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_46_0 Kingdom of CroatiaOttoman Empire_cell_0_46_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_47_0 League of LezhëOttoman Empire_cell_0_47_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_48_0 Mamluk SultanateOttoman Empire_cell_0_48_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_49_0 Hafsid KingdomOttoman Empire_cell_0_49_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_50_0 Safavid EmpireOttoman Empire_cell_0_50_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_51_0 Hospitaller TripoliOttoman Empire_cell_0_51_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_52_0 Kingdom of TlemcenOttoman Empire_cell_0_52_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_53_0 Empire of TrebizondOttoman Empire_cell_0_53_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_54_0 Principality of SamtskheOttoman Empire_cell_0_54_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_55_0 Despotate of the MoreaOttoman Empire_cell_0_55_1
Ottoman Empire_cell_0_56_0 ZetaOttoman Empire_cell_0_56_1
TurkeyOttoman Empire_cell_0_57_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_57_1
Hellenic RepublicOttoman Empire_cell_0_58_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_58_1
Caucasus ViceroyaltyOttoman Empire_cell_0_59_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_59_1
Bosnia and HerzegovinaOttoman Empire_cell_0_60_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_60_1
Revolutionary SerbiaOttoman Empire_cell_0_61_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_61_1
AlbaniaOttoman Empire_cell_0_62_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_62_1
Kingdom of RomaniaOttoman Empire_cell_0_63_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_63_1
Principality of BulgariaOttoman Empire_cell_0_64_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_64_1
Eastern RumeliaOttoman Empire_cell_0_65_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_65_1
Emirate of AsirOttoman Empire_cell_0_66_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_66_1
Kingdom of HejazOttoman Empire_cell_0_67_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_67_1
OETAOttoman Empire_cell_0_68_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_68_1
Mandatory IraqOttoman Empire_cell_0_69_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_69_1
French AlgeriaOttoman Empire_cell_0_70_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_70_1
British CyprusOttoman Empire_cell_0_71_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_71_1
French TunisiaOttoman Empire_cell_0_72_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_72_1
Italian TripolitaniaOttoman Empire_cell_0_73_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_73_1
Italian CyrenaicaOttoman Empire_cell_0_74_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_74_1
Sheikhdom of KuwaitOttoman Empire_cell_0_75_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_75_1
Kingdom of YemenOttoman Empire_cell_0_76_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_76_1
Sultanate of EgyptOttoman Empire_cell_0_77_0 Ottoman Empire_cell_0_77_1

The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Ottoman Turkish: دولت عليه عثمانيه‎ Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye, literally "The Sublime Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti; French: Empire ottoman) was a state that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. Ottoman Empire_sentence_3

It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Turkoman tribal leader Osman I. Ottoman Empire_sentence_4

Although initially the dynasty was of Turkic origin, it was Persianised in terms of language, culture, literature and habits. Ottoman Empire_sentence_5

After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_6

The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. Ottoman Empire_sentence_7

During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power, under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeastern Europe, Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Northern Africa, and the Horn of Africa. Ottoman Empire_sentence_8

At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states. Ottoman Empire_sentence_9

Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy over the course of centuries. Ottoman Empire_sentence_10

With Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean Basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. Ottoman Empire_sentence_11

While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. Ottoman Empire_sentence_12

The empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society and military throughout the 17th and for much of the 18th century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_13

However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires. Ottoman Empire_sentence_14

The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Ottoman Empire_sentence_15

Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged. Ottoman Empire_sentence_16

With the 1913 coup d'état bringing the nationalistic and radical Committee of Union and Progress to power, the empire allied itself with Germany hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, and thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. Ottoman Empire_sentence_17

While the Empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent, especially with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. Ottoman Empire_sentence_18

During this time, genocide was committed by the Ottoman government against the Armenians, Assyrians, and Greeks. Ottoman Empire_sentence_19

The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. Ottoman Empire_sentence_20

The successful Turkish War of Independence led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy. Ottoman Empire_sentence_21

Name Ottoman Empire_section_0

Main article: Names of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_22

The word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman (also known as the Ottoman dynasty). Ottoman Empire_sentence_23

Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān (عثمان‎). Ottoman Empire_sentence_24

In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye (دولت عليه عثمانیه‎), literally "The Supreme Ottoman State", or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti (عثمانلى دولتى‎). Ottoman Empire_sentence_25

In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ("The Ottoman Empire") or Osmanlı Devleti ("The Ottoman State"). Ottoman Empire_sentence_26

The Turkish word for "Ottoman" (Turkish: Osmanlı) originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_27

The word subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. Ottoman Empire_sentence_28

In contrast, the term "Turk" (Türk) was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population and was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. Ottoman Empire_sentence_29

In the early modern period, an educated, urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker who was not a member of the military-administrative class would often refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī (رومى‎), or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia. Ottoman Empire_sentence_30

The term Rūmī was also used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. Ottoman Empire_sentence_31

As applied to Ottoman Turkish-speakers, this term began to fall out of use at the end of the seventeenth century, and instead the word increasingly became associated with the Greek population of the empire, a meaning that it still bears in Turkey today. Ottoman Empire_sentence_32

In Western Europe, the names Ottoman Empire, Turkish Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favoured both in formal and informal situations. Ottoman Empire_sentence_33

This dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Ottoman Empire_sentence_34

At present, most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", and "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character. Ottoman Empire_sentence_35

History Ottoman Empire_section_1

Main article: History of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_36

See also: Territorial evolution of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_37

Rise (c. 1299–1453) Ottoman Empire_section_2

Main article: Rise of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_38

Further information: Osman I, Ottoman dynasty, and Gaza Thesis Ottoman Empire_sentence_39

As the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. Ottoman Empire_sentence_40

One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I (d. 1323/4), a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Ottoman Empire_sentence_41

Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, with many but not all converts to Islam. Ottoman Empire_sentence_42

Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River. Ottoman Empire_sentence_43

A Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Bapheus in 1302 contributed to Osman's rise as well. Ottoman Empire_sentence_44

It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbours, due to the lack of sources surviving from this period. Ottoman Empire_sentence_45

The Gaza Thesis theory popular during the twentieth century credited their success to their rallying of religious warriors to fight for them in the name of Islam, but it is now highly criticised and no longer generally accepted by historians, and no consensus on the nature of the early Ottoman state's expansion has replaced it. Ottoman Empire_sentence_46

In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over Anatolia and the Balkans. Ottoman Empire_sentence_47

The earliest conflicts began during the Byzantine–Ottoman wars, waged in Anatolia in the late 13th century before entering Europe in the mid-14th century, followed by the Bulgarian–Ottoman wars and the Serbian–Ottoman wars waged beginning in the mid 14th century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_48

Much of this period was characterized by Ottoman expansion into the Balkans. Ottoman Empire_sentence_49

Osman's son, Orhan, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of Bursa in 1326, making it the new capital of the Ottoman state and supplanting Byzantine control in the region. Ottoman Empire_sentence_50

The important port city of Thessaloniki was captured from the Venetians in 1387 and sacked. Ottoman Empire_sentence_51

The Ottoman victory in Kosovo in 1389 effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe. Ottoman Empire_sentence_52

The Battle of Nicopolis for the Bulgarian Tsardom of Vidin in 1396, widely regarded as the last large-scale crusade of the Middle Ages, failed to stop the advance of the victorious Ottoman Turks. Ottoman Empire_sentence_53

As the Turks expanded into the Balkans, the conquest of Constantinople became a crucial objective. Ottoman Empire_sentence_54

The Ottomans had already wrested control of nearly all former Byzantine lands surrounding the city, but the strong defence of Constantinople's strategic position on the Bosphorus Strait made it difficult to conquer. Ottoman Empire_sentence_55

In 1402, the Byzantines were temporarily relieved when the Turco-Mongol leader Timur, founder of the Timurid Empire, invaded Ottoman Anatolia from the east. Ottoman Empire_sentence_56

In the Battle of Ankara in 1402, Timur defeated the Ottoman forces and took Sultan Bayezid I as a prisoner, throwing the empire into disorder. Ottoman Empire_sentence_57

The ensuing civil war, also known as the Fetret Devri, lasted from 1402 to 1413 as Bayezid's sons fought over succession. Ottoman Empire_sentence_58

It ended when Mehmed I emerged as the sultan and restored Ottoman power. Ottoman Empire_sentence_59

The Balkan territories lost by the Ottomans after 1402, including Thessaloniki, Macedonia, and Kosovo, were later recovered by Murad II between the 1430s and 1450s. Ottoman Empire_sentence_60

On 10 November 1444, Murad repelled the Crusade of Varna by defeating the Hungarian, Polish, and Wallachian armies under Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary) and John Hunyadi at the Battle of Varna, although Albanians under Skanderbeg continued to resist. Ottoman Empire_sentence_61

Four years later, John Hunyadi prepared another army of Hungarian and Wallachian forces to attack the Turks, but was again defeated at the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448. Ottoman Empire_sentence_62

Expansion and peak (1453–1566) Ottoman Empire_section_3

Main article: Growth of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_63

The son of Murad II, Mehmed the Conqueror, reorganized both state and military, and on 29 May 1453 conquered Constantinople. Ottoman Empire_sentence_64

Mehmed allowed the Orthodox Church to maintain its autonomy and land in exchange for accepting Ottoman authority. Ottoman Empire_sentence_65

Due to tension between the states of western Europe and the later Byzantine Empire, the majority of the Orthodox population accepted Ottoman rule as preferable to Venetian rule. Ottoman Empire_sentence_66

Albanian resistance was a major obstacle to Ottoman expansion on the Italian peninsula. Ottoman Empire_sentence_67

In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Ottoman Empire entered a period of expansion. Ottoman Empire_sentence_68

The Empire prospered under the rule of a line of committed and effective Sultans. Ottoman Empire_sentence_69

It also flourished economically due to its control of the major overland trade routes between Europe and Asia. Ottoman Empire_sentence_70

Sultan Selim I (1512–1520) dramatically expanded the Empire's eastern and southern frontiers by defeating Shah Ismail of Safavid Iran, in the Battle of Chaldiran. Ottoman Empire_sentence_71

Selim I established Ottoman rule in Egypt by defeating and annexing the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and created a naval presence on the Red Sea. Ottoman Empire_sentence_72

After this Ottoman expansion, competition began between the Portuguese Empire and the Ottoman Empire to become the dominant power in the region. Ottoman Empire_sentence_73

Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566) captured Belgrade in 1521, conquered the southern and central parts of the Kingdom of Hungary as part of the Ottoman–Hungarian Wars, and, after his historic victory in the Battle of Mohács in 1526, he established Ottoman rule in the territory of present-day Hungary (except the western part) and other Central European territories. Ottoman Empire_sentence_74

He then laid siege to Vienna in 1529, but failed to take the city. Ottoman Empire_sentence_75

In 1532, he made another attack on Vienna, but was repulsed in the Siege of Güns. Ottoman Empire_sentence_76

Transylvania, Wallachia and, intermittently, Moldavia, became tributary principalities of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_77

In the east, the Ottoman Turks took Baghdad from the Persians in 1535, gaining control of Mesopotamia and naval access to the Persian Gulf. Ottoman Empire_sentence_78

In 1555, the Caucasus became officially partitioned for the first time between the Safavids and the Ottomans, a status quo that would remain until the end of the Russo-Turkish War (1768–74). Ottoman Empire_sentence_79

By this partitioning of the Caucasus as signed in the Peace of Amasya, Western Armenia, western Kurdistan, and Western Georgia (incl. Ottoman Empire_sentence_80

western Samtskhe) fell into Ottoman hands, while southern Dagestan, Eastern Armenia, Eastern Georgia, and Azerbaijan remained Persian. Ottoman Empire_sentence_81

In 1539, a 60,000-strong Ottoman army besieged the Spanish garrison of Castelnuovo on the Adriatic coast; the successful siege cost the Ottomans 8,000 casualties, but Venice agreed to terms in 1540, surrendering most of its empire in the Aegean and the Morea. Ottoman Empire_sentence_82

France and the Ottoman Empire, united by mutual opposition to Habsburg rule, became strong allies. Ottoman Empire_sentence_83

The French conquests of Nice (1543) and Corsica (1553) occurred as a joint venture between the forces of the French king Francis I and Suleiman, and were commanded by the Ottoman admirals Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha and Turgut Reis. Ottoman Empire_sentence_84

A month before the siege of Nice, France supported the Ottomans with an artillery unit during the 1543 Ottoman conquest of Esztergom in northern Hungary. Ottoman Empire_sentence_85

After further advances by the Turks, the Habsburg ruler Ferdinand officially recognized Ottoman ascendancy in Hungary in 1547. Ottoman Empire_sentence_86

Suleiman I died of natural causes in his tent during the Siege of Szigetvár in 1566. Ottoman Empire_sentence_87

By the end of Suleiman's reign, the Empire spanned approximately 877,888 sq mi (2,273,720 km), extending over three continents. Ottoman Empire_sentence_88

In addition, the Empire became a dominant naval force, controlling much of the Mediterranean Sea. Ottoman Empire_sentence_89

By this time, the Ottoman Empire was a major part of the European political sphere. Ottoman Empire_sentence_90

The Ottomans became involved in multi-continental religious wars when Spain and Portugal were united under the Iberian Union, the Ottomans as holders of the Caliph title, meaning leader of all Muslims worldwide, and Iberians, as leaders of the Christian crusaders, were locked in a worldwide conflict, with zones of operations in the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean where Iberians circumnavigated Africa to reach India, and on their way, wage wars upon the Ottomans and their local Muslim allies. Ottoman Empire_sentence_91

Likewise, the Iberians passed through newly-Christianized Latin America and had sent expeditions that traversed the Pacific in order to Christianize the formerly Muslim Philippines and use it as a base to further attack the Muslims in the Far East. Ottoman Empire_sentence_92

In this case, the Ottomans sent armies to aid its easternmost vassal and territory, the Sultanate of Aceh in Southeast Asia. Ottoman Empire_sentence_93

During the 1600s the worldwide conflict between the Ottoman Caliphate and Iberian Union was a stalemate since both powers were at similar population, technology and economic levels. Ottoman Empire_sentence_94

Nevertheless, the success of the Ottoman political and military establishment was compared to the Roman Empire, by the likes of the contemporary Italian scholar Francesco Sansovino and the French political philosopher Jean Bodin. Ottoman Empire_sentence_95

Stagnation and reform (1566–1827) Ottoman Empire_section_4

Revolts, reversals, and revivals (1566–1683) Ottoman Empire_section_5

Main article: Transformation of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_96

Further information: Ottoman Decline Thesis Ottoman Empire_sentence_97

In the second half of the sixteenth century, the Ottoman Empire came under increasing strain from inflation and the rapidly rising costs of warfare that were impacting both Europe and the Middle East. Ottoman Empire_sentence_98

These pressures led to a series of crises around the year 1600, placing great strain upon the Ottoman system of government. Ottoman Empire_sentence_99

The empire underwent a series of transformations of its political and military institutions in response to these challenges, enabling it to successfully adapt to the new conditions of the seventeenth century and remain powerful, both militarily and economically. Ottoman Empire_sentence_100

Historians of the mid-twentieth century once characterized this period as one of stagnation and decline, but this view is now rejected by the majority of academics. Ottoman Empire_sentence_101

The discovery of new maritime trade routes by Western European states allowed them to avoid the Ottoman trade monopoly. Ottoman Empire_sentence_102

The Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488 initiated a series of Ottoman-Portuguese naval wars in the Indian Ocean throughout the 16th century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_103

Despite the growing European presence in the Indian Ocean, Ottoman trade with the east continued to flourish. Ottoman Empire_sentence_104

Cairo, in particular, benefitted from the rise of Yemeni coffee as a popular consumer commodity. Ottoman Empire_sentence_105

As coffeehouses appeared in cities and towns across the empire, Cairo developed into a major center for its trade, contributing to its continued prosperity throughout the seventeenth and much of the eighteenth century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_106

Under Ivan IV (1533–1584), the Tsardom of Russia expanded into the Volga and Caspian region at the expense of the Tatar khanates. Ottoman Empire_sentence_107

In 1571, the Crimean khan Devlet I Giray, commanded by the Ottomans, burned Moscow. Ottoman Empire_sentence_108

The next year, the invasion was repeated but repelled at the Battle of Molodi. Ottoman Empire_sentence_109

The Ottoman Empire continued to invade Eastern Europe in a series of slave raids, and remained a significant power in Eastern Europe until the end of the 17th century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_110

The Ottomans decided to conquer Venetian Cyprus and on 22 July 1570, Nicosia was besieged; 50,000 Christians died, and 180,000 were enslaved. Ottoman Empire_sentence_111

On 15 September 1570, the Ottoman cavalry appeared before the last Venetian stronghold in Cyprus, Famagusta. Ottoman Empire_sentence_112

The Venetian defenders would hold out for 11 months against a force that would come to number 200,000 men with 145 cannons; 163,000 cannonballs struck the walls of Famagusta before it fell to the Ottomans in August 1571. Ottoman Empire_sentence_113

The Siege of Famagusta claimed 50,000 Ottoman casualties. Ottoman Empire_sentence_114

Meanwhile, the Holy league consisting of mostly Spanish and Venetian fleets won a victory over the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto (1571), off southwestern Greece; Catholic forces killed over 30,000 Turks and destroyed 200 of their ships. Ottoman Empire_sentence_115

It was a startling, if mostly symbolic, blow to the image of Ottoman invincibility, an image which the victory of the Knights of Malta against the Ottoman invaders in the 1565 Siege of Malta had recently set about eroding. Ottoman Empire_sentence_116

The battle was far more damaging to the Ottoman navy in sapping experienced manpower than the loss of ships, which were rapidly replaced. Ottoman Empire_sentence_117

The Ottoman navy recovered quickly, persuading Venice to sign a peace treaty in 1573, allowing the Ottomans to expand and consolidate their position in North Africa. Ottoman Empire_sentence_118

By contrast, the Habsburg frontier had settled somewhat, a stalemate caused by a stiffening of the Habsburg defences . Ottoman Empire_sentence_119

The Long Turkish War against Habsburg Austria (1593–1606) created the need for greater numbers of Ottoman infantry equipped with firearms, resulting in a relaxation of recruitment policy. Ottoman Empire_sentence_120

This contributed to problems of indiscipline and outright rebelliousness within the corps, which were never fully solved. Ottoman Empire_sentence_121

Irregular sharpshooters (Sekban) were also recruited, and on demobilization turned to brigandage in the Jelali revolts (1590–1610), which engendered widespread anarchy in Anatolia in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Ottoman Empire_sentence_122

With the Empire's population reaching 30 million people by 1600, the shortage of land placed further pressure on the government. Ottoman Empire_sentence_123

In spite of these problems, the Ottoman state remained strong, and its army did not collapse or suffer crushing defeats. Ottoman Empire_sentence_124

The only exceptions were campaigns against the Safavid dynasty of Persia, where many of the Ottoman eastern provinces were lost, some permanently. Ottoman Empire_sentence_125

This 1603–1618 war eventually resulted in the Treaty of Nasuh Pasha, which ceded the entire Caucasus, except westernmost Georgia, back into Iranian Safavid possession. Ottoman Empire_sentence_126

The treaty ending the Cretan War (1645–1669) cost Venice much of Dalmatia, its Aegean island possessions, and Crete. Ottoman Empire_sentence_127

(Losses from the war totaled 30,985 Venetian soldiers and 118,754 Turkish soldiers.) Ottoman Empire_sentence_128

During his brief majority reign, Murad IV (1623–1640) reasserted central authority and recaptured Iraq (1639) from the Safavids. Ottoman Empire_sentence_129

The resulting Treaty of Zuhab of that same year decisively divided the Caucasus and adjacent regions between the two neighbouring empires as it had already been defined in the 1555 Peace of Amasya. Ottoman Empire_sentence_130

The Sultanate of women (1623–1656) was a period in which the mothers of young sultans exercised power on behalf of their sons. Ottoman Empire_sentence_131

The most prominent women of this period were Kösem Sultan and her daughter-in-law Turhan Hatice, whose political rivalry culminated in Kösem's murder in 1651. Ottoman Empire_sentence_132

During the Köprülü Era (1656–1703), effective control of the Empire was exercised by a sequence of Grand Viziers from the Köprülü family. Ottoman Empire_sentence_133

The Köprülü Vizierate saw renewed military success with authority restored in Transylvania, the conquest of Crete completed in 1669, and expansion into Polish southern Ukraine, with the strongholds of Khotyn and Kamianets-Podilskyi and the territory of Podolia ceding to Ottoman control in 1676. Ottoman Empire_sentence_134

This period of renewed assertiveness came to a calamitous end in 1683 when Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasha led a huge army to attempt a second Ottoman siege of Vienna in the Great Turkish War of 1683–1699. Ottoman Empire_sentence_135

The final assault being fatally delayed, the Ottoman forces were swept away by allied Habsburg, German, and Polish forces spearheaded by the Polish king John III Sobieski at the Battle of Vienna. Ottoman Empire_sentence_136

The alliance of the Holy League pressed home the advantage of the defeat at Vienna, culminating in the Treaty of Karlowitz (26 January 1699), which ended the Great Turkish War. Ottoman Empire_sentence_137

The Ottomans surrendered control of significant territories, many permanently. Ottoman Empire_sentence_138

Mustafa II (1695–1703) led the counterattack of 1695–96 against the Habsburgs in Hungary, but was undone at the disastrous defeat at Zenta (in modern Serbia), 11 September 1697. Ottoman Empire_sentence_139

Military defeats Ottoman Empire_section_6

Aside from the loss of the Banat and the temporary loss of Belgrade (1717–39), the Ottoman border on the Danube and Sava remained stable during the eighteenth century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_140

Russian expansion, however, presented a large and growing threat. Ottoman Empire_sentence_141

Accordingly, King Charles XII of Sweden was welcomed as an ally in the Ottoman Empire following his defeat by the Russians at the Battle of Poltava of 1709 in central Ukraine (part of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721). Ottoman Empire_sentence_142

Charles XII persuaded the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed III to declare war on Russia, which resulted in an Ottoman victory in the Pruth River Campaign of 1710–1711, in Moldavia. Ottoman Empire_sentence_143

After the Austro-Turkish War of 1716–1718, the Treaty of Passarowitz confirmed the loss of the Banat, Serbia and "Little Walachia" (Oltenia) to Austria. Ottoman Empire_sentence_144

The Treaty also revealed that the Ottoman Empire was on the defensive and unlikely to present any further aggression in Europe. Ottoman Empire_sentence_145

The Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–1739), which was ended by the Treaty of Belgrade in 1739, resulted in the recovery of Serbia and Oltenia, but the Empire lost the port of Azov, north of the Crimean Peninsula, to the Russians. Ottoman Empire_sentence_146

After this treaty the Ottoman Empire was able to enjoy a generation of peace, as Austria and Russia were forced to deal with the rise of Prussia. Ottoman Empire_sentence_147

Educational and technological reforms came about, including the establishment of higher education institutions such as the Istanbul Technical University. Ottoman Empire_sentence_148

In 1734 an artillery school was established to impart Western-style artillery methods, but the Islamic clergy successfully objected under the grounds of theodicy. Ottoman Empire_sentence_149

In 1754 the artillery school was reopened on a semi-secret basis. Ottoman Empire_sentence_150

In 1726, Ibrahim Muteferrika convinced the Grand Vizier Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha, the Grand Mufti, and the clergy on the efficiency of the printing press, and Muteferrika was later granted by Sultan Ahmed III permission to publish non-religious books (despite opposition from some calligraphers and religious leaders). Ottoman Empire_sentence_151

Muteferrika's press published its first book in 1729 and, by 1743, issued 17 works in 23 volumes, each having between 500 and 1,000 copies. Ottoman Empire_sentence_152

In Ottoman North Africa, Spain conquered Oran from the Ottoman Empire (1732). Ottoman Empire_sentence_153

The bey received an Ottoman army from Algiers, but it failed to recapture Oran; the siege caused the deaths of 1,500 Spaniards, and even more Algerians. Ottoman Empire_sentence_154

The Spanish also massacred many Muslim soldiers. Ottoman Empire_sentence_155

In 1792, Spain abandoned Oran, selling it to the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_156

In 1768 Russian-backed Ukrainian Haidamakas, pursuing Polish confederates, entered Balta, an Ottoman-controlled town on the border of Bessarabia in Ukraine, massacred its citizens, and burned the town to the ground. Ottoman Empire_sentence_157

This action provoked the Ottoman Empire into the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774. Ottoman Empire_sentence_158

The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca of 1774 ended the war and provided freedom to worship for the Christian citizens of the Ottoman-controlled provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia. Ottoman Empire_sentence_159

By the late 18th century, after a number of defeats in the wars with Russia, some people in the Ottoman Empire began to conclude that the reforms of Peter the Great had given the Russians an edge, and the Ottomans would have to keep up with Western technology in order to avoid further defeats. Ottoman Empire_sentence_160

Selim III (1789–1807) made the first major attempts to modernize the army, but his reforms were hampered by the religious leadership and the Janissary corps. Ottoman Empire_sentence_161

Jealous of their privileges and firmly opposed to change, the Janissary revolted. Ottoman Empire_sentence_162

Selim's efforts cost him his throne and his life, but were resolved in spectacular and bloody fashion by his successor, the dynamic Mahmud II, who eliminated the Janissary corps in 1826. Ottoman Empire_sentence_163

The Serbian revolution (1804–1815) marked the beginning of an era of national awakening in the Balkans during the Eastern Question. Ottoman Empire_sentence_164

In 1811, the fundamentalist Wahhabis of Arabia, led by the al-Saud family, revolted against the Ottomans. Ottoman Empire_sentence_165

Unable to defeat the Wahhabi rebels, the Sublime Porte had Mohammad Ali the Great, the vali (governor) of Egypt tasked with retaking Arabia, which ended with the destruction of the Emirate of Diriyah in 1818. Ottoman Empire_sentence_166

The Suzerainty of Serbia as a hereditary monarchy under its own dynasty was acknowledged de jure in 1830. Ottoman Empire_sentence_167

In 1821, the Greeks declared war on the Sultan. Ottoman Empire_sentence_168

A rebellion that originated in Moldavia as a diversion was followed by the main revolution in the Peloponnese, which, along with the northern part of the Gulf of Corinth, became the first parts of the Ottoman Empire to achieve independence (in 1829). Ottoman Empire_sentence_169

In 1830, the French invaded Ottoman Algeria, which was lost to the empire; between 500,000 and 1,000,000 Algerians were killed, while French forces suffered only 3,336 killed in action. Ottoman Empire_sentence_170

In 1831, Mohammad Ali revolted with the aim of making himself sultan and founding a new dynasty, and his French-trained army under his son Ibrahim Pasha defeated the Ottoman Army as it marched on Constantinople, coming within 320 km (200 mi) of the capital. Ottoman Empire_sentence_171

In desperation, the Sultan Mahmud II appealed to the empire's traditional archenemy Russia for help, asking Emperor Nicholas I to send an expeditionary force to save him. Ottoman Empire_sentence_172

In return for signing the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi, the Russians sent the expeditionary force, which deterred Ibrahim from taking Constantinople. Ottoman Empire_sentence_173

Under the terms of Peace of Kutahia, signed on 5 May 1833 Mohammad Ali agreed to abandon his claim to the throne, in exchange for which he was made the vali of the vilayets (provinces) of Crete, Aleppo, Tripoli, Damascus and Sidon (the latter four comprising modern Syria and Lebanon), and given the right to collect taxes in Adana. Ottoman Empire_sentence_174

Had it not been for the Russian intervention, it is almost certain Mahmud II would have been overthrown and Mohammad Ali would have become the new sultan, marking the beginning of a recurring pattern where the Sublime Porte needed the help of outsiders to save itself. Ottoman Empire_sentence_175

In 1839, the Sublime Porte attempted to take back what it lost to the de facto independent vilayet of Egypt, and suffered a crushing defeat, leading to the Oriental Crisis as Mohammad Ali was very close to France, and the prospect of him as Sultan was widely viewed as putting the entire empire into the French sphere of influence. Ottoman Empire_sentence_176

As the Sublime Porte had proved itself incapable of defeating the Egyptians, Britain, and Austria intervened to defeat Egypt. Ottoman Empire_sentence_177

By the mid-19th century, the Ottoman Empire was called the "sick man" by Europeans. Ottoman Empire_sentence_178

The suzerain states – the Principality of Serbia, Wallachia and Moldavia – moved towards de jure independence during the 1860s and 1870s. Ottoman Empire_sentence_179

Decline and modernization (1828–1908) Ottoman Empire_section_7

Main article: Decline of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_180

During the Tanzimat period (1839–1876), the government's series of constitutional reforms led to a fairly modern conscripted army, banking system reforms, the decriminalization of homosexuality, the replacement of religious law with secular law and guilds with modern factories. Ottoman Empire_sentence_181

The Ottoman Ministry of Post was established in Istanbul in 1840. Ottoman Empire_sentence_182

American inventor Samuel Morse received an Ottoman patent for the telegraph in 1847, which was issued by Sultan Abdülmecid who personally tested the new invention. Ottoman Empire_sentence_183

The reformist period peaked with the Constitution, called the Kanûn-u Esâsî. Ottoman Empire_sentence_184

The empire's First Constitutional era was short-lived. Ottoman Empire_sentence_185

The parliament survived for only two years before the sultan suspended it. Ottoman Empire_sentence_186

The Christian population of the empire, owing to their higher educational levels, started to pull ahead of the Muslim majority, leading to much resentment on the part of the latter. Ottoman Empire_sentence_187

In 1861, there were 571 primary and 94 secondary schools for Ottoman Christians with 140,000 pupils in total, a figure that vastly exceeded the number of Muslim children in school at the same time, who were further hindered by the amount of time spent learning Arabic and Islamic theology. Ottoman Empire_sentence_188

Author Norman Stone further suggests that the Arabic alphabet, which Turkish was written in until 1928, was very ill-suited to reflect the sounds of the Turkish language (which is a Turkic as opposed to Semitic language), which imposed a further difficulty on Turkish children. Ottoman Empire_sentence_189

In turn, the higher educational levels of the Christians allowed them to play a larger role in the economy, with the rise in prominence of groups such as the Sursock family indicative of this shift in influence. Ottoman Empire_sentence_190

In 1911, of the 654 wholesale companies in Istanbul, 528 were owned by ethnic Greeks. Ottoman Empire_sentence_191

In many cases, Christians and also Jews were able to gain protection from European consuls and citizenship, meaning they were protected from Ottoman law and not subject to the same economic regulations as their Muslim counterparts. Ottoman Empire_sentence_192

The Crimean War (1853–1856) was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_193

The financial burden of the war led the Ottoman state to issue foreign loans amounting to 5 million pounds sterling on 4 August 1854. Ottoman Empire_sentence_194

The war caused an exodus of the Crimean Tatars, about 200,000 of whom moved to the Ottoman Empire in continuing waves of emigration. Ottoman Empire_sentence_195

Toward the end of the Caucasian Wars, 90% of the Circassians were ethnically cleansed and exiled from their homelands in the Caucasus and fled to the Ottoman Empire, resulting in the settlement of 500,000 to 700,000 Circassians in Turkey. Ottoman Empire_sentence_196

Some Circassian organisations give much higher numbers, totaling 1–1.5 million deported or killed. Ottoman Empire_sentence_197

Crimean Tatar refugees in the late 19th century played an especially notable role in seeking to modernize Ottoman education and in first promoting both Pan-Turkism and a sense of Turkish nationalism. Ottoman Empire_sentence_198

In this period, the Ottoman Empire spent only small amounts of public funds on education; for example in 1860–61 only 0.2 percent of the total budget was invested in education. Ottoman Empire_sentence_199

As the Ottoman state attempted to modernize its infrastructure and army in response to threats from the outside, it also opened itself up to a different kind of threat: that of creditors. Ottoman Empire_sentence_200

Indeed, as the historian Eugene Rogan has written, "the single greatest threat to the independence of the Middle East" in the nineteenth century "was not the armies of Europe but its banks". Ottoman Empire_sentence_201

The Ottoman state, which had begun taking on debt with the Crimean War, was forced to declare bankruptcy in 1875. Ottoman Empire_sentence_202

By 1881, the Ottoman Empire agreed to have its debt controlled by an institution known as the Ottoman Public Debt Administration, a council of European men with presidency alternating between France and Britain. Ottoman Empire_sentence_203

The body controlled swaths of the Ottoman economy, and used its position to ensure that European capital continued to penetrate the empire, often to the detriment of local Ottoman interests. Ottoman Empire_sentence_204

The Ottoman bashi-bazouks brutally suppressed the Bulgarian uprising of 1876, massacring up to 100,000 people in the process. Ottoman Empire_sentence_205

The Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) ended with a decisive victory for Russia. Ottoman Empire_sentence_206

As a result, Ottoman holdings in Europe declined sharply: Bulgaria was established as an independent principality inside the Ottoman Empire; Romania achieved full independence; and Serbia and Montenegro finally gained complete independence, but with smaller territories. Ottoman Empire_sentence_207

In 1878, Austria-Hungary unilaterally occupied the Ottoman provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Novi Pazar. Ottoman Empire_sentence_208

British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli advocated for restoring the Ottoman territories on the Balkan Peninsula during the Congress of Berlin, and in return, Britain assumed the administration of Cyprus in 1878. Ottoman Empire_sentence_209

Britain later sent troops to Egypt in 1882 to put down the Urabi Revolt – Sultan Abdul Hamid II was too paranoid to mobilize his own army, fearing this would result in a coup d'état – effectively gaining control in both territories. Ottoman Empire_sentence_210

Abdul Hamid II, popularly known as "Abdul Hamid the Damned" on account of his cruelty and paranoia, was so fearful of the threat of a coup that he did not allow his army to conduct war games, lest this serve as the cover for a coup, but he did see the need for military mobilization. Ottoman Empire_sentence_211

In 1883, a German military mission under General Baron Colmar von der Goltz arrived to train the Ottoman Army, leading to the so-called "Goltz generation" of German-trained officers who were to play a notable role in the politics of the last years of the empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_212

From 1894 to 1896, between 100,000 and 300,000 Armenians living throughout the empire were killed in what became known as the Hamidian massacres. Ottoman Empire_sentence_213

In 1897 the population was 19 million, of whom 14 million (74%) were Muslim. Ottoman Empire_sentence_214

An additional 20 million lived in provinces which remained under the sultan's nominal suzerainty but were entirely outside his actual power. Ottoman Empire_sentence_215

One by one the Porte lost nominal authority. Ottoman Empire_sentence_216

They included Egypt, Tunisia, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Lebanon. Ottoman Empire_sentence_217

As the Ottoman Empire gradually shrank in size, some 7–9 million Muslims from its former territories in the Caucasus, Crimea, Balkans, and the Mediterranean islands migrated to Anatolia and Eastern Thrace. Ottoman Empire_sentence_218

After the Empire lost the First Balkan War (1912–13), it lost all its Balkan territories except East Thrace (European Turkey). Ottoman Empire_sentence_219

This resulted in around 400,000 Muslims fleeing with the retreating Ottoman armies (with many dying from cholera brought by the soldiers), and with some 400,000 non-Muslims fleeing territory still under Ottoman rule. Ottoman Empire_sentence_220

Justin McCarthy estimates that during the period 1821 to 1922, 5.5 million Muslims died in southeastern Europe, with the expulsion of 5 million. Ottoman Empire_sentence_221

Ottoman Empire_unordered_list_0

  • Ottoman Empire_item_0_0
  • Ottoman Empire_item_0_1
  • Ottoman Empire_item_0_2
  • Ottoman Empire_item_0_3

Defeat and dissolution (1908–1922) Ottoman Empire_section_8

Main articles: Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and History of the Ottoman Empire during World War I Ottoman Empire_sentence_222

Young Turk movement Ottoman Empire_section_9

The defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era, a moment of hope and promise established with the Young Turk Revolution. Ottoman Empire_sentence_223

It restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and brought in multi-party politics with a two-stage electoral system (electoral law) under the Ottoman parliament. Ottoman Empire_sentence_224

The constitution offered hope by freeing the empire's citizens to modernize the state's institutions, rejuvenate its strength, and enable it to hold its own against outside powers. Ottoman Empire_sentence_225

Its guarantee of liberties promised to dissolve inter-communal tensions and transform the empire into a more harmonious place. Ottoman Empire_sentence_226

Instead, this period became the story of the twilight struggle of the Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_227

Members of Young Turks movement who had once gone underground now established their parties. Ottoman Empire_sentence_228

Among them "Committee of Union and Progress", and "Freedom and Accord Party" were major parties. Ottoman Empire_sentence_229

On the other end of the spectrum were ethnic parties, which included Poale Zion, Al-Fatat, and Armenian national movement organized under Armenian Revolutionary Federation. Ottoman Empire_sentence_230

Profiting from the civil strife, Austria-Hungary officially annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908. Ottoman Empire_sentence_231

The last of the Ottoman censuses was performed in 1914. Ottoman Empire_sentence_232

Despite military reforms which reconstituted the Ottoman Modern Army, the Empire lost its North African territories and the Dodecanese in the Italo-Turkish War (1911) and almost all of its European territories in the Balkan Wars (1912–1913). Ottoman Empire_sentence_233

The Empire faced continuous unrest in the years leading up to World War I, including the Ottoman countercoup of 1909, the 31 March Incident and two further coups in 1912 and 1913. Ottoman Empire_sentence_234

World War I Ottoman Empire_section_10

Main articles: Ottoman entry into World War I and Ottoman Empire during World War I Ottoman Empire_sentence_235

The war began with the Ottoman surprise attack on the Russian Black Sea coast on 29 October 1914. Ottoman Empire_sentence_236

Following the attack, Russia and its allies, France and Britain declared war on the Ottomans. Ottoman Empire_sentence_237

There were several important Ottoman victories in the early years of the war, such as the Battle of Gallipoli and the Siege of Kut. Ottoman Empire_sentence_238

Armenian genocide Ottoman Empire_section_11

Main article: Armenian Genocide Ottoman Empire_sentence_239

In 1915 the Ottoman government started the extermination of its ethnic Armenian population, resulting in the death of up to 1.5 million Armenians in the Armenian Genocide. Ottoman Empire_sentence_240

The genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases: the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labor, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly and infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian desert. Ottoman Empire_sentence_241

Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, rape, and systematic massacre. Ottoman Empire_sentence_242

Large-scale massacres were also committed against the Empire's Greek and Assyrian minorities as part of the same campaign of ethnic cleansing. Ottoman Empire_sentence_243

Arab Revolt Ottoman Empire_section_12

Main articles: Middle Eastern theatre of World War I and Arab Revolt Ottoman Empire_sentence_244

The Arab Revolt began in 1916 with British support. Ottoman Empire_sentence_245

It turned the tide against the Ottomans on the Middle Eastern front, where they seemed to have the upper hand during the first two years of the war. Ottoman Empire_sentence_246

On the basis of the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence, an agreement between the British government and Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, the revolt was officially initiated at Mecca on 10 June 1916. Ottoman Empire_sentence_247

The Arab nationalist goal was to create a single unified and independent Arab state stretching from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen, which the British had promised to recognize. Ottoman Empire_sentence_248

The Sharifian Army led by Hussein and the Hashemites, with military backing from the British Egyptian Expeditionary Force, successfully fought and expelled the Ottoman military presence from much of the Hejaz and Transjordan. Ottoman Empire_sentence_249

The rebellion eventually took Damascus and set up a short-lived monarchy led by Faisal, a son of Hussein. Ottoman Empire_sentence_250

Following the Sykes-Picot Agreement, the Middle East was later partitioned by the British and French into mandate territories. Ottoman Empire_sentence_251

There was no unified Arab state, much to the anger of Arab nationalists. Ottoman Empire_sentence_252

Treaty of Sèvres and Turkish War of Independence Ottoman Empire_section_13

Defeated on every front, the Ottoman Empire signed the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918. Ottoman Empire_sentence_253

Constantinople was occupied by combined British, French, Italian, and Greek forces. Ottoman Empire_sentence_254

In May 1919, Greece also took control of the area around Smyrna (now İzmir). Ottoman Empire_sentence_255

The partition of the Ottoman Empire was finalized under the terms of the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres. Ottoman Empire_sentence_256

This treaty, as designed in the Conference of London, allowed the Sultan to retain his position and title. Ottoman Empire_sentence_257

The status of Anatolia was problematic given the occupied forces. Ottoman Empire_sentence_258

There arose a nationalist opposition in the Turkish national movement. Ottoman Empire_sentence_259

It won the Turkish War of Independence (1919–23) under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (later given the surname "Atatürk"). Ottoman Empire_sentence_260

The sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922, and the last sultan, Mehmed VI (reigned 1918–22), left the country on 17 November 1922. Ottoman Empire_sentence_261

The Republic of Turkey was established in its place on 29 October 1923, in the new capital city of Ankara. Ottoman Empire_sentence_262

The caliphate was abolished on 3 March 1924. Ottoman Empire_sentence_263

Historiographical debate on the Ottoman state Ottoman Empire_section_14

Main article: Ghaza thesis Ottoman Empire_sentence_264

Several historians such as British historian Edward Gibbon and the Greek historian Dimitri Kitzikis have argued that after the fall of Constantinople, the Ottoman state took over the machinery of the Byzantine (Roman) state and that in essence, the Ottoman Empire was a continuation of the Eastern Roman Empire under a thin Turkish Islamic guise. Ottoman Empire_sentence_265

Kitzikis called the Ottoman state "a Greek-Turkish condominium". Ottoman Empire_sentence_266

The American historian Speros Vryonis wrote that the Ottoman state was centered on "a Byzantine-Balkan base with a veneer of the Turkish language and the Islamic religion". Ottoman Empire_sentence_267

Other historians have followed the lead of the Austrian historian Paul Wittek who emphasized the Islamic character of the Ottoman state, seeing the Ottoman state as a "Jihad state" dedicated to expanding the world of Islam. Ottoman Empire_sentence_268

Many historians led in 1937 by the Turkish historian M. Fuat Koprulu championed the Ghazi thesis that saw the Ottoman state as a continuation of the way of life of the nomadic Turkic tribes who had come from East Asia to Anatolia via Central Asia and the Middle East on a much larger scale. Ottoman Empire_sentence_269

They argued that the most important cultural influences on the Ottoman state came from Persia. Ottoman Empire_sentence_270

More recently, the American historian Heath Lowry called the Ottoman state a "predatory confederacy" led in equal parts by Turks and Greeks converted to Islam. Ottoman Empire_sentence_271

The British historian Norman Stone suggested many continuities between the Eastern Roman and Ottoman empires such as the zeugarion tax of Byzantium becoming the Ottoman Resm-i çift tax, the pronoia land-holding system that linked the amount of land one owned with one's ability to raise cavalry becoming the Ottoman timar system, and the Ottoman measurement for land the dönüm was the same as the Byzantine stremma. Ottoman Empire_sentence_272

Stone also pointed out that despite the fact that Sunni Islam was the state religion, the Eastern Orthodox Church was supported and controlled by the Ottoman state, and in return to accepting that control became the largest land-holder in the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_273

Despite the similarities, Stone argued that a crucial difference was that the land grants under the timar system were not hereditary at first. Ottoman Empire_sentence_274

Even after land grants under the timar system became inheritable, land ownings in the Ottoman Empire remained highly insecure, and the sultan could and did revoke land grants whenever he wished. Ottoman Empire_sentence_275

Stone argued this insecurity in land tenure strongly discouraged Timariots from seeking long-term development of their land, and instead led the timariots to adopt a strategy of short term exploitation, which ultimately had deleterious effects on the Ottoman economy. Ottoman Empire_sentence_276

Most of the Ottoman Sultans adhered to Sufism and followed Sufi orders, and believed Sufism is the correct way to reach God. Ottoman Empire_sentence_277

Because the matters of jurisprudence and shariah were state matters, the state sponsored Sufi religious dominance came into play. Ottoman Empire_sentence_278

Non-Sufi Muslims and Arabs were neglected and not given any position in the Hejaz. Ottoman Empire_sentence_279

Government Ottoman Empire_section_15

Main article: State organisation of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_280

Before the reforms of the 19th and 20th centuries, the state organisation of the Ottoman Empire was a system with two main dimensions, the military administration, and the civil administration. Ottoman Empire_sentence_281

The Sultan was the highest position in the system. Ottoman Empire_sentence_282

The civil system was based on local administrative units based on the region's characteristics. Ottoman Empire_sentence_283

The state had control over the clergy. Ottoman Empire_sentence_284

Certain pre-Islamic Turkish traditions that had survived the adoption of administrative and legal practices from Islamic Iran remained important in Ottoman administrative circles. Ottoman Empire_sentence_285

According to Ottoman understanding, the state's primary responsibility was to defend and extend the land of the Muslims and to ensure security and harmony within its borders in the overarching context of orthodox Islamic practice and dynastic sovereignty. Ottoman Empire_sentence_286

The Ottoman Empire, or as a dynastic institution, the House of Osman, was unprecedented and unequaled in the Islamic world for its size and duration. Ottoman Empire_sentence_287

In Europe, only the House of Habsburg had a similarly unbroken line of sovereigns (kings/emperors) from the same family who ruled for so long, and during the same period, between the late 13th and early 20th centuries. Ottoman Empire_sentence_288

The Ottoman dynasty was Turkish in origin. Ottoman Empire_sentence_289

On eleven occasions, the sultan was deposed (replaced by another sultan of the Ottoman dynasty, who were either the former sultan's brother, son, or nephew) because he was perceived by his enemies as a threat to the state. Ottoman Empire_sentence_290

There were only two attempts in Ottoman history to unseat the ruling Ottoman dynasty, both failures, which suggests a political system that for an extended period was able to manage its revolutions without unnecessary instability. Ottoman Empire_sentence_291

As such, the last Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI (r. 1918–1922) was a direct patrilineal (male-line) descendant of the first Ottoman sultan Osman I (d. 1323/4), which was unparallelled in both Europe (e.g., the male line of the House of Habsburg became extinct in 1740) and in the Islamic world. Ottoman Empire_sentence_292

The primary purpose of the Imperial Harem was to ensure the birth of male heirs to the Ottoman throne and secure the continuation of the direct patrilineal (male-line) descendance of the Ottoman sultans. Ottoman Empire_sentence_293

The highest position in Islam, caliphate, was claimed by the sultans starting with Murad I, which was established as the Ottoman Caliphate. Ottoman Empire_sentence_294

The Ottoman sultan, pâdişâh or "lord of kings", served as the Empire's sole regent and was considered to be the embodiment of its government, though he did not always exercise complete control. Ottoman Empire_sentence_295

The Imperial Harem was one of the most important powers of the Ottoman court. Ottoman Empire_sentence_296

It was ruled by the Valide Sultan. Ottoman Empire_sentence_297

On occasion, the Valide Sultan would become involved in state politics. Ottoman Empire_sentence_298

For a time, the women of the Harem effectively controlled the state in what was termed the "Sultanate of Women". Ottoman Empire_sentence_299

New sultans were always chosen from the sons of the previous sultan. Ottoman Empire_sentence_300

The strong educational system of the palace school was geared towards eliminating the unfit potential heirs and establishing support among the ruling elite for a successor. Ottoman Empire_sentence_301

The palace schools, which would also educate the future administrators of the state, were not a single track. Ottoman Empire_sentence_302

First, the Madrasa (Medrese) was designated for the Muslims, and educated scholars and state officials according to Islamic tradition. Ottoman Empire_sentence_303

The financial burden of the Medrese was supported by vakifs, allowing children of poor families to move to higher social levels and income. Ottoman Empire_sentence_304

The second track was a free boarding school for the Christians, the Enderûn, which recruited 3,000 students annually from Christian boys between eight and twenty years old from one in forty families among the communities settled in Rumelia or the Balkans, a process known as Devshirme (Devşirme). Ottoman Empire_sentence_305

Though the sultan was the supreme monarch, the sultan's political and executive authority was delegated. Ottoman Empire_sentence_306

The politics of the state had a number of advisors and ministers gathered around a council known as Divan. Ottoman Empire_sentence_307

The Divan, in the years when the Ottoman state was still a Beylik, was composed of the elders of the tribe. Ottoman Empire_sentence_308

Its composition was later modified to include military officers and local elites (such as religious and political advisors). Ottoman Empire_sentence_309

Later still, beginning in 1320, a Grand Vizier was appointed to assume certain of the sultan's responsibilities. Ottoman Empire_sentence_310

The Grand Vizier had considerable independence from the sultan with almost unlimited powers of appointment, dismissal, and supervision. Ottoman Empire_sentence_311

Beginning with the late 16th century, sultans withdrew from politics and the Grand Vizier became the de facto head of state. Ottoman Empire_sentence_312

Throughout Ottoman history, there were many instances in which local governors acted independently, and even in opposition to the ruler. Ottoman Empire_sentence_313

After the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, the Ottoman state became a constitutional monarchy. Ottoman Empire_sentence_314

The sultan no longer had executive powers. Ottoman Empire_sentence_315

A parliament was formed, with representatives chosen from the provinces. Ottoman Empire_sentence_316

The representatives formed the Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_317

This eclectic administration was apparent even in the diplomatic correspondence of the Empire, which was initially undertaken in the Greek language to the west. Ottoman Empire_sentence_318

The Tughra were calligraphic monograms, or signatures, of the Ottoman Sultans, of which there were 35. Ottoman Empire_sentence_319

Carved on the Sultan's seal, they bore the names of the Sultan and his father. Ottoman Empire_sentence_320

The statement and prayer, "ever victorious", was also present in most. Ottoman Empire_sentence_321

The earliest belonged to Orhan Gazi. Ottoman Empire_sentence_322

The ornately stylized Tughra spawned a branch of Ottoman-Turkish calligraphy. Ottoman Empire_sentence_323

Law Ottoman Empire_section_16

Main article: Ottoman law Ottoman Empire_sentence_324

The Ottoman legal system accepted the religious law over its subjects. Ottoman Empire_sentence_325

At the same time the Qanun (or Kanun), a secular legal system, co-existed with religious law or Sharia. Ottoman Empire_sentence_326

The Ottoman Empire was always organized around a system of local jurisprudence. Ottoman Empire_sentence_327

Legal administration in the Ottoman Empire was part of a larger scheme of balancing central and local authority. Ottoman Empire_sentence_328

Ottoman power revolved crucially around the administration of the rights to land, which gave a space for the local authority to develop the needs of the local millet. Ottoman Empire_sentence_329

The jurisdictional complexity of the Ottoman Empire was aimed to permit the integration of culturally and religiously different groups. Ottoman Empire_sentence_330

The Ottoman system had three court systems: one for Muslims, one for non-Muslims, involving appointed Jews and Christians ruling over their respective religious communities, and the "trade court". Ottoman Empire_sentence_331

The entire system was regulated from above by means of the administrative Qanun, i.e., laws, a system based upon the Turkic Yassa and Töre, which were developed in the pre-Islamic era. Ottoman Empire_sentence_332

These court categories were not, however, wholly exclusive; for instance, the Islamic courts, which were the Empire's primary courts, could also be used to settle a trade conflict or disputes between litigants of differing religions, and Jews and Christians often went to them to obtain a more forceful ruling on an issue. Ottoman Empire_sentence_333

The Ottoman state tended not to interfere with non-Muslim religious law systems, despite legally having a voice to do so through local governors. Ottoman Empire_sentence_334

The Islamic Sharia law system had been developed from a combination of the Qur'an; the Hadīth, or words of the prophet Muhammad; ijmā', or consensus of the members of the Muslim community; qiyas, a system of analogical reasoning from earlier precedents; and local customs. Ottoman Empire_sentence_335

Both systems were taught at the Empire's law schools, which were in Istanbul and Bursa. Ottoman Empire_sentence_336

The Ottoman Islamic legal system was set up differently from traditional European courts. Ottoman Empire_sentence_337

Presiding over Islamic courts would be a Qadi, or judge. Ottoman Empire_sentence_338

Since the closing of the ijtihad, or Gate of Interpretation, Qadis throughout the Ottoman Empire focused less on legal precedent, and more with local customs and traditions in the areas that they administered. Ottoman Empire_sentence_339

However, the Ottoman court system lacked an appellate structure, leading to jurisdictional case strategies where plaintiffs could take their disputes from one court system to another until they achieved a ruling that was in their favor. Ottoman Empire_sentence_340

In the late 19th century, the Ottoman legal system saw substantial reform. Ottoman Empire_sentence_341

This process of legal modernization began with the Edict of Gülhane of 1839. Ottoman Empire_sentence_342

These reforms included the "fair and public trial[s] of all accused regardless of religion", the creation of a system of "separate competences, religious and civil", and the validation of testimony on non-Muslims. Ottoman Empire_sentence_343

Specific land codes (1858), civil codes (1869–1876), and a code of civil procedure also were enacted. Ottoman Empire_sentence_344

These reforms were based heavily on French models, as indicated by the adoption of a three-tiered court system. Ottoman Empire_sentence_345

Referred to as Nizamiye, this system was extended to the local magistrate level with the final promulgation of the Mecelle, a civil code that regulated marriage, divorce, alimony, will, and other matters of personal status. Ottoman Empire_sentence_346

In an attempt to clarify the division of judicial competences, an administrative council laid down that religious matters were to be handled by religious courts, and statute matters were to be handled by the Nizamiye courts. Ottoman Empire_sentence_347

Military Ottoman Empire_section_17

Main article: Military of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_348

The first military unit of the Ottoman State was an army that was organized by Osman I from the tribesmen inhabiting the hills of western Anatolia in the late 13th century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_349

The military system became an intricate organization with the advance of the Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_350

The Ottoman military was a complex system of recruiting and fief-holding. Ottoman Empire_sentence_351

The main corps of the Ottoman Army included Janissary, Sipahi, Akıncı and Mehterân. Ottoman Empire_sentence_352

The Ottoman army was once among the most advanced fighting forces in the world, being one of the first to use muskets and cannons. Ottoman Empire_sentence_353

The Ottoman Turks began using falconets, which were short but wide cannons, during the Siege of Constantinople. Ottoman Empire_sentence_354

The Ottoman cavalry depended on high speed and mobility rather than heavy armour, using bows and short swords on fast Turkoman and Arabian horses (progenitors of the Thoroughbred racing horse), and often applied tactics similar to those of the Mongol Empire, such as pretending to retreat while surrounding the enemy forces inside a crescent-shaped formation and then making the real attack. Ottoman Empire_sentence_355

The Ottoman army continued to be an effective fighting force throughout the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, falling behind the empire's European rivals only during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768. Ottoman Empire_sentence_356

The modernization of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century started with the military. Ottoman Empire_sentence_357

In 1826 Sultan Mahmud II abolished the Janissary corps and established the modern Ottoman army. Ottoman Empire_sentence_358

He named them as the Nizam-ı Cedid (New Order). Ottoman Empire_sentence_359

The Ottoman army was also the first institution to hire foreign experts and send its officers for training in western European countries. Ottoman Empire_sentence_360

Consequently, the Young Turks movement began when these relatively young and newly trained men returned with their education. Ottoman Empire_sentence_361

The Ottoman Navy vastly contributed to the expansion of the Empire's territories on the European continent. Ottoman Empire_sentence_362

It initiated the conquest of North Africa, with the addition of Algeria and Egypt to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Ottoman Empire_sentence_363

Starting with the loss of Greece in 1821 and Algeria in 1830, Ottoman naval power and control over the Empire's distant overseas territories began to decline. Ottoman Empire_sentence_364

Sultan Abdülaziz (reigned 1861–1876) attempted to reestablish a strong Ottoman navy, building the largest fleet after those of Britain and France. Ottoman Empire_sentence_365

The shipyard at Barrow, England, built its first submarine in 1886 for the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_366

However, the collapsing Ottoman economy could not sustain the fleet's strength for long. Ottoman Empire_sentence_367

Sultan Abdülhamid II distrusted the admirals who sided with the reformist Midhat Pasha and claimed that the large and expensive fleet was of no use against the Russians during the Russo-Turkish War. Ottoman Empire_sentence_368

He locked most of the fleet inside the Golden Horn, where the ships decayed for the next 30 years. Ottoman Empire_sentence_369

Following the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, the Committee of Union and Progress sought to develop a strong Ottoman naval force. Ottoman Empire_sentence_370

The Ottoman Navy Foundation was established in 1910 to buy new ships through public donations. Ottoman Empire_sentence_371

The establishment of Ottoman military aviation dates back to between June 1909 and July 1911. Ottoman Empire_sentence_372

The Ottoman Empire started preparing its first pilots and planes, and with the founding of the Aviation School (Tayyare Mektebi) in Yeşilköy on 3 July 1912, the Empire began to tutor its own flight officers. Ottoman Empire_sentence_373

The founding of the Aviation School quickened advancement in the military aviation program, increased the number of enlisted persons within it, and gave the new pilots an active role in the Ottoman Army and Navy. Ottoman Empire_sentence_374

In May 1913, the world's first specialized Reconnaissance Training Program was started by the Aviation School, and the first separate reconnaissance division was established. Ottoman Empire_sentence_375

In June 1914 a new military academy, the Naval Aviation School (Bahriye Tayyare Mektebi) was founded. Ottoman Empire_sentence_376

With the outbreak of World War I, the modernization process stopped abruptly. Ottoman Empire_sentence_377

The Ottoman aviation squadrons fought on many fronts during World War I, from Galicia in the west to the Caucasus in the east and Yemen in the south. Ottoman Empire_sentence_378

Administrative divisions Ottoman Empire_section_18

Main article: Administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_379

The Ottoman Empire was first subdivided into provinces, in the sense of fixed territorial units with governors appointed by the sultan, in the late 14th century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_380

The Eyalet (also Pashalik or Beylerbeylik) was the territory of office of a Beylerbey ("lord of lords" or governor), and was further subdivided in Sanjaks. Ottoman Empire_sentence_381

The Vilayets were introduced with the promulgation of the "Vilayet Law" (Teskil-i Vilayet Nizamnamesi) in 1864, as part of the Tanzimat reforms. Ottoman Empire_sentence_382

Unlike the previous eyalet system, the 1864 law established a hierarchy of administrative units: the vilayet, liva/sanjak, kaza and village council, to which the 1871 Vilayet Law added the nabiye. Ottoman Empire_sentence_383

Economy Ottoman Empire_section_19

Main article: Economic history of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_384

Ottoman government deliberately pursued a policy for the development of Bursa, Edirne, and Istanbul, successive Ottoman capitals, into major commercial and industrial centres, considering that merchants and artisans were indispensable in creating a new metropolis. Ottoman Empire_sentence_385

To this end, Mehmed and his successor Bayezid, also encouraged and welcomed migration of the Jews from different parts of Europe, who were settled in Istanbul and other port cities like Salonica. Ottoman Empire_sentence_386

In many places in Europe, Jews were suffering persecution at the hands of their Christian counterparts, such as in Spain, after the conclusion of Reconquista. Ottoman Empire_sentence_387

The tolerance displayed by the Turks was welcomed by the immigrants. Ottoman Empire_sentence_388

The Ottoman economic mind was closely related to the basic concepts of state and society in the Middle East in which the ultimate goal of a state was consolidation and extension of the ruler's power, and the way to reach it was to get rich resources of revenues by making the productive classes prosperous. Ottoman Empire_sentence_389

The ultimate aim was to increase the state revenues without damaging the prosperity of subjects to prevent the emergence of social disorder and to keep the traditional organization of the society intact. Ottoman Empire_sentence_390

The Ottoman economy greatly expanded during the early modern period, with particularly high growth rates during the first half of the eighteenth century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_391

The empire's annual income quadrupled between 1523 and 1748, adjusted for inflation. Ottoman Empire_sentence_392

The organization of the treasury and chancery were developed under the Ottoman Empire more than any other Islamic government and, until the 17th century, they were the leading organization among all their contemporaries. Ottoman Empire_sentence_393

This organization developed a scribal bureaucracy (known as "men of the pen") as a distinct group, partly highly trained ulama, which developed into a professional body. Ottoman Empire_sentence_394

The effectiveness of this professional financial body stands behind the success of many great Ottoman statesmen. Ottoman Empire_sentence_395

Modern Ottoman studies indicate that the change in relations between the Ottoman Turks and central Europe was caused by the opening of the new sea routes. Ottoman Empire_sentence_396

It is possible to see the decline in the significance of the land routes to the East as Western Europe opened the ocean routes that bypassed the Middle East and Mediterranean as parallel to the decline of the Ottoman Empire itself. Ottoman Empire_sentence_397

The Anglo-Ottoman Treaty, also known as the Treaty of Balta Liman that opened the Ottoman markets directly to English and French competitors, would be seen as one of the staging posts along this development. Ottoman Empire_sentence_398

By developing commercial centres and routes, encouraging people to extend the area of cultivated land in the country and international trade through its dominions, the state performed basic economic functions in the Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_399

But in all this, the financial and political interests of the state were dominant. Ottoman Empire_sentence_400

Within the social and political system they were living in, Ottoman administrators could not see the desirability of the dynamics and principles of the capitalist and mercantile economies developing in Western Europe. Ottoman Empire_sentence_401

Economic historian Paul Bairoch argues that free trade contributed to deindustrialization in the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_402

In contrast to the protectionism of China, Japan, and Spain, the Ottoman Empire had a liberal trade policy, open to foreign imports. Ottoman Empire_sentence_403

This has origins in capitulations of the Ottoman Empire, dating back to the first commercial treaties signed with France in 1536 and taken further with capitulations in 1673 and 1740, which lowered duties to 3% for imports and exports. Ottoman Empire_sentence_404

The liberal Ottoman policies were praised by British economists, such as J. Ottoman Empire_sentence_405 R. McCulloch in his Dictionary of Commerce (1834), but later criticized by British politicians such as Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, who cited the Ottoman Empire as "an instance of the injury done by unrestrained competition" in the 1846 Corn Laws debate. Ottoman Empire_sentence_406

Demographics Ottoman Empire_section_20

Main article: Demographics of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_407

A population estimate for the empire of 11,692,480 for the 1520–1535 period was obtained by counting the households in Ottoman tithe registers, and multiplying this number by 5. Ottoman Empire_sentence_408

For unclear reasons, the population in the 18th century was lower than that in the 16th century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_409

An estimate of 7,230,660 for the first census held in 1831 is considered a serious undercount, as this census was meant only to register possible conscripts. Ottoman Empire_sentence_410

Censuses of Ottoman territories only began in the early 19th century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_411

Figures from 1831 onwards are available as official census results, but the censuses did not cover the whole population. Ottoman Empire_sentence_412

For example, the 1831 census only counted men and did not cover the whole empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_413

For earlier periods estimates of size and distribution of the population are based on observed demographic patterns. Ottoman Empire_sentence_414

However, it began to rise to reach 25–32 million by 1800, with around 10 million in the European provinces (primarily in the Balkans), 11 million in the Asiatic provinces, and around 3 million in the African provinces. Ottoman Empire_sentence_415

Population densities were higher in the European provinces, double those in Anatolia, which in turn were triple the population densities of Iraq and Syria and five times the population density of Arabia. Ottoman Empire_sentence_416

Towards the end of the empire's existence life expectancy was 49 years, compared to the mid-twenties in Serbia at the beginning of the 19th century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_417

Epidemic diseases and famine caused major disruption and demographic changes. Ottoman Empire_sentence_418

In 1785 around one-sixth of the Egyptian population died from plague and Aleppo saw its population reduced by twenty percent in the 18th century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_419

Six famines hit Egypt alone between 1687 and 1731 and the last famine to hit Anatolia was four decades later. Ottoman Empire_sentence_420

The rise of port cities saw the clustering of populations caused by the development of steamships and railroads. Ottoman Empire_sentence_421

Urbanization increased from 1700 to 1922, with towns and cities growing. Ottoman Empire_sentence_422

Improvements in health and sanitation made them more attractive to live and work in. Ottoman Empire_sentence_423

Port cities like Salonica, in Greece, saw its population rise from 55,000 in 1800 to 160,000 in 1912 and İzmir which had a population of 150,000 in 1800 grew to 300,000 by 1914. Ottoman Empire_sentence_424

Some regions conversely had population falls—Belgrade saw its population drop from 25,000 to 8,000 mainly due to political strife. Ottoman Empire_sentence_425

Economic and political migrations made an impact across the empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_426

For example, the Russian and Austria-Habsburg annexation of the Crimean and Balkan regions respectively saw large influxes of Muslim refugees—200,000 Crimean Tartars fleeing to Dobruja. Ottoman Empire_sentence_427

Between 1783 and 1913, approximately 5–7 million refugees flooded into the Ottoman Empire, at least 3.8 million of whom were from Russia. Ottoman Empire_sentence_428

Some migrations left indelible marks such as political tension between parts of the empire (e.g., Turkey and Bulgaria), whereas centrifugal effects were noticed in other territories, simpler demographics emerging from diverse populations. Ottoman Empire_sentence_429

Economies were also impacted with the loss of artisans, merchants, manufacturers and agriculturists. Ottoman Empire_sentence_430

Since the 19th century, a large proportion of Muslim peoples from the Balkans emigrated to present-day Turkey. Ottoman Empire_sentence_431

These people are called Muhacir. Ottoman Empire_sentence_432

By the time the Ottoman Empire came to an end in 1922, half of the urban population of Turkey was descended from Muslim refugees from Russia. Ottoman Empire_sentence_433

Language Ottoman Empire_section_21

Main article: Languages of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_434

Ottoman Turkish was the official language of the Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_435

It was an Oghuz Turkic language highly influenced by Persian and Arabic. Ottoman Empire_sentence_436

The Ottomans had several influential languages: Turkish, spoken by the majority of the people in Anatolia and by the majority of Muslims of the Balkans except in Albania and Bosnia; Persian, only spoken by the educated; Arabic, spoken mainly in Egypt, the Levant, Arabia, Iraq, North Africa, Kuwait and parts of the Horn of Africa and Berber in North Africa. Ottoman Empire_sentence_437

In the last two centuries, usage of these became limited, though, and specific: Persian served mainly as a literary language for the educated, while Arabic was used for Islamic prayers. Ottoman Empire_sentence_438

Turkish, in its Ottoman variation, was a language of military and administration since the nascent days of the Ottomans. Ottoman Empire_sentence_439

The Ottoman constitution of 1876 did officially cement the official imperial status of Turkish. Ottoman Empire_sentence_440

In the post-Tanzimat period French became the common Western language among the educated. Ottoman Empire_sentence_441

Because of a low literacy rate among the public (about 2–3% until the early 19th century and just about 15% at the end of the 19th century), ordinary people had to hire scribes as "special request-writers" (arzuhâlcis) to be able to communicate with the government. Ottoman Empire_sentence_442

The ethnic groups continued to speak within their families and neighborhoods (mahalles) with their own languages (e.g., Jews, Greeks, Armenians, etc.). Ottoman Empire_sentence_443

In villages where two or more populations lived together, the inhabitants would often speak each other's language. Ottoman Empire_sentence_444

In cosmopolitan cities, people often spoke their family languages; many of those who were not ethnic Turks spoke Turkish as a second language. Ottoman Empire_sentence_445

Religion Ottoman Empire_section_22

See also: Millet (Ottoman Empire) Ottoman Empire_sentence_446

In the Ottoman imperial system, even though there existed a hegemonic power of Muslim control over the non-Muslim populations, non-Muslim communities had been granted state recognition and protection in the Islamic tradition. Ottoman Empire_sentence_447

The officially accepted state Dīn (Madh'hab) of the Ottomans was Sunni (Hanafi jurisprudence). Ottoman Empire_sentence_448

Until the second half of the 15th century, the empire had a Christian majority, under the rule of a Muslim minority. Ottoman Empire_sentence_449

In the late 19th century, the non-Muslim population of the empire began to fall considerably, not only due to secession, but also because of migratory movements. Ottoman Empire_sentence_450

The proportion of Muslims amounted to 60% in the 1820s, gradually increasing to 69% in the 1870s and then to 76% in the 1890s. Ottoman Empire_sentence_451

By 1914, only 19.1% of the empire's population was non-Muslim, mostly made up of Jews and Christian Greeks, Assyrians, and Armenians. Ottoman Empire_sentence_452

Islam Ottoman Empire_section_23

Main articles: Islam in the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Caliphate, and Ottoman persecution of Alevis Ottoman Empire_sentence_453

See also: Islam in Turkey Ottoman Empire_sentence_454

Turkic peoples practiced a variety of shamanism before adopting Islam. Ottoman Empire_sentence_455

Abbasid influence in Central Asia was ensured through a process that was greatly facilitated by the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana. Ottoman Empire_sentence_456

Many of the various Turkic tribes—including the Oghuz Turks, who were the ancestors of both the Seljuks and the Ottomans—gradually converted to Islam, and brought the religion with them to Anatolia beginning in the 11th century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_457

Since the founding of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottomans followed the Maturidi creed (school of Islamic theology) and the Hanafi madhab (school of Islamic jurisprudence). Ottoman Empire_sentence_458

Muslim sects regarded as heretical, such as the Druze, Ismailis, Alevis, and Alawites, ranked below Jews and Christians. Ottoman Empire_sentence_459

Druze have been persecuted by Ottomans, and Ottomans have often relied on Ibn Taymiyya religious ruling to justify their persecution of Druze. Ottoman Empire_sentence_460

In 1514, Sultan Selim I ordered the massacre of 40,000 Anatolian Alevis (Qizilbash), whom he considered a fifth column for the rival Safavid empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_461

Selim was also responsible for an unprecedented and rapid expansion of the Ottoman Empire into the Middle East, especially through his conquest of the entire Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Ottoman Empire_sentence_462

With these conquests, Selim further solidified the Ottoman claim for being an Islamic caliphate, although Ottoman sultans had been claiming the title of caliph since the 14th century starting with Murad I (reigned 1362 to 1389). Ottoman Empire_sentence_463

The caliphate would remain held by Ottoman sultans for the rest of the office's duration, which ended with its abolition on 3 March 1924 by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and the exile of the last caliph, Abdülmecid II, to France. Ottoman Empire_sentence_464

Christianity and Judaism Ottoman Empire_section_24

Main articles: Christianity in the Ottoman Empire and History of the Jews in the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_465

In the Ottoman Empire, in accordance with the Muslim dhimmi system, Christians were guaranteed limited freedoms (such as the right to worship). Ottoman Empire_sentence_466

They were forbidden to carry weapons or ride on horseback; their houses could not overlook those of Muslims, in addition to various other legal limitations. Ottoman Empire_sentence_467

Many Christians and Jews converted in order to secure full status in the society. Ottoman Empire_sentence_468

Most, however, continued to practice their old religions without restriction. Ottoman Empire_sentence_469

Under the millet system, non-Muslim people were considered subjects of the Empire but were not subject to the Muslim faith or Muslim law. Ottoman Empire_sentence_470

The Orthodox millet, for instance, was still officially legally subject to Justinian's Code, which had been in effect in the Byzantine Empire for 900 years. Ottoman Empire_sentence_471

Also, as the largest group of non-Muslim subjects (or dhimmi) of the Islamic Ottoman state, the Orthodox millet was granted a number of special privileges in the fields of politics and commerce, and had to pay higher taxes than Muslim subjects. Ottoman Empire_sentence_472

Similar millets were established for the Ottoman Jewish community, who were under the authority of the Haham Başı or Ottoman Chief Rabbi; the Armenian Apostolic community, who were under the authority of a head bishop; and a number of other religious communities as well. Ottoman Empire_sentence_473

Some argue that the millet system is an example of pre-modern religious pluralism. Ottoman Empire_sentence_474

Social-political-religious structure Ottoman Empire_section_25

See also: Rayah Ottoman Empire_sentence_475

Society, government and religion was inter-related in complex ways after about 1800, in a complex overlapping, inefficient system that Atatürk systematically dismantled after 1922. Ottoman Empire_sentence_476

In Constantinople, the Sultan ruled two distinct domains: the secular government and the religious hierarchy. Ottoman Empire_sentence_477

Religious officials formed the Ulama, who had control of religious teachings and theology, and also the Empire's judicial system, giving them a major voice in day-to-day affairs in communities across the Empire (but not including the non-Muslim millets). Ottoman Empire_sentence_478

They were powerful enough to reject the military reforms proposed by Sultan Selim III. Ottoman Empire_sentence_479

His successor Sultan Mahmud II (r. 1808–1839) first won ulama approval before proposing similar reforms. Ottoman Empire_sentence_480

The secularization program brought by Atatürk ended the ulema and their institutions. Ottoman Empire_sentence_481

The caliphate was abolished, madrasas were closed down, and the sharia courts abolished. Ottoman Empire_sentence_482

He replaced the Arabic alphabet with Latin letters, ended the religious school system, and gave women some political rights. Ottoman Empire_sentence_483

Many rural traditionalists never accepted this secularization, and by the 1990s they were reasserting a demand for a larger role for Islam. Ottoman Empire_sentence_484

The Janissaries were a highly formidable military unit in the early years, but as Western Europe modernized its military organization technology, the Janissaries became a reactionary force that resisted all change. Ottoman Empire_sentence_485

Steadily the Ottoman military power became outdated, but when the Janissaries felt their privileges were being threatened, or outsiders wanted to modernize them, or they might be superseded by the cavalrymen, they rose in rebellion. Ottoman Empire_sentence_486

The rebellions were highly violent on both sides, but by the time the Janissaries were suppressed, it was far too late for Ottoman military power to catch up with the West. Ottoman Empire_sentence_487

The political system was transformed by the destruction of the Janissaries in the Auspicious Incident of 1826, who were a very powerful military/governmental/police force that revolted. Ottoman Empire_sentence_488

Sultan Mahmud II crushed the revolt, executed the leaders, and disbanded the large organization. Ottoman Empire_sentence_489

That set the stage for a slow process of modernization of government functions, as the government sought, with mixed success, to adopt the main elements of Western bureaucracy and military technology. Ottoman Empire_sentence_490

The Janissaries had been recruited from Christians and other minorities; their abolition enabled the emergence of a Turkish elite to control the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_491

The problem was that the Turkish element was very poorly educated, lacking higher schools of any sort, and locked into a Turkish language that used the Arabic alphabet that inhibited wider learning. Ottoman Empire_sentence_492

The large number of ethnic and religious minorities were tolerated in their own separate segregated domains called millets. Ottoman Empire_sentence_493

They were primarily Greek, Armenian, or Jewish. Ottoman Empire_sentence_494

In each locality, they governed themselves, spoke their own language, ran their own schools, cultural and religious institutions, and paid somewhat higher taxes. Ottoman Empire_sentence_495

They had no power outside the millet. Ottoman Empire_sentence_496

The Imperial government protected them and prevented major violent clashes between ethnic groups. Ottoman Empire_sentence_497

However, the millets showed very little loyalty to the Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_498

Ethnic nationalism, based on distinctive religion and language, provided a centripetal force that eventually destroyed the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_499

In addition, Muslim ethnic groups, which were not part of the millett system, especially the Arabs and the Kurds, were outside the Turkish culture and developed their own separate nationalism. Ottoman Empire_sentence_500

The British sponsored Arab nationalism in the First World War, promising an independent Arab state in return for Arab support. Ottoman Empire_sentence_501

Most Arabs supported the Sultan, but those near Mecca believed in and supported the British promise. Ottoman Empire_sentence_502

At the local level, power was held beyond the control of the Sultan by the "ayan" or local notables. Ottoman Empire_sentence_503

The ayan collected taxes, formed local armies to compete with other notables, took a reactionary attitude toward political or economic change, and often defied policies handed down by the Sultan. Ottoman Empire_sentence_504

The economic system made little progress. Ottoman Empire_sentence_505

Printing was forbidden until the 18th century, for fear of defiling the secret documents of Islam. Ottoman Empire_sentence_506

The millets, however, were allowed their own presses, using Greek, Hebrew, Armenian and other languages that greatly facilitated nationalism. Ottoman Empire_sentence_507

The religious prohibition on charging interest foreclosed most of the entrepreneurial skills among Muslims, although it did flourish among the Jews and Christians. Ottoman Empire_sentence_508

After the 18th century, the Ottoman Empire was clearly shrinking, as Russia put on heavy pressure and expanded to its south; Egypt became effectively independent in 1805, and the British later took it over, along with Cyprus. Ottoman Empire_sentence_509

Greece became independent, and Serbia and other Balkan areas became highly restive as the force of nationalism pushed against imperialism. Ottoman Empire_sentence_510

The French took over Algeria and Tunisia. Ottoman Empire_sentence_511

The Europeans all thought that the empire was a sick man in rapid decline. Ottoman Empire_sentence_512

Only the Germans seemed helpful, and their support led to the Ottoman Empire joining the central powers in 1915, with the end result that they came out as one of the heaviest losers of the First World War in 1918. Ottoman Empire_sentence_513

Culture Ottoman Empire_section_26

Main article: Culture of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_514

The Ottomans absorbed some of the traditions, art, and institutions of cultures in the regions they conquered and added new dimensions to them. Ottoman Empire_sentence_515

Numerous traditions and cultural traits of previous empires (In fields such as architecture, cuisine, music, leisure, and government) were adopted by the Ottoman Turks, who developed them into new forms, resulting in a new and distinctively Ottoman cultural identity. Ottoman Empire_sentence_516

Despite newer added amalgamations, the Ottoman dynasty, like their predecessors in the Sultanate of Rum and the Seljuk Empire, were thoroughly Persianised in their culture, language, habits, and customs, and therefore the empire has been described as a Persianate empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_517

Intercultural marriages also played a part in creating the characteristic Ottoman elite culture. Ottoman Empire_sentence_518

When compared to the Turkish folk culture, the influence of these new cultures in creating the culture of the Ottoman elite was clear. Ottoman Empire_sentence_519

Slavery was a part of Ottoman society, with most slaves employed as domestic servants. Ottoman Empire_sentence_520

Agricultural slavery, such as that which was widespread in the Americas, was relatively rare. Ottoman Empire_sentence_521

Unlike systems of chattel slavery, slaves under Islamic law were not regarded as movable property, but maintained basic, though limited, rights. Ottoman Empire_sentence_522

This gave them a degree of protection against abuse. Ottoman Empire_sentence_523

Female slaves were still sold in the Empire as late as 1908. Ottoman Empire_sentence_524

During the 19th century the Empire came under pressure from Western European countries to outlaw the practice. Ottoman Empire_sentence_525

Policies developed by various Sultans throughout the 19th century attempted to curtail the Ottoman slave trade but slavery had centuries of religious backing and sanction and so slavery was never abolished in the Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_526

Plague remained a major scourge in Ottoman society until the second quarter of the 19th century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_527

"Between 1701 and 1750, 37 larger and smaller plague epidemics were recorded in Istanbul, and 31 between 1751 and 1801." Ottoman Empire_sentence_528

Ottomans adopted Persian bureaucratic traditions and culture. Ottoman Empire_sentence_529

The sultans also made an important contribution in the development of Persian literature. Ottoman Empire_sentence_530

Education Ottoman Empire_section_27

Main article: Education in the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_531

In the Ottoman Empire, each millet established a schooling system serving its members. Ottoman Empire_sentence_532

Education, therefore, was largely divided on ethnic and religious lines: few non-Muslims attended schools for Muslim students and vice versa. Ottoman Empire_sentence_533

Most institutions that did serve all ethnic and religious groups taught in French or other languages. Ottoman Empire_sentence_534

Literature Ottoman Empire_section_28

Main article: Ottoman literature Ottoman Empire_sentence_535

The two primary streams of Ottoman written literature are poetry and prose. Ottoman Empire_sentence_536

Poetry was by far the dominant stream. Ottoman Empire_sentence_537

Until the 19th century, Ottoman prose did not contain any examples of fiction: there were no counterparts to, for instance, the European romance, short story, or novel. Ottoman Empire_sentence_538

Analogue genres did exist, though, in both Turkish folk literature and in Divan poetry. Ottoman Empire_sentence_539

Ottoman Divan poetry was a highly ritualized and symbolic art form. Ottoman Empire_sentence_540

From the Persian poetry that largely inspired it, it inherited a wealth of symbols whose meanings and interrelationships—both of similitude (مراعات نظير mura'ât-i nazîr / تناسب tenâsüb) and opposition (تضاد tezâd) were more or less prescribed. Ottoman Empire_sentence_541

Divan poetry was composed through the constant juxtaposition of many such images within a strict metrical framework, thus allowing numerous potential meanings to emerge. Ottoman Empire_sentence_542

The vast majority of Divan poetry was lyric in nature: either gazels (which make up the greatest part of the repertoire of the tradition), or kasîdes. Ottoman Empire_sentence_543

There were, however, other common genres, most particularly the mesnevî, a kind of verse romance and thus a variety of narrative poetry; the two most notable examples of this form are the Leyli and Majnun of Fuzûlî and the Hüsn ü Aşk of Şeyh Gâlib. Ottoman Empire_sentence_544

Until the 19th century, Ottoman prose did not develop to the extent that contemporary Divan poetry did. Ottoman Empire_sentence_545

A large part of the reason for this was that much prose was expected to adhere to the rules of sec (سجع, also transliterated as seci), or rhymed prose, a type of writing descended from the Arabic saj' and which prescribed that between each adjective and noun in a string of words, such as a sentence, there must be a rhyme. Ottoman Empire_sentence_546

Nevertheless, there was a tradition of prose in the literature of the time, though exclusively non-fictional in nature. Ottoman Empire_sentence_547

One apparent exception was Muhayyelât ("Fancies") by Giritli Ali Aziz Efendi, a collection of stories of the fantastic written in 1796, though not published until 1867. Ottoman Empire_sentence_548

The first novel published in the Ottoman Empire was by an Armenian named Vartan Pasha. Ottoman Empire_sentence_549

Published in 1851, the novel was entitled The Story of Akabi (Turkish: Akabi Hikyayesi) and was written in Turkish but with Armenian script. Ottoman Empire_sentence_550

Due to historically close ties with France, French literature came to constitute the major Western influence on Ottoman literature throughout the latter half of the 19th century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_551

As a result, many of the same movements prevalent in France during this period also had their Ottoman equivalents; in the developing Ottoman prose tradition, for instance, the influence of Romanticism can be seen during the Tanzimat period, and that of the Realist and Naturalist movements in subsequent periods; in the poetic tradition, on the other hand, it was the influence of the Symbolist and Parnassian movements that became paramount. Ottoman Empire_sentence_552

Many of the writers in the Tanzimat period wrote in several different genres simultaneously; for instance, the poet Namık Kemal also wrote the important 1876 novel İntibâh ("Awakening"), while the journalist İbrahim Şinasi is noted for writing, in 1860, the first modern Turkish play, the one-act comedy "Şair Evlenmesi" ("The Poet's Marriage"). Ottoman Empire_sentence_553

An earlier play, a farce entitled "Vakâyi'-i 'Acibe ve Havâdis-i Garibe-yi Kefşger Ahmed" ("The Strange Events and Bizarre Occurrences of the Cobbler Ahmed"), dates from the beginning of the 19th century, but there remains some doubt about its authenticity. Ottoman Empire_sentence_554

In a similar vein, the novelist Ahmed Midhat Efendi wrote important novels in each of the major movements: Romanticism (Hasan Mellâh yâhud Sırr İçinde Esrâr, 1873; "Hasan the Sailor, or The Mystery Within the Mystery"), Realism (Henüz on Yedi Yaşında, 1881; "Just Seventeen Years Old"), and Naturalism (Müşâhedât, 1891; "Observations"). Ottoman Empire_sentence_555

This diversity was, in part, due to the Tanzimat writers' wish to disseminate as much of the new literature as possible, in the hopes that it would contribute to a revitalization of Ottoman social structures. Ottoman Empire_sentence_556

Media Ottoman Empire_section_29

Main article: Media of the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_557

Architecture Ottoman Empire_section_30

Main article: Ottoman architecture Ottoman Empire_sentence_558

Ottoman architecture was influenced by Persian, Byzantine Greek and Islamic architectures. Ottoman Empire_sentence_559

During the Rise period (The early or first Ottoman architecture period), Ottoman art was in search of new ideas. Ottoman Empire_sentence_560

The growth period of the Empire became the classical period of architecture when Ottoman art was at its most confident. Ottoman Empire_sentence_561

During the years of the Stagnation period, Ottoman architecture moved away from this style, however. Ottoman Empire_sentence_562

During the Tulip Era, it was under the influence of the highly ornamented styles of Western Europe; Baroque, Rococo, Empire and other styles intermingled. Ottoman Empire_sentence_563

Concepts of Ottoman architecture concentrate mainly on the mosque. Ottoman Empire_sentence_564

The mosque was integral to society, city planning, and communal life. Ottoman Empire_sentence_565

Besides the mosque, it is also possible to find good examples of Ottoman architecture in soup kitchens, theological schools, hospitals, Turkish baths, and tombs. Ottoman Empire_sentence_566

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Examples of Ottoman architecture of the classical period, besides Istanbul and Edirne, can also be seen in Egypt, Eritrea, Tunisia, Algiers, the Balkans, and Romania, where mosques, bridges, fountains, and schools were built. Ottoman Empire_sentence_567

The art of Ottoman decoration developed with a multitude of influences due to the wide ethnic range of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire_sentence_568

The greatest of the court artists enriched the Ottoman Empire with many pluralistic artistic influences, such as mixing traditional Byzantine art with elements of Chinese art. Ottoman Empire_sentence_569

Decorative arts Ottoman Empire_section_31

The tradition of Ottoman miniatures, painted to illustrate manuscripts or used in dedicated albums, was heavily influenced by the Persian art form, though it also included elements of the Byzantine tradition of illumination and painting. Ottoman Empire_sentence_570

A Greek academy of painters, the Nakkashane-i-Rum, was established in the Topkapi Palace in the 15th century, while early in the following century a similar Persian academy, the Nakkashane-i-Irani, was added. Ottoman Empire_sentence_571

Ottoman illumination covers non-figurative painted or drawn decorative art in books or on sheets in muraqqa or albums, as opposed to the figurative images of the Ottoman miniature. Ottoman Empire_sentence_572

It was a part of the Ottoman Book Arts together with the Ottoman miniature (taswir), calligraphy (hat), Islamic calligraphy, bookbinding (cilt) and paper marbling (ebru). Ottoman Empire_sentence_573

In the Ottoman Empire, illuminated and illustrated manuscripts were commissioned by the Sultan or the administrators of the court. Ottoman Empire_sentence_574

In Topkapi Palace, these manuscripts were created by the artists working in Nakkashane, the atelier of the miniature and illumination artists. Ottoman Empire_sentence_575

Both religious and non-religious books could be illuminated. Ottoman Empire_sentence_576

Also, sheets for albums levha consisted of illuminated calligraphy (hat) of tughra, religious texts, verses from poems or proverbs, and purely decorative drawings. Ottoman Empire_sentence_577

The art of carpet weaving was particularly significant in the Ottoman Empire, carpets having an immense importance both as decorative furnishings, rich in religious and other symbolism and as a practical consideration, as it was customary to remove one's shoes in living quarters. Ottoman Empire_sentence_578

The weaving of such carpets originated in the nomadic cultures of central Asia (carpets being an easily transportable form of furnishing), and eventually spread to the settled societies of Anatolia. Ottoman Empire_sentence_579

Turks used carpets, rugs, and kilims not just on the floors of a room but also as a hanging on walls and doorways, where they provided additional insulation. Ottoman Empire_sentence_580

They were also commonly donated to mosques, which often amassed large collections of them. Ottoman Empire_sentence_581

Music and performing arts Ottoman Empire_section_32

Ottoman classical music was an important part of the education of the Ottoman elite. Ottoman Empire_sentence_582

A number of the Ottoman sultans were accomplished musicians and composers themselves, such as Selim III, whose compositions are often still performed today. Ottoman Empire_sentence_583

Ottoman classical music arose largely from a confluence of Byzantine music, Armenian music, Arabic music, and Persian music. Ottoman Empire_sentence_584

Compositionally, it is organised around rhythmic units called usul, which are somewhat similar to meter in Western music, and melodic units called makam, which bear some resemblance to Western musical modes. Ottoman Empire_sentence_585

The instruments used are a mixture of Anatolian and Central Asian instruments (the saz, the bağlama, the kemence), other Middle Eastern instruments (the ud, the tanbur, the kanun, the ney), and—later in the tradition—Western instruments (the violin and the piano). Ottoman Empire_sentence_586

Because of a geographic and cultural divide between the capital and other areas, two broadly distinct styles of music arose in the Ottoman Empire: Ottoman classical music and folk music. Ottoman Empire_sentence_587

In the provinces, several different kinds of folk music were created. Ottoman Empire_sentence_588

The most dominant regions with their distinguished musical styles are Balkan-Thracian Türküs, North-Eastern (Laz) Türküs, Aegean Türküs, Central Anatolian Türküs, Eastern Anatolian Türküs, and Caucasian Türküs. Ottoman Empire_sentence_589

Some of the distinctive styles were: Janissary Music, Roma music, Belly dance, Turkish folk music. Ottoman Empire_sentence_590

The traditional shadow play called Karagöz and Hacivat was widespread throughout the Ottoman Empire and featured characters representing all of the major ethnic and social groups in that culture. Ottoman Empire_sentence_591

It was performed by a single puppet master, who voiced all of the characters, and accompanied by tambourine (def). Ottoman Empire_sentence_592

Its origins are obscure, deriving perhaps from an older Egyptian tradition, or possibly from an Asian source. Ottoman Empire_sentence_593

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Cuisine Ottoman Empire_section_33

Main article: Ottoman cuisine Ottoman Empire_sentence_594

Ottoman cuisine refers to the cuisine of the capital, Constantinople (Istanbul), and the regional capital cities, where the melting pot of cultures created a common cuisine that most of the population regardless of ethnicity shared. Ottoman Empire_sentence_595

This diverse cuisine was honed in the Imperial Palace's kitchens by chefs brought from certain parts of the Empire to create and experiment with different ingredients. Ottoman Empire_sentence_596

The creations of the Ottoman Palace's kitchens filtered to the population, for instance through Ramadan events, and through the cooking at the Yalıs of the Pashas, and from there on spread to the rest of the population. Ottoman Empire_sentence_597

Much of the cuisine of former Ottoman territories today is descended from a shared Ottoman cuisine, especially Turkish, and including Greek, Balkan, Armenian, and Middle Eastern cuisines. Ottoman Empire_sentence_598

Many common dishes in the region, descendants of the once-common Ottoman cuisine, include yogurt, döner kebab/gyro/shawarma, cacık/tzatziki, ayran, pita bread, feta cheese, baklava, lahmacun, moussaka, yuvarlak, köfte/keftés/kofta, börek/boureki, rakı/rakia/tsipouro/tsikoudia, meze, dolma, sarma, rice pilaf, Turkish coffee, sujuk, kashk, keşkek, manti, lavash, kanafeh, and more. Ottoman Empire_sentence_599

Science and technology Ottoman Empire_section_34

Main article: Science and technology in the Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire_sentence_600

Over the course of Ottoman history, the Ottomans managed to build a large collection of libraries complete with translations of books from other cultures, as well as original manuscripts. Ottoman Empire_sentence_601

A great part of this desire for local and foreign manuscripts arose in the 15th century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_602

Sultan Mehmet II ordered Georgios Amiroutzes, a Greek scholar from Trabzon, to translate and make available to Ottoman educational institutions the geography book of Ptolemy. Ottoman Empire_sentence_603

Another example is Ali Qushji – an astronomer, mathematician and physicist originally from Samarkand – who became a professor in two madrasas and influenced Ottoman circles as a result of his writings and the activities of his students, even though he only spent two or three years in Constantinople before his death. Ottoman Empire_sentence_604

Taqi al-Din built the Constantinople observatory of Taqi al-Din in 1577, where he carried out observations until 1580. Ottoman Empire_sentence_605

He calculated the eccentricity of the Sun's orbit and the annual motion of the apogee. Ottoman Empire_sentence_606

However, the observatory's primary purpose was almost certainly astrological rather than astronomical, leading to its destruction in 1580 due to the rise of a clerical faction that opposed its use for that purpose. Ottoman Empire_sentence_607

He also experimented with steam power in Ottoman Egypt in 1551, when he described a steam jack driven by a rudimentary steam turbine. Ottoman Empire_sentence_608

In 1660 the Ottoman scholar Ibrahim Efendi al-Zigetvari Tezkireci translated Noël Duret's French astronomical work (written in 1637) into Arabic. Ottoman Empire_sentence_609

Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu was the author of the first surgical atlas and the last major medical encyclopedia from the Islamic world. Ottoman Empire_sentence_610

Though his work was largely based on Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi's Al-Tasrif, Sabuncuoğlu introduced many innovations of his own. Ottoman Empire_sentence_611

Female surgeons were also illustrated for the first time. Ottoman Empire_sentence_612

An example of a watch that measured time in minutes was created by an Ottoman watchmaker, Meshur Sheyh Dede, in 1702. Ottoman Empire_sentence_613

In the early 19th century, Egypt under Muhammad Ali began using steam engines for industrial manufacturing, with industries such as ironworks, textile manufacturing, paper mills and hulling mills moving towards steam power. Ottoman Empire_sentence_614

Economic historian Jean Batou argues that the necessary economic conditions existed in Egypt for the adoption of oil as a potential energy source for its steam engines later in the 19th century. Ottoman Empire_sentence_615

In the 19th century, Ishak Efendi is credited with introducing the then current Western scientific ideas and developments to the Ottoman and wider Muslim world, as well as the invention of a suitable Turkish and Arabic scientific terminology, through his translations of Western works. Ottoman Empire_sentence_616

Sports Ottoman Empire_section_35

The main sports Ottomans were engaged in were Turkish wrestling, hunting, Turkish archery, horseback riding, equestrian javelin throw, arm wrestling, and swimming. Ottoman Empire_sentence_617

European model sports clubs were formed with the spreading popularity of football matches in 19th century Constantinople. Ottoman Empire_sentence_618

The leading clubs, according to timeline, were Beşiktaş Gymnastics Club (1903), Galatasaray Sports Club (1905), Fenerbahçe Sports Club (1907), MKE Ankaragücü (formerly Turan Sanatkaragücü) (1910) in Constantinople. Ottoman Empire_sentence_619

Football clubs were formed in other provinces too, such as Karşıyaka Sports Club (1912), Altay Sports Club (1914) and Turkish Fatherland Football Club (later Ülküspor) (1914) of İzmir. Ottoman Empire_sentence_620

See also Ottoman Empire_section_36

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Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: Empire.