Oxford English Dictionary

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This article is about the multi-volume historical dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_0

For other dictionaries published by Oxford University Press, see Oxford dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_1

"OED" redirects here. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_2

For other uses, see OED (disambiguation). Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_3

Oxford English Dictionary_table_infobox_0

The Oxford English DictionaryOxford English Dictionary_table_caption_0
CountryOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_0_0_0 United KingdomOxford English Dictionary_cell_0_0_1
LanguageOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_0_1_0 EnglishOxford English Dictionary_cell_0_1_1
PublisherOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_0_2_0 Oxford University PressOxford English Dictionary_cell_0_2_1
PublishedOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_0_3_0 1884–1928 (first edition)

1989 (second edition) Third edition in preparationOxford English Dictionary_cell_0_3_1

WebsiteOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_0_4_0 Oxford English Dictionary_cell_0_4_1

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press (OUP). Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_4

It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_5

The second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_6

Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_7

In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, and in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_8

In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary fully replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_9

More supplements came over the years until 1989, when the second edition was published. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_10

Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway, approximately half of which was complete as of 2018. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_11

The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_12

The online version has been available since 2000, and as of April 2014 was receiving over two million visits per month. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_13

The third edition of the dictionary will most likely only appear in electronic form; the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will ever be printed. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_14

Historical nature Oxford English Dictionary_section_0

As a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary features entries in which the earliest ascertainable recorded sense of a word, whether current or obsolete, is presented first, and each additional sense is presented in historical order according to the date of its earliest ascertainable recorded use. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_15

Following each definition are several brief illustrating quotations presented in chronological order from the earliest ascertainable use of the word in that sense to the last ascertainable use for an obsolete sense, to indicate both its life span and the time since its desuetude, or to a relatively recent use for current ones. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_16

The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_17

The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had initially provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_18

This influenced later volumes of this and other lexicographical works. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_19

Entries and relative size Oxford English Dictionary_section_1

According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, and 540 megabytes to store them electronically. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_20

As of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained approximately 301,100 main entries. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_21

Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type combinations and derivatives; 169,000 italicized-bold phrases and combinations; 616,500 word-forms in total, including 137,000 pronunciations; 249,300 etymologies; 577,000 cross-references; and 2,412,400 usage quotations. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_22

The dictionary's latest, complete print edition (second edition, 1989) was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_23

The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_24

As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000, then put in 2007, then run in 2011. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_25

Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_26

Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_27

The first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language (Italian) and was published in 1612; the first edition of Dictionnaire de l'Académie française dates from 1694. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_28

The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española (produced, edited, and published by the Real Academia Española), and its first edition was published in 1780. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_29

The Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_30

History Oxford English Dictionary_section_2

Oxford English Dictionary_table_general_1

Oxford English Dictionary PublicationsOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_1_0_0

dateOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_1_1_0


rangeOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_1_1_1

TitleOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_1_1_2 VolumeOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_1_1_3
1888Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_2_0 A and BOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_2_1 A New EDOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_2_2 Vol. 1Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_2_3
1893Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_3_0 COxford English Dictionary_cell_1_3_1 NEDOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_3_2 Vol. 2Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_3_3
1897Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_4_0 D and EOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_4_1 NEDOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_4_2 Vol. 3Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_4_3
1900Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_5_0 F and GOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_5_1 NEDOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_5_2 Vol. 4Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_5_3
1901Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_6_0 H to KOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_6_1 NEDOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_6_2 Vol. 5Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_6_3
1908Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_7_0 L to NOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_7_1 NEDOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_7_2 Vol. 6Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_7_3
1909Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_8_0 O and POxford English Dictionary_cell_1_8_1 NEDOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_8_2 Vol. 7Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_8_3
1914Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_9_0 Q to ShOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_9_1 NEDOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_9_2 Vol. 8Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_9_3
1919Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_10_0 Si to StOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_10_1 NEDOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_10_2 Vol. 9/1Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_10_3
1919Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_11_0 Su to ThOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_11_1 NEDOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_11_2 Vol. 9/2Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_11_3
1926Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_12_0 Ti to UOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_12_1 NEDOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_12_2 Vol. 10/1Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_12_3
1928Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_13_0 V to ZOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_13_1 NEDOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_13_2 Vol. 10/2Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_13_3
1928Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_14_0 AllOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_14_1 NEDOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_14_2 10 vols.Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_14_3
1933Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_15_0 AllOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_15_1 NEDOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_15_2 Suppl..Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_15_3
1933Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_16_0 All & sup.Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_16_1 Oxford EDOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_16_2 13 vols.Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_16_3
1972Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_17_0 AOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_17_1 OED Sup.Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_17_2 Vol. 1Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_17_3
1976Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_18_0 HOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_18_1 OED Sup.Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_18_2 Vol. 2Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_18_3
1982Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_19_0 OOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_19_1 OED Sup.Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_19_2 Vol. 3Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_19_3
1986Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_20_0 SeaOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_20_1 OED Sup.Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_20_2 Vol. 4Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_20_3
1989Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_21_0 AllOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_21_1 OED 2nd Ed.Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_21_2 20 vols.Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_21_3
1993Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_22_0 AllOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_22_1 OED Add. Ser.Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_22_2 Vols. 1–2Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_22_3
1997Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_23_0 AllOxford English Dictionary_cell_1_23_1 OED Add. Ser.Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_23_2 Vol. 3Oxford English Dictionary_cell_1_23_3

Origins Oxford English Dictionary_section_3

The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London (and unconnected to Oxford University): Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, and Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_31

The society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_32

In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words; instead, it was the study On Some Deficiencies in our English Dictionaries, which identified seven distinct shortcomings in contemporary dictionaries: Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_33

Oxford English Dictionary_unordered_list_0

  • Incomplete coverage of obsolete wordsOxford English Dictionary_item_0_0
  • Inconsistent coverage of families of related wordsOxford English Dictionary_item_0_1
  • Incorrect dates for earliest use of wordsOxford English Dictionary_item_0_2
  • History of obsolete senses of words often omittedOxford English Dictionary_item_0_3
  • Inadequate distinction among synonymsOxford English Dictionary_item_0_4
  • Insufficient use of good illustrative quotationsOxford English Dictionary_item_0_5
  • Space wasted on inappropriate or redundant content.Oxford English Dictionary_item_0_6

The society ultimately realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, and shifted their idea from covering only words that were not already in English dictionaries to a larger project. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_34

Trench suggested that a new, truly comprehensive dictionary was needed. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_35

On 7 January 1858, the society formally adopted the idea of a comprehensive new dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_36

Volunteer readers would be assigned particular books, copying passages illustrating word usage onto quotation slips. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_37

Later the same year, the society agreed to the project in principle, with the title A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles (NED). Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_38

Early editors Oxford English Dictionary_section_4

Richard Chenevix Trench (1807–1886) played the key role in the project's first months, but his appointment as Dean of Westminster meant that he could not give the dictionary project the time that it required. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_39

He withdrew and Herbert Coleridge became the first editor. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_40

On 12 May 1860, Coleridge's dictionary plan was published and research was started. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_41

His house was the first editorial office. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_42

He arrayed 100,000 quotation slips in a 54 pigeon-hole grid. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_43

In April 1861, the group published the first sample pages; later that month, Coleridge died of tuberculosis, aged 30. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_44

Thereupon Furnivall became editor; he was enthusiastic and knowledgeable, but temperamentally ill-suited for the work. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_45

Many volunteer readers eventually lost interest in the project, as Furnivall failed to keep them motivated. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_46

Furthermore, many of the slips were misplaced. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_47

Furnivall believed that, since many printed texts from earlier centuries were not readily available, it would be impossible for volunteers to efficiently locate the quotations that the dictionary needed. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_48

As a result, he founded the Early English Text Society in 1864 and the Chaucer Society in 1868 to publish old manuscripts. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_49

Furnivall's preparatory efforts lasted 21 years and provided numerous texts for the use and enjoyment of the general public, as well as crucial sources for lexicographers, but they did not actually involve compiling a dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_50

Furnivall recruited more than 800 volunteers to read these texts and record quotations. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_51

While enthusiastic, the volunteers were not well trained and often made inconsistent and arbitrary selections. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_52

Ultimately, Furnivall handed over nearly two tons of quotation slips and other materials to his successor. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_53

In the 1870s, Furnivall unsuccessfully attempted to recruit both Henry Sweet and Henry Nicol to succeed him. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_54

He then approached James Murray, who accepted the post of editor. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_55

In the late 1870s, Furnivall and Murray met with several publishers about publishing the dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_56

In 1878, Oxford University Press agreed with Murray to proceed with the massive project; the agreement was formalized the following year. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_57

20 years after its conception, the dictionary project finally had a publisher. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_58

It would take another 50 years to complete. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_59

Late in his editorship, Murray learned that a prolific reader named W. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_60 C. Minor was a criminal lunatic. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_61

Minor was a Yale University-trained surgeon and military officer in the American Civil War, and was confined to Broadmoor Asylum for the Criminally Insane after killing a man in London. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_62

Minor invented his own quotation-tracking system, allowing him to submit slips on specific words in response to editors' requests. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_63

The story of Murray and Minor later served as the central focus of The Surgeon of Crowthorne (US title: The Professor and the Madman), a popular book about the creation of the OED. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_64

This book was then the basis for the 2019 film The Professor and the Madman, starring Mel Gibson and Sean Penn. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_65

Oxford editors Oxford English Dictionary_section_5

During the 1870s, the Philological Society was concerned with the process of publishing a dictionary with such an immense scope. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_66

They had pages printed by publishers, but no publication agreement was reached; both the Cambridge University Press and the Oxford University Press were approached. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_67

The OUP finally agreed in 1879 (after two years of negotiating by Sweet, Furnivall, and Murray) to publish the dictionary and to pay Murray, who was both the editor and the Philological Society president. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_68

The dictionary was to be published as interval fascicles, with the final form in four volumes, totalling 6,400 pages. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_69

They hoped to finish the project in ten years. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_70

Murray started the project, working in a corrugated iron outbuilding called the "Scriptorium" which was lined with wooden planks, book shelves, and 1,029 pigeon-holes for the quotation slips. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_71

He tracked and regathered Furnivall's collection of quotation slips, which were found to concentrate on rare, interesting words rather than common usages. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_72

For instance, there were ten times as many quotations for abusion as for abuse. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_73

He appealed, through newspapers distributed to bookshops and libraries, for readers who would report "as many quotations as you can for ordinary words" and for words that were "rare, obsolete, old-fashioned, new, peculiar or used in a peculiar way". Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_74

Murray had American philologist and liberal arts college professor Francis March manage the collection in North America; 1,000 quotation slips arrived daily to the Scriptorium and, by 1880, there were 2,500,000. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_75

The first dictionary fascicle was published on 1 February 1884—twenty-three years after Coleridge's sample pages. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_76

The full title was A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles; Founded Mainly on the Materials Collected by The Philological Society; the 352-page volume, words from A to Ant, cost 12s 6d. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_77

(or about $668.24 in 2013) The total sales were only 4,000 copies. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_78

The OUP saw that it would take too long to complete the work with unrevised editorial arrangements. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_79

Accordingly, new assistants were hired and two new demands were made on Murray. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_80

The first was that he move from Mill Hill to Oxford, which he did in 1885. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_81

Murray had his Scriptorium re-erected on his new property. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_82

Murray resisted the second demand: that if he could not meet schedule, he must hire a second, senior editor to work in parallel to him, outside his supervision, on words from elsewhere in the alphabet. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_83

Murray did not want to share the work, feeling that he would accelerate his work pace with experience. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_84

That turned out not to be so, and Philip Gell of the OUP forced the promotion of Murray's assistant Henry Bradley (hired by Murray in 1884), who worked independently in the British Museum in London beginning in 1888. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_85

In 1896, Bradley moved to Oxford University. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_86

Gell continued harassing Murray and Bradley with his business concerns—containing costs and speeding production—to the point where the project's collapse seemed likely. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_87

Newspapers reported the harassment, particularly the Saturday Review, and public opinion backed the editors. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_88

Gell was fired, and the university reversed his cost policies. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_89

If the editors felt that the dictionary would have to grow larger, it would; it was an important work, and worth the time and money to properly finish. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_90

Neither Murray nor Bradley lived to see it. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_91

Murray died in 1915, having been responsible for words starting with A–D, H–K, O–P, and T, nearly half the finished dictionary; Bradley died in 1923, having completed E–G, L–M, S–Sh, St, and W–We. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_92

By then, two additional editors had been promoted from assistant work to independent work, continuing without much trouble. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_93

William Craigie started in 1901 and was responsible for N, Q–R, Si–Sq, U–V, and Wo–Wy. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_94

The OUP had previously thought London too far from Oxford but, after 1925, Craigie worked on the dictionary in Chicago, where he was a professor. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_95

The fourth editor was Charles Talbut Onions, who compiled the remaining ranges starting in 1914: Su–Sz, Wh–Wo, and X–Z. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_96

In 1919–1920, J. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_97 R. R. Tolkien was employed by the OED, researching etymologies of the Waggle to Warlock range; later he parodied the principal editors as "The Four Wise Clerks of Oxenford" in the story Farmer Giles of Ham. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_98

By early 1894, a total of 11 fascicles had been published, or about one per year: four for A–B, five for C, and two for E. Of these, eight were 352 pages long, while the last one in each group was shorter to end at the letter break (which eventually became a volume break). Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_99

At this point, it was decided to publish the work in smaller and more frequent instalments; once every three months beginning in 1895 there would be a fascicle of 64 pages, priced at 2s 6d. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_100

If enough material was ready, 128 or even 192 pages would be published together. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_101

This pace was maintained until World War I forced reductions in staff. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_102

Each time enough consecutive pages were available, the same material was also published in the original larger fascicles. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_103

Also in 1895, the title Oxford English Dictionary was first used. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_104

It then appeared only on the outer covers of the fascicles; the original title was still the official one and was used everywhere else. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_105

Completion of first edition and first supplement Oxford English Dictionary_section_6

The 125th and last fascicle covered words from Wise to the end of W and was published on 19 April 1928, and the full dictionary in bound volumes followed immediately. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_106

William Shakespeare is the most-quoted writer in the completed dictionary, with Hamlet his most-quoted work. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_107

George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) is the most-quoted female writer. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_108

Collectively, the Bible is the most-quoted work (in many translations); the most-quoted single work is Cursor Mundi. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_109

Additional material for a given letter range continued to be gathered after the corresponding fascicle was printed, with a view towards inclusion in a supplement or revised edition. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_110

A one-volume supplement of such material was published in 1933, with entries weighted towards the start of the alphabet where the fascicles were decades old. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_111

The supplement included at least one word (bondmaid) accidentally omitted when its slips were misplaced; many words and senses newly coined (famously appendicitis, coined in 1886 and missing from the 1885 fascicle, which came to prominence when Edward VII's 1902 appendicitis postponed his coronation); and some previously excluded as too obscure (notoriously radium, omitted in 1903, months before its discoverers Pierre and Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize in Physics.). Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_112

Also in 1933 the original fascicles of the entire dictionary were re-issued, bound into 12 volumes, under the title "The Oxford English Dictionary". Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_113

This edition, of 13 volume including the supplement, was subsequently reprinted in 1961 and 1970. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_114

Second supplement Oxford English Dictionary_section_7

In 1933, Oxford had finally put the dictionary to rest; all work ended, and the quotation slips went into storage. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_115

However, the English language continued to change and, by the time 20 years had passed, the dictionary was outdated. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_116

There were three possible ways to update it. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_117

The cheapest would have been to leave the existing work alone and simply compile a new supplement of perhaps one or two volumes; but then anyone looking for a word or sense and unsure of its age would have to look in three different places. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_118

The most convenient choice for the user would have been for the entire dictionary to be re-edited and retypeset, with each change included in its proper alphabetical place; but this would have been the most expensive option, with perhaps 15 volumes required to be produced. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_119

The OUP chose a middle approach: combining the new material with the existing supplement to form a larger replacement supplement. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_120

Robert Burchfield was hired in 1957 to edit the second supplement; Onions turned 84 that year but was still able to make some contributions as well. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_121

The work on the supplement was expected to take about seven years. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_122

It actually took 29 years, by which time the new supplement (OEDS) had grown to four volumes, starting with A, H, O, and Sea. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_123

They were published in 1972, 1976, 1982, and 1986 respectively, bringing the complete dictionary to 16 volumes, or 17 counting the first supplement. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_124

Burchfield emphasized the inclusion of modern-day language and, through the supplement, the dictionary was expanded to include a wealth of new words from the burgeoning fields of science and technology, as well as popular culture and colloquial speech. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_125

Burchfield said that he broadened the scope to include developments of the language in English-speaking regions beyond the United Kingdom, including North America, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, and the Caribbean. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_126

Burchfield also removed, for unknown reasons, many entries that had been added to the 1933 supplement. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_127

In 2012, an analysis by lexicographer Sarah Ogilvie revealed that many of these entries were in fact foreign loanwords, despite Burchfield's claim that he included more such words. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_128

The proportion was estimated from a sample calculation to amount to 17% of the foreign loan words and words from regional forms of English. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_129

Some of these had only a single recorded usage, but many had multiple recorded citations, and it ran against what was thought to be the established OED editorial practice and a perception that he had opened up the dictionary to "World English". Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_130

Revised American edition Oxford English Dictionary_section_8

This was published in 1968 at $300. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_131

There were changes in the arrangement of the volumes - for example volume 7 covered only N-Poy, the remaining "P" entries being transferred to volume 8. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_132

Second edition Oxford English Dictionary_section_9

Oxford English Dictionary_table_infobox_2

Oxford English DictionaryOxford English Dictionary_table_caption_2
EditorOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_2_0_0 John Simpson and Edmund WeinerOxford English Dictionary_cell_2_0_1
CountryOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_2_1_0 United KingdomOxford English Dictionary_cell_2_1_1
LanguageOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_2_2_0 EnglishOxford English Dictionary_cell_2_2_1
SubjectOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_2_3_0 DictionaryOxford English Dictionary_cell_2_3_1
PublisherOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_2_4_0 Oxford University PressOxford English Dictionary_cell_2_4_1
Publication dateOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_2_5_0 30 March 1989Oxford English Dictionary_cell_2_5_1
PagesOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_2_6_0 21,730Oxford English Dictionary_cell_2_6_1
ISBNOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_2_7_0 978-0-19-861186-8Oxford English Dictionary_cell_2_7_1
OCLCOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_2_8_0 Oxford English Dictionary_cell_2_8_1
Dewey DecimalOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_2_9_0 423 19Oxford English Dictionary_cell_2_9_1
LC ClassOxford English Dictionary_header_cell_2_10_0 PE1625 .O87 1989Oxford English Dictionary_cell_2_10_1

By the time the new supplement was completed, it was clear that the full text of the dictionary would need to be computerized. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_133

Achieving this would require retyping it once, but thereafter it would always be accessible for computer searching – as well as for whatever new editions of the dictionary might be desired, starting with an integration of the supplementary volumes and the main text. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_134

Preparation for this process began in 1983, and editorial work started the following year under the administrative direction of Timothy J. Benbow, with John A. Simpson and Edmund S. C. Weiner as co-editors. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_135

In 2016, Simpson published his memoir chronicling his years at the OED: The Word Detective: Searching for the Meaning of It All at the Oxford English Dictionary – A Memoir (New York: Basic Books). Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_136

Thus began the New Oxford English Dictionary (NOED) project. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_137

In the United States, more than 120 typists of the International Computaprint Corporation (now Reed Tech) started keying in over 350,000,000 characters, their work checked by 55 proof-readers in England. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_138

Retyping the text alone was not sufficient; all the information represented by the complex typography of the original dictionary had to be retained, which was done by marking up the content in SGML. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_139

A specialized search engine and display software were also needed to access it. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_140

Under a 1985 agreement, some of this software work was done at the University of Waterloo, Canada, at the Centre for the New Oxford English Dictionary, led by Frank Tompa and Gaston Gonnet; this search technology went on to become the basis for the Open Text Corporation. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_141

Computer hardware, database and other software, development managers, and programmers for the project were donated by the British subsidiary of IBM; the colour syntax-directed editor for the project, LEXX, was written by Mike Cowlishaw of IBM. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_142

The University of Waterloo, in Canada, volunteered to design the database. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_143

A. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_144 Walton Litz, an English professor at Princeton University who served on the Oxford University Press advisory council, was quoted in Time as saying "I've never been associated with a project, I've never even heard of a project, that was so incredibly complicated and that met every deadline." Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_145

By 1989, the NOED project had achieved its primary goals, and the editors, working online, had successfully combined the original text, Burchfield's supplement, and a small amount of newer material, into a single unified dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_146

The word "new" was again dropped from the name, and the second edition of the OED, or the OED2, was published. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_147

The first edition retronymically became the OED1. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_148

The Oxford English Dictionary 2 was printed in 20 volumes. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_149

Up to a very late stage, all the volumes of the first edition were started on letter boundaries. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_150

For the second edition, there was no attempt to start them on letter boundaries, and they were made roughly equal in size. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_151

The 20 volumes started with A, B.B.C., Cham, Creel, Dvandva, Follow, Hat, Interval, Look, Moul, Ow, Poise, Quemadero, Rob, Ser, Soot, Su, Thru, Unemancipated, and Wave. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_152

The content of the OED2 is mostly just a reorganization of the earlier corpus, but the retypesetting provided an opportunity for two long-needed format changes. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_153

The headword of each entry was no longer capitalized, allowing the user to readily see those words that actually require a capital letter. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_154

Murray had devised his own notation for pronunciation, there being no standard available at the time, whereas the OED2 adopted the modern International Phonetic Alphabet. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_155

Unlike the earlier edition, all foreign alphabets except Greek were transliterated. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_156

The British quiz show Countdown has awarded the leather-bound complete version to the champions of each series since its inception in 1982. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_157

When the print version of the second edition was published in 1989, the response was enthusiastic. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_158

Author Anthony Burgess declared it "the greatest publishing event of the century", as quoted by the Los Angeles Times. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_159

Time dubbed the book "a scholarly Everest", and Richard Boston, writing for The Guardian, called it "one of the wonders of the world". Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_160

Additions series Oxford English Dictionary_section_10

The supplements and their integration into the second edition were a great improvement to the OED as a whole, but it was recognized that most of the entries were still fundamentally unaltered from the first edition. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_161

Much of the information in the dictionary published in 1989 was already decades out of date, though the supplements had made good progress towards incorporating new vocabulary. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_162

Yet many definitions contained disproven scientific theories, outdated historical information, and moral values that were no longer widely accepted. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_163

Furthermore, the supplements had failed to recognize many words in the existing volumes as obsolete by the time of the second edition's publication, meaning that thousands of words were marked as current despite no recent evidence of their use. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_164

Accordingly, it was recognized that work on a third edition would have to begin to rectify these problems. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_165

The first attempt to produce a new edition came with the Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series, a new set of supplements to complement the OED2 with the intention of producing a third edition from them. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_166

The previous supplements appeared in alphabetical installments, whereas the new series had a full A–Z range of entries within each individual volume, with a complete alphabetical index at the end of all words revised so far, each listed with the volume number which contained the revised entry. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_167

However, in the end only three Additions volumes were published this way, two in 1993 and one in 1997, each containing about 3,000 new definitions. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_168

The possibilities of the World Wide Web and new computer technology in general meant that the processes of researching the dictionary and of publishing new and revised entries could be vastly improved. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_169

New text search databases offered vastly more material for the editors of the dictionary to work with, and with publication on the Web as a possibility, the editors could publish revised entries much more quickly and easily than ever before. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_170

A new approach was called for, and for this reason it was decided to embark on a new, complete revision of the dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_171

Oxford English Dictionary_unordered_list_1

  • Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series Volume 1 (ISBN 978-0-19-861292-6): Includes over 20,000 illustrative quotations showing the evolution of each word or meaning.Oxford English Dictionary_item_1_7

Oxford English Dictionary_description_list_2

  • Oxford English Dictionary_item_2_8
    • ?th impression (1994-02-10)Oxford English Dictionary_item_2_9

Oxford English Dictionary_unordered_list_3

  • Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series Volume 2 (ISBN 978-0-19-861299-5)Oxford English Dictionary_item_3_10

Oxford English Dictionary_description_list_4

  • Oxford English Dictionary_item_4_11
    • ?th impression (1994-02-10)Oxford English Dictionary_item_4_12

Oxford English Dictionary_unordered_list_5

  • Oxford English Dictionary Additions Series Volume 3 (ISBN 978-0-19-860027-5): Contains 3,000 new words and meanings from around the English-speaking world. Published by Clarendon Press.Oxford English Dictionary_item_5_13

Oxford English Dictionary_description_list_6

  • Oxford English Dictionary_item_6_14
    • ?th impression (1997-10-09)Oxford English Dictionary_item_6_15

Third edition Oxford English Dictionary_section_11

Beginning with the launch of the first OED Online site in 2000, the editors of the dictionary began a major revision project to create a completely revised third edition of the dictionary (OED3), expected to be completed in 2037 with the projected cost of about £34 million. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_172

Revisions were started at the letter M, with new material appearing every three months on the OED Online website. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_173

The editors chose to start the revision project from the middle of the dictionary in order that the overall quality of entries be made more even, since the later entries in the OED1 generally tended to be better than the earlier ones. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_174

However, in March 2008, the editors announced that they would alternate each quarter between moving forward in the alphabet as before and updating "key English words from across the alphabet, along with the other words which make up the alphabetical cluster surrounding them". Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_175

With the relaunch of the OED Online website in December 2010, alphabetical revision was abandoned altogether. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_176

The revision is expected roughly to double the dictionary in size. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_177

Apart from general updates to include information on new words and other changes in the language, the third edition brings many other improvements, including changes in formatting and stylistic conventions for easier reading and computerized searching, more etymological information, and a general change of focus away from individual words towards more general coverage of the language as a whole. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_178

While the original text drew its quotations mainly from literary sources such as novels, plays, and poetry, with additional material from newspapers and academic journals, the new edition will reference more kinds of material that were unavailable to the editors of previous editions, such as wills, inventories, account books, diaries, journals, and letters. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_179

John Simpson was the first chief editor of the OED3. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_180

He retired in 2013 and was replaced by Michael Proffitt, who is the eighth chief editor of the dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_181

The production of the new edition exploits computer technology, particularly since the June 2005 inauguration of the "Perfect All-Singing All-Dancing Editorial and Notation Application", or "Pasadena". Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_182

With this XML-based system, lexicographers can spend less effort on presentation issues such as the numbering of definitions. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_183

This system has also simplified the use of the quotations database, and enabled staff in New York to work directly on the dictionary in the same way as their Oxford-based counterparts. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_184

Other important computer uses include internet searches for evidence of current usage, and email submissions of quotations by readers and the general public. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_185

New entries and words Oxford English Dictionary_section_12

Wordhunt was a 2005 appeal to the general public for help in providing citations for 50 selected recent words, and produced antedatings for many. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_186

The results were reported in a BBC TV series, Balderdash and Piffle. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_187

The OED's readers contribute quotations: the department currently receives about 200,000 a year. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_188

OED currently contains over 600,000 entries.They update the OED on a quarterly basis to make up for its Third Edition revising their existing entries and adding new words and senses. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_189

More than 600 new words, senses, and subentries have been added to the OED in December 2018, including "to drain the swamp", "TGIF", and "burkini". Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_190

South African additions—like eina, dwaal, and amakhosi—were also included. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_191

The phrase "taffety tarts" entered the OED for the first time. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_192

Formats Oxford English Dictionary_section_13

Compact editions Oxford English Dictionary_section_14

In 1971, the 13-volume OED1 (1933) was reprinted as a two-volume Compact Edition, by photographically reducing each page to one-half its linear dimensions; each compact edition page held four OED1 pages in a four-up ("4-up") format. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_193

The two volume letters were A and P; the first supplement was at the second volume's end. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_194

The Compact Edition included, in a small slip-case drawer, a magnifying glass to help in reading reduced type. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_195

Many copies were inexpensively distributed through book clubs. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_196

In 1987, the second supplement was published as a third volume to the Compact Edition. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_197

In 1991, for the 20-volume OED2 (1989), the compact edition format was re-sized to one-third of original linear dimensions, a nine-up ("9-up") format requiring greater magnification, but allowing publication of a single-volume dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_198

It was accompanied by a magnifying glass as before and A User's Guide to the "Oxford English Dictionary", by Donna Lee Berg. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_199

After these volumes were published, though, book club offers commonly continued to sell the two-volume 1971 Compact Edition. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_200

Oxford English Dictionary_unordered_list_7

  • The Compact Oxford English Dictionary (second edition, 1991, ISBN 978-0-19-861258-2): Includes definitions of 500,000 words, 290,000 main entries, 137,000 pronunciations, 249,300 etymologies, 577,000 cross-references, and over 2,412,000 illustrative quotations, a magnifying glass.Oxford English Dictionary_item_7_16

Oxford English Dictionary_description_list_8

  • Oxford English Dictionary_item_8_17
    • ?th impression (1991-12-05)Oxford English Dictionary_item_8_18

Electronic versions Oxford English Dictionary_section_15

Once the text of the dictionary was digitized and online, it was also available to be published on CD-ROM. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_201

The text of the first edition was made available in 1987. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_202

Afterward, three versions of the second edition were issued. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_203

Version 1 (1992) was identical in content to the printed second edition, and the CD itself was not copy-protected. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_204

Version 2 (1999) included the Oxford English Dictionary Additions of 1993 and 1997. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_205

Version 3.0 was released in 2002 with additional words from the OED3 and software improvements. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_206

Version 3.1.1 (2007) added support for hard disk installation, so that the user does not have to insert the CD to use the dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_207

It has been reported that this version will work on operating systems other than Microsoft Windows, using emulation programs. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_208

Version 4.0 of the CD has been available since June 2009 and works with Windows 7 and Mac OS X (10.4 or later). Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_209

This version uses the CD drive for installation, running only from the hard drive. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_210

On 14 March 2000, the Oxford English Dictionary Online (OED Online) became available to subscribers. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_211

The online database contains the entire OED2 and is updated quarterly with revisions that will be included in the OED3 (see above). Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_212

The online edition is the most up-to-date version of the dictionary available. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_213

The OED web site is not optimized for mobile devices, but the developers have stated that there are plans to provide an API that would enable developers to develop different interfaces for querying the OED. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_214

The price for an individual to use this edition is £195 or US$295 every year, even after a reduction in 2004; consequently, most subscribers are large organizations such as universities. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_215

Some public libraries and companies have subscribed, as well, including public libraries in the United Kingdom, where access is funded by the Arts Council, and public libraries in New Zealand. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_216

Individuals who belong to a library which subscribes to the service are able to use the service from their own home without charge. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_217

Oxford English Dictionary_unordered_list_9

  • Oxford English Dictionary Second edition on CD-ROM Version 3.1:Oxford English Dictionary_item_9_19

Oxford English Dictionary_description_list_10

  • Oxford English Dictionary_item_10_20

Oxford English Dictionary_unordered_list_11

  • Oxford English Dictionary Second edition on CD-ROM Version 4.0: Includes 500,000 words with 2.5 million source quotations, 7,000 new words and meanings. Includes Vocabulary from OED 2nd Edition and all 3 Additions volumes. Supports Windows 2000-7 and Mac OS X 10.4–10.5). Flash-based dictionary.Oxford English Dictionary_item_11_22

Oxford English Dictionary_description_list_12

Relationship to other Oxford dictionaries Oxford English Dictionary_section_16

The OED's utility and renown as a historical dictionary have led to numerous offspring projects and other dictionaries bearing the Oxford name, though not all are directly related to the OED itself. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_218

The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, originally started in 1902 and completed in 1933, is an abridgement of the full work that retains the historical focus, but does not include any words which were obsolete before 1700 except those used by Shakespeare, Milton, Spenser, and the King James Bible. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_219

A completely new edition was produced from the OED2 and published in 1993, with revisions in 2002 and 2007. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_220

The Concise Oxford Dictionary is a different work, which aims to cover current English only, without the historical focus. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_221

The original edition, mostly based on the OED1, was edited by Francis George Fowler and Henry Watson Fowler and published in 1911, before the main work was completed. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_222

Revised editions appeared throughout the twentieth century to keep it up to date with changes in English usage. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_223

The Pocket Oxford Dictionary of Current English was originally conceived by F. G. Fowler and H. W. Fowler to be compressed, compact, and concise. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_224

Its primary source is the Oxford English Dictionary, and it is nominally an abridgment of the Concise Oxford Dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_225

It was first published in 1924. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_226

In 1998 the New Oxford Dictionary of English (NODE) was published. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_227

While also aiming to cover current English, NODE was not based on the OED. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_228

Instead, it was an entirely new dictionary produced with the aid of corpus linguistics. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_229

Once NODE was published, a similarly brand-new edition of the Concise Oxford Dictionary followed, this time based on an abridgement of NODE rather than the OED; NODE (under the new title of the Oxford Dictionary of English, or ODE) continues to be principal source for Oxford's product line of current-English dictionaries, including the New Oxford American Dictionary, with the OED now only serving as the basis for scholarly historical dictionaries. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_230

Spelling Oxford English Dictionary_section_17

Main article: Oxford spelling Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_231

The OED lists British headword spellings (e.g., labour, centre) with variants following (labor, center, etc.). Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_232

For the suffix more commonly spelt -ise in British English, OUP policy dictates a preference for the spelling -ize, e.g., realize vs. realise and globalization vs. globalisation. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_233

The rationale is etymological, in that the English suffix is mainly derived from the Greek suffix -ιζειν, (-izein), or the Latin -izāre. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_234

However, -ze is also sometimes treated as an Americanism insofar as the -ze suffix has crept into words where it did not originally belong, as with analyse (British English), which is spelt analyze in American English. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_235

Reception Oxford English Dictionary_section_18

British prime minister Stanley Baldwin described the OED as a "national treasure". Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_236

Author Anu Garg, founder of Wordsmith.org, has called it a "lex icon". Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_237

Tim Bray, co-creator of Extensible Markup Language (XML), credits the OED as the developing inspiration of that markup language. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_238

However, despite, and at the same time precisely because of, its claims of authority, the dictionary has been criticized since at least the 1960s from various angles. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_239

It has become a target precisely because of its scope, its claims to authority, its British-centredness and relative neglect of World Englishes, its implied but not acknowledged focus on literary language and, above all, its influence. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_240

The OED, as a commercial product, has always had to manoeuvre a thin line between PR, marketing and scholarship and one can argue that its biggest problem is the critical uptake of the work by the interested public. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_241

In his review of the 1982 supplement, University of Oxford linguist Roy Harris writes that criticizing the OED is extremely difficult because "one is dealing not just with a dictionary but with a national institution", one that "has become, like the English monarchy, virtually immune from criticism in principle". Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_242

He further notes that neologisms from respected "literary" authors such as Samuel Beckett and Virginia Woolf are included, whereas usage of words in newspapers or other less "respectable" sources hold less sway, even though they may be commonly used. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_243

He writes that the OED's "[b]lack-and-white lexicography is also black-and-white in that it takes upon itself to pronounce authoritatively on the rights and wrongs of usage", faulting the dictionary's prescriptive rather than descriptive usage. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_244

To Harris, this prescriptive classification of certain usages as "erroneous" and the complete omission of various forms and usages cumulatively represent the "social bias[es]" of the (presumably well-educated and wealthy) compilers. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_245

However, the identification of "erroneous and catachrestic" usages is being removed from third edition entries, sometimes in favour of usage notes describing the attitudes to language which have previously led to these classifications. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_246

Harris also faults the editors' "donnish conservatism" and their adherence to prudish Victorian morals, citing as an example the non-inclusion of "various centuries-old 'four-letter words'" until 1972. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_247

However, no English dictionary included such words, for fear of possible prosecution under British obscenity laws, until after the conclusion of the Lady Chatterley's Lover obscenity trial in 1960. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_248

The first dictionary to include the word fuck was the Penguin English Dictionary of 1965. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_249

Joseph Wright's English Dialect Dictionary had included shit in 1905. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_250

The OED's claims of authority have also been questioned by linguists such as Pius ten Hacken, who notes that the dictionary actively strives towards definitiveness and authority but can only achieve those goals in a limited sense, given the difficulties of defining the scope of what it includes. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_251

Founding editor James Murray was also reluctant to include scientific terms, despite their documentation, unless he felt that they were widely enough used. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_252

In 1902, he declined to add the word "radium" to the dictionary. Oxford English Dictionary_sentence_253

See also Oxford English Dictionary_section_19

Oxford English Dictionary_unordered_list_13

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxford English Dictionary.