Papua New Guinea

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For the single by The Future Sound of London, see Papua New Guinea (song). Papua New Guinea_sentence_0

Not to be confused with Guinea, Guinea (region), New Guinea, or Western New Guinea. Papua New Guinea_sentence_1

Papua New Guinea_table_infobox_0

Independent State of Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_0_0

and largest cityPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_1_0

Port MoresbyPapua New Guinea_cell_0_1_1
Official languagesPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_2_0 Papua New Guinea_cell_0_2_1
Indigenous languagesPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_3_0 851 languagesPapua New Guinea_cell_0_3_1
Ethnic groupsPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_4_0 Papua New Guinea_cell_0_4_1
Religion (2011 census)Papua New Guinea_header_cell_0_5_0 Papua New Guinea_cell_0_5_1
Demonym(s)Papua New Guinea_header_cell_0_6_0 Papua New GuineanPapua New Guinea_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_7_0 Unitary parliamentary

constitutional monarchyPapua New Guinea_cell_0_7_1

MonarchPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_8_0 Elizabeth IIPapua New Guinea_cell_0_8_1
Governor-GeneralPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_9_0 Bob DadaePapua New Guinea_cell_0_9_1
Prime MinisterPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_10_0 James MarapePapua New Guinea_cell_0_10_1
LegislaturePapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_11_0 National ParliamentPapua New Guinea_cell_0_11_1
Independence from AustraliaPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_12_0
Papua and New Guinea Act 1949Papua New Guinea_header_cell_0_13_0 1 July 1949Papua New Guinea_cell_0_13_1
Declared and recognisedPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_14_0 16 September 1975Papua New Guinea_cell_0_14_1
Area Papua New Guinea_header_cell_0_15_0
TotalPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_16_0 462,840 km (178,700 sq mi) (54th)Papua New Guinea_cell_0_16_1
Water (%)Papua New Guinea_header_cell_0_17_0 2Papua New Guinea_cell_0_17_1
PopulationPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_18_0
2020 estimatePapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_19_0 8,935,000 (98th)Papua New Guinea_cell_0_19_1
2011 censusPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_20_0 7,275,324Papua New Guinea_cell_0_20_1
DensityPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_21_0 15/km (38.8/sq mi) (201st)Papua New Guinea_cell_0_21_1
GDP (PPP)Papua New Guinea_header_cell_0_22_0 2019 estimatePapua New Guinea_cell_0_22_1
TotalPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_23_0 $32.382 billion (124th)Papua New Guinea_cell_0_23_1
Per capitaPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_24_0 $3,764Papua New Guinea_cell_0_24_1
GDP (nominal)Papua New Guinea_header_cell_0_25_0 2019 estimatePapua New Guinea_cell_0_25_1
TotalPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_26_0 $21.543 billion (110th)Papua New Guinea_cell_0_26_1
Per capitaPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_27_0 $2,504Papua New Guinea_cell_0_27_1
Gini (2009)Papua New Guinea_header_cell_0_28_0 41.9

mediumPapua New Guinea_cell_0_28_1

HDI (2018)Papua New Guinea_header_cell_0_29_0 0.543

low · 155thPapua New Guinea_cell_0_29_1

CurrencyPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_30_0 Papua New Guinean kina (PGK)Papua New Guinea_cell_0_30_1
Time zonePapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_31_0 UTC+10, +11 (AEST)Papua New Guinea_cell_0_31_1
Driving sidePapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_32_0 leftPapua New Guinea_cell_0_32_1
Calling codePapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_33_0 +675Papua New Guinea_cell_0_33_1
ISO 3166 codePapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_34_0 PGPapua New Guinea_cell_0_34_1
Internet TLDPapua New Guinea_header_cell_0_35_0 .pgPapua New Guinea_cell_0_35_1

Papua New Guinea (PNG; /ˈpæp(j)uə ... ˈɡɪni, ˈpɑː-/, also US: /ˈpɑːpwə-, ˈpɑːpjə-, ˈpɑːpə-/; Tok Pisin: Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea (Tok Pisin: Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Independen Stet bilong Papua Niu Gini), is a sovereign state in Oceania that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. Papua New Guinea_sentence_2

Its capital, located along its southeastern coast, is Port Moresby. Papua New Guinea_sentence_3

The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua. Papua New Guinea_sentence_4

It is the world's third largest island country with 462,840 km (178,700 sq mi). Papua New Guinea_sentence_5

At the national level, after being ruled by three external powers since 1884, Papua New Guinea established its sovereignty in 1975. Papua New Guinea_sentence_6

This followed nearly 60 years of Australian administration, which started during World War I. Papua New Guinea_sentence_7

It became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1975 with Elizabeth II as its queen. Papua New Guinea_sentence_8

It also became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations in its own right. Papua New Guinea_sentence_9

Papua New Guinea is one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world. Papua New Guinea_sentence_10

As of 2019, it is also the most rural, as only 13.25% of its people live in urban centres. Papua New Guinea_sentence_11

There are 851 known languages in the country, of which 11 now have no known speakers. Papua New Guinea_sentence_12

Most of the population of more than 8,000,000 people live in customary communities, which are as diverse as the languages. Papua New Guinea_sentence_13

The country is one of the world's least explored, culturally and geographically. Papua New Guinea_sentence_14

It is known to have numerous groups of uncontacted peoples, and researchers believe there are many undiscovered species of plants and animals in the interior. Papua New Guinea_sentence_15

Papua New Guinea is classified as a developing economy by the International Monetary Fund. Papua New Guinea_sentence_16

Nearly 40% of the population lives a self-sustainable natural lifestyle with no access to global capital. Papua New Guinea_sentence_17

Most of the people still live in strong traditional social groups based on farming. Papua New Guinea_sentence_18

Their social lives combine traditional religion with modern practices, including primary education. Papua New Guinea_sentence_19

These societies and clans are explicitly acknowledged by the Papua New Guinea Constitution, which expresses the wish for "traditional villages and communities to remain as viable units of Papua New Guinean society" and protects their continuing importance to local and national community life. Papua New Guinea_sentence_20

The nation is an observer state in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) since 1976 and has filed its application for full membership status. Papua New Guinea_sentence_21

It is a full member of the Pacific Community, the Pacific Islands Forum, and the Commonwealth of Nations. Papua New Guinea_sentence_22

Etymology Papua New Guinea_section_0

The word papua is derived from an old local term of uncertain origin. Papua New Guinea_sentence_23

"New Guinea" (Nueva Guinea) was the name coined by the Spanish explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez. Papua New Guinea_sentence_24

In 1545, he noted the resemblance of the people to those he had earlier seen along the Guinea coast of Africa. Papua New Guinea_sentence_25

Guinea, in its turn, is etymologically derived from the Portuguese word Guiné. Papua New Guinea_sentence_26

The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies, ultimately meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. Papua New Guinea_sentence_27

History Papua New Guinea_section_1

Main article: History of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_28

Archaeological evidence indicates that humans first arrived in Papua New Guinea around 42,000 to 45,000 years ago. Papua New Guinea_sentence_29

They were descendants of migrants out of Africa, in one of the early waves of human migration. Papua New Guinea_sentence_30

Agriculture was independently developed in the New Guinea highlands around 7000 BC, making it one of the few areas in the world where people independently domesticated plants. Papua New Guinea_sentence_31

A major migration of Austronesian-speaking peoples to coastal regions of New Guinea took place around 500 BC. Papua New Guinea_sentence_32

This has been correlated with the introduction of pottery, pigs, and certain fishing techniques. Papua New Guinea_sentence_33

In the 18th century, traders brought the sweet potato to New Guinea, where it was adopted and became a staple food. Papua New Guinea_sentence_34

Portuguese traders had obtained it from South America and introduced it to the Moluccas. Papua New Guinea_sentence_35

The far higher crop yields from sweet potato gardens radically transformed traditional agriculture and societies. Papua New Guinea_sentence_36

Sweet potato largely supplanted the previous staple, taro, and resulted in a significant increase in population in the highlands. Papua New Guinea_sentence_37

Although by the late 20th century headhunting and cannibalism had been practically eradicated, in the past they were practised in many parts of the country as part of rituals related to warfare and taking in enemy spirits or powers. Papua New Guinea_sentence_38

In 1901, on Goaribari Island in the Gulf of Papua, missionary Harry Dauncey found 10,000 skulls in the island's long houses, a demonstration of past practices. Papua New Guinea_sentence_39

According to Marianna Torgovnick, writing in 1991, "The most fully documented instances of cannibalism as a social institution come from New Guinea, where head-hunting and ritual cannibalism survived, in certain isolated areas, into the Fifties, Sixties, and Seventies, and still leave traces within certain social groups." Papua New Guinea_sentence_40

European encounters Papua New Guinea_section_2

Little was known in Europe about the island until the 19th century, although Portuguese and Spanish explorers, such as Dom Jorge de Menezes and Yñigo Ortiz de Retez, had encountered it as early as the 16th century. Papua New Guinea_sentence_41

Traders from Southeast Asia had visited New Guinea beginning 5,000 years ago to collect bird-of-paradise plumes. Papua New Guinea_sentence_42

Colonialism Papua New Guinea_section_3

The country's dual name results from its complex administrative history before independence. Papua New Guinea_sentence_43

In the nineteenth century, Germany ruled the northern half of the country for some decades, beginning in 1884, as a colony named German New Guinea. Papua New Guinea_sentence_44

In 1914 after the outbreak of World War I, Australian forces captured German New Guinea and occupied it throughout the war. Papua New Guinea_sentence_45

After the war, in which Germany and the Central Powers were defeated, the League of Nations authorised Australia to administer this area as a League of Nations mandate territory that became the Territory of New Guinea. Papua New Guinea_sentence_46

The southern half of the country had been colonised in 1884 by the United Kingdom as British New Guinea. Papua New Guinea_sentence_47

With the Papua Act 1905, the UK transferred this territory to the newly formed Commonwealth of Australia, which took on its administration. Papua New Guinea_sentence_48

Additionally, from 1905, British New Guinea was renamed as the Territory of Papua. Papua New Guinea_sentence_49

In contrast to establishing an Australian mandate in former German New Guinea, the League of Nations determined that Papua was an external territory of the Australian Commonwealth; as a matter of law it remained a British possession. Papua New Guinea_sentence_50

The difference in legal status meant that until 1949, Papua and New Guinea had entirely separate administrations, both controlled by Australia. Papua New Guinea_sentence_51

These conditions contributed to the complexity of organising the country's post-independence legal system. Papua New Guinea_sentence_52

World War II Papua New Guinea_section_4

During World War II, the New Guinea campaign (1942–1945) was one of the major military campaigns and conflicts between Japan and the Allies. Papua New Guinea_sentence_53

Approximately 216,000 Japanese, Australian, and U.S. servicemen died. Papua New Guinea_sentence_54

After World War II and the victory of the Allies, the two territories were combined into the Territory of Papua and New Guinea. Papua New Guinea_sentence_55

This was later referred to as "Papua New Guinea". Papua New Guinea_sentence_56

The natives of Papua appealed to the United Nations for oversight and independence. Papua New Guinea_sentence_57

The nation established independence from Australia on 16 September 1975, becoming a Commonwealth realm, continuing to share Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. Papua New Guinea_sentence_58

It maintains close ties with Australia, which continues to be its largest aid donor. Papua New Guinea_sentence_59

Papua New Guinea was admitted to membership in the United Nations on 10 October 1975. Papua New Guinea_sentence_60

Bougainville Papua New Guinea_section_5

A secessionist revolt in 1975–76 on Bougainville Island resulted in an eleventh-hour modification of the draft Constitution of Papua New Guinea to allow for Bougainville and the other eighteen districts to have quasi-federal status as provinces. Papua New Guinea_sentence_61

A renewed uprising on Bougainville started in 1988 and claimed 20,000 lives until it was resolved in 1997. Papua New Guinea_sentence_62

Bougainville had been the primary mining region of the country, generating 40% of the national budget. Papua New Guinea_sentence_63

The native peoples felt they were bearing the adverse environmental effects of the mining, which contaminated the land, water and air, without gaining a fair share of the profits. Papua New Guinea_sentence_64

The government and rebels negotiated a peace agreement that established the Bougainville Autonomous District and Province. Papua New Guinea_sentence_65

The autonomous Bougainville elected Joseph Kabui as president in 2005, who served until his death in 2008. Papua New Guinea_sentence_66

He was succeeded by his deputy John Tabinaman as acting president while an election to fill the unexpired term was organised. Papua New Guinea_sentence_67

James Tanis won that election in December 2008 and served until the inauguration of John Momis, the winner of the 2010 elections. Papua New Guinea_sentence_68

As part of the current peace settlement, a non-binding independence referendum was held, between 23 November and 7 December 2019. Papua New Guinea_sentence_69

The referendum question was a choice between greater autonomy within Papua New Guinea and full independence for Bougainville, and voters voted overwhelmingly (98.31%) for independence. Papua New Guinea_sentence_70

Chinese minority Papua New Guinea_section_6

Numerous Chinese have worked and lived in Papua New Guinea, establishing Chinese-majority communities. Papua New Guinea_sentence_71

Chinese merchants became established in the islands before European exploration. Papua New Guinea_sentence_72

Anti-Chinese rioting involving tens of thousands of people broke out in May 2009. Papua New Guinea_sentence_73

The initial spark was a fight between ethnic Chinese and indigenous workers at a nickel factory under construction by a Chinese company. Papua New Guinea_sentence_74

Native resentment against Chinese ownership of numerous small businesses and their commercial monopoly in the islands led to the rioting. Papua New Guinea_sentence_75

Earthquakes Papua New Guinea_section_7

From March to April 2018, a chain of earthquakes hit Papua New Guinea, causing various damage. Papua New Guinea_sentence_76

Various nations from Oceania, Australia, the Philippines and Timor-Leste immediately sent aid to the country. Papua New Guinea_sentence_77

Government and politics Papua New Guinea_section_8

Main article: Politics of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_78

Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm with Elizabeth II as Queen of Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea_sentence_79

The constitutional convention, which prepared the draft constitution, and Australia, the outgoing metropolitan power, had thought that Papua New Guinea would not remain a monarchy. Papua New Guinea_sentence_80

The founders, however, considered that imperial honours had a cachet. Papua New Guinea_sentence_81

The monarch is represented by the Governor-General of Papua New Guinea, currently Bob Dadae. Papua New Guinea_sentence_82

Papua New Guinea (and the Solomon Islands) are unusual among Commonwealth realms in that governors-general are elected by the legislature, rather than chosen by the executive branch. Papua New Guinea_sentence_83

The Prime Minister heads the cabinet, which consists of 31 members of Parliament from the ruling coalition, which make up the government. Papua New Guinea_sentence_84

The current prime minister is James Marape. Papua New Guinea_sentence_85

The unicameral National Parliament has 111 seats, of which 22 are occupied by the governors of the 22 provinces and the National Capital District. Papua New Guinea_sentence_86

Candidates for members of parliament are voted upon when the prime minister asks the governor-general to call a national election, a maximum of five years after the previous national election. Papua New Guinea_sentence_87

In the early years of independence, the instability of the party system led to frequent votes of no confidence in parliament, with resulting changes of the government, but with referral to the electorate, through national elections only occurring every five years. Papua New Guinea_sentence_88

In recent years, successive governments have passed legislation preventing such votes sooner than 18 months after a national election and within 12 months of the next election. Papua New Guinea_sentence_89

In 2012, the first two (of three) readings were passed to prevent votes of no confidence occurring within the first 30 months. Papua New Guinea_sentence_90

This restriction on votes of no confidence has arguably resulted in greater stability, although perhaps at a cost of reducing the accountability of the executive branch of government. Papua New Guinea_sentence_91

Elections in PNG attract numerous candidates. Papua New Guinea_sentence_92

After independence in 1975, members were elected by the first-past-the-post system, with winners frequently gaining less than 15% of the vote. Papua New Guinea_sentence_93

Electoral reforms in 2001 introduced the Limited Preferential Vote system (LPV), a version of the alternative vote. Papua New Guinea_sentence_94

The 2007 general election was the first to be conducted using LPV. Papua New Guinea_sentence_95

Under a 2002 amendment, the leader of the party winning the largest number of seats in the election is invited by the governor-general to form the government, if she can muster the necessary majority in parliament. Papua New Guinea_sentence_96

The process of forming such a coalition in PNG, where parties do not have much ideology, involves considerable "horse-trading" right up until the last moment. Papua New Guinea_sentence_97

Peter O'Neill emerged as Papua New Guinea's prime minister after the July 2012 election, and formed a government with Leo Dion, the former Governor of East New Britain Province, as deputy prime minister. Papua New Guinea_sentence_98

In 2011 there was a constitutional crisis between the parliament-elect Prime Minister, Peter O'Neill (voted into office by a large majority of MPs), and Sir Michael Somare, who was deemed by the supreme court to retain office. Papua New Guinea_sentence_99

The stand-off between parliament and the supreme court continued until the July 2012 national elections, with legislation passed effectively removing the chief justice and subjecting the supreme court members to greater control by the legislature, as well as a series of other laws passed, for example limiting the age for a prime minister. Papua New Guinea_sentence_100

The confrontation reached a peak, with the deputy prime minister entering the supreme court during a hearing, escorted by police, ostensibly to arrest the chief justice. Papua New Guinea_sentence_101

There was strong pressure among some MPs to defer the national elections for a further six months to one year, although their powers to do that were highly questionable. Papua New Guinea_sentence_102

The parliament-elect prime minister and other cooler-headed MPs carried the votes for the writs for the new election to be issued, slightly late, but for the election itself to occur on time, thereby avoiding a continuation of the constitutional crisis. Papua New Guinea_sentence_103

In May 2019, O'Neill resigned as prime minister and was replaced through a vote of Parliament by James Marape. Papua New Guinea_sentence_104

Davis Steven was appointed deputy prime minister. Papua New Guinea_sentence_105

Law Papua New Guinea_section_9

Main article: Law of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_106

The unicameral Parliament enacts legislation in the same manner as in other Commonwealth realms that use the Westminster system of government. Papua New Guinea_sentence_107

The cabinet collectively agree government policy, then the relevant minister introduces bills to Parliament, depending on which government department is responsible for implementation of a particular law. Papua New Guinea_sentence_108

Back bench members of parliament can also introduce bills. Papua New Guinea_sentence_109

Parliament debates bills, and if approved the bill is forwarded to the Governor-General for Royal assent, following which it becomes law. Papua New Guinea_sentence_110

All ordinary statutes enacted by Parliament must be consistent with the Constitution. Papua New Guinea_sentence_111

The courts have jurisdiction to rule on the constitutionality of statutes, both in disputes before them and on a reference where there is no dispute but only an abstract question of law. Papua New Guinea_sentence_112

Unusually among developing countries, the judicial branch of government in Papua New Guinea has remained remarkably independent, and successive executive governments have continued to respect its authority. Papua New Guinea_sentence_113

The "underlying law" (Papua New Guinea's common law) consists of principles and rules of common law and equity in English common law as it stood on 16 September 1975 (the date of independence), and thereafter the decisions of PNG's own courts. Papua New Guinea_sentence_114

The courts are directed by the Constitution and, latterly, the Underlying Law Act, to take note of the "custom" of traditional communities. Papua New Guinea_sentence_115

They are to determine which customs are common to the whole country and may be declared also to be part of the underlying law. Papua New Guinea_sentence_116

In practice, this has proved difficult and has been largely neglected. Papua New Guinea_sentence_117

Statutes are largely adapted from overseas jurisdictions, primarily Australia and England. Papua New Guinea_sentence_118

Advocacy in the courts follows the adversarial pattern of other common-law countries. Papua New Guinea_sentence_119

This national court system, used in towns and cities, is supported by a village court system in the more remote areas. Papua New Guinea_sentence_120

The law underpinning the village courts is 'customary law'. Papua New Guinea_sentence_121

Foreign policy Papua New Guinea_section_10

Main article: Foreign relations of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_122

Papua New Guinea is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Pacific Community, Pacific Islands Forum, and the Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) of countries. Papua New Guinea_sentence_123

It was accorded observer status within ASEAN in 1976, followed later by special observer status in 1981. Papua New Guinea_sentence_124

It is also a member of APEC and an ACP country, associated with the European Union. Papua New Guinea_sentence_125

Papua New Guinea supported Indonesia's control of Western New Guinea: the focus of the Papua conflict where numerous human rights violations have reportedly been committed by the Indonesian security forces. Papua New Guinea_sentence_126

In September 2017, Papua New Guinea rejected the West Papuan Independence Petition in the UN General Assembly. Papua New Guinea_sentence_127

Military Papua New Guinea_section_11

Crime and human rights Papua New Guinea_section_12

Main article: Human rights in Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_128

See also: Sexual violence in Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_129

Papua New Guinea is often ranked as likely the worst place in the world for violence against women. Papua New Guinea_sentence_130

A 2013 study in The Lancet found that 27% of men on Bougainville Island reported having raped a non-partner, while 14.1% reported having committed gang rape. Papua New Guinea_sentence_131

According to UNICEF, nearly half of reported rape victims are under 15 years old, and 13% are under 7 years old. Papua New Guinea_sentence_132

A report by ChildFund Australia, citing former Parliamentarian Dame Carol Kidu, claimed 50% of those seeking medical help after rape are under 16, 25% are under 12, and 10% are under 8. Papua New Guinea_sentence_133

The 1971 Sorcery Act imposed a penalty of up to 2 years in prison for the practice of "black" magic, until the act was repealed in 2013. Papua New Guinea_sentence_134

An estimated 50–150 alleged witches are killed each year in Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea_sentence_135

There are also no protections given to LGBT citizens in the country. Papua New Guinea_sentence_136

Homosexual acts are prohibited by law in Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea_sentence_137

Royal PNG Constabulary Papua New Guinea_section_13

The Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary has been troubled in recent years by infighting, political interference and corruption. Papua New Guinea_sentence_138

In 2011, Commissioner for Police Anthony Wagambie took the unusual step of asking the public to report police asking for payments for performing their duties. Papua New Guinea_sentence_139

In September 2020, Minister for Police Bryan Jared Kramer launched a broadside on Facebook against his own police department, which was subsequently reported in the international media. Papua New Guinea_sentence_140

In the post, Kramer accused the Royal PNG Constabulary of widespread corruption, claiming that "Senior officers based in Police Headquarters in Port Moresby were stealing from their own retired officers’ pension funds. Papua New Guinea_sentence_141

They were implicated in organised crime, drug syndicates, smuggling firearms, stealing fuel, insurance scams, and eeven misusing police allowances. Papua New Guinea_sentence_142

They misused tens of millions of kina allocated for police housing, resources, and welfare. Papua New Guinea_sentence_143

We also uncovered many cases of senior officers facilitating the theft of Police land." Papua New Guinea_sentence_144

Commissioner for Police David Manning, in a separate statement, said that his force included “criminals in uniform”. Papua New Guinea_sentence_145

Administrative divisions Papua New Guinea_section_14

Main articles: Regions of Papua New Guinea, Provinces of Papua New Guinea, Districts of Papua New Guinea, and Local-level governments of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_146

Papua New Guinea is divided into four regions, which are not the primary administrative divisions but are quite significant in many aspects of government, commercial, sporting and other activities. Papua New Guinea_sentence_147

The nation has 22 province-level divisions: twenty provinces, the Autonomous Region of Bougainville and the National Capital District. Papua New Guinea_sentence_148

Each province is divided into one or more districts, which in turn are divided into one or more Local-Level Government areas. Papua New Guinea_sentence_149

Provinces are the primary administrative divisions of the country. Papua New Guinea_sentence_150

Provincial governments are branches of the national government as Papua New Guinea is not a federation of provinces. Papua New Guinea_sentence_151

The province-level divisions are as follows: Papua New Guinea_sentence_152

In 2009, Parliament approved the creation of two additional provinces: Hela Province, consisting of part of the existing Southern Highlands Province, and Jiwaka Province, formed by dividing Western Highlands Province. Papua New Guinea_sentence_153

Jiwaka and Hela officially became separate provinces on 17 May 2012. Papua New Guinea_sentence_154

The declaration of Hela and Jiwaka is a result of the largest liquefied natural gas project in the country that is situated in both provinces. Papua New Guinea_sentence_155

The government set 23 November 2019 as the voting date for a non-binding independence referendum in the Bougainville autonomous region. Papua New Guinea_sentence_156

In December 2019, the autonomous region voted overwhelmingly for independence, with 97.7% voting in favor of obtaining full independence and around 1.7% voting in favor of greater autonomy. Papua New Guinea_sentence_157

Geography Papua New Guinea_section_15

Main article: Geography of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_158

At 462,840 km (178,704 sq mi), Papua New Guinea is the world's 54th largest country and the 3rd largest island country. Papua New Guinea_sentence_159

Papua New Guinea is part of the Australasian realm, which also includes Australia, New Zealand, eastern Indonesia, and several Pacific island groups, including the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Papua New Guinea_sentence_160

Including all its islands, it lies between latitudes 0° and 12°S, and longitudes 140° and 160°E. Papua New Guinea_sentence_161

It has an exclusive economic zone of 2,402,288 km (927,529 sq mi). Papua New Guinea_sentence_162

The mainland of the country is the eastern half of New Guinea island, where the largest towns are also located, including Port Moresby (capital) and Lae; other major islands within Papua New Guinea include New Ireland, New Britain, Manus and Bougainville. Papua New Guinea_sentence_163

Located north of the Australian mainland, the country's geography is diverse and, in places, extremely rugged. Papua New Guinea_sentence_164

A spine of mountains, the New Guinea Highlands, runs the length of the island of New Guinea, forming a populous highlands region mostly covered with tropical rainforest, and the long Papuan Peninsula, known as the 'Bird's Tail'. Papua New Guinea_sentence_165

Dense rainforests can be found in the lowland and coastal areas as well as very large wetland areas surrounding the Sepik and Fly rivers. Papua New Guinea_sentence_166

This terrain has made it difficult for the country to develop transportation infrastructure. Papua New Guinea_sentence_167

Some areas are accessible only on foot or by aeroplane. Papua New Guinea_sentence_168

The highest peak is Mount Wilhelm at 4,509 metres (14,793 ft). Papua New Guinea_sentence_169

Papua New Guinea is surrounded by coral reefs which are under close watch, in the interests of preservation. Papua New Guinea_sentence_170

The country is situated on the Pacific Ring of Fire, at the point of collision of several tectonic plates. Papua New Guinea_sentence_171

Geologically, the island of New Guinea is a northern extension of the Indo-Australian tectonic plate, forming part of a single land mass which is Australia-New Guinea (also called Sahul or Meganesia). Papua New Guinea_sentence_172

It is connected to the Australian segment by a shallow continental shelf across the Torres Strait, which in former ages lay exposed as a land bridge, particularly during ice ages when sea levels were lower than at present. Papua New Guinea_sentence_173

As the Indo-Australian Plate (which includes landmasses of India, Australia, and the Indian Ocean floor in between) drifts north, it collides with the Eurasian Plate. Papua New Guinea_sentence_174

The collision of the two plates pushed up the Himalayas, the Indonesian islands, and New Guinea's Central Range. Papua New Guinea_sentence_175

The Central Range is much younger and higher than the mountains of Australia, so high that it is home to rare equatorial glaciers. Papua New Guinea_sentence_176

There are several active volcanoes, and eruptions are frequent. Papua New Guinea_sentence_177

Earthquakes are relatively common, sometimes accompanied by tsunamis. Papua New Guinea_sentence_178

On 25 February 2018, an earthquake of magnitude 7.5 and depth of 35 kilometres struck the middle of Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea_sentence_179

The worst of the damage was centred around the Southern Highlands region. Papua New Guinea_sentence_180

Papua New Guinea is one of the few regions close to the equator that experience snowfall, which occurs in the most elevated parts of the mainland. Papua New Guinea_sentence_181

The border between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia was confirmed by treaty with Australia before independence in 1974. Papua New Guinea_sentence_182

The land border comprises a segment of the 141° E meridian from the north coast southwards to where it meets the Fly River flowing east, then a short curve of the river's thalweg to where it meets the 141°01'10" E meridian flowing west, then southwards to the south coast. Papua New Guinea_sentence_183

The 141° E meridian formed the entire eastern boundary of Dutch New Guinea according to its 1828 annexation proclamation. Papua New Guinea_sentence_184

In 1895 the Dutch and British agreed to a territorial exchange, bringing the entire left bank of the Fly River into British New Guinea and moving the southern border east to the Torasi Estuary. Papua New Guinea_sentence_185

The maritime boundary with Australia was confirmed by a treaty in 1978. Papua New Guinea_sentence_186

In the Torres Strait it runs close to the mainland of New Guinea, keeping the adjacent North Western Torres Strait Islands (Dauan, Boigu and Saibai) under Australian sovereignty. Papua New Guinea_sentence_187

Maritime boundaries with the Solomon Islands were confirmed by a 1989 treaty. Papua New Guinea_sentence_188

Ecology Papua New Guinea_section_16

Main article: Environmental issues in Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_189

See also: Conservation in Papua New Guinea, List of protected areas of Papua New Guinea, and Fauna of New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_190

Many species of birds and mammals found on New Guinea have close genetic links with corresponding species found in Australia. Papua New Guinea_sentence_191

One notable feature in common for the two landmasses is the existence of several species of marsupial mammals, including some kangaroos and possums, which are not found elsewhere. Papua New Guinea_sentence_192

Papua New Guinea is a megadiverse country. Papua New Guinea_sentence_193

Many of the other islands within PNG territory, including New Britain, New Ireland, Bougainville, the Admiralty Islands, the Trobriand Islands, and the Louisiade Archipelago, were never linked to New Guinea by land bridges. Papua New Guinea_sentence_194

As a consequence, they have their own flora and fauna; in particular, they lack many of the land mammals and flightless birds that are common to New Guinea and Australia. Papua New Guinea_sentence_195

Australia and New Guinea are portions of the ancient supercontinent of Gondwana, which started to break into smaller continents in the Cretaceous period, 65–130 million years ago. Papua New Guinea_sentence_196

Australia finally broke free from Antarctica about 45 million years ago. Papua New Guinea_sentence_197

All the Australasian lands are home to the Antarctic flora, descended from the flora of southern Gondwana, including the coniferous podocarps and Araucaria pines, and the broad-leafed southern beech (Nothofagus). Papua New Guinea_sentence_198

These plant families are still present in Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea_sentence_199

New Guinea is part of the humid tropics, and many Indomalayan rainforest plants spread across the narrow straits from Asia, mixing together with the old Australian and Antarctic floras. Papua New Guinea_sentence_200

PNG includes a number of terrestrial ecoregions: Papua New Guinea_sentence_201

Papua New Guinea_unordered_list_0

Three new species of mammals were discovered in the forests of Papua New Guinea by an Australian-led expedition. Papua New Guinea_sentence_202

A small wallaby, a large-eared mouse and shrew-like marsupial were discovered. Papua New Guinea_sentence_203

The expedition was also successful in capturing photographs and video footage of some other rare animals such as the Tenkile tree kangaroo and the Weimang tree kangaroo. Papua New Guinea_sentence_204

Nearly one quarter of Papua New Guinea's rainforests were damaged or destroyed between 1972 and 2002.Mangrove swamps stretch along the coast, and in the inland it is inhabited by nipa palm (Nypa fruticans), and deeper in the inland the sago palm tree inhabits areas in the valleys of larger rivers. Papua New Guinea_sentence_205

Trees such as oaks, red cedars, pines, beeches are becoming predominantly present in the uplands above 3,300 feet. Papua New Guinea_sentence_206

Papua New Guinea is rich in various species of reptiles, indigenous freshwater fish and birds, but it is almost devoid of large mammals. Papua New Guinea_sentence_207

Climate Papua New Guinea_section_17

The climate on the island is essentially tropical, but it varies by region. Papua New Guinea_sentence_208

The maximum mean temperature in the lowlands is 30 to 32 ° C, and the minimum 23-24 ° C. In the highlands above 2100 meters, colder conditions prevail and night frosts are common there, while the daytime temperature exceeds 22° C, regardless of the season. Papua New Guinea_sentence_209

Economy Papua New Guinea_section_18

Main article: Economy of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_210

Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, including mineral and renewable resources, such as forests, marine (including a large portion of the world's major tuna stocks), and in some parts agriculture. Papua New Guinea_sentence_211

The rugged terrain—including high mountain ranges and valleys, swamps and islands—and high cost of developing infrastructure, combined with other factors (including law and order problems in some centres and the system of customary land title) makes it difficult for outside developers. Papua New Guinea_sentence_212

Local developers are handicapped by years of deficient investment in education, health, and access to finance. Papua New Guinea_sentence_213

Agriculture, for subsistence and cash crops, provides a livelihood for 85% of the population and continues to provide some 30% of GDP. Papua New Guinea_sentence_214

Mineral deposits, including gold, oil, and copper, account for 72% of export earnings. Papua New Guinea_sentence_215

Oil palm production has grown steadily over recent years (largely from estates and with extensive outgrower output), with palm oil now the main agricultural export. Papua New Guinea_sentence_216

Coffee remains the major export crop (produced largely in the Highlands provinces); followed by cocoa and coconut oil/copra from the coastal areas, each largely produced by smallholders; tea, produced on estates; and rubber. Papua New Guinea_sentence_217

The Iagifu/Hedinia Field was discovered in 1986 in the Papuan fold and thrust belt. Papua New Guinea_sentence_218

Former Prime Minister Sir Mekere Morauta tried to restore integrity to state institutions, stabilise the kina, restore stability to the national budget, privatise public enterprises where appropriate, and ensure ongoing peace on Bougainville following the 1997 agreement which ended Bougainville's secessionist unrest. Papua New Guinea_sentence_219

The Morauta government had considerable success in attracting international support, specifically gaining the backing of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank in securing development assistance loans. Papua New Guinea_sentence_220

As of 2019, PNG's real GDP growth rate was 3.8%, with an inflation rate of 4.3% This economic growth has been primarily attributed to strong commodity prices, particularly mineral but also agricultural, with the high demand for mineral products largely sustained even during the crisis by the buoyant Asian markets, a booming mining sector and by a buoyant outlook and the construction phase for natural gas exploration, production, and exportation in liquefied form (liquefied natural gas or "LNG") by LNG tankers, all of which will require multibillion-dollar investments (exploration, production wells, pipelines, storage, liquefaction plants, port terminals, LNG tanker ships). Papua New Guinea_sentence_221

The first major gas project was the PNG LNG joint venture. Papua New Guinea_sentence_222

ExxonMobil is operator of the joint venture, also comprising PNG company Oil Search, Santos, Kumul Petroleum Holdings (Papua New Guinea's national oil and gas company), JX Nippon Oil and Gas Exploration, the PNG government's Mineral Resources Development Company and Petromin PNG Holdings. Papua New Guinea_sentence_223

The project is an integrated development that includes gas production and processing facilities in the Hela, Southern Highlands and Western Provinces of Papua New Guinea, including liquefaction and storage facilities (located northwest of Port Moresby) with capacity of 6.9 million tonnes per year. Papua New Guinea_sentence_224

There are over 700 kilometres (430 mi) of pipelines connecting the facilities. Papua New Guinea_sentence_225

It is the largest private-sector investment in the history of PNG. Papua New Guinea_sentence_226

A second major project is based on initial rights held by the French oil and gas major Total S.A. and the U.S. company InterOil Corp. (IOC), which have partly combined their assets after Total agreed in December 2013 to purchase 61.3% of IOC's Antelope and Elk gas field rights, with the plan to develop them starting in 2016, including the construction of a liquefaction plant to allow export of LNG. Papua New Guinea_sentence_227

Total S.A. has separately another joint operating agreement with Oil Search . Papua New Guinea_sentence_228

Further gas and mineral projects are proposed (including the large Wafi-Golpu copper-gold mine), with extensive exploration ongoing across the country. Papua New Guinea_sentence_229

The PNG government's long-term Vision 2050 and shorter-term policy documents, including the 2013 Budget and the 2014 Responsible Sustainable Development Strategy, emphasise the need for a more diverse economy, based upon sustainable industries and avoiding the effects of Dutch disease from major resource extraction projects undermining other industries, as has occurred in many countries experiencing oil or other mineral booms, notably in Western Africa, undermining much of their agriculture sector, manufacturing and tourism, and with them broad-based employment prospects. Papua New Guinea_sentence_230

Measures have been taken to mitigate these effects, including through the establishment of a sovereign wealth fund, partly to stabilise revenue and expenditure flows, but much will depend upon the readiness to make real reforms to effective use of revenue, tackling rampant corruption and empowering households and businesses to access markets, services and develop a more buoyant economy, with lower costs, especially for small to medium-size enterprises. Papua New Guinea_sentence_231

One major project conducted through the PNG Department for Community Development suggested that other pathways to sustainable development should be considered. Papua New Guinea_sentence_232

The Institute of National Affairs, a PNG independent policy think tank, provides a report on the business and investment environment of Papua New Guinea every five years, based upon a survey of large and small, local and overseas companies, highlighting law and order problems and corruption, as the worst impediments, followed by the poor state of transport, power and communications infrastructure. Papua New Guinea_sentence_233

Land tenure Papua New Guinea_section_19

The PNG legislature has enacted laws in which a type of tenure called "customary land title" is recognised, meaning that the traditional lands of the indigenous peoples have some legal basis to inalienable tenure. Papua New Guinea_sentence_234

This customary land notionally covers most of the usable land in the country (some 97% of total land area); alienated land is either held privately under state lease or is government land. Papua New Guinea_sentence_235

Freehold title (also known as fee simple) can only be held by Papua New Guinean citizens. Papua New Guinea_sentence_236

Only some 3% of the land of Papua New Guinea is in private hands; this is privately held under 99-year state lease, or it is held by the State. Papua New Guinea_sentence_237

There is virtually no freehold title; the few existing freeholds are automatically converted to state lease when they are transferred between vendor and purchaser. Papua New Guinea_sentence_238

Unalienated land is owned under customary title by traditional landowners. Papua New Guinea_sentence_239

The precise nature of the seisin varies from one culture to another. Papua New Guinea_sentence_240

Many writers portray land as in the communal ownership of traditional clans; however, closer studies usually show that the smallest portions of land whose ownership cannot be further divided are held by the individual heads of extended families and their descendants or their descendants alone if they have recently died. Papua New Guinea_sentence_241

This is a matter of vital importance because a problem of economic development is identifying the membership of customary landowning groups and the owners. Papua New Guinea_sentence_242

Disputes between mining and forestry companies and landowner groups often devolve on the issue of whether the companies entered into contractual relations for the use of land with the true owners. Papua New Guinea_sentence_243

Customary property—usually land—cannot be devised by will. Papua New Guinea_sentence_244

It can only be inherited according to the custom of the deceased's people. Papua New Guinea_sentence_245

The Lands Act was amended in 2010 along with the Land Group Incorporation Act, intended to improve the management of state land, mechanisms for dispute resolution over land, and to enable customary landowners to be better able to access finance and possible partnerships over portions of their land, if they seek to develop it for urban or rural economic activities. Papua New Guinea_sentence_246

The Land Group Incorporation Act requires more specific identification of the customary landowners than hitherto and their more specific authorisation before any land arrangements are determined; (a major issue in recent years has been a land grab, using, or rather misusing, the Lease-Leaseback provision under the Land Act, notably using 'Special Agricultural and Business Leases' (SABLs) to acquire vast tracts of customary land, purportedly for agricultural projects, but in an almost all cases as a back-door mechanism for securing tropical forest resources for logging—circumventing the more exacting requirements of the Forest Act, for securing Timber Permits (which must comply with sustainability requirements and be competitively secured, and with the customary landowners approval). Papua New Guinea_sentence_247

Following a national outcry, these SABLs have been subject to a Commission of Inquiry, established in mid-2011, for which the report is still awaited for initial presentation to the Prime Minister and Parliament. Papua New Guinea_sentence_248

Demographics Papua New Guinea_section_20

Main article: Demographics of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_249

Papua New Guinea is one of the most heterogeneous nations in the world. Papua New Guinea_sentence_250

There are hundreds of ethnic groups indigenous to Papua New Guinea, the majority being from the group known as Papuans, whose ancestors arrived in the New Guinea region tens of thousands of years ago. Papua New Guinea_sentence_251

The other indigenous peoples are Austronesians, their ancestors having arrived in the region less than four thousand years ago. Papua New Guinea_sentence_252

There are also numerous people from other parts of the world now resident, including Chinese, Europeans, Australians, Indonesians, Filipinos, Polynesians, and Micronesians (the last four belonging to the Austronesian family). Papua New Guinea_sentence_253

Around 40,000 expatriates, mostly from Australia and China, were living in Papua New Guinea in 1975. Papua New Guinea_sentence_254

20,000 people from Australia currently live in Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea_sentence_255

They represent 0.25% of the total population of Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea_sentence_256

Urbanisation Papua New Guinea_section_21

According to the CIA World Factbook (2018), Papua New Guinea has the second lowest urban population percentage in the world, with 13.2%, only behind Burundi. Papua New Guinea_sentence_257

The geography and economy of Papua New Guinea are the main factors behind the low percentage. Papua New Guinea_sentence_258

Papua New Guinea has an urbanisation rate of 2.51%, measured as the projected change in urban population from 2015 to 2020. Papua New Guinea_sentence_259

Languages Papua New Guinea_section_22

Main article: Languages of Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_260

Papua New Guinea has more languages than any other country, with over 820 indigenous languages, representing 12% of the world's total, but most have fewer than 1,000 speakers. Papua New Guinea_sentence_261

With an average of only 7,000 speakers per language, Papua New Guinea has a greater density of languages than any other nation on earth except Vanuatu.The most widely spoken indigenous language is Enga, with about 200,000 speakers, followed by Melpa and Huli. Papua New Guinea_sentence_262

Indigenous languages are classified into two large groups, Austronesian languages and non-Austronesian, or Papuan, languages. Papua New Guinea_sentence_263

There are four languages in Papua New Guinea with some statutory recognition: English, Tok Pisin, Hiri Motu, and, since 2015, sign language (which in practice means Papua New Guinean Sign Language). Papua New Guinea_sentence_264

English is the language of government and the education system, but it is not spoken widely. Papua New Guinea_sentence_265

The primary lingua franca of the country is Tok Pisin (commonly known in English as New Guinean Pidgin or Melanesian Pidgin), in which much of the debate in Parliament is conducted, many information campaigns and advertisements are presented, and a national weekly newspaper, Wantok, is published. Papua New Guinea_sentence_266

The only area where Tok Pisin is not prevalent is the southern region of Papua, where people often use the third official language, Hiri Motu. Papua New Guinea_sentence_267

Although it lies in the Papua region, Port Moresby has a highly diverse population which primarily uses Tok Pisin, and to a lesser extent English, with Motu spoken as the indigenous language in outlying villages. Papua New Guinea_sentence_268

Health Papua New Guinea_section_23

Main article: Health in Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_269

Life expectancy in Papua New Guinea at birth was 64 years for men in 2016 and 68 for women. Papua New Guinea_sentence_270

Government expenditure health in 2014 accounted for 9.5% of total government spending, with total health expenditure equating to 4.3% of GDP. Papua New Guinea_sentence_271

There were five physicians per 100,000 people in the early 2000s. Papua New Guinea_sentence_272

The 2010 maternal mortality rate per 100,000 births for Papua New Guinea was 250. Papua New Guinea_sentence_273

This is compared with 311.9 in 2008 and 476.3 in 1990. Papua New Guinea_sentence_274

The under-5 mortality rate, per 1,000 births is 69 and the neonatal mortality as a percentage of under-5s' mortality is 37. Papua New Guinea_sentence_275

In Papua New Guinea, the number of midwives per 1,000 live births is 1 and the lifetime risk of death for pregnant women is 1 in 94. Papua New Guinea_sentence_276

Religion Papua New Guinea_section_24

Main article: Religion in Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_277

The government and judiciary uphold the constitutional right to freedom of speech, thought, and belief, and no legislation to curb those rights has been adopted. Papua New Guinea_sentence_278

The 2011 census found that 95.6% of citizens identified themselves as Christian, 1.4% were not Christian, and 3.1% gave no answer. Papua New Guinea_sentence_279

Virtually no respondent identified as being nonreligious. Papua New Guinea_sentence_280

Religious syncretism is high, with many citizens combining their Christian faith with some traditional indigenous religious practices. Papua New Guinea_sentence_281

Most Christians in Papua New Guinea are Protestants, constituting roughly 70% of the total population. Papua New Guinea_sentence_282

They are mostly represented by the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Papua New Guinea, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, diverse Pentecostal denominations, the United Church in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands, the Evangelical Alliance Papua New Guinea, and the Anglican Church of Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea_sentence_283

Apart from Protestants, there is a notable Roman Catholic minority with approximately 25% of the population. Papua New Guinea_sentence_284

There are approximately 2,000 Muslims in the country. Papua New Guinea_sentence_285

The majority belong to the Sunni group, while a small number are Ahmadi. Papua New Guinea_sentence_286

Non-traditional Christian churches and non-Christian religious groups are active throughout the country. Papua New Guinea_sentence_287

The Papua New Guinea Council of Churches has stated that both Muslim and Confucian missionaries are highly active. Papua New Guinea_sentence_288

Traditional religions are often animist. Papua New Guinea_sentence_289

Some also tend to have elements of veneration of the dead, though generalisation is suspect given the extreme heterogeneity of Melanesian societies. Papua New Guinea_sentence_290

Prevalent among traditional tribes is the belief in masalai, or evil spirits, which are blamed for "poisoning" people, causing calamity and death, and the practice of puripuri (sorcery). Papua New Guinea_sentence_291

The first Bahá’í in PNG was Violete Hoenke who arrived at Admiralty Island, from Australia, in 1954. Papua New Guinea_sentence_292

The PNG Bahá’í community grew so quickly that in 1969 a National Spiritual Assembly (administrative council) was elected. Papua New Guinea_sentence_293

As of 2020 there are over 30,000 members of the Bahá’í Faith in PNG. Papua New Guinea_sentence_294

In 2012 the decision was made to erect the first Bahá’í House of Worship in PNG. Papua New Guinea_sentence_295

Its design is that of a woven basket, a common feature of all groups and cultures in PNG. Papua New Guinea_sentence_296

It is, therefore, hoped to be a symbol for the entire country. Papua New Guinea_sentence_297

Its nine entrances are inspired by the design of Haus Tambaran (Spirit House). Papua New Guinea_sentence_298

Construction began in Port Moresby in 2018. Papua New Guinea_sentence_299

Culture Papua New Guinea_section_25

Main articles: Culture of Papua New Guinea, Music of Papua New Guinea, and Papua New Guinean cuisine Papua New Guinea_sentence_300

It is estimated that more than one thousand cultural groups exist in Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea_sentence_301

Because of this diversity, many styles of cultural expression have emerged. Papua New Guinea_sentence_302

Each group has created its own expressive forms in art, dance, weaponry, costumes, singing, music, architecture and much more. Papua New Guinea_sentence_303

Most of these cultural groups have their own language. Papua New Guinea_sentence_304

People typically live in villages that rely on subsistence farming. Papua New Guinea_sentence_305

In some areas people hunt and collect wild plants (such as yam roots and karuka) to supplement their diets. Papua New Guinea_sentence_306

Those who become skilled at hunting, farming and fishing earn a great deal of respect. Papua New Guinea_sentence_307

Seashells are no longer the currency of Papua New Guinea, as they were in some regions—sea shells were abolished as currency in 1933. Papua New Guinea_sentence_308

This tradition is still present in local customs. Papua New Guinea_sentence_309

In some cultures, to get a bride, a groom must bring a certain number of golden-edged clam shells as a bride price. Papua New Guinea_sentence_310

In other regions, the bride price is paid in lengths of shell money, pigs, cassowaries or cash. Papua New Guinea_sentence_311

Elsewhere, it is brides who traditionally pay a dowry. Papua New Guinea_sentence_312

People of the highlands engage in colourful local rituals that are called "sing sings". Papua New Guinea_sentence_313

They paint themselves and dress up with feathers, pearls and animal skins to represent birds, trees or mountain spirits. Papua New Guinea_sentence_314

Sometimes an important event, such as a legendary battle, is enacted at such a musical festival. Papua New Guinea_sentence_315

The country possesses one UNESCO World Heritage site, the Kuk Early Agricultural Site, which was inscribed in 2008. Papua New Guinea_sentence_316

The country, however, has no elements inscribed yet in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, despite having one of the widest array of intangible cultural heritage elements in the world. Papua New Guinea_sentence_317

Sport Papua New Guinea_section_26

Main article: Sport in Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_318

Sport is an important part of Papua New Guinean culture, and rugby league is by far the most popular sport. Papua New Guinea_sentence_319

In a nation where communities are far apart and many people live at a minimal subsistence level, rugby league has been described as a replacement for tribal warfare as a way of explaining the local enthusiasm for the game. Papua New Guinea_sentence_320

Many Papua New Guineans have become celebrities by representing their country or playing in an overseas professional league. Papua New Guinea_sentence_321

Even Australian rugby league players who have played in the annual State of Origin series, which is celebrated every year in PNG, are among the most well-known people throughout the nation. Papua New Guinea_sentence_322

State of Origin is a highlight of the year for most Papua New Guineans, although the support is so passionate that many people have died over the years in violent clashes supporting their team. Papua New Guinea_sentence_323

The Papua New Guinea national rugby league team usually plays against the Australian Prime Minister's XIII (a selection of NRL players) each year, normally in Port Moresby. Papua New Guinea_sentence_324

Although not as popular, Australian rules football is more significant in another way, as the national team is ranked second, only after Australia. Papua New Guinea_sentence_325

Other major sports which have a part in the Papua New Guinea sporting landscape are association football, rugby union, basketball and, in eastern Papua, cricket. Papua New Guinea_sentence_326

Education Papua New Guinea_section_27

Main article: Education in Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_327

A large proportion of the population is illiterate, with women predominating in this area. Papua New Guinea_sentence_328

Much of the education in PNG is provided by church institutions. Papua New Guinea_sentence_329

This includes 500 schools of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea_sentence_330

Papua New Guinea has six universities apart from other major tertiary institutions. Papua New Guinea_sentence_331

The two founding universities are the University of Papua New Guinea, based in the National Capital District, and the Papua New Guinea University of Technology, based outside of Lae, in Morobe Province. Papua New Guinea_sentence_332

The four other universities which were once colleges were established recently after gaining government recognition. Papua New Guinea_sentence_333

These are the University of Goroka in the Eastern Highlands province, Divine Word University (run by the Catholic Church's Divine Word Missionaries) in Madang Province, Vudal University in East New Britain Province and Pacific Adventist University (run by the Seventh-day Adventist Church) in the National Capital District. Papua New Guinea_sentence_334

Science and technology Papua New Guinea_section_28

Papua New Guinea's National Vision 2050 was adopted in 2009. Papua New Guinea_sentence_335

This has led to the establishment of the Research, Science and Technology Council. Papua New Guinea_sentence_336

At its gathering in November 2014, the Council re-emphasised the need to focus on sustainable development through science and technology. Papua New Guinea_sentence_337

Vision 2050's medium-term priorities are: Papua New Guinea_sentence_338

Papua New Guinea_unordered_list_1

  • emerging industrial technology for downstream processing;Papua New Guinea_item_1_16
  • infrastructure technology for the economic corridors;Papua New Guinea_item_1_17
  • knowledge-based technology;Papua New Guinea_item_1_18
  • science and engineering education; andPapua New Guinea_item_1_19
  • to reach the target of investing 5% of GDP in research and development by 2050. (There is no recent data for this indicator.)Papua New Guinea_item_1_20

According to Thomson Reuters' Web of Science, Papua New Guinea had the largest number of publications (110) among Pacific Island states in 2014, followed by Fiji (106). Papua New Guinea_sentence_339

Nine out of ten scientific publications from Papua New Guinea focused on immunology, genetics, biotechnology and microbiology. Papua New Guinea_sentence_340

Nine out of ten were also co-authored by scientists from other countries, mainly Australia, the United States of America, United Kingdom, Spain and Switzerland. Papua New Guinea_sentence_341

Forestry is an important economic resource for Papua New Guinea, but the industry uses low and semi-intensive technological inputs. Papua New Guinea_sentence_342

As a result, product ranges are limited to sawed timber, veneer, plywood, block board, moulding, poles and posts and wood chips. Papua New Guinea_sentence_343

Only a few limited finished products are exported. Papua New Guinea_sentence_344

Lack of automated machinery, coupled with inadequately trained local technical personnel, are some of the obstacles to introducing automated machinery and design. Papua New Guinea_sentence_345

Renewable energy sources represent two-thirds of the total electricity supply. Papua New Guinea_sentence_346

In 2015, the Secretariat of the Pacific Community observed that, 'while Fiji, Papua New Guinea, and Samoa are leading the way with large-scale hydropower projects, there is enormous potential to expand the deployment of other renewable energy options such as solar, wind, geothermal and ocean-based energy sources'. Papua New Guinea_sentence_347

The European Union has funded the Renewable Energy in Pacific Island Countries Developing Skills and Capacity programme (EPIC). Papua New Guinea_sentence_348

Since its inception in 2013, the programme has developed a master's programme in renewable energy management at the University of Papua New Guinea and helped to establish a Centre of Renewable Energy at the same university. Papua New Guinea_sentence_349

Papua New Guinea is one of the 15 beneficiaries of a programme on Adapting to Climate Change and Sustainable Energy worth €37.26 million. Papua New Guinea_sentence_350

The programme resulted from the signing of an agreement in February 2014 between the European Union and the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat. Papua New Guinea_sentence_351

The other beneficiaries are the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. Papua New Guinea_sentence_352

Transport Papua New Guinea_section_29

Main article: Transport in Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea_sentence_353

Transport in Papua New Guinea is heavily limited by the country's mountainous terrain. Papua New Guinea_sentence_354

As a result, air travel is the single most important form of transport for human and high density/value freight. Papua New Guinea_sentence_355

Airplanes made it possible to open up the country during its early colonial period. Papua New Guinea_sentence_356

Even today the two largest cities, Port Moresby and Lae, are only directly connected by planes. Papua New Guinea_sentence_357

Port Moresby is not linked by road to any of the other major towns, and many remote villages can only be reached by light aircraft or on foot. Papua New Guinea_sentence_358

Jacksons International Airport is the major international airport in Papua New Guinea, located 8 kilometres (5 mi) from Port Moresby. Papua New Guinea_sentence_359

In addition to two international airfields, Papua New Guinea has 578 airstrips, most of which are unpaved. Papua New Guinea_sentence_360

See also Papua New Guinea_section_30

Papua New Guinea_unordered_list_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: New Guinea.