Paraplegia

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Not to be confused with Hemiplegia or Paragelia. Paraplegia_sentence_0

Paraplegia_table_infobox_0

ParaplegiaParaplegia_header_cell_0_0_0
PronunciationParaplegia_header_cell_0_1_0 Paraplegia_cell_0_1_1
SpecialtyParaplegia_header_cell_0_2_0 Physical medicine and rehabilitationParaplegia_cell_0_2_1

Paraplegia is an impairment in motor or sensory function of the lower extremities. Paraplegia_sentence_1

The word comes from Ionic Greek (παραπληγίη) "half-stricken". Paraplegia_sentence_2

It is usually caused by spinal cord injury or a congenital condition that affects the neural (brain) elements of the spinal canal. Paraplegia_sentence_3

The area of the spinal canal that is affected in paraplegia is either the thoracic, lumbar, or sacral regions. Paraplegia_sentence_4

If four limbs are affected by paralysis, tetraplegia or quadriplegia is the correct term. Paraplegia_sentence_5

If only one limb is affected, the correct term is monoplegia. Paraplegia_sentence_6

Spastic paraplegia is a form of paraplegia defined by spasticity of the affected muscles, rather than flaccid paralysis. Paraplegia_sentence_7

The American Spinal Injury Association classifies spinal cord injury severity. Paraplegia_sentence_8

ASIA A being the complete loss of sensory function and motor skills below the injury. Paraplegia_sentence_9

ASIA B is having some sensory function below the injury, but no motor function. Paraplegia_sentence_10

ASIA C some motor function below level of injury, but half the muscles cannot move against gravity. Paraplegia_sentence_11

ASIA D, more than half of the muscles below the level of injury can move against gravity. Paraplegia_sentence_12

ASIA E which is the restoration of all neurologic function. Paraplegia_sentence_13

Treatment Paraplegia_section_0

Individuals with paraplegia can range in their level of disability, requiring treatments to vary from case to case. Paraplegia_sentence_14

Rehabilitation aims to help the patient regain as much functionality and independence as possible. Paraplegia_sentence_15

Physiotherapy may help to improve strength, range of motion, stretching and transfer skills. Paraplegia_sentence_16

Most paraplegics will be dependent on a wheelchair as a mode of transportation. Paraplegia_sentence_17

Activities of daily living (ADLs) can be quite challenging at first for those with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Paraplegia_sentence_18

With the aid of physiotherapists and occupational therapists, individuals with an SCI can learn new skills and adapt previous ones to maximize independence, often living independently within the community. Paraplegia_sentence_19

Regeneration of the spinal cord Paraplegia_section_1

See also: Spinal cord injury § Research directions Paraplegia_sentence_20

Olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC) have been transplanted with success into the spinal cord of Polish man named Darek Fidyka, who was the victim of a knife attack that left him paraplegic in 2010. Paraplegia_sentence_21

In 2014, Fidyka underwent pioneering spinal surgery that used nerve grafts, from his ankle, to 'bridge the gap' in his severed spinal cord and OEC's to stimulate the spinal cord cells. Paraplegia_sentence_22

The surgery was performed in Poland in collaboration with Prof. Geoff Raisman, chair of neural regeneration at University College London's Institute of Neurology, and his research team. Paraplegia_sentence_23

The olfactory cells were taken from the patient's olfactory bulbs in his brain and then grown in the lab, these cells were then injected above and below the impaired spinal tissue. Paraplegia_sentence_24

Fidyka regained sensory and motor function in his lower limbs, notably on the side of the transplanted OEC's. Paraplegia_sentence_25

Fidyka first noticed the success three months after the procedure, when his left thigh started gaining muscle mass. Paraplegia_sentence_26

MRIs suggest that the gap in his spinal cord has been closed up. Paraplegia_sentence_27

He is believed to be the first person in the world to recover sensory function from a complete severing of the spinal nerves. Paraplegia_sentence_28

See also Paraplegia_section_2

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paraplegia.