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This article is about the capital of France. Paris_sentence_0

For other uses, see Paris (disambiguation). Paris_sentence_1


CountryParis_header_cell_0_1_0 FranceParis_cell_0_1_1
RegionParis_header_cell_0_2_0 Île-de-FranceParis_cell_0_2_1
DepartmentParis_header_cell_0_3_0 ParisParis_cell_0_3_1
CantonParis_header_cell_0_4_0 ParisParis_cell_0_4_1
SubdivisionsParis_header_cell_0_5_0 20 arrondissementsParis_cell_0_5_1
MayorParis_header_cell_0_7_0 Anne Hidalgo (PS)Paris_cell_0_7_1
City properParis_header_cell_0_9_0 105.4 km (40.7 sq mi)Paris_cell_0_9_1
Population (1 January 2020 (est))Paris_header_cell_0_10_0
City properParis_header_cell_0_11_0 2,148,271Paris_cell_0_11_1
DensityParis_header_cell_0_12_0 20,000/km (53,000/sq mi)Paris_cell_0_12_1
UrbanParis_header_cell_0_13_0 10,784,830Paris_cell_0_13_1
MetroParis_header_cell_0_14_0 12,628,266Paris_cell_0_14_1
Demonym(s)Paris_header_cell_0_15_0 Parisian(s) (en) Parisien, Parisienne (fr)Paris_cell_0_15_1
Time zoneParis_header_cell_0_16_0 UTC+1 (CET)Paris_cell_0_16_1
Summer (DST)Paris_header_cell_0_17_0 UTC+2 (CEST)Paris_cell_0_17_1
INSEE/postal codeParis_header_cell_0_18_0 75001–75020, 75116Paris_cell_0_18_1
GeoTLDParis_header_cell_0_19_0 .parisParis_cell_0_19_1
WebsiteParis_header_cell_0_20_0 Paris_cell_0_20_1

Paris (French pronunciation: ​[paʁi (listen)) is the capital and most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,148,271 residents as of 2020, in an area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles). Paris_sentence_2

Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science and arts. Paris_sentence_3

The City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2020 population of 12,278,210, or about 18 percent of the population of France. Paris_sentence_4

The Paris Region had a GDP of €709 billion ($808 billion) in 2017. Paris_sentence_5

According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, and ahead of Zürich, Hong Kong, Oslo and Geneva. Paris_sentence_6

Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong Kong, in 2018. Paris_sentence_7

The city is a major railway, highway and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris–Charles de Gaulle (the second busiest airport in Europe) and Paris–Orly. Paris_sentence_8

Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily; it is the second busiest metro system in Europe after the Moscow Metro. Paris_sentence_9

Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, but the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris_sentence_10

Paris is especially known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2019, with 9.6 million visitors. Paris_sentence_11

The Musée d'Orsay, Musée Marmottan Monet, and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art. Paris_sentence_12

The Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe. Paris_sentence_13

The Musée Rodin and Musée Picasso exhibit the works of two noted Parisians. Paris_sentence_14

The historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site, and popular landmarks there included the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris on the Île de la Cité, now closed for renovation after the 15 April 2019 fire. Paris_sentence_15

Other popular tourist sites include the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, also on the Île de la Cité; the Eiffel Tower, constructed for the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889; the Grand Palais and Petit Palais, built for the Paris Universal Exposition of 1900; the Arc de Triomphe on the Champs-Élysées, and the Basilica of Sacré-Coeur on the hill of Montmartre. Paris_sentence_16

Paris received 38 million visitors in 2019, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and China. Paris_sentence_17

It was ranked as the second most visited travel destination in the world in 2019, after Bangkok and just ahead of London. Paris_sentence_18

The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris. Paris_sentence_19

The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris_sentence_20

Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris_sentence_21

The city hosted the Olympic Games in 1900, 1924 and will host the 2024 Summer Olympics. Paris_sentence_22

The 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, as well as the 1960, 1984 and 2016 UEFA European Championships were also held in the city. Paris_sentence_23

Every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes on the Avenue des Champs-Élysées in Paris. Paris_sentence_24

Etymology Paris_section_0

See for the name of Paris in various languages other than English and French. Paris_sentence_25

The name 'Paris' is derived from its early inhabitants, the Gallic Parisii tribe. Paris_sentence_26

The meaning of the Gaulish name Parisii is debated. Paris_sentence_27

According to Xavier Delamarre, it may derive from the root pario- ('cauldron'). Paris_sentence_28

Alfred Holder interpreted Parisii as 'the makers' or 'the commanders', by comparing the name to the Welsh peryff ('lord, commander'), from paraf - peri ('to make, produce, command to be done'). Paris_sentence_29

The city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris_sentence_30

Paris is often referred to as the 'City of Light' (La Ville Lumière), both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more literally because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments. Paris_sentence_31

Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carrousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. Paris_sentence_32

By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. Paris_sentence_33

By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Paris_sentence_34

Since the late 19th century, Paris has also been known as Panam(e) (pronounced [panam) in French slang. Paris_sentence_35

Inhabitants are known in English as "Parisians" and in French as Parisiens ([paʁizjɛ̃ (listen)). Paris_sentence_36

They are also pejoratively called Parigots ([paʁiɡo (listen)). Paris_sentence_37

History Paris_section_1

Main articles: History of Paris and Timeline of Paris Paris_sentence_38

Origins Paris_section_2

Main article: Lutetia Paris_sentence_39

The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. Paris_sentence_40

One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; this meeting place of land and water trade routes gradually became an important trading centre. Paris_sentence_41

The Parisii traded with many river towns (some as far away as the Iberian Peninsula) and minted their own coins for that purpose. Paris_sentence_42

The Romans conquered the Paris Basin in 52 BC and began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank. Paris_sentence_43

The Roman town was originally called Lutetia (more fully, Lutetia Parisiorum, "Lutetia of the Parisii", modern French Lutèce). Paris_sentence_44

It became a prosperous city with a forum, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheatre. Paris_sentence_45

By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would later become Paris in French. Paris_sentence_46

Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum (Latin "Hill of Martyrs"), later "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city; the place where he fell and was buried became an important religious shrine, the Basilica of Saint-Denis, and many French kings are buried there. Paris_sentence_47

Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. Paris_sentence_48

As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Paris_sentence_49

Fortification of the Île de la Cité failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges preventing ships from passing—was established by successful defence in the Siege of Paris (885–86), for which the then Count of Paris (comte de Paris), Odo of France, was elected king of West Francia. Paris_sentence_50

From the Capetian dynasty that began with the 987 election of Hugh Capet, Count of Paris and Duke of the Franks (duc des Francs), as king of a unified Francia, Paris gradually became the largest and most prosperous city in France. Paris_sentence_51

Middle Ages to Louis XIV Paris_section_3

See also: Paris in the Middle Ages, Paris in the 16th century, and Paris in the 17th century Paris_sentence_52

By the end of the 12th century, Paris had become the political, economic, religious, and cultural capital of France. Paris_sentence_53

The Palais de la Cité, the royal residence, was located at the western end of the Île de la Cité. Paris_sentence_54

In 1163, during the reign of Louis VII, Maurice de Sully, bishop of Paris, undertook the construction of the Notre Dame Cathedral at its eastern extremity. Paris_sentence_55

After the marshland between the river Seine and its slower 'dead arm' to its north was filled in around the 10th century, Paris' cultural centre began to move to the Right Bank. Paris_sentence_56

In 1137, a new city marketplace (today's Les Halles) replaced the two smaller ones on the Île de la Cité and Place de la Grève (Place de l'Hôtel de Ville). Paris_sentence_57

The latter location housed the headquarters of Paris' river trade corporation, an organisation that later became, unofficially (although formally in later years), Paris' first municipal government. Paris_sentence_58

In the late 12th century, Philip Augustus extended the Louvre fortress to defend the city against river invasions from the west, gave the city its first walls between 1190 and 1215, rebuilt its bridges to either side of its central island, and paved its main thoroughfares. Paris_sentence_59

In 1190, he transformed Paris' former cathedral school into a student-teacher corporation that would become the University of Paris and would draw students from all of Europe. Paris_sentence_60

With 200,000 inhabitants in 1328, Paris, then already the capital of France, was the most populous city of Europe. Paris_sentence_61

By comparison, London in 1300 had 80,000 inhabitants. Paris_sentence_62

During the Hundred Years' War, Paris was occupied by England-friendly Burgundian forces from 1418, before being occupied outright by the English when Henry V of England entered the French capital in 1420; in spite of a 1429 effort by Joan of Arc to liberate the city, it would remain under English occupation until 1436. Paris_sentence_63

In the late 16th-century French Wars of Religion, Paris was a stronghold of the Catholic League, the organisers of 24 August 1572 St. Paris_sentence_64

Bartholomew's Day massacre in which thousands of French Protestants were killed. Paris_sentence_65

The conflicts ended when pretender to the throne Henry IV, after converting to Catholicism to gain entry to the capital, entered the city in 1594 to claim the crown of France. Paris_sentence_66

This king made several improvements to the capital during his reign: he completed the construction of Paris' first uncovered, sidewalk-lined bridge, the Pont Neuf, built a Louvre extension connecting it to the Tuileries Palace, and created the first Paris residential square, the Place Royale, now Place des Vosges. Paris_sentence_67

In spite of Henry IV's efforts to improve city circulation, the narrowness of Paris' streets was a contributing factor in his assassination near Les Halles marketplace in 1610. Paris_sentence_68

During the 17th century, Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister of Louis XIII, was determined to make Paris the most beautiful city in Europe. Paris_sentence_69

He built five new bridges, a new chapel for the College of Sorbonne, and a palace for himself, the Palais-Cardinal, which he bequeathed to Louis XIII. Paris_sentence_70

After Richelieu's death in 1642, it was renamed the Palais-Royal. Paris_sentence_71

Due to the Parisian uprisings during the Fronde civil war, Louis XIV moved his court to a new palace, Versailles, in 1682. Paris_sentence_72

Although no longer the capital of France, arts and sciences in the city flourished with the Comédie-Française, the Academy of Painting, and the French Academy of Sciences. Paris_sentence_73

To demonstrate that the city was safe from attack, the king had the city walls demolished and replaced with tree-lined boulevards that would become the Grands Boulevards of today. Paris_sentence_74

Other marks of his reign were the Collège des Quatre-Nations, the Place Vendôme, the Place des Victoires, and Les Invalides. Paris_sentence_75

18th and 19th centuries Paris_section_4

See also: Paris in the 18th century, Paris during the Second Empire, and Haussmann's renovation of Paris Paris_sentence_76

Paris grew in population from about 400,000 in 1640 to 650,000 in 1780. Paris_sentence_77

A new boulevard, the Champs-Élysées, extended the city west to Étoile, while the working-class neighbourhood of the Faubourg Saint-Antoine on the eastern site of the city grew more and more crowded with poor migrant workers from other regions of France. Paris_sentence_78

Paris was the centre of an explosion of philosophic and scientific activity known as the Age of Enlightenment. Paris_sentence_79

Diderot and d'Alembert published their Encyclopédie in 1751, and the Montgolfier Brothers launched the first manned flight in a hot-air balloon on 21 November 1783, from the gardens of the Château de la Muette. Paris_sentence_80

Paris was the financial capital of continental Europe, the primary European centre of book publishing and fashion and the manufacture of fine furniture and luxury goods. Paris_sentence_81

In the summer of 1789, Paris became the centre stage for the French Revolution. Paris_sentence_82

On 14 July, a mob seized the arsenal at the Invalides, acquiring thousands of guns, and stormed the Bastille, a symbol of royal authority. Paris_sentence_83

The first independent Paris Commune, or city council, met in the Hôtel de Ville and, on 15 July, elected a Mayor, the astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly. Paris_sentence_84

Louis XVI and the royal family were brought to Paris and made prisoners within the Tuileries Palace. Paris_sentence_85

In 1793, as the revolution turned more and more radical, the king, queen, and the mayor were guillotined (executed) in the Reign of Terror, along with more than 16,000 others throughout France. Paris_sentence_86

The property of the aristocracy and the church was nationalised, and the city's churches were closed, sold or demolished. Paris_sentence_87

A succession of revolutionary factions ruled Paris until 9 November 1799 (coup d'état du 18 brumaire), when Napoléon Bonaparte seized power as First Consul. Paris_sentence_88

The population of Paris had dropped by 100,000 during the Revolution, but between 1799 and 1815, it surged with 160,000 new residents, reaching 660,000. Paris_sentence_89

Napoleon Bonaparte replaced the elected government of Paris with a prefect reporting only to him. Paris_sentence_90

He began erecting monuments to military glory, including the Arc de Triomphe, and improved the neglected infrastructure of the city with new fountains, the Canal de l'Ourcq, Père Lachaise Cemetery and the city's first metal bridge, the Pont des Arts. Paris_sentence_91

During the Restoration, the bridges and squares of Paris were returned to their pre-Revolution names, but the July Revolution of 1830 in Paris, (commemorated by the July Column on Place de la Bastille), brought a constitutional monarch, Louis Philippe I, to power. Paris_sentence_92

The first railway line to Paris opened in 1837, beginning a new period of massive migration from the provinces to the city. Paris_sentence_93

Louis-Philippe was overthrown by a popular uprising in the streets of Paris in 1848. Paris_sentence_94

His successor, Napoleon III, and the newly appointed prefect of the Seine, Georges-Eugène Haussmann, launched a gigantic public works project to build wide new boulevards, a new opera house, a central market, new aqueducts, sewers, and parks, including the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes. Paris_sentence_95

In 1860, Napoleon III also annexed the surrounding towns and created eight new arrondissements, expanding Paris to its current limits. Paris_sentence_96

During the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), Paris was besieged by the Prussian Army. Paris_sentence_97

After months of blockade, hunger, and then bombardment by the Prussians, the city was forced to surrender on 28 January 1871. Paris_sentence_98

On 28 March, a revolutionary government called the Paris Commune seized power in Paris. Paris_sentence_99

The Commune held power for two months, until it was harshly suppressed by the French army during the "Bloody Week" at the end of May 1871. Paris_sentence_100

Late in the 19th century, Paris hosted two major international expositions: the 1889 Universal Exposition, was held to mark the centennial of the French Revolution and featured the new Eiffel Tower; and the 1900 Universal Exposition, which gave Paris the Pont Alexandre III, the Grand Palais, the Petit Palais and the first Paris Métro line. Paris_sentence_101

Paris became the laboratory of Naturalism (Émile Zola) and Symbolism (Charles Baudelaire and Paul Verlaine), and of Impressionism in art (Courbet, Manet, Monet, Renoir). Paris_sentence_102

20th and 21st centuries Paris_section_5

See also: Paris in the Belle Époque, Paris during the First World War, Paris between the Wars (1919–1939), Paris in World War II, and History of Paris (1946–2000) Paris_sentence_103

By 1901, the population of Paris had grown to 2,715,000. Paris_sentence_104

At the beginning of the century, artists from around the world including Pablo Picasso, Modigliani, and Henri Matisse made Paris their home. Paris_sentence_105

It was the birthplace of Fauvism, Cubism and abstract art, and authors such as Marcel Proust were exploring new approaches to literature. Paris_sentence_106

During the First World War, Paris sometimes found itself on the front line; 600 to 1,000 Paris taxis played a small but highly important symbolic role in transporting 6,000 soldiers to the front line at the First Battle of the Marne. Paris_sentence_107

The city was also bombed by Zeppelins and shelled by German long-range guns. Paris_sentence_108

In the years after the war, known as Les Années Folles, Paris continued to be a mecca for writers, musicians and artists from around the world, including Ernest Hemingway, Igor Stravinsky, James Joyce, Josephine Baker, Eva Kotchever, Henry Miller, Anaïs Nin, Sidney Bechet Allen Ginsberg and the surrealist Salvador Dalí. Paris_sentence_109

In the years after the peace conference, the city was also home to growing numbers of students and activists from French colonies and other Asian and African countries, who later became leaders of their countries, such as Ho Chi Minh, Zhou Enlai and Léopold Sédar Senghor. Paris_sentence_110

On 14 June 1940, the German army marched into Paris, which had been declared an "open city". Paris_sentence_111

On 16–17 July 1942, following German orders, the French police and gendarmes arrested 12,884 Jews, including 4,115 children, and confined them during five days at the Vel d'Hiv (Vélodrome d'Hiver), from which they were transported by train to the extermination camp at Auschwitz. Paris_sentence_112

None of the children came back. Paris_sentence_113

On 25 August 1944, the city was liberated by the French 2nd Armoured Division and the 4th Infantry Division of the United States Army. Paris_sentence_114

General Charles de Gaulle led a huge and emotional crowd down the Champs Élysées towards Notre Dame de Paris, and made a rousing speech from the Hôtel de Ville. Paris_sentence_115

In the 1950s and the 1960s, Paris became one front of the Algerian War for independence; in August 1961, the pro-independence FLN targeted and killed 11 Paris policemen, leading to the imposition of a curfew on Muslims of Algeria (who, at that time, were French citizens). Paris_sentence_116

On 17 October 1961, an unauthorised but peaceful protest demonstration of Algerians against the curfew led to violent confrontations between the police and demonstrators, in which at least 40 people were killed, including some thrown into the Seine. Paris_sentence_117

The anti-independence Organisation armée secrète (OAS), for their part, carried out a series of bombings in Paris throughout 1961 and 1962. Paris_sentence_118

In May 1968, protesting students occupied the Sorbonne and put up barricades in the Latin Quarter. Paris_sentence_119

Thousands of Parisian blue-collar workers joined the students, and the movement grew into a two-week general strike. Paris_sentence_120

Supporters of the government won the June elections by a large majority. Paris_sentence_121

The May 1968 events in France resulted in the break-up of the University of Paris into 13 independent campuses. Paris_sentence_122

In 1975, the National Assembly changed the status of Paris to that of other French cities and, on 25 March 1977, Jacques Chirac became the first elected mayor of Paris since 1793. Paris_sentence_123

The Tour Maine-Montparnasse, the tallest building in the city at 57 storeys and 210 metres (689 feet) high, was built between 1969 and 1973. Paris_sentence_124

It was highly controversial, and it remains the only building in the centre of the city over 32 storeys high. Paris_sentence_125

The population of Paris dropped from 2,850,000 in 1954 to 2,152,000 in 1990, as middle-class families moved to the suburbs. Paris_sentence_126

A suburban railway network, the RER (Réseau Express Régional), was built to complement the Métro, and the Périphérique expressway encircling the city, was completed in 1973. Paris_sentence_127

Most of the postwar's Presidents of the Fifth Republic wanted to leave their own monuments in Paris; President Georges Pompidou started the Centre Georges Pompidou (1977), Valéry Giscard d'Estaing began the Musée d'Orsay (1986); President François Mitterrand, in power for 14 years, built the Opéra Bastille (1985–1989), the new site of the Bibliothèque nationale de France (1996), the Arche de la Défense (1985–1989), and the Louvre Pyramid with its underground courtyard (1983–1989); Jacques Chirac (2006), the Musée du quai Branly. Paris_sentence_128

In the early 21st century, the population of Paris began to increase slowly again, as more young people moved into the city. Paris_sentence_129

It reached 2.25 million in 2011. Paris_sentence_130

In March 2001, Bertrand Delanoë became the first Socialist Mayor of Paris. Paris_sentence_131

In 2007, in an effort to reduce car traffic in the city, he introduced the Vélib', a system which rents bicycles for the use of local residents and visitors. Paris_sentence_132

Bertrand Delanoë also transformed a section of the highway along the Left Bank of the Seine into an urban promenade and park, the Promenade des Berges de la Seine, which he inaugurated in June 2013. Paris_sentence_133

In 2007, President Nicolas Sarkozy launched the Grand Paris project, to integrate Paris more closely with the towns in the region around it. Paris_sentence_134

After many modifications, the new area, named the Metropolis of Grand Paris, with a population of 6.7 million, was created on 1 January 2016. Paris_sentence_135

In 2011, the City of Paris and the national government approved the plans for the Grand Paris Express, totalling 205 kilometres (127 miles) of automated metro lines to connect Paris, the innermost three departments around Paris, airports and high-speed rail (TGV) stations, at an estimated cost of €35 billion. Paris_sentence_136

The system is scheduled to be completed by 2030. Paris_sentence_137

Terrorist attacks Paris_section_6

Further information: 1995 France bombings, Charlie Hebdo shooting, November 2015 Paris attacks, Louvre machete attack, March 2017 Île-de-France attacks, and April 2017 Champs-Élysées attack Paris_sentence_138

Between July and October 1995, a series of bombings carried out by the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria caused 8 deaths and more than 200 injuries. Paris_sentence_139

On 7 January 2015, two French Muslim extremists attacked the Paris headquarters of Charlie Hebdo and killed thirteen people, in an attack claimed by Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, and on 9 January, a third terrorist, who claimed he was part of ISIL, killed four hostages during an attack at a Jewish grocery store at Porte de Vincennes. Paris_sentence_140

On 11 January an estimated 1.5 million people marched in Paris in a show of solidarity against terrorism and in support of freedom of speech. Paris_sentence_141

On 13 November of the same year, a series of coordinated bomb and gunfire terrorist attacks in Paris and Saint-Denis, claimed by ISIL, killed 130 people and injured more than 350. Paris_sentence_142

On 3 February 2017, a two-backpack-carrying, machete-wielding attacker shouting "Allahu Akbar" attacked soldiers guarding the Louvre museum after they stopped him because of his bags; the assailant was shot, and no explosives were found. Paris_sentence_143

On 18 March of the same year, in a Vitry-sur-Seine bar, a man held patrons hostage, then fled to later hold a gun to the head of an Orly Airport French soldier, shouting "I am here to die in the name of Allah", and was shot dead by the soldier's comrades. Paris_sentence_144

On 20 April, a man fatally shot a French police officer on the Champs-Élysées, and was later shot dead himself. Paris_sentence_145

On 19 June, a man rammed his weapons-and-explosives-laden vehicle into a police van on the Champs-Élysées, but the car only burst into flames. Paris_sentence_146

Geography Paris_section_7

Location Paris_section_8

Main article: Geography of Paris Paris_sentence_147

Paris is located in northern central France, in a north-bending arc of the river Seine whose crest includes two islands, the Île Saint-Louis and the larger Île de la Cité, which form the oldest part of the city. Paris_sentence_148

The river's mouth on the English Channel (La Manche) is about 233 mi (375 km) downstream from the city. Paris_sentence_149

The city is spread widely on both banks of the river. Paris_sentence_150

Overall, the city is relatively flat, and the lowest point is 35 m (115 ft) above sea level. Paris_sentence_151

Paris has several prominent hills, the highest of which is Montmartre at 130 m (427 ft). Paris_sentence_152

Excluding the outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes, Paris covers an oval measuring about 87 km (34 sq mi) in area, enclosed by the 35 km (22 mi) ring road, the Boulevard Périphérique. Paris_sentence_153

The city's last major annexation of outlying territories in 1860 not only gave it its modern form but also created the 20 clockwise-spiralling arrondissements (municipal boroughs). Paris_sentence_154

From the 1860 area of 78 km (30 sq mi), the city limits were expanded marginally to 86.9 km (33.6 sq mi) in the 1920s. Paris_sentence_155

In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes forest parks were officially annexed to the city, bringing its area to about 105 km (41 sq mi). Paris_sentence_156

The metropolitan area of the city is 2,300 km (890 sq mi). Paris_sentence_157

Measured from the 'point zero' in front of its Notre-Dame cathedral, Paris by road is 450 kilometres (280 mi) southeast of London, 287 kilometres (178 mi) south of Calais, 305 kilometres (190 mi) southwest of Brussels, 774 kilometres (481 mi) north of Marseille, 385 kilometres (239 mi) northeast of Nantes, and 135 kilometres (84 mi) southeast of Rouen. Paris_sentence_158

Climate Paris_section_9

Main article: Climate of Paris Paris_sentence_159

Paris has a typical Western European oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb), which is affected by the North Atlantic Current. Paris_sentence_160

The overall climate throughout the year is mild and moderately wet. Paris_sentence_161

Summer days are usually warm and pleasant with average temperatures between 15 and 25 °C (59 and 77 °F), and a fair amount of sunshine. Paris_sentence_162

Each year, however, there are a few days when the temperature rises above 32 °C (90 °F). Paris_sentence_163

Longer periods of more intense heat sometimes occur, such as the heat wave of 2003 when temperatures exceeded 30 °C (86 °F) for weeks, reached 40 °C (104 °F) on some days and rarely cooled down at night. Paris_sentence_164

Spring and autumn have, on average, mild days and fresh nights but are changing and unstable. Paris_sentence_165

Surprisingly warm or cool weather occurs frequently in both seasons. Paris_sentence_166

In winter, sunshine is scarce; days are cool, and nights are cold but generally above freezing with low temperatures around 3 °C (37 °F). Paris_sentence_167

Light night frosts are however quite common, but the temperature seldom dip below −5 °C (23 °F). Paris_sentence_168

Snow falls every year, but rarely stays on the ground. Paris_sentence_169

The city sometimes sees light snow or flurries with or without accumulation. Paris_sentence_170

Paris has an average annual precipitation of 641 mm (25.2 in), and experiences light rainfall distributed evenly throughout the year. Paris_sentence_171

However the city is known for intermittent abrupt heavy showers. Paris_sentence_172

The highest recorded temperature is 42.6 °C (108.7 °F) on 25 July 2019, and the lowest is −23.9 °C (−11.0 °F) on 10 December 1879. Paris_sentence_173

Administration Paris_section_10

Main article: Administration of Paris Paris_sentence_174

City government Paris_section_11

See also: Arrondissements of Paris and List of mayors of Paris Paris_sentence_175

For almost all of its long history, except for a few brief periods, Paris was governed directly by representatives of the king, emperor, or president of France. Paris_sentence_176

The city was not granted municipal autonomy by the National Assembly until 1974. Paris_sentence_177

The first modern elected mayor of Paris was Jacques Chirac, elected 20 March 1977, becoming the city's first mayor since 1793. Paris_sentence_178

The mayor is Anne Hidalgo, a socialist, first elected 5 April 2014 and re-elected 28 June 2020. Paris_sentence_179

The mayor of Paris is elected indirectly by Paris voters; the voters of each of the city's 20 arrondissements elect members to the Conseil de Paris (Council of Paris), which subsequently elects the mayor. Paris_sentence_180

The council is composed of 163 members, with each arrondissement allocated a number of seats dependent upon its population, from 10 members for each of the least-populated arrondissements (1st through 9th) to 34 members for the most populated (the 15th). Paris_sentence_181

The council is elected using closed list proportional representation in a two-round system. Paris_sentence_182

Party lists winning an absolute majority in the first round – or at least a plurality in the second round – automatically win half the seats of an arrondissement. Paris_sentence_183

The remaining half of seats are distributed proportionally to all lists which win at least 5% of the vote using the highest averages method. Paris_sentence_184

This ensures that the winning party or coalition always wins a majority of the seats, even if they don't win an absolute majority of the vote. Paris_sentence_185

Once elected, the council plays a largely passive role in the city government, primarily because it meets only once a month. Paris_sentence_186

The council is divided between a coalition of the left of 91 members, including the socialists, communists, greens, and extreme left; and 71 members for the centre-right, plus a few members from smaller parties. Paris_sentence_187

Each of Paris' 20 arrondissements has its own town hall and a directly elected council (conseil d'arrondissement), which, in turn, elects an arrondissement mayor. Paris_sentence_188

The council of each arrondissement is composed of members of the Conseil de Paris and also members who serve only on the council of the arrondissement. Paris_sentence_189

The number of deputy mayors in each arrondissement varies depending upon its population. Paris_sentence_190

There are a total of 20 arrondissement mayors and 120 deputy mayors. Paris_sentence_191

The budget of the city for 2018 is 9.5 billion Euros, with an expected deficit of 5.5 billion Euros. Paris_sentence_192

7.9 billion Euros are designated for city administration, and 1.7 billion Euros for investment. Paris_sentence_193

The number of city employees increased from 40,000 in 2001 to 55,000 in 2018. Paris_sentence_194

The largest part of the investment budget is earmarked for public housing (262 million Euros) and for real estate (142 million Euros). Paris_sentence_195

Métropole du Grand Paris Paris_section_12

The Métropole du Grand Paris, or simply Grand Paris, formally came into existence on 1 January 2016. Paris_sentence_196

It is an administrative structure for co-operation between the City of Paris and its nearest suburbs. Paris_sentence_197

It includes the City of Paris, plus the communes of the three departments of the inner suburbs (Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne), plus seven communes in the outer suburbs, including Argenteuil in Val d'Oise and Paray-Vieille-Poste in Essonne, which were added to include the major airports of Paris. Paris_sentence_198

The Metropole covers 814 square kilometres (314 square miles) and has a population of 6.945 million persons. Paris_sentence_199

The new structure is administered by a Metropolitan Council of 210 members, not directly elected, but chosen by the councils of the member Communes. Paris_sentence_200

By 2020 its basic competencies will include urban planning, housing and protection of the environment. Paris_sentence_201

The first president of the metropolitan council, Patrick Ollier, a Republican and the mayor of the town of Rueil-Malmaison, was elected on 22 January 2016. Paris_sentence_202

Though the Metropole has a population of nearly seven million people and accounts for 25 percent of the GDP of France, it has a very small budget: just 65 million Euros, compared with eight billion Euros for the City of Paris. Paris_sentence_203

Regional government Paris_section_13

The Region of Île de France, including Paris and its surrounding communities, is governed by the Regional Council, which has its headquarters in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. Paris_sentence_204

It is composed of 209 members representing the different communes within the region. Paris_sentence_205

On 15 December 2015, a list of candidates of the Union of the Right, a coalition of centrist and right-wing parties, led by Valérie Pécresse, narrowly won the regional election, defeating a coalition of Socialists and ecologists. Paris_sentence_206

The Socialists had governed the region for seventeen years. Paris_sentence_207

The regional council has 121 members from the Union of the Right, 66 from the Union of the Left and 22 from the extreme right National Front. Paris_sentence_208

National government Paris_section_14

As the capital of France, Paris is the seat of France's national government. Paris_sentence_209

For the executive, the two chief officers each have their own official residences, which also serve as their offices. Paris_sentence_210

The President of the French Republic resides at the Élysée Palace in the 8th arrondissement, while the Prime Minister's seat is at the Hôtel Matignon in the 7th arrondissement. Paris_sentence_211

Government ministries are located in various parts of the city; many are located in the 7th arrondissement, near the Matignon. Paris_sentence_212

The two houses of the French Parliament are located on the Left Bank. Paris_sentence_213

The upper house, the Senate, meets in the Palais du Luxembourg in the 6th arrondissement, while the more important lower house, the Assemblée Nationale, meets in the Palais Bourbon in the 7th arrondissement. Paris_sentence_214

The President of the Senate, the second-highest public official in France (the President of the Republic being the sole superior), resides in the "Petit Luxembourg", a smaller palace annexe to the Palais du Luxembourg. Paris_sentence_215


Members of the National Assembly for Paris (since 2017)Paris_table_caption_1
ConstituencyParis_header_cell_1_0_0 MemberParis_header_cell_1_0_2 PartyParis_header_cell_1_0_3
Paris_cell_1_1_0 Paris' 1st constituencyParis_cell_1_1_1 Sylvain MaillardParis_cell_1_1_2 La République En Marche!Paris_cell_1_1_3
Paris_cell_1_2_0 Paris' 2nd constituencyParis_cell_1_2_1 Gilles Le GendreParis_cell_1_2_2 La République En Marche!Paris_cell_1_2_3
Paris_cell_1_3_0 Paris' 3rd constituencyParis_cell_1_3_1 Stanislas GueriniParis_cell_1_3_2 La République En Marche!Paris_cell_1_3_3
Paris_cell_1_4_0 Paris' 4th constituencyParis_cell_1_4_1 Brigitte KusterParis_cell_1_4_2 The RepublicansParis_cell_1_4_3
Paris_cell_1_5_0 Paris' 5th constituencyParis_cell_1_5_1 Benjamin GriveauxParis_cell_1_5_2 La République En Marche!Paris_cell_1_5_3
Paris_cell_1_6_0 Paris' 6th constituencyParis_cell_1_6_1 Pierre PersonParis_cell_1_6_2 La République En Marche!Paris_cell_1_6_3
Paris_cell_1_7_0 Paris' 7th constituencyParis_cell_1_7_1 Pacôme RupinParis_cell_1_7_2 La République En Marche!Paris_cell_1_7_3
Paris_cell_1_8_0 Paris' 8th constituencyParis_cell_1_8_1 Laetitia AviaParis_cell_1_8_2 La République En Marche!Paris_cell_1_8_3
Paris_cell_1_9_0 Paris' 9th constituencyParis_cell_1_9_1 Buon TanParis_cell_1_9_2 La République En Marche!Paris_cell_1_9_3
Paris_cell_1_10_0 Paris' 10th constituencyParis_cell_1_10_1 Anne-Christine LangParis_cell_1_10_2 La République En Marche!Paris_cell_1_10_3
Paris_cell_1_11_0 Paris' 11th constituencyParis_cell_1_11_1 Marielle de SarnezParis_cell_1_11_2 MoDemParis_cell_1_11_3
Paris_cell_1_12_0 Paris' 12th constituencyParis_cell_1_12_1 Olivia GrégoireParis_cell_1_12_2 La République En Marche!Paris_cell_1_12_3
Paris_cell_1_13_0 Paris' 13th constituencyParis_cell_1_13_1 Hugues RensonParis_cell_1_13_2 La République En Marche!Paris_cell_1_13_3
Paris_cell_1_14_0 Paris' 14th constituencyParis_cell_1_14_1 Claude GoasguenParis_cell_1_14_2 The RepublicansParis_cell_1_14_3
Paris_cell_1_15_0 Paris' 15th constituencyParis_cell_1_15_1 George Pau-LangevinParis_cell_1_15_2 Socialist PartyParis_cell_1_15_3
Paris_cell_1_16_0 Paris' 16th constituencyParis_cell_1_16_1 Mounir MahjoubiParis_cell_1_16_2 La République En Marche!Paris_cell_1_16_3
Paris_cell_1_17_0 Paris' 17th constituencyParis_cell_1_17_1 Danièle ObonoParis_cell_1_17_2 La France InsoumiseParis_cell_1_17_3
Paris_cell_1_18_0 Paris' 18th constituencyParis_cell_1_18_1 Pierre-Yves BournazelParis_cell_1_18_2 The RepublicansParis_cell_1_18_3

France's highest courts are located in Paris. Paris_sentence_216

The Court of Cassation, the highest court in the judicial order, which reviews criminal and civil cases, is located in the Palais de Justice on the Île de la Cité, while the Conseil d'État, which provides legal advice to the executive and acts as the highest court in the administrative order, judging litigation against public bodies, is located in the Palais-Royal in the 1st arrondissement. Paris_sentence_217

The Constitutional Council, an advisory body with ultimate authority on the constitutionality of laws and government decrees, also meets in the Montpensier wing of the Palais Royal. Paris_sentence_218

Paris and its region host the headquarters of several international organisations including UNESCO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the International Chamber of Commerce, the Paris Club, the European Space Agency, the International Energy Agency, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the European Union Institute for Security Studies, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, the International Exhibition Bureau, and the International Federation for Human Rights. Paris_sentence_219

Following the motto "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris"; the only sister city of Paris is Rome, although Paris has partnership agreements with many other cities around the world. Paris_sentence_220

Police force Paris_section_15

The security of Paris is mainly the responsibility of the Prefecture of Police of Paris, a subdivision of the Ministry of the Interior. Paris_sentence_221

It supervises the units of the National Police who patrol the city and the three neighbouring departments. Paris_sentence_222

It is also responsible for providing emergency services, including the Paris Fire Brigade. Paris_sentence_223

Its headquarters is on Place Louis Lépine on the Île de la Cité. Paris_sentence_224

There are 30,200 officers under the prefecture, and a fleet of more than 6,000 vehicles, including police cars, motorcycles, fire trucks, boats and helicopters. Paris_sentence_225

The national police has its own special unit for riot control and crowd control and security of public buildings, called the Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (CRS), a unit formed in 1944 right after the liberation of France. Paris_sentence_226

Vans of CRS agents are frequently seen in the centre of the city when there are demonstrations and public events. Paris_sentence_227

The police are supported by the National Gendarmerie, a branch of the French Armed Forces, though their police operations now are supervised by the Ministry of the Interior. Paris_sentence_228

The traditional kepis of the gendarmes were replaced in 2002 with caps, and the force modernised, though they still wear kepis for ceremonial occasions. Paris_sentence_229

Crime in Paris is similar to that in most large cities. Paris_sentence_230

Violent crime is relatively rare in the city centre. Paris_sentence_231

Political violence is uncommon, though very large demonstrations may occur in Paris and other French cities simultaneously. Paris_sentence_232

These demonstrations, usually managed by a strong police presence, can turn confrontational and escalate into violence. Paris_sentence_233

Cityscape Paris_section_16

Urbanism and architecture Paris_section_17

See also: Architecture of Paris, Haussmann's renovation of Paris, Religious buildings in Paris, and List of tallest buildings and structures in the Paris region Paris_sentence_234

Most French rulers since the Middle Ages made a point of leaving their mark on a city that, contrary to many other of the world's capitals, has never been destroyed by catastrophe or war. Paris_sentence_235

In modernising its infrastructure through the centuries, Paris has preserved even its earliest history in its street map. Paris_sentence_236

At its origin, before the Middle Ages, the city was composed of several islands and sandbanks in a bend of the Seine; of those, two remain today: the Île Saint-Louis and the Île de la Cité. Paris_sentence_237

A third one is the 1827 artificially created Île aux Cygnes. Paris_sentence_238

Modern Paris owes much of its downtown plan and architectural harmony to Napoleon III and his Prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann. Paris_sentence_239

Between 1853 and 1870 they rebuilt the city centre, created the wide downtown boulevards and squares where the boulevards intersected, imposed standard facades along the boulevards, and required that the facades be built of the distinctive cream-grey "Paris stone". Paris_sentence_240

They also built the major parks around the city centre. Paris_sentence_241

The high residential population of its city centre also makes it much different from most other western major cities. Paris_sentence_242

Paris' urbanism laws have been under strict control since the early 17th century, particularly where street-front alignment, building height and building distribution is concerned. Paris_sentence_243

In recent developments, a 1974–2010 building height limitation of 37 metres (121 ft) was raised to 50 m (160 ft) in central areas and 180 metres (590 ft) in some of Paris' peripheral quarters, yet for some of the city's more central quarters, even older building-height laws still remain in effect. Paris_sentence_244

The 210 metres (690 ft) Tour Montparnasse was both Paris's and France's tallest building until 1973, but this record has been held by the La Défense quarter Tour First tower in Courbevoie since its 2011 construction. Paris_sentence_245

Parisian examples of European architecture date back more than a millennium, including the Romanesque church of the Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés (1014–1163), the early Gothic Architecture of the Basilica of Saint-Denis (1144), the Notre Dame Cathedral (1163–1345), the Flamboyant Gothic of Saint Chapelle (1239–1248), the Baroque churches of Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis (1627–1641) and Les Invalides (1670–1708). Paris_sentence_246

The 19th century produced the neoclassical church of La Madeleine (1808–1842), the Palais Garnier serving as an opera house (1875), the neo-Byzantine Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (1875–1919), as well as the exuberant Belle Époque modernism of the Eiffel Tower (1889). Paris_sentence_247

Striking examples of 20th-century architecture include the Centre Georges Pompidou by Richard Rogers and Renzo Piano (1977), the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie by various architects (1986), the Arab World Institute by Jean Nouvel (1987), the Louvre Pyramid by I. Paris_sentence_248

M. Pei (1989) and the Opéra Bastille by Carlos Ott (1989). Paris_sentence_249

Contemporary architecture includes the Musée du quai Branly – Jacques Chirac by Jean Nouvel (2006), the contemporary art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation by Frank Gehry (2014) and the new Tribunal de grande instance de Paris by Renzo Piano (2018). Paris_sentence_250

Housing Paris_section_18

The most expensive residential streets in Paris in 2018 by average price per square meter were Avenue Montaigne (8th arrondissement), at 22,372 Euros per square meter; Place Dauphine (1st arrondissement; 20,373 euros) and Rue de Furstemberg (6th arrondissement) at 18,839 Euros per square meter. Paris_sentence_251

The total number of residences in the City of Paris in 2011 was 1,356,074, up from a former high of 1,334,815 in 2006. Paris_sentence_252

Among these, 1,165,541 (85.9 percent) were main residences, 91,835 (6.8 percent) were secondary residences, and the remaining 7.3 percent were empty (down from 9.2 percent in 2006). Paris_sentence_253

Sixty-two percent of its buildings date from 1949 and before, 20 percent were built between 1949 and 1974, and only 18 percent of the buildings remaining were built after that date. Paris_sentence_254

Two-thirds of the city's 1.3 million residences are studio and two-room apartments. Paris_sentence_255

Paris averages 1.9 people per residence, a number that has remained constant since the 1980s, but it is much less than Île-de-France's 2.33 person-per-residence average. Paris_sentence_256

Only 33 percent of principal residence Parisians own their habitation (against 47 percent for the entire Île-de-France): the major part of the city's population is a rent-paying one. Paris_sentence_257

Social or public housing represented 19.9 percent of the city's total residences in 2017. Paris_sentence_258

Its distribution varies widely throughout the city, from 2.6 percent of the housing in the wealthy 7th arrondissement, to 24 percent in the 20th arrondissement, 26 percent in the 14th arrondissement and 39.9 percent in the 19th arrondissement, on the poorer southwest and northern edges of the city. Paris_sentence_259

On the night of 8–9 February 2019, during a period of cold weather, a Paris NGO conducted its annual citywide count of homeless persons. Paris_sentence_260

They counted 3,641 homeless persons in Paris, of whom twelve percent were women. Paris_sentence_261

More than half had been homeless for more than a year. Paris_sentence_262

2,885 were living in the streets or parks, 298 in train and metro stations, and 756 in other forms of temporary shelter. Paris_sentence_263

This was an increase of 588 persons since 2018. Paris_sentence_264

Paris and its suburbs Paris_section_19

Aside from the 20th-century addition of the Bois de Boulogne, the Bois de Vincennes and the Paris heliport, Paris' administrative limits have remained unchanged since 1860. Paris_sentence_265

A greater administrative Seine department had been governing Paris and its suburbs since its creation in 1790, but the rising suburban population had made it difficult to maintain as a unique entity. Paris_sentence_266

This problem was 'resolved' when its parent "District de la région parisienne" ('district of the Paris region') was reorganised into several new departments from 1968: Paris became a department in itself, and the administration of its suburbs was divided between the three new departments surrounding it. Paris_sentence_267

The district of the Paris region was renamed "Île-de-France" in 1977, but this abbreviated "Paris region" name is still commonly used today to describe the Île-de-France, and as a vague reference to the entire Paris agglomeration. Paris_sentence_268

Long-intended measures to unite Paris with its suburbs began on 1 January 2016, when the Métropole du Grand Paris came into existence. Paris_sentence_269

Paris' disconnect with its suburbs, its lack of suburban transportation, in particular, became all too apparent with the Paris agglomeration's growth. Paris_sentence_270

Paul Delouvrier promised to resolve the Paris-suburbs mésentente when he became head of the Paris region in 1961: two of his most ambitious projects for the Region were the construction of five suburban "villes nouvelles" ("new cities") and the RER commuter train network. Paris_sentence_271

Many other suburban residential districts (grands ensembles) were built between the 1960s and 1970s to provide a low-cost solution for a rapidly expanding population: These districts were socially mixed at first, but few residents actually owned their homes (the growing economy made these accessible to the middle classes only from the 1970s). Paris_sentence_272

Their poor construction quality and their haphazard insertion into existing urban growth contributed to their desertion by those able to move elsewhere and their repopulation by those with more limited possibilities. Paris_sentence_273

These areas, quartiers sensibles ("sensitive quarters"), are in northern and eastern Paris, namely around its Goutte d'Or and Belleville neighbourhoods. Paris_sentence_274

To the north of the city, they are grouped mainly in the Seine-Saint-Denis department, and to a lesser extreme to the east in the Val-d'Oise department. Paris_sentence_275

Other difficult areas are located in the Seine valley, in Évry et Corbeil-Essonnes (Essonne), in Mureaux, Mantes-la-Jolie (Yvelines), and scattered among social housing districts created by Delouvrier's 1961 "ville nouvelle" political initiative. Paris_sentence_276

The Paris agglomeration's urban sociology is basically that of 19th-century Paris: its fortuned classes are situated in its west and southwest, and its middle-to-lower classes are in its north and east. Paris_sentence_277

The remaining areas are mostly middle-class citizenry dotted with islands of fortuned populations located there due to reasons of historical importance, namely Saint-Maur-des-Fossés to the east and Enghien-les-Bains to the north of Paris. Paris_sentence_278

Demographics Paris_section_20

Main article: Demographics of Paris Paris_sentence_279


2015 Census Paris RegionParis_header_cell_2_0_0
Country/territory of birthParis_header_cell_2_1_0 PopulationParis_header_cell_2_1_1
France Metropolitan FranceParis_cell_2_2_0 9,165,570Paris_cell_2_2_1
Algeria AlgeriaParis_cell_2_3_0 310,019Paris_cell_2_3_1
Portugal PortugalParis_cell_2_4_0 243,490Paris_cell_2_4_1
Morocco MoroccoParis_cell_2_5_0 241,403Paris_cell_2_5_1
Tunisia TunisiaParis_cell_2_6_0 117,161Paris_cell_2_6_1
GuadeloupeParis_cell_2_7_0 80,062Paris_cell_2_7_1
MartiniqueParis_cell_2_8_0 77,300Paris_cell_2_8_1
Turkey TurkeyParis_cell_2_9_0 69,835Paris_cell_2_9_1
China ChinaParis_cell_2_10_0 67,540Paris_cell_2_10_1
Mali MaliParis_cell_2_11_0 60,438Paris_cell_2_11_1
Italy ItalyParis_cell_2_12_0 56,692Paris_cell_2_12_1
Ivory_Coast Côte d'IvoireParis_cell_2_13_0 55,022Paris_cell_2_13_1
Senegal SenegalParis_cell_2_14_0 52,758Paris_cell_2_14_1
Romania RomaniaParis_cell_2_15_0 49,124Paris_cell_2_15_1
Democratic_Republic_of_the_Congo Democratic Republic of CongoParis_cell_2_16_0 47,091Paris_cell_2_16_1
Spain SpainParis_cell_2_17_0 47,058Paris_cell_2_17_1
Other countries/territories

Sri_Lanka Sri Lanka 42,016

Cameroon Cameroon 41,749

Poland Poland 38,550

Republic_of_the_Congo Republic of the Congo 36,354

Haiti Haiti 35,855

Vietnam Vietnam 35,139

Cambodia Cambodia 31,258

  Réunion 28,869

India India 26,507

Serbia Serbia 26,119

Germany Germany 21,620

Lebanon Lebanon 20,375

Mauritius Mauritius 19,506

Madagascar Madagascar 19,281

Pakistan Pakistan 18,801

United_Kingdom United Kingdom 18,209

Russia Russia 18,022

United_States United States 17,548

United_Nations Other countries and territories 846,914Paris_cell_2_18_0

Other countries/territoriesParis_header_cell_2_19_0
Sri_Lanka Sri LankaParis_cell_2_20_0 42,016Paris_cell_2_20_1
Cameroon CameroonParis_cell_2_21_0 41,749Paris_cell_2_21_1
Poland PolandParis_cell_2_22_0 38,550Paris_cell_2_22_1
Republic_of_the_Congo Republic of the CongoParis_cell_2_23_0 36,354Paris_cell_2_23_1
Haiti HaitiParis_cell_2_24_0 35,855Paris_cell_2_24_1
Vietnam VietnamParis_cell_2_25_0 35,139Paris_cell_2_25_1
Cambodia CambodiaParis_cell_2_26_0 31,258Paris_cell_2_26_1
RéunionParis_cell_2_27_0 28,869Paris_cell_2_27_1
India IndiaParis_cell_2_28_0 26,507Paris_cell_2_28_1
Serbia SerbiaParis_cell_2_29_0 26,119Paris_cell_2_29_1
Germany GermanyParis_cell_2_30_0 21,620Paris_cell_2_30_1
Lebanon LebanonParis_cell_2_31_0 20,375Paris_cell_2_31_1
Mauritius MauritiusParis_cell_2_32_0 19,506Paris_cell_2_32_1
Madagascar MadagascarParis_cell_2_33_0 19,281Paris_cell_2_33_1
Pakistan PakistanParis_cell_2_34_0 18,801Paris_cell_2_34_1
United_Kingdom United KingdomParis_cell_2_35_0 18,209Paris_cell_2_35_1
Russia RussiaParis_cell_2_36_0 18,022Paris_cell_2_36_1
United_States United StatesParis_cell_2_37_0 17,548Paris_cell_2_37_1
United_Nations Other countries and territoriesParis_cell_2_38_0 846,914Paris_cell_2_38_1

The official estimated population of the City of Paris was 2,206,488 as of 1 January 2019, according to the INSEE, the official French statistical agency. Paris_sentence_280

This is a decline of 59,648 from 2015, close to the total population of the 5th arrondissement. Paris_sentence_281

Despite the drop, Paris remains the most densely-populated city in Europe, with 252 residents per hectare, not counting parks. Paris_sentence_282

This drop was attributed partly to a lower birth rate, to the departure of middle-class residents. Paris_sentence_283

and partly to the possible loss of housing in the city due to short-term rentals for tourism. Paris_sentence_284

Paris is the fourth largest municipality in the European Union, following Berlin, Madrid and Rome. Paris_sentence_285

Eurostat places Paris (6.5 million people) behind London (8 million) and ahead of Berlin (3.5 million), based on the 2012 populations of what Eurostat calls "urban audit core cities". Paris_sentence_286

The population of Paris today is lower than its historical peak of 2.9 million in 1921. Paris_sentence_287

The principal reasons were a significant decline in household size, and a dramatic migration of residents to the suburbs between 1962 and 1975. Paris_sentence_288

Factors in the migration included de-industrialisation, high rent, the gentrification of many inner quarters, the transformation of living space into offices, and greater affluence among working families. Paris_sentence_289

The city's population loss came to a temporary halt at the beginning of the 21st century; the population increased from 2,125,246 in 1999 to 2,240,621 in 2012, before declining again slightly in 2017. Paris_sentence_290

It declined again in 2018. Paris_sentence_291

Paris is the core of a built-up area that extends well beyond its limits: commonly referred to as the agglomération Parisienne, and statistically as a unité urbaine (a measure of urban area), the Paris agglomeration's 2017 population of 10,784,830 made it the largest urban area in the European Union. Paris_sentence_292

City-influenced commuter activity reaches well beyond even this in a statistical aire urbaine de Paris ("urban area", but a statistical method comparable to a metropolitan area), that had a 2017 population of 12,628,266, a number 19% the population of France, and the largest metropolitan area in the Eurozone. Paris_sentence_293

According to Eurostat, the EU statistical agency, in 2012 the Commune of Paris was the most densely populated city in the European Union, with 21,616 people per square kilometre within the city limits (the NUTS-3 statistical area), ahead of Inner London West, which had 10,374 people per square kilometre. Paris_sentence_294

According to the same census, three departments bordering Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne, had population densities of over 10,000 people per square kilometre, ranking among the 10 most densely populated areas of the EU. Paris_sentence_295

Migration Paris_section_21

According to the 2012 French census, 586,163 residents of the City of Paris, or 26.2 percent, and 2,782,834 residents of the Paris Region (Île-de-France), or 23.4 percent, were born outside of metropolitan France (the last figure up from 22.4% at the 2007 census). Paris_sentence_296

26,700 of these in the City of Paris and 210,159 in the Paris Region were people born in Overseas France (more than two-thirds of whom in the French West Indies) and are therefore not counted as immigrants since they were legally French citizens at birth. Paris_sentence_297

A further 103,648 in the City of Paris and in 412,114 in the Paris Region were born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth. Paris_sentence_298

This concerns in particular the many Christians and Jews from North Africa who moved to France and Paris after the times of independence and are not counted as immigrants due to their being born French citizens. Paris_sentence_299

The remaining group, people born in foreign countries with no French citizenship at birth, are those defined as immigrants under French law. Paris_sentence_300

According to the 2012 census, 135,853 residents of the City of Paris were immigrants from Europe, 112,369 were immigrants from the Maghreb, 70,852 from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt, 5,059 from Turkey, 91,297 from Asia (outside Turkey), 38,858 from the Americas, and 1,365 from the South Pacific. Paris_sentence_301

Note that the immigrants from the Americas and the South Pacific in Paris are vastly outnumbered by migrants from French overseas regions and territories located in these regions of the world. Paris_sentence_302

In the Paris Region, 590,504 residents were immigrants from Europe, 627,078 were immigrants from the Maghreb, 435,339 from sub-Saharan Africa and Egypt, 69,338 from Turkey, 322,330 from Asia (outside Turkey), 113,363 from the Americas, and 2,261 from the South Pacific. Paris_sentence_303

These last two groups of immigrants are again vastly outnumbered by migrants from French overseas regions and territories located in the Americas and the South Pacific. Paris_sentence_304

In 2012, there were 8,810 British citizens and 10,019 United States citizens living in the City of Paris (Ville de Paris) and 20,466 British citizens and 16,408 United States citizens living in the entire Paris Region (Île-de-France). Paris_sentence_305

Religion Paris_section_22

See also: Religious buildings in Paris Paris_sentence_306

At the beginning of the twentieth century, Paris was the largest Catholic city in the world. Paris_sentence_307

French census data does not contain information about religious affiliation. Paris_sentence_308

According to a 2011 survey by the IFOP, a French public opinion research organisation, 61 percent of residents of the Paris Region (Île-de-France) identified themselves as Roman Catholic. Paris_sentence_309

In the same survey, 7 percent of residents identified themselves as Muslims, 4 percent as Protestants, 2 percent as Jewish, and 25 percent as without religion. Paris_sentence_310

According to the INSEE, between 4 and 5 million French residents were born or had at least one parent born in a predominantly Muslim country, particularly Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. Paris_sentence_311

An IFOP survey in 2008 reported that, of immigrants from these predominantly Muslim countries, 25 percent went to the mosque regularly; 41 percent practised the religion, and 34 percent were believers but did not practice the religion. Paris_sentence_312

In 2012 and 2013, it was estimated that there were almost 500,000 Muslims in the City of Paris, 1.5 million Muslims in the Île-de-France region, and 4 to 5 million Muslims in France. Paris_sentence_313

The Jewish population of the Paris Region was estimated in 2014 to be 282,000, the largest concentration of Jews in the world outside of Israel and the United States. Paris_sentence_314

International organisations Paris_section_23

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has had its headquarters in Paris since November 1958. Paris_sentence_315

Paris is also the home of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Paris_sentence_316

Paris hosts the headquarters of the European Space Agency, the International Energy Agency, European Securities and Markets Authority and, as of 2019, the European Banking Authority. Paris_sentence_317

Economy Paris_section_24

Main article: Economy of Paris Paris_sentence_318

The economy of the City of Paris is based largely on services and commerce; of the 390,480 enterprises in the city, 80.6 percent are engaged in commerce, transportation, and diverse services, 6.5 percent in construction, and just 3.8 percent in industry. Paris_sentence_319

The story is similar in the Paris Region (Île-de-France): 76.7 percent of enterprises are engaged in commerce and services, and 3.4 percent in industry. Paris_sentence_320

At the 2012 census, 59.5% of jobs in the Paris Region were in market services (12.0% in wholesale and retail trade, 9.7% in professional, scientific, and technical services, 6.5% in information and communication, 6.5% in transportation and warehousing, 5.9% in finance and insurance, 5.8% in administrative and support services, 4.6% in accommodation and food services, and 8.5% in various other market services), 26.9% in non-market services (10.4% in human health and social work activities, 9.6% in public administration and defence, and 6.9% in education), 8.2% in manufacturing and utilities (6.6% in manufacturing and 1.5% in utilities), 5.2% in construction, and 0.2% in agriculture. Paris_sentence_321

The Paris Region had 5.4 million salaried employees in 2010, of whom 2.2 million were concentrated in 39 pôles d'emplois or business districts. Paris_sentence_322

The largest of these, in terms of number of employees, is known in French as the QCA, or quartier central des affaires; it is in the western part of the City of Paris, in the 2nd, 8th, 9th, 16th, and 18th arrondissements. Paris_sentence_323

In 2010, it was the workplace of 500,000 salaried employees, about 30 percent of the salaried employees in Paris and 10 percent of those in the Île-de-France. Paris_sentence_324

The largest sectors of activity in the central business district were finance and insurance (16 percent of employees in the district) and business services (15 percent). Paris_sentence_325

The district also includes a large concentration of department stores, shopping areas, hotels and restaurants, as well a government offices and ministries. Paris_sentence_326

The second-largest business district in terms of employment is La Défense, just west of the city, where many companies installed their offices in the 1990s. Paris_sentence_327

In 2010, it was the workplace of 144,600 employees, of whom 38 percent worked in finance and insurance, 16 percent in business support services. Paris_sentence_328

Two other important districts, Neuilly-sur-Seine and Levallois-Perret, are extensions of the Paris business district and of La Défense. Paris_sentence_329

Another district, including Boulogne-Billancourt, Issy-les-Moulineaux and the southern part of the 15th arrondissement, is a centre of activity for the media and information technology. Paris_sentence_330

The top ten French companies listed in the Fortune Global 500 for 2018 all have their headquarters in the Paris Region; six in the central business district of the City of Paris; and four close to the city in the Hauts-de-Seine Department, three in La Défense and one in Boulogne-Billancourt. Paris_sentence_331

Some companies, like Société Générale, have offices in both Paris and La Défense. Paris_sentence_332

The Paris Region is France's leading region for economic activity, with a GDP of 681 billion (~US$850 billion) and €56,000 (~US$70,000) per capita. Paris_sentence_333

In 2011, its GDP ranked second among the regions of Europe and its per-capita GDP was the 4th highest in Europe. Paris_sentence_334

While the Paris region's population accounted for 18.8 percent of metropolitan France in 2011, the Paris region's GDP accounted for 30 percent of metropolitan France's GDP. Paris_sentence_335

The Paris Region economy has gradually shifted from industry to high-value-added service industries (finance, IT services) and high-tech manufacturing (electronics, optics, aerospace, etc.). Paris_sentence_336

The Paris region's most intense economic activity through the central Hauts-de-Seine department and suburban La Défense business district places Paris' economic centre to the west of the city, in a triangle between the Opéra Garnier, La Défense and the Val de Seine. Paris_sentence_337

While the Paris economy is dominated by services, and employment in manufacturing sector has declined sharply, the region remains an important manufacturing centre, particularly for aeronautics, automobiles, and "eco" industries. Paris_sentence_338

In the 2017 worldwide cost of living survey by the Economist Intelligence Unit, based on a survey made in September 2016, Paris ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world, and the second most expensive in Europe, after Zurich. Paris_sentence_339

In 2018, Paris was the most expensive city in the world with Singapore and Hong Kong. Paris_sentence_340

Station F is a business incubator for startups, located in 13th arrondissement of Paris. Paris_sentence_341

Noted as the world's largest startup facility. Paris_sentence_342

Employment Paris_section_25

According to 2015 INSEE figures, 68.3 percent of employees in the City of Paris work in commerce, transportation, and services; 24.5 percent in public administration, health and social services; 4.1 percent in industry, and 0.1 percent in agriculture. Paris_sentence_343

The majority of Paris' salaried employees fill 370,000 businesses services jobs, concentrated in the north-western 8th, 16th and 17th arrondissements. Paris_sentence_344

Paris' financial service companies are concentrated in the central-western 8th and 9th arrondissement banking and insurance district. Paris_sentence_345

Paris' department store district in the 1st, 6th, 8th and 9th arrondissements employ ten percent of mostly female Paris workers, with 100,000 of these registered in the retail trade. Paris_sentence_346

Fourteen percent of Parisians work in hotels and restaurants and other services to individuals. Paris_sentence_347

Nineteen percent of Paris employees work for the State in either in administration or education. Paris_sentence_348

The majority of Paris' healthcare and social workers work at the hospitals and social housing concentrated in the peripheral 13th, 14th, 18th, 19th and 20th arrondissements. Paris_sentence_349

Outside Paris, the western Hauts-de-Seine department La Défense district specialising in finance, insurance and scientific research district, employs 144,600, and the north-eastern Seine-Saint-Denis audiovisual sector has 200 media firms and 10 major film studios. Paris_sentence_350

Paris' manufacturing is mostly focused in its suburbs, and the city itself has only around 75,000 manufacturing workers, most of which are in the textile, clothing, leather goods, and shoe trades. Paris_sentence_351

Paris region manufacturing specialises in transportation, mainly automobiles, aircraft and trains, but this is in a sharp decline: Paris proper manufacturing jobs dropped by 64 percent between 1990 and 2010, and the Paris region lost 48 percent during the same period. Paris_sentence_352

Most of this is due to companies relocating outside the Paris region. Paris_sentence_353

The Paris region's 800 aerospace companies employed 100,000. Paris_sentence_354

Four hundred automobile industry companies employ another 100,000 workers: many of these are centred in the Yvelines department around the Renault and PSA-Citroen plants (this department alone employs 33,000), but the industry as a whole suffered a major loss with the 2014 closing of a major Aulnay-sous-Bois Citroen assembly plant. Paris_sentence_355

The southern Essonne department specialises in science and technology, and the south-eastern Val-de-Marne, with its wholesale Rungis food market, specialises in food processing and beverages. Paris_sentence_356

The Paris region's manufacturing decline is quickly being replaced by eco-industries: these employ about 100,000 workers. Paris_sentence_357

In 2011, while only 56,927 construction workers worked in Paris itself, its metropolitan area employed 246,639, in an activity centred largely on the Seine-Saint-Denis (41,378) and Hauts-de-Seine (37,303) departments and the new business-park centres appearing there. Paris_sentence_358

Unemployment Paris_section_26

Paris' 2015 at-census unemployment rate was 12.2%, and in the first trimester of 2018, its ILO-critera unemployment rate was 7.1 percent. Paris_sentence_359

The provisional unemployment rate in the whole Paris Region was higher: 8.0 percent, and considerably higher in some suburbs, notably the Department of Seine-Saint-Denis to the east (11.8 percent) and the Val-d'Oise to the north (8.2 percent). Paris_sentence_360

Incomes Paris_section_27

The average net household income (after social, pension and health insurance contributions) in Paris was €36,085 for 2011. Paris_sentence_361

It ranged from €22,095 in the 19th arrondissement to €82,449 in the 7th arrondissement. Paris_sentence_362

The median taxable income for 2011 was around €25,000 in Paris and €22,200 for Île-de-France. Paris_sentence_363

Generally speaking, incomes are higher in the Western part of the city and in the western suburbs than in the northern and eastern parts of the urban area. Paris_sentence_364

Unemployment was estimated at 8.2 percent in the City of Paris and 8.8 percent in the Île-de-France region in the first trimester of 2015. Paris_sentence_365

It ranged from 7.6 percent in the wealthy Essonne department to 13.1 percent in the Seine-Saint-Denis department, where many recent immigrants live. Paris_sentence_366

While Paris has some of the richest neighbourhoods in France, it also has some of the poorest, mostly on the eastern side of the city. Paris_sentence_367

In 2012, 14 percent of households in the city earned less than €977 per month, the official poverty line. Paris_sentence_368

Twenty-five percent of residents in the 19th arrondissement lived below the poverty line; 24 percent in the 18th, 22 percent in the 20th and 18 percent in the 10th. Paris_sentence_369

In the city's wealthiest neighbourhood, the 7th arrondissement, 7 percent lived below the poverty line; 8 percent in the 6th arrondissement; and 9 percent in the 16th arrondissement. Paris_sentence_370

Tourism Paris_section_28

Main article: Tourism in Paris Paris_sentence_371

Greater Paris, comprising Paris and its three surrounding departments, received 38 million visitors in 2019, a record, measured by hotel arrivals. Paris_sentence_372

These included 12.2 million French visitors. Paris_sentence_373

Of foreign visitors, the greatest number came from the United States (2.6 million), United Kingdom (1.2 million), Germany (981 thousand) and China (711 thousand). Paris_sentence_374

In 2018, measured by the Euromonitor Global Cities Destination Index, Paris was the second-busiest airline destination in the world, with 19.10 million visitors, behind Bangkok (22.78 million) but ahead of London (19.09 million). Paris_sentence_375

According to the Paris Convention and Visitors Bureau, 393,008 workers in Greater Paris, or 12.4% of the total workforce, are engaged in tourism-related sectors such as hotels, catering, transport and leisure. Paris_sentence_376

Monuments and attractions Paris_section_29

Main articles: Landmarks in Paris, Historical quarters of Paris, and List of tourist attractions in Paris Paris_sentence_377

See also: List of most visited museums Paris_sentence_378

The city's top cultural attraction in 2019 was the Basilica of Sacré-Cœur (11 million visitors), followed by the Louvre (9.6 million visitors); the Eiffel Tower (6.1 million visitors); the Centre Pompidou (3.5 million visitors); and the Musée d'Orsay (3.3 million visitors). Paris_sentence_379


Paris, Banks of the SeineParis_table_caption_3
UNESCO World Heritage SiteParis_header_cell_3_0_0
CriteriaParis_header_cell_3_1_0 Cultural: i, ii, ivParis_cell_3_1_1
ReferenceParis_header_cell_3_2_0 Paris_cell_3_2_1
InscriptionParis_header_cell_3_3_0 1991 (15th session)Paris_cell_3_3_1
AreaParis_header_cell_3_4_0 365 haParis_cell_3_4_1

The centre of Paris contains the most visited monuments in the city, including the Notre Dame Cathedral (now closed for restoration) and the Louvre as well as the Sainte-Chapelle; Les Invalides, where the tomb of Napoleon is located, and the Eiffel Tower are located on the Left Bank south-west of the centre. Paris_sentence_380

The Panthéon and the Catacombs of Paris are also located on the Left Bank of the Seine. Paris_sentence_381

The banks of the Seine from the Pont de Sully to the Pont d'Iéna have been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991. Paris_sentence_382

Other landmarks are laid out east to west along the historical axis of Paris, which runs from the Louvre through the Tuileries Garden, the Luxor Column in the Place de la Concorde, and the Arc de Triomphe, to the Grande Arche of La Défense. Paris_sentence_383

Several other much-visited landmarks are located in the suburbs of the city; the Basilica of St Denis, in Seine-Saint-Denis, is the birthplace of the Gothic style of architecture and the royal necropolis of French kings and queens. Paris_sentence_384

The Paris region hosts three other UNESCO Heritage sites: the Palace of Versailles in the west, the Palace of Fontainebleau in the south, and the medieval fairs site of Provins in the east. Paris_sentence_385

In the Paris region, Disneyland Paris, in Marne-la-Vallée, 32 kilometres (20 miles) east of the centre of Paris, received 9.66 million visitors in 2017. Paris_sentence_386

Hotels Paris_section_30

In 2019 Greater Paris had 2,056 hotels, including 94 five-star hotels, with a total of 121,646 rooms. Paris_sentence_387

Paris has long been famous for its grand hotels. Paris_sentence_388

The Hotel Meurice, opened for British travellers in 1817, was one of the first luxury hotels in Paris. Paris_sentence_389

The arrival of the railways and the Paris Exposition of 1855 brought the first flood of tourists and the first modern grand hotels; the Hôtel du Louvre (now an antiques marketplace) in 1855; the Grand Hotel (now the InterContinental Paris Le Grand Hotel) in 1862; and the Hôtel Continental in 1878. Paris_sentence_390

The Hôtel Ritz on Place Vendôme opened in 1898, followed by the Hôtel Crillon in an 18th-century building on the Place de la Concorde in 1909; the Hotel Bristol on the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in 1925; and the Hotel George V in 1928. Paris_sentence_391

In addition to hotels, in 2019 Greater Paris had 60,000 homes registered with Airbnb. Paris_sentence_392

Under French law, renters of these units must pay the Paris tourism tax. Paris_sentence_393

The company paid the city government 7.3 million euros in 2016. Paris_sentence_394

Culture Paris_section_31

Painting and sculpture Paris_section_32

Main article: Art in Paris Paris_sentence_395

For centuries, Paris has attracted artists from around the world, who arrive in the city to educate themselves and to seek inspiration from its vast pool of artistic resources and galleries. Paris_sentence_396

As a result, Paris has acquired a reputation as the "City of Art". Paris_sentence_397

Italian artists were a profound influence on the development of art in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly in sculpture and reliefs. Paris_sentence_398

Painting and sculpture became the pride of the French monarchy and the French royal family commissioned many Parisian artists to adorn their palaces during the French Baroque and Classicism era. Paris_sentence_399

Sculptors such as Girardon, Coysevox and Coustou acquired reputations as the finest artists in the royal court in 17th-century France. Paris_sentence_400

Pierre Mignard became the first painter to King Louis XIV during this period. Paris_sentence_401

In 1648, the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture) was established to accommodate for the dramatic interest in art in the capital. Paris_sentence_402

This served as France's top art school until 1793. Paris_sentence_403

Paris was in its artistic prime in the 19th century and early 20th century, when it had a colony of artists established in the city and in art schools associated with some of the finest painters of the times: Édouard Manet, Claude Monet, Berthe Morisot, Paul Gauguin, Pierre-Auguste Renoir and others. Paris_sentence_404

The French Revolution and political and social change in France had a profound influence on art in the capital. Paris_sentence_405

Paris was central to the development of Romanticism in art, with painters such as Gericault. Paris_sentence_406

Impressionism, Art Nouveau, Symbolism, Fauvism, Cubism and Art Deco movements all evolved in Paris. Paris_sentence_407

In the late 19th century, many artists in the French provinces and worldwide flocked to Paris to exhibit their works in the numerous salons and expositions and make a name for themselves. Paris_sentence_408

Artists such as Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Henri Rousseau, Marc Chagall, Amedeo Modigliani and many others became associated with Paris. Paris_sentence_409

Picasso, living in Le Bateau-Lavoir in Montmartre, painted his famous La Famille de Saltimbanques and Les Demoiselles d'Avignon between 1905 and 1907. Paris_sentence_410

Montmartre and Montparnasse became centres for artistic production. Paris_sentence_411

The most prestigious names of French and foreign sculptors, who made their reputation in Paris in the modern era, are Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (Statue of Liberty – Liberty Enlightening the World), Auguste Rodin, Camille Claudel, Antoine Bourdelle, Paul Landowski (statue of Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro) and Aristide Maillol. Paris_sentence_412

The Golden Age of the School of Paris ended between the two world wars. Paris_sentence_413

Photography Paris_section_33

The inventor Nicéphore Niépce produced the first permanent photograph on a polished pewter plate in Paris in 1825. Paris_sentence_414

In 1839, after the death of Niépce, Louis Daguerre patented the Daguerrotype, which became the most common form of photography until the 1860s. Paris_sentence_415

The work of Étienne-Jules Marey in the 1880s contributed considerably to the development of modern photography. Paris_sentence_416

Photography came to occupy a central role in Parisian Surrealist activity, in the works of Man Ray and Maurice Tabard. Paris_sentence_417

Numerous photographers achieved renown for their photography of Paris, including Eugène Atget, noted for his depictions of street scenes, Robert Doisneau, noted for his playful pictures of people and market scenes (among which Le baiser de l'hôtel de ville has become iconic of the romantic vision of Paris), Marcel Bovis, noted for his night scenes, as well as others such as Jacques-Henri Lartigue and Henri Cartier-Bresson. Paris_sentence_418

Poster art also became an important art form in Paris in the late nineteenth century, through the work of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Jules Chéret, Eugène Grasset, Adolphe Willette, Pierre Bonnard, Georges de Feure, Henri-Gabriel Ibels, Paul Gavarni and Alphonse Mucha. Paris_sentence_419

Museums Paris_section_34

Main article: List of museums in Paris Paris_sentence_420

The Louvre received 9.6 million visitors in 2019, ranking it the most visited museum in the world. Paris_sentence_421

Its treasures include the Mona Lisa (La Joconde), the Venus de Milo statue, Liberty Leading the People. Paris_sentence_422

The second-most visited museum in the city, with 3.5 million visitors, was the Centre Georges Pompidou, also known as Beaubourg, which houses the Musée National d'Art Moderne. Paris_sentence_423

The third most visited Paris museum, in a building constructed for the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1900 as the Orsay railway station, was the Musée d'Orsay, which had 3.3 million visitors in 2019. Paris_sentence_424

The Orsay displays French art of the 19th century, including major collections of the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists. Paris_sentence_425

The Musée de l'Orangerie, near both the Louvre and the Orsay, also exhibits Impressionists and Post-Impressionists, including most of Claude Monet's large Water Lilies murals. Paris_sentence_426

The Musée national du Moyen Âge, or Cluny Museum, presents Medieval art, including the famous tapestry cycle of The Lady and the Unicorn. Paris_sentence_427

The Guimet Museum, or Musée national des arts asiatiques, has one of the largest collections of Asian art in Europe. Paris_sentence_428

There are also notable museums devoted to individual artists, including the Musée Picasso, the Musée Rodin and the Musée national Eugène Delacroix. Paris_sentence_429

Paris hosts one of the largest science museums in Europe, the Cité des Sciences et de l'Industrie at La Villette. Paris_sentence_430

It attracted 2.2 million visitors in 2018. Paris_sentence_431

The National Museum of Natural History located near the Jardin des plantes attracted two million visitors in 2018. Paris_sentence_432

It is famous for its dinosaur artefacts, mineral collections and its Gallery of Evolution. Paris_sentence_433

The military history of France, from the Middle Ages to World War II, is vividly presented by displays at the Musée de l'Armée at Les Invalides, near the tomb of Napoleon. Paris_sentence_434

In addition to the national museums, run by the Ministry of Culture, the City of Paris operates 14 museums, including the Carnavalet Museum on the history of Paris, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Palais de Tokyo, the House of Victor Hugo, the House of Balzac and the Catacombs of Paris. Paris_sentence_435

There are also notable private museums; The Contemporary Art museum of the Louis Vuitton Foundation, designed by architect Frank Gehry, opened in October 2014 in the Bois de Boulogne. Paris_sentence_436

It received 1.1 million visitors in 2018. Paris_sentence_437

Theatre Paris_section_35

The largest opera houses of Paris are the 19th-century Opéra Garnier (historical Paris Opéra) and modern Opéra Bastille; the former tends toward the more classic ballets and operas, and the latter provides a mixed repertoire of classic and modern. Paris_sentence_438

In middle of the 19th century, there were three other active and competing opera houses: the Opéra-Comique (which still exists), Théâtre-Italien and Théâtre Lyrique (which in modern times changed its profile and name to Théâtre de la Ville). Paris_sentence_439

Philharmonie de Paris, the modern symphonic concert hall of Paris, opened in January 2015. Paris_sentence_440

Another musical landmark is the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, where the first performances of Diaghilev's Ballets Russes took place in 1913. Paris_sentence_441

Theatre traditionally has occupied a large place in Parisian culture, and many of its most popular actors today are also stars of French television. Paris_sentence_442

The oldest and most famous Paris theatre is the Comédie-Française, founded in 1680. Paris_sentence_443

Run by the Government of France, it performs mostly French classics at the Salle Richelieu in the Palais-Royal at 2 rue de Richelieu, next to the Louvre. Paris_sentence_444

of Other famous theatres include the Odéon-Théâtre de l'Europe, next to the Luxembourg Gardens, also a state institution and theatrical landmark; the Théâtre Mogador, and the Théâtre de la Gaîté-Montparnasse. Paris_sentence_445

The music hall and cabaret are famous Paris institutions. Paris_sentence_446

The Moulin Rouge was opened in 1889. Paris_sentence_447

It was highly visible because of its large red imitation windmill on its roof, and became the birthplace of the dance known as the French Cancan. Paris_sentence_448

It helped make famous the singers Mistinguett and Édith Piaf and the painter Toulouse-Lautrec, who made posters for the venue. Paris_sentence_449

In 1911, the dance hall Olympia Paris invented the grand staircase as a settling for its shows, competing with its great rival, the Folies Bergère. Paris_sentence_450

Its stars in the 1920s included the American singer and dancer Josephine Baker. Paris_sentence_451

Later, Olympia Paris presented Dalida, Edith Piaf, Marlene Dietrich, Miles Davis, Judy Garland and the Grateful Dead. Paris_sentence_452

The Casino de Paris presented many famous French singers, including Mistinguett, Maurice Chevalier and Tino Rossi. Paris_sentence_453

Other famous Paris music halls include Le Lido, on the Champs-Élysées, opened in 1946; and the Crazy Horse Saloon, featuring strip-tease, dance and magic, opened in 1951. Paris_sentence_454

A half dozen music halls exist today in Paris, attended mostly by visitors to the city. Paris_sentence_455

Literature Paris_section_36

Main article: Writers in Paris Paris_sentence_456

The first book printed in France, Epistolae ("Letters"), by Gasparinus de Bergamo (Gasparino da Barzizza), was published in Paris in 1470 by the press established by Johann Heynlin. Paris_sentence_457

Since then, Paris has been the centre of the French publishing industry, the home of some of the world's best-known writers and poets, and the setting for many classic works of French literature. Paris_sentence_458

Almost all the books published in Paris in the Middle Ages were in Latin, rather than French. Paris_sentence_459

Paris did not become the acknowledged capital of French literature until the 17th century, with authors such as Boileau, Corneille, La Fontaine, Molière, Racine, several coming from the provinces, as well as the foundation of the Académie française. Paris_sentence_460

In the 18th century, the literary life of Paris revolved around the cafés and salons; it was dominated by Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Pierre de Marivaux and Pierre Beaumarchais. Paris_sentence_461

During the 19th century, Paris was the home and subject for some of France's greatest writers, including Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, Mérimée, Alfred de Musset, Marcel Proust, Émile Zola, Alexandre Dumas, Gustave Flaubert, Guy de Maupassant and Honoré de Balzac. Paris_sentence_462

Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame inspired the renovation of its setting, the Notre-Dame de Paris. Paris_sentence_463

Another of Victor Hugo's works, Les Misérables, written while he was in exile outside France during the Second Empire, described the social change and political turmoil in Paris in the early 1830s. Paris_sentence_464

One of the most popular of all French writers, Jules Verne, worked at the Theatre Lyrique and the Paris stock exchange, while he did research for his stories at the National Library. Paris_sentence_465

In the 20th century, the Paris literary community was dominated by figures such as Colette, André Gide, François Mauriac, André Malraux, Albert Camus, and, after World War II, by Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre. Paris_sentence_466

Between the wars it was the home of many important expatriate writers, including Ernest Hemingway, Samuel Beckett, and, in the 1970s, Milan Kundera. Paris_sentence_467

The winner of the 2014 Nobel Prize in Literature, Patrick Modiano (who lives in Paris), based most of his literary work on the depiction of the city during World War II and the 1960s–1970s. Paris_sentence_468

Paris is a city of books and bookstores. Paris_sentence_469

In the 1970s, 80 percent of French-language publishing houses were found in Paris, almost all on the Left Bank in the 5th, 6th and 7th arrondissements. Paris_sentence_470

Since that time, because of high prices, some publishers have moved out to the less expensive areas. Paris_sentence_471

It is also a city of small bookstores. Paris_sentence_472

There are about 150 bookstores in the 5th arrondissement alone, plus another 250 book stalls along the Seine. Paris_sentence_473

Small Paris bookstores are protected against competition from discount booksellers by French law; books, even e-books, cannot be discounted more than five percent below their publisher's cover price. Paris_sentence_474

Music Paris_section_37

Main articles: Music in Paris and History of music in Paris Paris_sentence_475

In the late 12th century, a school of polyphony was established at Notre-Dame. Paris_sentence_476

Among the Trouvères of northern France, a group of Parisian aristocrats became known for their poetry and songs. Paris_sentence_477

Troubadours, from the south of France, were also popular. Paris_sentence_478

During the reign of François I, in the Renaissance era, the lute became popular in the French court. Paris_sentence_479

The French royal family and courtiers "disported themselves in masques, ballets, allegorical dances, recitals, and opera and comedy", and a national musical printing house was established. Paris_sentence_480

In the Baroque-era, noted composers included Jean-Baptiste Lully, Jean-Philippe Rameau, and François Couperin. Paris_sentence_481

The Conservatoire de Musique de Paris was founded in 1795. Paris_sentence_482

By 1870, Paris had become an important centre for symphony, ballet and operatic music. Paris_sentence_483

Romantic-era composers (in Paris) include Hector Berlioz (La Symphonie fantastique), Charles Gounod (Faust), Camille Saint-Saëns (Samson et Delilah), Léo Delibes (Lakmé) and Jules Massenet (Thaïs), among others. Paris_sentence_484

Georges Bizet's Carmen premiered 3 March 1875. Paris_sentence_485

Carmen has since become one of the most popular and frequently-performed operas in the classical canon. Paris_sentence_486

Among the Impressionist composers who created new works for piano, orchestra, opera, chamber music and other musical forms, stand in particular, Claude Debussy (Suite bergamasque, and its well-known third movement, Clair de lune, La Mer, Pelléas et Mélisande), Erik Satie (Gymnopédies, "Je te veux", Gnossiennes, Parade) and Maurice Ravel (Miroirs, Boléro, La valse, L'heure espagnole). Paris_sentence_487

Several foreign-born composers, such as Frédéric Chopin (Poland), Franz Liszt (Hungary), Jacques Offenbach (Germany), Niccolò Paganini (Italy), and Igor Stravinsky (Russia), established themselves or made significant contributions both with their works and their influence in Paris. Paris_sentence_488

Bal-musette is a style of French music and dance that first became popular in Paris in the 1870s and 1880s; by 1880 Paris had some 150 dance halls in the working-class neighbourhoods of the city. Paris_sentence_489

Patrons danced the bourrée to the accompaniment of the cabrette (a bellows-blown bagpipe locally called a "musette") and often the vielle à roue (hurdy-gurdy) in the cafés and bars of the city. Paris_sentence_490

Parisian and Italian musicians who played the accordion adopted the style and established themselves in Auvergnat bars especially in the 19th arrondissement, and the romantic sounds of the accordion has since become one of the musical icons of the city. Paris_sentence_491

Paris became a major centre for jazz and still attracts jazz musicians from all around the world to its clubs and cafés. Paris_sentence_492

Paris is the spiritual home of gypsy jazz in particular, and many of the Parisian jazzmen who developed in the first half of the 20th century began by playing Bal-musette in the city. Paris_sentence_493

Django Reinhardt rose to fame in Paris, having moved to the 18th arrondissement in a caravan as a young boy, and performed with violinist Stéphane Grappelli and their Quintette du Hot Club de France in the 1930s and 1940s. Paris_sentence_494

Immediately after the War the Saint-Germain-des-Pres quarter and the nearby Saint-Michel quarter became home to many small jazz clubs, mostly found in cellars because of a lack of space; these included the Caveau des Lorientais, the Club Saint-Germain, the Rose Rouge, the Vieux-Colombier, and the most famous, Le Tabou. Paris_sentence_495

They introduced Parisians to the music of Claude Luter, Boris Vian, Sydney Bechet, Mezz Mezzrow, and Henri Salvador. Paris_sentence_496

Most of the clubs closed by the early 1960s, as musical tastes shifted toward rock and roll. Paris_sentence_497

Some of the finest manouche musicians in the world are found here playing the cafés of the city at night. Paris_sentence_498

Some of the more notable jazz venues include the New Morning, Le Sunset, La Chope des Puces and Bouquet du Nord. Paris_sentence_499

Several yearly festivals take place in Paris, including the Paris Jazz Festival and the rock festival Rock en Seine. Paris_sentence_500

The Orchestre de Paris was established in 1967. Paris_sentence_501

On 19 December 2015, Paris and other worldwide fans commemorated the 100th anniversary of the birth of Edith Piaf—a cabaret singer-songwriter and actress who became widely regarded as France's national chanteuse, as well as being one of France's greatest international stars. Paris_sentence_502

Other singers—of similar style—include Maurice Chevalier, Charles Aznavour, Yves Montand, as well as Charles Trenet. Paris_sentence_503

Paris has a big hip hop scene. Paris_sentence_504

This music became popular during the 1980s. Paris_sentence_505

The presence of a large African and Caribbean community helped to its development, it gave a voice, a political and social status for many minorities. Paris_sentence_506

Cinema Paris_section_38

See also: List of films set in Paris Paris_sentence_507

The movie industry was born in Paris when Auguste and Louis Lumière projected the first motion picture for a paying audience at the Grand Café on 28 December 1895. Paris_sentence_508

Many of Paris' concert/dance halls were transformed into cinemas when the media became popular beginning in the 1930s. Paris_sentence_509

Later, most of the largest cinemas were divided into multiple, smaller rooms. Paris_sentence_510

Paris' largest cinema room today is in the Grand Rex theatre with 2,700 seats. Paris_sentence_511

Big multiplex cinemas have been built since the 1990s. Paris_sentence_512

UGC Ciné Cité Les Halles with 27 screens, MK2 Bibliothèque with 20 screens and UGC Ciné Cité Bercy with 18 screens are among the largest. Paris_sentence_513

Parisians tend to share the same movie-going trends as many of the world's global cities, with cinemas primarily dominated by Hollywood-generated film entertainment. Paris_sentence_514

French cinema comes a close second, with major directors (réalisateurs) such as Claude Lelouch, Jean-Luc Godard, and Luc Besson, and the more slapstick/popular genre with director Claude Zidi as an example. Paris_sentence_515

European and Asian films are also widely shown and appreciated. Paris_sentence_516

On 2 February 2000, Philippe Binant realised the first digital cinema projection in Europe, with the DLP CINEMA technology developed by Texas Instruments, in Paris. Paris_sentence_517

Restaurants and cuisine Paris_section_39

See also: French cuisine Paris_sentence_518

Since the late 18th century, Paris has been famous for its restaurants and haute cuisine, food meticulously prepared and artfully presented. Paris_sentence_519

A luxury restaurant, La Taverne Anglaise, opened in 1786 in the arcades of the Palais-Royal by Antoine Beauvilliers; it featured an elegant dining room, an extensive menu, linen tablecloths, a large wine list and well-trained waiters; it became a model for future Paris restaurants. Paris_sentence_520

The restaurant Le Grand Véfour in the Palais-Royal dates from the same period. Paris_sentence_521

The famous Paris restaurants of the 19th century, including the Café de Paris, the Rocher de Cancale, the Café Anglais, Maison Dorée and the Café Riche, were mostly located near the theatres on the Boulevard des Italiens; they were immortalised in the novels of Balzac and Émile Zola. Paris_sentence_522

Several of the best-known restaurants in Paris today appeared during the Belle Epoque, including Maxim's on Rue Royale, Ledoyen in the gardens of the Champs-Élysées, and the Tour d'Argent on the Quai de la Tournelle. Paris_sentence_523

Today, due to Paris' cosmopolitan population, every French regional cuisine and almost every national cuisine in the world can be found there; the city has more than 9,000 restaurants. Paris_sentence_524

The Michelin Guide has been a standard guide to French restaurants since 1900, awarding its highest award, three stars, to the best restaurants in France. Paris_sentence_525

In 2018, of the 27 Michelin three-star restaurants in France, ten are located in Paris. Paris_sentence_526

These include both restaurants which serve classical French cuisine, such as L'Ambroisie in the Place des Vosges, and those which serve non-traditional menus, such as L'Astrance, which combines French and Asian cuisines. Paris_sentence_527

Several of France's most famous chefs, including Pierre Gagnaire, Alain Ducasse, Yannick Alléno and Alain Passard, have three-star restaurants in Paris. Paris_sentence_528

In addition to the classical restaurants, Paris has several other kinds of traditional eating places. Paris_sentence_529

The café arrived in Paris in the 17th century, when the beverage was first brought from Turkey, and by the 18th century Parisian cafés were centres of the city's political and cultural life. Paris_sentence_530

The Café Procope on the Left Bank dates from this period. Paris_sentence_531

In the 20th century, the cafés of the Left Bank, especially Café de la Rotonde and Le Dôme Café in Montparnasse and Café de Flore and Les Deux Magots on Boulevard Saint Germain, all still in business, were important meeting places for painters, writers and philosophers. Paris_sentence_532

A bistro is a type of eating place loosely defined as a neighbourhood restaurant with a modest decor and prices and a regular clientele and a congenial atmosphere. Paris_sentence_533

Its name is said to have come in 1814 from the Russian soldiers who occupied the city; "bistro" means "quickly" in Russian, and they wanted their meals served rapidly so they could get back their encampment. Paris_sentence_534

Real bistros are increasingly rare in Paris, due to rising costs, competition from cheaper ethnic restaurants, and different eating habits of Parisian diners. Paris_sentence_535

A brasserie originally was a tavern located next to a brewery, which served beer and food at any hour. Paris_sentence_536

Beginning with the Paris Exposition of 1867; it became a popular kind of restaurant which featured beer and other beverages served by young women in the national costume associated with the beverage, particular German costumes for beer. Paris_sentence_537

Now brasseries, like cafés, serve food and drinks throughout the day. Paris_sentence_538

Fashion Paris_section_40

Main article: French fashion Paris_sentence_539

Since the 19th century, Paris has been an international fashion capital, particularly in the domain of haute couture (clothing hand-made to order for private clients). Paris_sentence_540

It is home to some of the largest fashion houses in the world, including Dior and Chanel, as well as many other well-known and more contemporary fashion designers, such as Karl Lagerfeld, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Yves Saint Laurent, Givenchy, and Christian Lacroix. Paris_sentence_541

Paris Fashion Week, held in January and July in the Carrousel du Louvre among other renowned city locations, is one of the top four events on the international fashion calendar. Paris_sentence_542

The other fashion capitals of the world, Milan, London, and New York also host fashion weeks. Paris_sentence_543

Moreover, Paris is also the home of the world's largest cosmetics company: L'Oréal as well as three of the top five global makers of luxury fashion accessories: Louis Vuitton, Hermés, and Cartier. Paris_sentence_544

Most of the major fashion designers have their showrooms along the Avenue Montaigne, between the Champs-Élysées and the Seine. Paris_sentence_545

Holidays and festivals Paris_section_41

Bastille Day, a celebration of the storming of the Bastille in 1789, the biggest festival in the city, is a military parade taking place every year on 14 July on the Champs-Élysées, from the Arc de Triomphe to Place de la Concorde. Paris_sentence_546

It includes a flypast over the Champs Élysées by the Patrouille de France, a parade of military units and equipment, and a display of fireworks in the evening, the most spectacular being the one at the Eiffel Tower. Paris_sentence_547

Some other yearly festivals are Paris-Plages, a festive event that lasts from mid-July to mid-August when the Right Bank of the Seine is converted into a temporary beach with sand, deck chairs and palm trees; Journées du Patrimoine, Fête de la Musique, Techno Parade, Nuit Blanche, Cinéma au clair de lune, Printemps des rues, Festival d'automne, and Fête des jardins. Paris_sentence_548

The Carnaval de Paris, one of the oldest festivals in Paris, dates back to the Middle Ages. Paris_sentence_549

Education Paris_section_42

Main article: Education in Paris Paris_sentence_550

Paris is the département with the highest proportion of highly educated people. Paris_sentence_551

In 2009, around 40 percent of Parisians held a licence-level diploma or higher, the highest proportion in France, while 13 percent have no diploma, the third-lowest percentage in France. Paris_sentence_552

Education in Paris and the Île-de-France region employs approximately 330,000 people, 170,000 of whom are teachers and professors teaching approximately 2.9 million children and students in around 9,000 primary, secondary, and higher education schools and institutions. Paris_sentence_553

The University of Paris, founded in the 12th century, is often called the Sorbonne after one of its original medieval colleges. Paris_sentence_554

It was broken up into thirteen autonomous universities in 1970, following the student demonstrations in 1968. Paris_sentence_555

Most of the campuses today are in the Latin Quarter where the old university was located, while others are scattered around the city and the suburbs. Paris_sentence_556

The Paris region hosts France's highest concentration of the grandes écoles – 55 specialised centres of higher-education outside the public university structure. Paris_sentence_557

The prestigious public universities are usually considered grands établissements. Paris_sentence_558

Most of the grandes écoles were relocated to the suburbs of Paris in the 1960s and 1970s, in new campuses much larger than the old campuses within the crowded City of Paris, though the École Normale Supérieure has remained on rue d'Ulm in the 5th arrondissement. Paris_sentence_559

There are a high number of engineering schools, led by the Paris Institute of Technology which comprises several colleges such as École Polytechnique, École des Mines, AgroParisTech, Télécom Paris, Arts et Métiers, and École des Ponts et Chaussées. Paris_sentence_560

There are also many business schools, including HEC, INSEAD, ESSEC, and ESCP Europe. Paris_sentence_561

The administrative school such as ENA has been relocated to Strasbourg, the political science school Sciences-Po is still located in Paris' 7th arrondissement, the most prestigious university for social sciences, the École des hautes études en sciences sociales is located in Paris' 6th arrondissement and the most prestigious university of economics and finance, Paris-Dauphine, is located in Paris' 16th. Paris_sentence_562

The Parisian school of journalism CELSA department of the Paris-Sorbonne University is located in Neuilly-sur-Seine. Paris_sentence_563

Paris is also home to several of France's most famous high-schools such as Lycée Louis-le-Grand, Lycée Henri-IV, Lycée Janson de Sailly and Lycée Condorcet. Paris_sentence_564

The National Institute of Sport and Physical Education, located in the 12th arrondissement, is both a physical education institute and high-level training centre for elite athletes. Paris_sentence_565

Libraries Paris_section_43

Main article: Libraries in Paris Paris_sentence_566

The Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF) operates public libraries in Paris, among them the François Mitterrand Library, Richelieu Library, Louvois, Opéra Library, and Arsenal Library. Paris_sentence_567

There are three public libraries in the 4th arrondissement. Paris_sentence_568

The Forney Library, in the Marais district, is dedicated to the decorative arts; the Arsenal Library occupies a former military building, and has a large collection on French literature; and the Bibliothèque historique de la ville de Paris, also in Le Marais, contains the Paris historical research service. Paris_sentence_569

The Sainte-Geneviève Library is in 5th arrondissement; designed by Henri Labrouste and built in the mid-1800s, it contains a rare book and manuscript division. Paris_sentence_570

Bibliothèque Mazarine, in the 6th arrondissement, is the oldest public library in France. Paris_sentence_571

The Médiathèque Musicale Mahler in the 8th arrondissement opened in 1986 and contains collections related to music. Paris_sentence_572

The François Mitterrand Library (nicknamed Très Grande Bibliothèque) in the 13th arrondissement was completed in 1994 to a design of Dominique Perrault and contains four glass towers. Paris_sentence_573

There are several academic libraries and archives in Paris. Paris_sentence_574

The Sorbonne Library in the 5th arrondissement is the largest university library in Paris. Paris_sentence_575

In addition to the Sorbonne location, there are branches in Malesherbes, Clignancourt-Championnet, Michelet-Institut d'Art et d'Archéologie, Serpente-Maison de la Recherche, and Institut des Etudes Ibériques. Paris_sentence_576

Other academic libraries include Interuniversity Pharmaceutical Library, Leonardo da Vinci University Library, Paris School of Mines Library, and the René Descartes University Library. Paris_sentence_577

Sports Paris_section_44

Paris' most popular sport clubs are the association football club Paris Saint-Germain F.C. and the rugby union clubs Stade Français and Racing 92, the last of which is based just outside the city proper. Paris_sentence_578

The 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the commune of Saint-Denis. Paris_sentence_579

It is used for football, rugby union and track and field athletics. Paris_sentence_580

It hosts the French national football team for friendlies and major tournaments qualifiers, annually hosts the French national rugby team's home matches of the Six Nations Championship, and hosts several important matches of the Stade Français rugby team. Paris_sentence_581

In addition to Paris Saint-Germain F.C., the city has a number of other professional and amateur football clubs: Paris FC, Red Star, RCF Paris and Stade Français Paris. Paris_sentence_582

Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and will host the 2024 Summer Olympics and Paralympic Games. Paris_sentence_583

The city also hosted the finals of the 1938 FIFA World Cup (at the Stade Olympique de Colombes), as well as the 1998 FIFA World Cup and the 2007 Rugby World Cup Final (both at the Stade de France). Paris_sentence_584

Two UEFA Champions League Finals in the current century have also been played in the Stade de France: the 2000 and 2006 editions. Paris_sentence_585

Paris has most recently been the host for UEFA Euro 2016, both at the Parc des Princes in the city proper and also at Stade de France, with the latter hosting the opening match and final. Paris_sentence_586

The final stage of the most famous bicycle racing in the world, Tour de France, always finishes in Paris. Paris_sentence_587

Since 1975, the race has finished on the Champs-Elysées. Paris_sentence_588

Tennis is another popular sport in Paris and throughout France; the French Open, held every year on the red clay of the Roland Garros National Tennis Centre, is one of the four Grand Slam events of the world professional tennis tour. Paris_sentence_589

The 17,000-seat Bercy Arena (officially named AccorHotels Arena and formerly known as the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy) is the venue for the annual Paris Masters ATP Tour tennis tournament and has been a frequent site of national and international tournaments in basketball, boxing, cycling, handball, ice hockey, show jumping and other sports. Paris_sentence_590

The Bercy Arena also hosted the 2017 IIHF World Ice Hockey Championship, together with Cologne, Germany. Paris_sentence_591

The final stages of the FIBA EuroBasket 1951 and EuroBasket 1999 were also played in Paris, the latter at the Palais Omnisports de Paris-Bercy. Paris_sentence_592

The basketball team Levallois Metropolitans plays some of its games at the 4,000 capacity Stade Pierre de Coubertin. Paris_sentence_593

Another top-level professional team, Nanterre 92, plays in Nanterre. Paris_sentence_594

Infrastructure Paris_section_45

Transport Paris_section_46

Main article: Transport in Paris Paris_sentence_595

See also: List of railway stations in Paris Paris_sentence_596

Paris is a major rail, highway, and air transport hub. Paris_sentence_597

Île-de-France Mobilités (IDFM), formerly the Syndicat des transports d'Île-de-France (STIF) and before that the Syndicat des transports parisiens (STP), oversees the transit network in the region. Paris_sentence_598

The syndicate coordinates public transport and contracts it out to the RATP (operating 347 bus lines, the Métro, eight tramway lines, and sections of the RER), the SNCF (operating suburban rails, one tramway line and the other sections of the RER) and the Optile consortium of private operators managing 1,176 bus lines. Paris_sentence_599

Railways Paris_section_47

See also: List of railway stations in Paris Paris_sentence_600

A central hub of the national rail network, Paris' six major railway stations (Gare du Nord, Gare de l'Est, Gare de Lyon, Gare d'Austerlitz, Gare Montparnasse, Gare Saint-Lazare) and a minor one (Gare de Bercy) are connected to three networks: the TGV serving four high-speed rail lines, the normal speed Corail trains, and the suburban rails (Transilien). Paris_sentence_601

Métro, RER and tramway Paris_section_48

Main article: Paris Métro Paris_sentence_602

Since the inauguration of its first line in 1900, Paris's Métro network has grown to become the city's most widely used local transport system; today it carries about 5.23 million passengers daily through 16 lines, 303 stations (385 stops) and 220 km (136.7 mi) of rails. Paris_sentence_603

Superimposed on this is a 'regional express network', the RER, whose five lines (A, B, C, D, and E), 257 stops and 587 km (365 mi) of rails connect Paris to more distant parts of the urban area. Paris_sentence_604

Over €26.5 billion will be invested over the next 15 years to extend the Métro network into the suburbs, with notably the Grand Paris Express project. Paris_sentence_605

In addition, the Paris region is served by a light rail network of nine lines, the tramway: Line T1 runs from Asnières-Gennevilliers to Noisy-le-Sec, Line T2 runs from Pont de Bezons to Porte de Versailles, Line T3a runs from Pont du Garigliano to Porte de Vincennes, Line T3b runs from Porte de Vincennes to Porte d'Asnières, Line T5 runs from Saint-Denis to Garges-Sarcelles, Line T6 runs from Châtillon to Viroflay, Line T7 runs from Villejuif to Athis-Mons, Line T8 runs from Saint-Denis to Épinay-sur-Seine and Villetaneuse, all of which are operated by the RATP Group, and line T4 runs from Bondy RER to Aulnay-sous-Bois, which is operated by the state rail carrier SNCF. Paris_sentence_606

Five new light rail lines are currently in various stages of development. Paris_sentence_607

Air Paris_section_49


Busiest destinations from Paris

airports (CDG, ORY, BVA) in 2014Paris_header_cell_4_0_0

Domestic destinationsParis_header_cell_4_1_0 PassengersParis_header_cell_4_1_1
Midi-Pyrénées ToulouseParis_cell_4_2_0 3,158,331Paris_cell_4_2_1
Provence-Alpes-Côte_d'Azur NiceParis_cell_4_3_0 2,865,602Paris_cell_4_3_1
Aquitaine BordeauxParis_cell_4_4_0 1,539,478Paris_cell_4_4_1
Provence-Alpes-Côte_d'Azur MarseilleParis_cell_4_5_0 1,502,196Paris_cell_4_5_1
Pointe-à-PitreParis_cell_4_6_0 1,191,437Paris_cell_4_6_1
Saint-Denis (Réunion)Paris_cell_4_7_0 1,108,964Paris_cell_4_7_1
Fort-de-FranceParis_cell_4_8_0 1,055,770Paris_cell_4_8_1
Other domestic destinations

Languedoc-Roussillon Montpellier 807,482

Aquitaine Biarritz 684,578

Rhône-Alpes Lyon 613,395Paris_cell_4_9_0

Other domestic destinationsParis_header_cell_4_10_0
Languedoc-Roussillon MontpellierParis_cell_4_11_0 807,482Paris_cell_4_11_1
Aquitaine BiarritzParis_cell_4_12_0 684,578Paris_cell_4_12_1
Rhône-Alpes LyonParis_cell_4_13_0 613,395Paris_cell_4_13_1
International destinationsParis_header_cell_4_14_0 PassengersParis_header_cell_4_14_1
Italy ItalyParis_cell_4_15_0 7,881,497Paris_cell_4_15_1
Spain SpainParis_cell_4_16_0 7,193,481Paris_cell_4_16_1
United_States United StatesParis_cell_4_17_0 6,495,677Paris_cell_4_17_1
Germany GermanyParis_cell_4_18_0 4,685,313Paris_cell_4_18_1
United_Kingdom United KingdomParis_cell_4_19_0 4,177,519Paris_cell_4_19_1
Morocco MoroccoParis_cell_4_20_0 3,148,479Paris_cell_4_20_1
Portugal PortugalParis_cell_4_21_0 3,018,446Paris_cell_4_21_1
Algeria AlgeriaParis_cell_4_22_0 2,351,402Paris_cell_4_22_1
China ChinaParis_cell_4_23_0 2,141,527Paris_cell_4_23_1
Other international destinations

Switzerland Switzerland 1,727,169Paris_cell_4_24_0

Other international destinationsParis_header_cell_4_25_0
Switzerland SwitzerlandParis_cell_4_26_0 1,727,169Paris_cell_4_26_1

Paris is a major international air transport hub with the 5th busiest airport system in the world. Paris_sentence_608

The city is served by three commercial international airports: Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Paris–Orly and Beauvais–Tillé Airport. Paris_sentence_609

Together these three airports recorded traffic of 96.5 million passengers in 2014. Paris_sentence_610

There is also one general aviation airport, Paris-Le Bourget, historically the oldest Parisian airport and closest to the city centre, which is now used only for private business flights and air shows. Paris_sentence_611

Orly Airport, located in the southern suburbs of Paris, replaced Le Bourget as the principal airport of Paris from the 1950s to the 1980s. Paris_sentence_612

Charles de Gaulle Airport, located on the edge of the northern suburbs of Paris, opened to commercial traffic in 1974 and became the busiest Parisian airport in 1993. Paris_sentence_613

For the year 2017 it was the 5th busiest airport in the world by international traffic and it is the hub for the nation's flag carrier Air France. Paris_sentence_614

Beauvais-Tillé Airport, located 69 kilometres (43 miles) north of Paris' city centre, is used by charter airlines and low-cost carriers such as Ryanair. Paris_sentence_615

Domestically, air travel between Paris and some of France's largest cities such as Lyon, Marseille, or Strasbourg has been in a large measure replaced by high-speed rail due to the opening of several high-speed TGV rail lines from the 1980s. Paris_sentence_616

For example, after the LGV Méditerranée opened in 2001, air traffic between Paris and Marseille declined from 2,976,793 passengers in 2000 to 1,502,196 passengers in 2014. Paris_sentence_617

After the LGV Est opened in 2007, air traffic between Paris and Strasbourg declined from 1,006,327 passengers in 2006 to 157,207 passengers in 2014. Paris_sentence_618

Internationally, air traffic has increased markedly in recent years between Paris and the Gulf airports, the emerging nations of Africa, Russia, Turkey, Portugal, Italy, and mainland China, whereas noticeable decline has been recorded between Paris and the British Isles, Egypt, Tunisia, and Japan. Paris_sentence_619

Motorways Paris_section_50

The city is also the most important hub of France's motorway network, and is surrounded by three orbital freeways: the Périphérique, which follows the approximate path of 19th-century fortifications around Paris, the A86 motorway in the inner suburbs, and finally the Francilienne motorway in the outer suburbs. Paris_sentence_620

Paris has an extensive road network with over 2,000 km (1,243 mi) of highways and motorways. Paris_sentence_621

Waterways Paris_section_51

The Paris region is the most active water transport area in France, with most of the cargo handled by Ports of Paris in facilities located around Paris. Paris_sentence_622

The rivers Loire, Rhine, Rhone, Meuse, and Scheldt can be reached by canals connecting with the Seine, which include the Canal Saint-Martin, Canal Saint-Denis, and the Canal de l'Ourcq. Paris_sentence_623

Cycling Paris_section_52

There are 440 km (270 mi) of cycle paths and routes in Paris. Paris_sentence_624

These include piste cyclable (bike lanes separated from other traffic by physical barriers such as a kerb) and bande cyclable (a bicycle lane denoted by a painted path on the road). Paris_sentence_625

Some 29 km (18 mi) of specially marked bus lanes are free to be used by cyclists, with a protective barrier protecting against encroachments from vehicles. Paris_sentence_626

Cyclists have also been given the right to ride in both directions on certain one-way streets. Paris_sentence_627

Paris offers a bike sharing system called Vélib' with more than 20,000 public bicycles distributed at 1,800 parking stations, which can be rented for short and medium distances including one way trips. Paris_sentence_628

Electricity Paris_section_53

Electricity is provided to Paris through a peripheral grid fed by multiple sources. Paris_sentence_629

As of 2012, around 50% of electricity generated in the Île-de-France comes from cogeneration energy plants located near the outer limits of the region; other energy sources include the Nogent Nuclear Power Plant (35%), trash incineration (9% – with cogeneration plants, these provide the city in heat as well), methane gas (5%), hydraulics (1%), solar power (0.1%) and a negligible amount of wind power (0.034 GWh). Paris_sentence_630

A quarter of the city's district heating is to come from a plant in Saint-Ouen-sur-Seine, burning a 50/50-mix of coal and 140,000 tonnes of wood pellets from the United States per year. Paris_sentence_631

Water and sanitation Paris_section_54

Paris in its early history had only the rivers Seine and Bièvre for water. Paris_sentence_632

From 1809, the Canal de l'Ourcq provided Paris with water from less-polluted rivers to the north-east of the capital. Paris_sentence_633

From 1857, the civil engineer Eugène Belgrand, under Napoleon III, oversaw the construction of a series of new aqueducts that brought water from locations all around the city to several reservoirs built atop the Capital's highest points of elevation. Paris_sentence_634

From then on, the new reservoir system became Paris' principal source of drinking water, and the remains of the old system, pumped into lower levels of the same reservoirs, were from then on used for the cleaning of Paris' streets. Paris_sentence_635

This system is still a major part of Paris' modern water-supply network. Paris_sentence_636

Today Paris has more than 2,400 km (1,491 mi) of underground passageways dedicated to the evacuation of Paris' liquid wastes. Paris_sentence_637

In 1982, Mayor Chirac introduced the motorcycle-mounted Motocrotte to remove dog faeces from Paris streets. Paris_sentence_638

The project was abandoned in 2002 for a new and better enforced local law, under the terms of which dog owners can be fined up to €500 for not removing their dog faeces. Paris_sentence_639

The air pollution in Paris, from the point of view of particulate matter (PM10), is the highest in France with 38 μg/m³. Paris_sentence_640

Parks and gardens Paris_section_55

Main articles: List of parks and gardens in Paris and History of Parks and Gardens of Paris Paris_sentence_641

Paris today has more than 421 municipal parks and gardens, covering more than 3,000 hectares and containing more than 250,000 trees. Paris_sentence_642

Two of Paris's oldest and most famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden (created in 1564 for the Tuileries Palace and redone by André Le Nôtre between 1664 and 1672) and the Luxembourg Garden, for the Luxembourg Palace, built for Marie de' Medici in 1612, which today houses the Senate. Paris_sentence_643

The Jardin des plantes was the first botanical garden in Paris, created in 1626 by Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse for the cultivation of medicinal plants. Paris_sentence_644

Between 1853 and 1870, Emperor Napoleon III and the city's first director of parks and gardens, Jean-Charles Adolphe Alphand, created the Bois de Boulogne, Bois de Vincennes, Parc Montsouris and Parc des Buttes-Chaumont, located at the four points of the compass around the city, as well as many smaller parks, squares and gardens in the Paris's quarters. Paris_sentence_645

Since 1977, the city has created 166 new parks, most notably the Parc de la Villette (1987), Parc André Citroën (1992), Parc de Bercy (1997) and Parc Clichy-Batignolles (2007). Paris_sentence_646

One of the newest parks, the Promenade des Berges de la Seine (2013), built on a former highway on the left bank of the Seine between the Pont de l'Alma and the Musée d'Orsay, has floating gardens and gives a view of the city's landmarks. Paris_sentence_647

Weekly Parkruns take place in the Bois de Boulogne and the Parc Montsouris Paris_sentence_648

Cemeteries Paris_section_56

During the Roman era, the city's main cemetery was located to the outskirts of the left bank settlement, but this changed with the rise of Catholic Christianity, where most every inner-city church had adjoining burial grounds for use by their parishes. Paris_sentence_649

With Paris's growth many of these, particularly the city's largest cemetery, the Holy Innocents' Cemetery, were filled to overflowing, creating quite unsanitary conditions for the capital. Paris_sentence_650

When inner-city burials were condemned from 1786, the contents of all Paris' parish cemeteries were transferred to a renovated section of Paris's stone mines outside the "Porte d'Enfer" city gate, today place Denfert-Rochereau in the 14th arrondissement. Paris_sentence_651

The process of moving bones from the Cimetière des Innocents to the catacombs took place between 1786 and 1814; part of the network of tunnels and remains can be visited today on the official tour of the catacombs. Paris_sentence_652

After a tentative creation of several smaller suburban cemeteries, the Prefect Nicholas Frochot under Napoleon Bonaparte provided a more definitive solution in the creation of three massive Parisian cemeteries outside the city limits. Paris_sentence_653

Open from 1804, these were the cemeteries of Père Lachaise, Montmartre, Montparnasse, and later Passy; these cemeteries became inner-city once again when Paris annexed all neighbouring communes to the inside of its much larger ring of suburban fortifications in 1860. Paris_sentence_654

New suburban cemeteries were created in the early 20th century: The largest of these are the Cimetière parisien de Saint-Ouen, the Cimetière parisien de Pantin (also known as Cimetière parisien de Pantin-Bobigny), the Cimetière parisien d'Ivry, and the Cimetière parisien de Bagneux. Paris_sentence_655

Some of the most famous people in the world are buried in Parisian cemeteries, such as Oscar Wilde and Serge Gainsbourg among others. Paris_sentence_656

Healthcare Paris_section_57

Health care and emergency medical service in the City of Paris and its suburbs are provided by the Assistance publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), a public hospital system that employs more than 90,000 people (including practitioners, support personnel, and administrators) in 44 hospitals. Paris_sentence_657

It is the largest hospital system in Europe. Paris_sentence_658

It provides health care, teaching, research, prevention, education and emergency medical service in 52 branches of medicine. Paris_sentence_659

The hospitals receive more than 5.8 million annual patient visits. Paris_sentence_660

One of the most notable hospitals is the Hôtel-Dieu, founded in 651, the oldest hospital in the city, although the current building is the product of a reconstruction of 1877. Paris_sentence_661

Other hospitals include Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital (one of the largest in Europe), Hôpital Cochin, Bichat–Claude Bernard Hospital, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Bicêtre Hospital, Beaujon Hospital, the Curie Institute, Lariboisière Hospital, Necker–Enfants Malades Hospital, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Hôpital de la Charité and the American Hospital of Paris. Paris_sentence_662

Media Paris_section_58

Paris and its close suburbs is home to numerous newspapers, magazines and publications including Le Monde, Le Figaro, Libération, Le Nouvel Observateur, Le Canard enchaîné, La Croix, Pariscope, Le Parisien (in Saint-Ouen), Les Échos, Paris Match (Neuilly-sur-Seine), Réseaux & Télécoms, Reuters France, and L'Officiel des Spectacles. Paris_sentence_663

France's two most prestigious newspapers, Le Monde and Le Figaro, are the centrepieces of the Parisian publishing industry. Paris_sentence_664

Agence France-Presse is France's oldest, and one of the world's oldest, continually operating news agencies. Paris_sentence_665

AFP, as it is colloquially abbreviated, maintains its headquarters in Paris, as it has since 1835. Paris_sentence_666

France 24 is a television news channel owned and operated by the French government, and is based in Paris. Paris_sentence_667

Another news agency is France Diplomatie, owned and operated by the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, and pertains solely to diplomatic news and occurrences. Paris_sentence_668

The most-viewed network in France, TF1, is in nearby Boulogne-Billancourt. Paris_sentence_669

France 2, France 3, Canal+, France 5, M6 (Neuilly-sur-Seine), Arte, D8, W9, NT1, NRJ 12, La Chaîne parlementaire, France 4, BFM TV, and Gulli are other stations located in and around the capital. Paris_sentence_670

Radio France, France's public radio broadcaster, and its various channels, is headquartered in Paris' 16th arrondissement. Paris_sentence_671

Radio France Internationale, another public broadcaster is also based in the city. Paris_sentence_672

Paris also holds the headquarters of the La Poste, France's national postal carrier. Paris_sentence_673

International relations Paris_section_59

Twin towns and sister cities Paris_section_60

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Paris_sentence_674

Since 9 April 1956, Paris is exclusively and reciprocally twinned only with: Paris_sentence_675



  • Seule Paris est digne de Rome ; seule Rome est digne de Paris. (in French)Paris_item_1_1
  • Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; solo Roma è degna di Parigi. (in Italian)Paris_item_1_2
  • "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris."Paris_item_1_3

Other relationships Paris_section_61

Paris has agreements of friendship and co-operation with: Paris_sentence_676

See also Paris_section_62


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