Parliamentary system

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"Anti-defection law" redirects here. Parliamentary system_sentence_0

For the law in India, see Anti-defection law (India). Parliamentary system_sentence_1

A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state (or subordinate entity) where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament. Parliamentary system_sentence_2

In a parliamentary system, the head of state is usually a person distinct from the head of government. Parliamentary system_sentence_3

This is in contrast to a presidential system, where the head of state often is also the head of government and, most importantly, where the executive does not derive its democratic legitimacy from the legislature. Parliamentary system_sentence_4

Countries with parliamentary democracies may be constitutional monarchies, where a monarch is the head of state while the head of government is almost always a member of parliament (such as Denmark, Japan, Malaysia, Sweden and the United Kingdom), or parliamentary republics, where a mostly ceremonial president is the head of state while the head of government is regularly from the legislature (such as Ireland, Germany, Italy, Singapore and South Korea). Parliamentary system_sentence_5

In a few parliamentary republics, such as Botswana, Kiribati and South Africa, among some others, the head of government is also head of state, but is elected by and is answerable to parliament. Parliamentary system_sentence_6

In bicameral parliaments, the head of government is generally, though not always, a member of the lower house. Parliamentary system_sentence_7

Parliamentarianism is the dominant form of government in Europe, with 32 of its 50 sovereign states being parliamentarian. Parliamentary system_sentence_8

It is also common in the Caribbean, being the form of government of 10 of its 13 island states, and in Oceania. Parliamentary system_sentence_9

Elsewhere in the world, parliamentary countries are less common, but they are distributed through all continents, most often in former colonies of the British Empire that subscribe to a particular brand of parliamentarianism known as the Westminster system. Parliamentary system_sentence_10

History Parliamentary system_section_0

Further information: History of Parliamentarism Parliamentary system_sentence_11

Since ancient times, when societies were tribal, there were councils or a headman whose decisions were assessed by village elders. Parliamentary system_sentence_12

Eventually, these councils have slowly evolved into the modern parliamentary system. Parliamentary system_sentence_13

The first parliaments date back to Europe in the Middle Ages: specifically in 1188 Alfonso IX, King of Leon (Spain) convened the three states in the Cortes of León. Parliamentary system_sentence_14

An early example of parliamentary government developed in today's Netherlands and Belgium during the Dutch revolt (1581), when the sovereign, legislative and executive powers were taken over by the States General of the Netherlands from the monarch, King Philip II of Spain. Parliamentary system_sentence_15

The modern concept of parliamentary government emerged in the Kingdom of Great Britain between 1707 and 1800 and its contemporary, the Parliamentary System in Sweden between 1721 and 1772. Parliamentary system_sentence_16

In England, Simon de Montfort is remembered as one of the fathers of representative government for convening two famous parliaments. Parliamentary system_sentence_17

The first, in 1258, stripped the king of unlimited authority and the second, in 1265, included ordinary citizens from the towns. Parliamentary system_sentence_18

Later, in the 17th century, the Parliament of England pioneered some of the ideas and systems of liberal democracy culminating in the Glorious Revolution and passage of the Bill of Rights 1689. Parliamentary system_sentence_19

In the Kingdom of Great Britain, the monarch, in theory, chaired cabinet and chose ministers. Parliamentary system_sentence_20

In practice, King George I's inability to speak English led the responsibility for chairing cabinet to go to the leading minister, literally the prime or first minister, Robert Walpole. Parliamentary system_sentence_21

The gradual democratisation of parliament with the broadening of the voting franchise increased parliament's role in controlling government, and in deciding whom the king could ask to form a government. Parliamentary system_sentence_22

By the 19th century, the Great Reform Act of 1832 led to parliamentary dominance, with its choice invariably deciding who was prime minister and the complexion of the government. Parliamentary system_sentence_23

Other countries gradually adopted what came to be called the Westminster Model of government, with an executive answerable to parliament, and exercising, in the name of the head of state, powers nominally vested in the head of state. Parliamentary system_sentence_24

Hence the use of phrases like Her Majesty's government or His Excellency's government. Parliamentary system_sentence_25

Such a system became particularly prevalent in older British dominions, many of which had their constitutions enacted by the British parliament; such as Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the Irish Free State and the Union of South Africa. Parliamentary system_sentence_26

Some of these parliaments were reformed from, or were initially developed as distinct from their original British model: the Australian Senate, for instance, has since its inception more closely reflected the US Senate than the British House of Lords; whereas since 1950 there is no upper house in New Zealand. Parliamentary system_sentence_27

Democracy and parliamentarianism became increasingly prevalent in Europe in the years after World War I, partially imposed by the democratic victors, the United States, Great Britain and France, on the defeated countries and their successors, notably Germany's Weimar Republic and the new Austrian Republic. Parliamentary system_sentence_28

Nineteenth-century urbanisation, the Industrial Revolution and modernism had already fuelled the political left's struggle for democracy and parliamentarianism for a long time. Parliamentary system_sentence_29

In the radicalised times at the end of World War I, democratic reforms were often seen as a means to counter popular revolutionary currents. Parliamentary system_sentence_30

Characteristics Parliamentary system_section_1

Advantages Parliamentary system_section_2

See also: Presidential system § Advantages, and Presidential system § Criticism and disadvantages Parliamentary system_sentence_31

Supporters generally claim three basic advantages for parliamentary systems: Parliamentary system_sentence_32

Parliamentary system_unordered_list_0

  • AdaptabilityParliamentary system_item_0_0
  • Scrutiny and accountabilityParliamentary system_item_0_1
  • Distribution of powerParliamentary system_item_0_2

Adaptability Parliamentary system_section_3

Parliamentary systems like that found in the United Kingdom are widely considered to be more flexible, allowing rapid change in legislation and policy as long as there is a stable majority or coalition in parliament, allowing the government to have 'few legal limits on what it can do' Due to the first-past-the-post 'this system produces the classic "Westminster Model" with the twin virtues of strong but responsive party government'. Parliamentary system_sentence_33

This electoral system providing a strong majority in the House of Commons, paired with the fused power system results in a particularly powerful Government able to provide change and 'innovate'. Parliamentary system_sentence_34

Scrutiny and accountability Parliamentary system_section_4

The United Kingdom's fused power system is often noted to be advantageous with regards to accountability. Parliamentary system_sentence_35

The centralised government allows for more transparency as to where decisions originate from, this directly contrasts with the United States' system with former Treasury Secretary C. Parliamentary system_sentence_36 Douglas Dillon saying "the president blames Congress, the Congress blames the president, and the public remains confused and disgusted with government in Washington". Parliamentary system_sentence_37

Furthermore, ministers of the U.K. cabinet are subject to weekly Question Periods in which their actions/policies are scrutinised, no such regular check on the government exists in the U.S. system. Parliamentary system_sentence_38

Distribution of power Parliamentary system_section_5

Parliamentary government has attractive features for nations that are ethnically, racially, or ideologically divided. Parliamentary system_sentence_39

In a presidential system, all executive power is vested in one person, the president, whereas power is more divided in a parliamentary system with its collegial executive. Parliamentary system_sentence_40

In the 1989 Lebanese Taif Agreement, in order to give Muslims greater political power, Lebanon moved from a semi-presidential system with a powerful president to a system more structurally similar to classical parliamentary government. Parliamentary system_sentence_41

Iraq similarly disdained a presidential system out of fears that such a system would be tantamount to Shiite domination of the large Sunni minority. Parliamentary system_sentence_42

Afghanistan's minorities refused to go along with a presidency as strong as the Pashtuns desired. Parliamentary system_sentence_43

It can be argued that power is more evenly spread out in parliamentary government, as the government and prime minister do not have the power to make unilateral decisions, as the entire government cabinet is answerable and accountable to parliament. Parliamentary system_sentence_44

Parliamentary systems are less likely to allow celebrity-based politics to fully dominate a society, unlike what often happens in presidential systems, where name-recall and popularity can catapult a celebrity, actor, or popular politician to the presidency despite such candidate's lack of competence and experience. Parliamentary system_sentence_45

Some scholars like Juan Linz, Fred Riggs, Bruce Ackerman, and Robert Dahl have found that parliamentary government is less prone to authoritarian collapse. Parliamentary system_sentence_46

These scholars point out that since World War II, two-thirds of Third World countries establishing parliamentary governments successfully made the transition to democracy. Parliamentary system_sentence_47

By contrast, no Third World presidential system successfully made the transition to democracy without experiencing coups and other constitutional breakdowns. Parliamentary system_sentence_48

A 2001 World Bank study found that parliamentary systems are associated with less corruption, which is supported by a separate study that arrived at the same conclusions. Parliamentary system_sentence_49

Calling of elections Parliamentary system_section_6

In his 1867 book The English Constitution, Walter Bagehot praised parliamentary governments for producing serious debates, for allowing for a change in power without an election, and for allowing elections at any time. Parliamentary system_sentence_50

Bagehot considered the four-year election rule of the United States to be unnatural, as it can potentially allow a president who has disappointed the public with a dismal performance in the second year of his term to continue on until the end of his four-year term. Parliamentary system_sentence_51

Under a parliamentary system, a prime minister that has lost support in the middle of his term can be easily replaced by his own peers. Parliamentary system_sentence_52

Although Bagehot praised parliamentary governments for allowing an election to take place at any time, the lack of a definite election calendar can be abused. Parliamentary system_sentence_53

Previously under some systems, such as the British, a ruling party could schedule elections when it felt that it was likely to retain power, and so avoid elections at times of unpopularity. Parliamentary system_sentence_54

(Election timing in the UK, however, is now partly fixed under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011.) Parliamentary system_sentence_55

Thus, by a shrewd timing of elections, in a parliamentary system, a party can extend its rule for longer than is feasible in a functioning presidential system. Parliamentary system_sentence_56

This problem can be alleviated somewhat by setting fixed dates for parliamentary elections, as is the case in several of Australia's state parliaments. Parliamentary system_sentence_57

In other systems, such as the Dutch and the Belgian, the ruling party or coalition has some flexibility in determining the election date. Parliamentary system_sentence_58

Conversely, flexibility in the timing of parliamentary elections can avoid periods of legislative gridlock that can occur in a fixed period presidential system. Parliamentary system_sentence_59

In any case, voters ultimately have the power to choose whether to vote for the ruling party or someone else. Parliamentary system_sentence_60

Disadvantages and criticisms Parliamentary system_section_7

Critics of parliamentarianism, namely proponents of anti-parliamentarianism or anti-parliamentarism, generally claim these basic disadvantages for parliamentary systems: Parliamentary system_sentence_61

Parliamentary system_unordered_list_1

  • Legislative flip-floppingParliamentary system_item_1_3
  • Party fragmentationParliamentary system_item_1_4

Legislative flip-flopping Parliamentary system_section_8

The ability for strong parliamentary governments to 'push' legislation through with the ease of fused power systems such as in the United Kingdom, whilst positive in allowing rapid adaptation when necessary e.g. the nationalisation of services during the world wars, does have its drawbacks. Parliamentary system_sentence_62

The flip-flopping of legislation back and forth as the majority in parliament changed between the Conservatives and Labour over the period 1940–1980, contesting over the nationalisation and privatisation of the British Steel Industry resulted in major instability for the British steel sector. Parliamentary system_sentence_63

Party fragmentation Parliamentary system_section_9

In R. Kent Weaver's book Are Parliamentary Systems Better?, he writes that an advantage of presidential systems is their ability to allow and accommodate more diverse viewpoints. Parliamentary system_sentence_64

He states that because "legislators are not compelled to vote against their constituents on matters of local concern, parties can serve as organizational and roll-call cuing vehicles without forcing out dissidents." Parliamentary system_sentence_65

Countries Parliamentary system_section_10

Main article: List of countries by system of government § Parliamentary systems Parliamentary system_sentence_66

Africa Parliamentary system_section_11

Parliamentary system_table_general_0

CountryParliamentary system_header_cell_0_0_0 Connection between the legislature and the executiveParliamentary system_header_cell_0_0_1
BotswanaParliamentary system_cell_0_1_0 Parliament of Botswana elects the President who appoints the CabinetParliamentary system_cell_0_1_1
EthiopiaParliamentary system_cell_0_2_0 Federal Parliamentary Assembly appoints the Council of MinistersParliamentary system_cell_0_2_1
MauritiusParliamentary system_cell_0_3_0 National Assembly appoints the Cabinet of MauritiusParliamentary system_cell_0_3_1
SomaliaParliamentary system_cell_0_4_0 Federal Parliament of Somalia elects the President who appoints the Prime MinisterParliamentary system_cell_0_4_1
South AfricaParliamentary system_cell_0_5_0 Parliament of South Africa elects the President who appoints the CabinetParliamentary system_cell_0_5_1

Americas Parliamentary system_section_12

Parliamentary system_table_general_1

CountryParliamentary system_header_cell_1_0_0 Connection between the legislature and the executiveParliamentary system_header_cell_1_0_1
Antigua and BarbudaParliamentary system_cell_1_1_0 Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Antigua and Barbuda is appointed Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda by the Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda, who then appoints the Cabinet of Antigua and Barbuda on the advice of the Prime MinisterParliamentary system_cell_1_1_1
The BahamasParliamentary system_cell_1_2_0 Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of the Bahamas is appointed Prime Minister of the Bahamas by the Governor-General of the Bahamas, who then appoints the Cabinet of the Bahamas on the advice of the Prime MinisterParliamentary system_cell_1_2_1
BarbadosParliamentary system_cell_1_3_0 Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of Barbados is appointed Prime Minister of Barbados by the Governor-General of Barbados, who then appoints the Cabinet of Barbados on the advice of the Prime MinisterParliamentary system_cell_1_3_1
BelizeParliamentary system_cell_1_4_0 Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Belize is appointed Prime Minister of Belize by the Governor-General of Belize, who then appoints the Cabinet of Belize on the advice of the Prime MinisterParliamentary system_cell_1_4_1
CanadaParliamentary system_cell_1_5_0 Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Commons of Canada is appointed Prime Minister of Canada by the Governor General of Canada, who then appoints the Cabinet of Canada on the advice of the Prime MinisterParliamentary system_cell_1_5_1
DominicaParliamentary system_cell_1_6_0 Parliament approves the Cabinet of DominicaParliamentary system_cell_1_6_1
GrenadaParliamentary system_cell_1_7_0 Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Grenada is appointed Prime Minister of Grenada by the Governor-General of Grenada, who then appoints the Cabinet of Grenada on the advice of the Prime MinisterParliamentary system_cell_1_7_1
JamaicaParliamentary system_cell_1_8_0 Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Jamaica is appointed Prime Minister of Jamaica by the Governor-General of Jamaica, who then appoints the Cabinet of Jamaica on the advice of the Prime MinisterParliamentary system_cell_1_8_1
Saint Kitts and NevisParliamentary system_cell_1_9_0 Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the National Assembly of Saint Kitts and Nevis is appointed Prime Minister of Saint Kitts and Nevis by the Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis, who then appoints the Cabinet of Saint Kitts and Nevis on the advice of the Prime MinisterParliamentary system_cell_1_9_1
Saint LuciaParliamentary system_cell_1_10_0 Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of Saint Lucia is appointed Prime Minister of Saint Lucia by the Governor-General of Saint Lucia, who then appoints the Cabinet of Saint Lucia on the advice of the Prime MinisterParliamentary system_cell_1_10_1
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesParliamentary system_cell_1_11_0 Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is appointed Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines by the Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, who then appoints the Cabinet of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines on the advice of the Prime MinisterParliamentary system_cell_1_11_1
SurinameParliamentary system_cell_1_12_0 National Assembly elects the President, who appoints the Cabinet of SurinameParliamentary system_cell_1_12_1
Trinidad and TobagoParliamentary system_cell_1_13_0 Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Trinidad and Tobago is appointed Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago by the President of Trinidad and Tobago, who then appoints the Cabinet of Trinidad and Tobago on the advice of the Prime MinisterParliamentary system_cell_1_13_1

Asia Parliamentary system_section_13

Parliamentary system_table_general_2

CountryParliamentary system_header_cell_2_0_0 Connection between the legislature and the executiveParliamentary system_header_cell_2_0_1
BangladeshParliamentary system_cell_2_1_0 Jatiya Sangsad approves the Cabinet of BangladeshParliamentary system_cell_2_1_1
BhutanParliamentary system_cell_2_2_0 Parliament of Bhutan approves the Lhengye ZhungtshogParliamentary system_cell_2_2_1
CambodiaParliamentary system_cell_2_3_0 Parliament of Cambodia approves the Council of MinistersParliamentary system_cell_2_3_1
IndiaParliamentary system_cell_2_4_0 President of India appoints the leader of the political party or alliance that has the support of a majority in the House of the People as Prime Minister of India, who then forms the Union Council of MinistersParliamentary system_cell_2_4_1
IraqParliamentary system_cell_2_5_0 Council of Representatives approves the Cabinet of IraqParliamentary system_cell_2_5_1
IsraelParliamentary system_cell_2_6_0 Leader of the political party with the most Knesset seats in the governing coalition is appointed Prime Minister of Israel by the President of Israel. The Prime Minister then appoints the Cabinet of Israel.Parliamentary system_cell_2_6_1
JapanParliamentary system_cell_2_7_0 National Diet nominates the Prime Minister who appoints the Cabinet of JapanParliamentary system_cell_2_7_1
KuwaitParliamentary system_cell_2_8_0 National Assembly approves the Crown Prince who appoints the Prime Minister who appoints the Cabinet of KuwaitParliamentary system_cell_2_8_1
KyrgyzstanParliamentary system_cell_2_9_0 Supreme Council approves the Cabinet of KyrgyzstanParliamentary system_cell_2_9_1
LebanonParliamentary system_cell_2_10_0 Maronite Christian president is elected by the Parliament of Lebanon. He appoints the Prime Minister (a Sunni Muslim) and the cabinet. The Parliament thereafter approves the Cabinet of Lebanon through a vote of confidence (a simple majority).Parliamentary system_cell_2_10_1
MalaysiaParliamentary system_cell_2_11_0 Parliament of Malaysia appoints the Cabinet of MalaysiaParliamentary system_cell_2_11_1
MyanmarParliamentary system_cell_2_12_0 Assembly of the Union, by an electoral college, elects the President who forms the Cabinet of MyanmarParliamentary system_cell_2_12_1
NepalParliamentary system_cell_2_13_0 Parliament of Nepal elects the Prime Minister who, by turn, appoints the Cabinet of NepalParliamentary system_cell_2_13_1
PakistanParliamentary system_cell_2_14_0 Parliament of Pakistan appoints the Cabinet of PakistanParliamentary system_cell_2_14_1
SingaporeParliamentary system_cell_2_15_0 Parliament of Singapore approves the Cabinet of SingaporeParliamentary system_cell_2_15_1
ThailandParliamentary system_cell_2_16_0 The Monarch appoints the MP or individual nominated by in the House of Representatives (usually the leader of the largest party or coalition) as Prime Minister, who forms the Cabinet of Thailand.Parliamentary system_cell_2_16_1

Europe Parliamentary system_section_14

Parliamentary system_table_general_3

CountryParliamentary system_header_cell_3_0_0 Connection between the legislature and the executiveParliamentary system_header_cell_3_0_1
AlbaniaParliamentary system_cell_3_1_0 Parliament of Albania approves the Cabinet of AlbaniaParliamentary system_cell_3_1_1
AndorraParliamentary system_cell_3_2_0 Parliamentary system_cell_3_2_1
ArmeniaParliamentary system_cell_3_3_0 National Assembly appoints and (no sooner than one year) can dismiss through the constructive vote of no confidence the Government of ArmeniaParliamentary system_cell_3_3_1
AustriaParliamentary system_cell_3_4_0 In theory, chancellor and ministers are appointed by the President. As a practical matter, they are unable to govern without the support (or at least toleration) of a majority in the National Council. The cabinet is politically answerable to the National Council and can be dismissed by the National Council through a motion of no confidence.Parliamentary system_cell_3_4_1
BelgiumParliamentary system_cell_3_5_0 Federal Parliament approves the Cabinet of BelgiumParliamentary system_cell_3_5_1
BulgariaParliamentary system_cell_3_6_0 National Assembly appoints the Council of Ministers of BulgariaParliamentary system_cell_3_6_1
CroatiaParliamentary system_cell_3_7_0 Croatian Parliament approves President of Government and the Cabinet nominated by him/her.Parliamentary system_cell_3_7_1
Czech RepublicParliamentary system_cell_3_8_0 President of the Czech Republic appoints the leader of the largest party or coalition in the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament as Prime Minister, who forms the Cabinet. The Prime Minister must gain a vote of confidence by the Chamber of Deputies.Parliamentary system_cell_3_8_1
DenmarkParliamentary system_cell_3_9_0 The Monarch appoints, based on recommendations from the leaders of the parties in Folketinget, the cabinet leader who is most likely to successfully assemble a Cabinet which will not be disapproved by a majority in Folketinget.Parliamentary system_cell_3_9_1
EstoniaParliamentary system_cell_3_10_0 Riigikogu elects the Prime Minister candidate nominated by the President of the Republic (normally this candidate is the leader of the parliamentary coalition of parties). The Government of the Republic of Estonia is later appointed by the President of the Republic under proposal of the approved Prime Minister candidate. The Riigikogu may remove the Prime Minister and any other member of the government through a motion of no confidence.Parliamentary system_cell_3_10_1
FinlandParliamentary system_cell_3_11_0 Parliament of Finland appoints the Cabinet of FinlandParliamentary system_cell_3_11_1
GermanyParliamentary system_cell_3_12_0 Bundestag elects the Federal Chancellor (after nomination from the President of Germany), who forms the CabinetParliamentary system_cell_3_12_1
GreeceParliamentary system_cell_3_13_0 Hellenic Parliament approves the Cabinet of GreeceParliamentary system_cell_3_13_1
HungaryParliamentary system_cell_3_14_0 National Assembly approves the Cabinet of HungaryParliamentary system_cell_3_14_1
IcelandParliamentary system_cell_3_15_0 The President of Iceland appoints and discharges the Cabinet of Iceland. Ministers can not even resign without being discharged by presidential decree.Parliamentary system_cell_3_15_1
IrelandParliamentary system_cell_3_16_0 Dáil Éireann nominates the Taoiseach, who is then appointed by the President of IrelandParliamentary system_cell_3_16_1
ItalyParliamentary system_cell_3_17_0 Italian Parliament grants and revokes its confidence in the Cabinet of Italy, appointed by the President of ItalyParliamentary system_cell_3_17_1
KosovoParliamentary system_cell_3_18_0 Assembly of Kosovo appoints the Government of KosovoParliamentary system_cell_3_18_1
LatviaParliamentary system_cell_3_19_0 Saeima appoints the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of LatviaParliamentary system_cell_3_19_1
LuxembourgParliamentary system_cell_3_20_0 Chamber of Deputies appoints the Cabinet of LuxembourgParliamentary system_cell_3_20_1
MaltaParliamentary system_cell_3_21_0 House of Representatives appoints the Cabinet of MaltaParliamentary system_cell_3_21_1
MoldovaParliamentary system_cell_3_22_0 Parliament of Moldova appoints the Cabinet of MoldovaParliamentary system_cell_3_22_1
MontenegroParliamentary system_cell_3_23_0 Parliament of Montenegro appoints the Government of MontenegroParliamentary system_cell_3_23_1
NetherlandsParliamentary system_cell_3_24_0 Second Chamber of the States-General can dismiss the Cabinet of the Netherlands through a motion of no confidenceParliamentary system_cell_3_24_1
North MacedoniaParliamentary system_cell_3_25_0 Assembly approves the Government of North MacedoniaParliamentary system_cell_3_25_1
NorwayParliamentary system_cell_3_26_0 The Monarch appoints the MP leading the largest party or coalition in Stortinget as Prime Minister, who forms the CabinetParliamentary system_cell_3_26_1
San MarinoParliamentary system_cell_3_27_0 Parliamentary system_cell_3_27_1
SerbiaParliamentary system_cell_3_28_0 National Assembly appoints the Government of SerbiaParliamentary system_cell_3_28_1
SlovakiaParliamentary system_cell_3_29_0 National Council approves the Government of SlovakiaParliamentary system_cell_3_29_1
SloveniaParliamentary system_cell_3_30_0 National Assembly appoints the Government of SloveniaParliamentary system_cell_3_30_1
SpainParliamentary system_cell_3_31_0 The Congress of Deputies elects the President of the Government, who forms the CabinetParliamentary system_cell_3_31_1
SwedenParliamentary system_cell_3_32_0 The Riksdag elects the Prime Minister, who in turn appoints the other members of the GovernmentParliamentary system_cell_3_32_1
SwitzerlandParliamentary system_cell_3_33_0 A United Federal Assembly elects the members of the Swiss Federal CouncilParliamentary system_cell_3_33_1
United KingdomParliamentary system_cell_3_34_0 The Leader, almost invariably a Member of Parliament (MP) and of the political party which commands or is likely to command the confidence of a majority of the House of Commons, is appointed Prime Minister by the British sovereign, who then appoints members of the Cabinet on the nomination and advice of the Prime Minister.Parliamentary system_cell_3_34_1

Oceania Parliamentary system_section_15

Parliamentary system_table_general_4

CountryParliamentary system_header_cell_4_0_0 Connection between the legislature and the executiveParliamentary system_header_cell_4_0_1
AustraliaParliamentary system_cell_4_1_0 Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the Australian House of Representatives is appointed Prime Minister of Australia by the Governor-General of Australia, who then appoints the Cabinet of Australia on the advice of the Prime MinisterParliamentary system_cell_4_1_1
New ZealandParliamentary system_cell_4_2_0 Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the New Zealand House of Representatives is appointed Prime Minister of New Zealand by the Governor-General of New Zealand, who then appoints the Cabinet of New Zealand on the advice of the Prime MinisterParliamentary system_cell_4_2_1
Papua New GuineaParliamentary system_cell_4_3_0 Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the National Parliament is appointed Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea by the Governor-General of Papua New Guinea, who then appoints the Cabinet of Papua New Guinea on the advice of the Prime MinisterParliamentary system_cell_4_3_1
SamoaParliamentary system_cell_4_4_0 Legislative Assembly appoints the Cabinet of SamoaParliamentary system_cell_4_4_1
VanuatuParliamentary system_cell_4_5_0 Parliament of Vanuatu appoints the Cabinet of VanuatuParliamentary system_cell_4_5_1

See also Parliamentary system_section_16

Parliamentary system_unordered_list_2


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliamentary system.