Patriarchy

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Not to be confused with patriarchate. Patriarchy_sentence_0

Patriarchy is a social system in which men hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property. Patriarchy_sentence_1

Some patriarchal societies are also patrilineal, meaning that property and title are inherited by the male lineage. Patriarchy_sentence_2

Patriarchy is associated with a set of ideas, a patriarchal ideology that acts to explain and justify this dominance and attributes it to inherent natural differences between men and women. Patriarchy_sentence_3

Sociologists hold varied opinions on whether patriarchy is a social product or an outcome of innate differences between the sexes. Patriarchy_sentence_4

Historically, patriarchy has manifested itself in the social, legal, political, religious, and economic organization of a range of different cultures. Patriarchy_sentence_5

Even if not explicitly defined to be by their own constitutions and laws, most contemporary societies are, in practice, patriarchal. Patriarchy_sentence_6

Etymology and usage Patriarchy_section_0

Patriarchy literally means "the rule of the father" and comes from the Greek πατριάρχης (patriarkhēs), "father or chief of a race", which is a compound of πατριά (patria), "lineage, descent" (from πατήρ patēr, "father") and ἀρχή (arkhē), "domination, authority, sovereignty". Patriarchy_sentence_7

Historically, the term patriarchy has been used to refer to autocratic rule by the male head of a family; however, since the late 20th century it has also been used to refer to social systems in which power is primarily held by adult men, particularly by writers associated with second-wave feminism such as Kate Millett; these writers sought to use an understanding of patriarchal social relations to liberate women from male domination. Patriarchy_sentence_8

This concept of patriarchy was developed to explain male dominance as a social, rather than biological, phenomenon. Patriarchy_sentence_9

History and scope Patriarchy_section_1

The sociologist Sylvia Walby defines patriarchy as "a system of social structures and practices in which men dominate, oppress, and exploit women". Patriarchy_sentence_10

Social stratification along gender lines, in which power is predominantly held by men, has been observed in most societies. Patriarchy_sentence_11

Pre-history Patriarchy_section_2

Anthropological, archaeological and evolutionary psychological evidence suggests that most prehistoric societies were relatively egalitarian, and that patriarchal social structures did not develop until many years after the end of the Pleistocene era, following social and technological developments such as agriculture and domestication. Patriarchy_sentence_12

According to Robert M. Strozier, historical research has not yet found a specific "initiating event". Patriarchy_sentence_13

Gerda Lerner asserts that there was no single event, and documents that patriarchy as a social system arose in different parts of the world at different times. Patriarchy_sentence_14

Some scholars point to about six thousand years ago (4000 BCE), when the concept of fatherhood took root, as the beginning of the spread of patriarchy. Patriarchy_sentence_15

Marxist theory, as articulated mainly by Friedrich Engels in The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State, assigns the origin of patriarchy to the emergence of private property, which has traditionally been controlled by men. Patriarchy_sentence_16

In this view, men directed household production and sought to control women in order to ensure the passing of family property to their own (male) offspring, while women were limited to household labor and producing children. Patriarchy_sentence_17

Lerner disputes this idea, arguing that patriarchy emerged before the development of class-based society and the concept of private property. Patriarchy_sentence_18

Domination by men of women is found in the Ancient Near East as far back as 3100 BCE, as are restrictions on a woman's reproductive capacity and exclusion from "the process of representing or the construction of history". Patriarchy_sentence_19

According to some researchers, with the appearance of the Hebrews, there is also "the exclusion of woman from the God-humanity covenant". Patriarchy_sentence_20

The archaeologist Marija Gimbutas argues that waves of kurgan-building invaders from the Ukrainian steppes into the early agricultural cultures of Old Europe in the Aegean, the Balkans and southern Italy instituted male hierarchies that led to the rise of patriarchy in Western society. Patriarchy_sentence_21

Steven Taylor argues that the rise of patriarchal domination was associated with the appearance of socially stratified hierarchical polities, institutionalised violence and the separated individuated ego associated with a period of climatic stress. Patriarchy_sentence_22

Ancient history Patriarchy_section_3

A prominent Greek general Meno, in the Platonic dialogue of the same name, sums up the prevailing sentiment in Classical Greece about the respective virtues of men and women. Patriarchy_sentence_23

He says: Patriarchy_sentence_24

The works of Aristotle portrayed women as morally, intellectually, and physically inferior to men; saw women as the property of men; claimed that women's role in society was to reproduce and to serve men in the household; and saw male domination of women as natural and virtuous. Patriarchy_sentence_25

Gerda Lerner, author of The Creation of Patriarchy, states that Aristotle believed that women had colder blood than men, which made women not evolve into men, the sex that Aristotle believed to be perfect and superior. Patriarchy_sentence_26

Maryanne Cline Horowitz stated that Aristotle believed that "soul contributes the form and model of creation". Patriarchy_sentence_27

This implies that any imperfection that is caused in the world must be caused by a woman because one cannot acquire an imperfection from perfection (which he perceived as male). Patriarchy_sentence_28

Aristotle had a hierarchical ruling structure in his theories. Patriarchy_sentence_29

Lerner claims that through this patriarchal belief system, passed down generation to generation, people have been conditioned to believe that men are superior to women. Patriarchy_sentence_30

These symbols are benchmarks which children learn about when they grow up, and the cycle of patriarchy continues much past the Greeks. Patriarchy_sentence_31

Egypt left no philosophical record, but Herodotus left a record of his shock at the contrast between the roles of Egyptian women and the women of Athens. Patriarchy_sentence_32

He observed that Egyptian women attended market and were employed in trade. Patriarchy_sentence_33

In ancient Egypt, middle-class women were eligible to sit on a local tribunal, engage in real estate transactions, and inherit or bequeath property. Patriarchy_sentence_34

Women also secured loans, and witnessed legal documents. Patriarchy_sentence_35

Athenian women were denied such rights. Patriarchy_sentence_36

Greek influence spread, however, with the conquests of Alexander the Great, who was educated by Aristotle. Patriarchy_sentence_37

During this time period in China, gender roles and patriarchy remained shaped by Confucianism. Patriarchy_sentence_38

Adopted as the official religion in the Han dynasty, Confucianism has strong dictates regarding the behavior of women, declaring a woman's place in society, as well as outlining virtuous behavior. Patriarchy_sentence_39

Three Obediences and Four Virtues, a Confucian text, places a woman's value on her loyalty and obedience. Patriarchy_sentence_40

It explains that an obedient woman is to obey their father before her marriage, her husband after marriage, and her first son if widowed, and that a virtuous woman must practice sexual propriety, proper speech, modest appearance, and hard work. Patriarchy_sentence_41

Ban Zhao, a Confucian disciple, writes in her book Precepts for Women, that a woman's primary concern is to subordinate themselves before patriarchal figures such as a husband or father, and that they need not concern themselves with intelligence or talent. Patriarchy_sentence_42

Ban Zhao is considered by some historians as an early champion for women's education in China, however her extensive writing on the value of a woman's mediocrity and servile behavior leaves others feeling that this narrative is the result of a misplaced desire to cast her in a contemporary feminist light. Patriarchy_sentence_43

Similarly to Three Obediences and Four Virtues, Precepts for Women was meant as a moral guide for proper feminine behavior, and was widely accepted as such for centuries. Patriarchy_sentence_44

Post-classical history Patriarchy_section_4

In China's Ming Dynasty, widowed women were expected to never remarry, and unmarried women were expected to remain chaste for the duration of their lives. Patriarchy_sentence_45

Biographies of Exemplary Women, a book containing biographies of women who lived according to the Confucian ideals of virtuous womanhood, popularized an entire genre of similar writing during the Ming dynasty. Patriarchy_sentence_46

Women who lived according to this Neo-Confucian ideal were celebrated in official documents, and some had structures erected in their honor. Patriarchy_sentence_47

In ancient Japan, power in society was more evenly distributed, particularly in the religious domain, where Shintoism worships the goddess Amaterasu, and ancient writings were replete with references to great priestesses and magicians. Patriarchy_sentence_48

However, at the time contemporary with Constantine in the West, "the emperor of Japan changed Japanese modes of worship", giving supremacy to male deities and suppressing female spiritual power in what religious feminists have called a "patriarchal revolution." Patriarchy_sentence_49

Modern history Patriarchy_section_5

Although many 16th and 17th century theorists agreed with Aristotle's views concerning the place of women in society, none of them tried to prove political obligation on the basis of the patriarchal family until sometime after 1680. Patriarchy_sentence_50

The patriarchal political theory is closely associated with Sir Robert Filmer. Patriarchy_sentence_51

Sometime before 1653, Filmer completed a work entitled Patriarcha. Patriarchy_sentence_52

However, it was not published until after his death. Patriarchy_sentence_53

In it, he defended the divine right of kings as having title inherited from Adam, the first man of the human species, according to Judeo-Christian tradition. Patriarchy_sentence_54

However, in the latter half of the 18th century, clerical sentiments of patriarchy were meeting challenges from intellectual authorities – Diderot's Encyclopedia denies inheritance of paternal authority stating, "... reason shows us that mothers have rights and authority equal to those of fathers; for the obligations imposed on children originate equally from the mother and the father, as both are equally responsible for bringing them into the world. Patriarchy_sentence_55

Thus the positive laws of God that relate to the obedience of children join the father and the mother without any differentiation; both possess a kind of ascendancy and jurisdiction over their children...." Patriarchy_sentence_56

In the 19th century, various women began to question the commonly accepted patriarchal interpretation of Christian scripture. Patriarchy_sentence_57

One of the foremost of these was Sarah Grimké, who voiced skepticism about the ability of men to translate and interpret passages relating to the roles of the sexes without bias. Patriarchy_sentence_58

She proposed alternative translations and interpretations of passages relating to women, and she applied historical and cultural criticism to a number of verses, arguing that their admonitions applied to specific historical situations, and were not to be viewed as universal commands. Patriarchy_sentence_59

Elizabeth Cady Stanton used Grimké's criticism of biblical sources to establish a basis for feminist thought. Patriarchy_sentence_60

She published The Woman's Bible, which proposed a feminist reading of the Old and New Testament. Patriarchy_sentence_61

This tendency was enlarged by feminist theory, which denounced the patriarchal Judeo-Christian tradition. Patriarchy_sentence_62

In 2020 social theorist and theologian Elaine Storkey retold the stories of thirty biblical women in her book Women in a Patriarchal World and applied the challenges they faced to women today. Patriarchy_sentence_63

Working from both the Hebrew Scriptures and the New Testament, she analysed different variations of patriarchy, and outlined the paradox of Rahab, a prostitute in the Old Testament who became a role-model in the New Testament Epistle of James, and Epistle to the Hebrews. Patriarchy_sentence_64

.In his essay, A Judicial Patriarchy: Family Law at the Turn of the Century, Michael Grossberg coined the phrase judicial patriarchy stating that, "The judge became the buffer between the family and the state" and that, "Judicial patriarchs dominated family law because within these institutional and intraclass rivalries judges succeeded in protecting their power over the law governing the hearth. Patriarchy_sentence_65

In China's Qing dynasty, laws governing morality, sexuality, and gender-relations continued to be based on Confucian teachings. Patriarchy_sentence_66

Men and women were both subject to strict laws regarding sexual behavior, however men were punished infrequently in comparison to women. Patriarchy_sentence_67

Additionally, women's punishment often carried strong social stigma, "rendering [women] unmarriageable", a stigma which did not follow men. Patriarchy_sentence_68

Similarly, in the People's Republic of China, laws governing morality which were written as egalitarian were selectively enforced favoring men, permissively allowing female infanticide, while infanticide of any form was, by the letter of the law, prohibited. Patriarchy_sentence_69

Feminist theory Patriarchy_section_6

Feminist theorists have written extensively about patriarchy either as a primary cause of women's oppression, or as part of an interactive system. Patriarchy_sentence_70

Shulamith Firestone, a radical-libertarian feminist, defines patriarchy as a system of oppression of women. Patriarchy_sentence_71

Firestone believes that patriarchy is caused by the biological inequalities between women and men, e.g. that women bear children, while men do not. Patriarchy_sentence_72

Firestone writes that patriarchal ideologies support the oppression of women and gives as an example the joy of giving birth, which she labels a patriarchal myth. Patriarchy_sentence_73

For Firestone, women must gain control over reproduction in order to be free from oppression. Patriarchy_sentence_74

Feminist historian Gerda Lerner believes that male control over women's sexuality and reproductive functions is a fundamental cause and result of patriarchy. Patriarchy_sentence_75

Alison Jaggar also understands patriarchy as the primary cause of women's oppression. Patriarchy_sentence_76

The system of patriarchy accomplishes this by alienating women from their bodies. Patriarchy_sentence_77

Interactive systems theorists Iris Marion Young and Heidi Hartmann believe that patriarchy and capitalism interact together to oppress women. Patriarchy_sentence_78

Young, Hartmann, and other socialist and Marxist feminists use the terms patriarchal capitalism or capitalist patriarchy to describe the interactive relationship of capitalism and patriarchy in producing and reproducing the oppression of women. Patriarchy_sentence_79

According to Hartmann, the term patriarchy redirects the focus of oppression from the labour division to a moral and political responsibility liable directly to men as a gender. Patriarchy_sentence_80

In its being both systematic and universal, therefore, the concept of patriarchy represents an adaptation of the Marxist concept of class and class struggle. Patriarchy_sentence_81

Lindsey German represents an outlier in this regard. Patriarchy_sentence_82

German (1981) argued for a need to redefine the origins and sources of the patriarchy, describing the mainstream theories as providing "little understanding of how women’s oppression and the nature of the family have changed historically. Patriarchy_sentence_83

Nor is there much notion of how widely differing that oppression is from class to class." Patriarchy_sentence_84

Instead, the patriarchy is not the result of men's oppression of women or sexism per se, with men not even identified as the main beneficiaries of such a system, but capital itself. Patriarchy_sentence_85

As such, female liberation needs to begin "with an assessment of the material position of women in capitalist society." Patriarchy_sentence_86

In that, German differs from Young or Hartmann by rejecting the notion ("eternal truth) that the patriarchy is at the root of female oppression. Patriarchy_sentence_87

Audre Lorde, an African American feminist writer and theorist, believed that racism and patriarchy were intertwined systems of oppression. Patriarchy_sentence_88

Sara Ruddick, a philosopher who wrote about "good mothers" in the context of maternal ethics, describes the dilemma facing contemporary mothers who must train their children within a patriarchal system. Patriarchy_sentence_89

She asks whether a "good mother" trains her son to be competitive, individualistic, and comfortable within the hierarchies of patriarchy, knowing that he may likely be economically successful but a mean person, or whether she resists patriarchal ideologies and socializes her son to be cooperative and communal but economically unsuccessful. Patriarchy_sentence_90

Gerda Lerner, in her 1986 The Creation of Patriarchy, makes a series of arguments about the origins and reproduction of patriarchy as a system of oppression of women, and concludes that patriarchy is socially constructed and seen as natural and invisible. Patriarchy_sentence_91

Some feminist theorists believe that patriarchy is an unjust social system that is harmful to both men and women. Patriarchy_sentence_92

It often includes any social, political, or economic mechanism that evokes male dominance over women. Patriarchy_sentence_93

Because patriarchy is a social construction, it can be overcome by revealing and critically analyzing its manifestations. Patriarchy_sentence_94

Jaggar, Young, and Hartmann are among the feminist theorists who argue that the system of patriarchy should be completely overturned, especially the heteropatriarchal family, which they see as a necessary component of female oppression. Patriarchy_sentence_95

The family not only serves as a representative of the greater civilization by pushing its own affiliates to change and obey, but performs as a component in the rule of the patriarchal state that rules its inhabitants with the head of the family. Patriarchy_sentence_96

Many feminists (especially scholars and activists) have called for culture repositioning as a method for deconstructing patriarchy. Patriarchy_sentence_97

Culture repositioning relates to culture change. Patriarchy_sentence_98

It involves the reconstruction of the cultural concept of a society. Patriarchy_sentence_99

Prior to the widespread use of the term patriarchy, early feminists used male chauvinism and sexism to refer roughly to the same phenomenon. Patriarchy_sentence_100

Author bell hooks argues that the new term identifies the ideological system itself (that men claim dominance and superiority to women) that can be believed and acted upon by either men or women, whereas the earlier terms imply only men act as oppressors of women. Patriarchy_sentence_101

Sociologist Joan Acker, analyzing the concept of patriarchy and the role that it has played in the development of feminist thought, says that seeing patriarchy as a "universal, trans-historical and trans-cultural phenomenon" where "women were everywhere oppressed by men in more or less the same ways […] tended toward a biological essentialism." Patriarchy_sentence_102

Anna Pollert has described use of the term patriarchy as circular and conflating description and explanation. Patriarchy_sentence_103

She remarks the discourse on patriarchy creates a "theoretical impasse ... imposing a structural label on what it is supposed to explain" and therefore impoverishes the possibility of explaining gender inequalities. Patriarchy_sentence_104

Biological theory Patriarchy_section_7

Main articles: Sex differences in humans and Social construction of gender difference Patriarchy_sentence_105

The testimonies of other primates (for example, chimpanzees) about male sexual coercion and female resistance suggest that sexual conflicts of interest underlying the patriarchy precede the emergence of the human species. Patriarchy_sentence_106

However, the extent of male power over females varies greatly across different primate species. Patriarchy_sentence_107

Male coercion of females is rarely, if ever, observed in bonobos, for example, and bonobos are widely considered to be matriarchal in their social structure. Patriarchy_sentence_108

There is also considerable variation in the role that gender plays in human societies, and there is no academic consensus on to what extent biology determines human social structure. Patriarchy_sentence_109

The Encyclopædia Britannica states that "...many cultures bestow power preferentially on one sex or the other...." Some anthropologists, such as Floriana Ciccodicola, have argued that patriarchy is a cultural universal, and the masculinities scholar David Buchbinder suggests that Roland Barthes' description of the term ex-nomination, i.e. patriarchy as the 'norm' or common sense, is relevant. Patriarchy_sentence_110

However, there do exist cultures that some anthropologists have described as matriarchal. Patriarchy_sentence_111

Among the Mosuo (a tiny society in the Yunnan Province in China), for example, women exert greater power, authority, and control over decision-making. Patriarchy_sentence_112

Other societies are matrilinear or matrilocal, primarily among indigenous tribal groups. Patriarchy_sentence_113

Some hunter-gatherer groups have been characterized as largely egalitarian. Patriarchy_sentence_114

Some proponents of the biological determinist understanding of patriarchy argue that because of human female biology, women are more fit to perform roles such as anonymous child-rearing at home, rather than high-profile decision-making roles, such as leaders in battles. Patriarchy_sentence_115

Through this basis, "the existence of a sexual division of labor in primitive societies is a starting point as much for purely social accounts of the origins of patriarchy as for biological." Patriarchy_sentence_116

Hence, the rise of patriarchy is recognized through this apparent "sexual division". Patriarchy_sentence_117

Patriarchy as a human universal Patriarchy_section_8

An early theory in evolutionary psychology offered an explanation for the origin of patriarchy which starts with the view that females almost always invest more energy into producing offspring than males, and therefore in most species females are a limiting factor over which males will compete. Patriarchy_sentence_118

This is sometimes referred to as Bateman's principle. Patriarchy_sentence_119

It suggests females place the most important preference on males who control more resources that can help her and her offspring, which in turn causes an evolutionary pressure on males to be competitive with each other in order to gain resources and power. Patriarchy_sentence_120

Some sociobiologists, such as Steven Goldberg, argue that social behavior is primarily determined by genetics, and thus that patriarchy arises more as a result of inherent biology than social conditioning. Patriarchy_sentence_121

Goldberg contends that patriarchy is a universal feature of human culture. Patriarchy_sentence_122

In 1973, Goldberg wrote, "The ethnographic studies of every society that has ever been observed explicitly state that these feelings were present, there is literally no variation at all." Patriarchy_sentence_123

Goldberg has critics among anthropologists. Patriarchy_sentence_124

Concerning Goldberg's claims about the "feelings of both men and women", Eleanor Leacock countered in 1974 that the data on women's attitudes are "sparse and contradictory", and that the data on male attitudes about male–female relations are "ambiguous". Patriarchy_sentence_125

Also, the effects of colonialism on the cultures represented in the studies were not considered. Patriarchy_sentence_126

Anthropologist and psychologist Barbara Smuts argues that patriarchy evolved in humans through conflict between the reproductive interests of males and the reproductive interests of females. Patriarchy_sentence_127

She lists six ways that it emerged: Patriarchy_sentence_128

Patriarchy_ordered_list_0

  1. a reduction in female alliesPatriarchy_item_0_0
  2. elaboration of male-male alliancesPatriarchy_item_0_1
  3. increased male control over resourcesPatriarchy_item_0_2
  4. increased hierarchy formation among menPatriarchy_item_0_3
  5. female strategies that reinforce male control over femalesPatriarchy_item_0_4
  6. the evolution of language and its power to create ideology.Patriarchy_item_0_5

Sex hormones and social structure Patriarchy_section_9

Patriarchal and matriarchal social structure in primates may be mediated by sex hormones. Patriarchy_sentence_129

For example, bonobos, who exhibit a matriarchal social structure, have lower testosterone levels in males compared to patriarchal chimpanzees. Patriarchy_sentence_130

Hormones have been declared the "key to the sexual universe" because they are present in all animals and are the driving force in two critical developmental stages: sex-determination in the fetus, and puberty in the adolescent individual. Patriarchy_sentence_131

Testosterone and estrogen have been labeled the "male-hormone" and "female-hormone" respectively because of the role they play in masculinizing or feminizing the body. Patriarchy_sentence_132

They may also be causally associated with psychological and behavioral differences among individuals, between the sexes, and among species. Patriarchy_sentence_133

For example, testosterone is associated with dominant and aggressive behavior, and with male-typical sexual behavior. Patriarchy_sentence_134

Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in human males. Patriarchy_sentence_135

In humans, patriarchal social structure may have evolved due to intersexual selection (i.e. female mate selection), or intrasexual selection (i.e. male-male competition). Patriarchy_sentence_136

Physical features associated with testosterone, such as facial hair and lower voices, are sometimes used to gain a better understanding of sexual pressures in the human evolutionary environment. Patriarchy_sentence_137

These features may have appeared as a result of female mate selection, or because of male-male competition. Patriarchy_sentence_138

Men with beards and low voices are perceived as more dominant, aggressive, and high-status compared to their cleanshaven higher-voiced counterparts, meaning that men with facial hair and lower voices may be more likely to attain a high status and increase their reproductive success. Patriarchy_sentence_139

Male criminality Patriarchy_section_10

Male crime has also been explored through a biological lens. Patriarchy_sentence_140

Most crimes are committed by men. Patriarchy_sentence_141

For example, according to the FBI, in 2011, 98.9% of forcible rapes and 87.6% of murders in the suburban United States were committed by men. Patriarchy_sentence_142

However, the FBI has been criticized for using a definition of rape that overlooks cases of "penetration with an object" and cases with male victims, and United States rape statistics may look very different with an updated definition. Patriarchy_sentence_143

Sociologist/criminologist Lee Ellis put forward an evolutionary explanation for male criminality known as the evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory. Patriarchy_sentence_144

The most brutal criminals in the world had the most testosterone, compared with those who were serving sentences for more harmless crimes. Patriarchy_sentence_145

Therefore, Ellis posits that the human male brain has evolved in such a way as to be competitive at the verge of risk and gangsterism is an example of an extreme form of male behavior. Patriarchy_sentence_146

Psychologist and professor Mark van Vugt, from VU University at Amsterdam, Netherlands, has argued that human males have evolved more aggressive and group-oriented behavior in order to gain access to resources, territories, mates and higher status. Patriarchy_sentence_147

His theory, the Male Warrior hypothesis, posits that males throughout hominid history have evolved to form coalitions or groups in order to engage in inter-group aggression and increase their chances of acquiring resources, mates and territory. Patriarchy_sentence_148

Vugt argues that this evolved male social dynamic explains the human history of war to modern day gang rivalry. Patriarchy_sentence_149

Social theory Patriarchy_section_11

Main articles: Sex differences in humans and Social construction of gender difference Patriarchy_sentence_150

Sociologists tend to reject predominantly biological explanations of patriarchy and contend that socialization processes are primarily responsible for establishing gender roles. Patriarchy_sentence_151

According to standard sociological theory, patriarchy is the result of sociological constructions that are passed down from generation to generation. Patriarchy_sentence_152

These constructions are most pronounced in societies with traditional cultures and less economic development. Patriarchy_sentence_153

Even in modern, developed societies, however, gender messages conveyed by family, mass media, and other institutions largely favor males having a dominant status. Patriarchy_sentence_154

Although patriarchy exists within the scientific atmosphere, "the periods over which women would have been at a physiological disadvantage in participation in hunting through being at a late stage of pregnancy or early stage of child-rearing would have been short", during the time of the nomads, patriarchy still grew with power. Patriarchy_sentence_155

Lewontin and others argue that such biological determinism unjustly limits women. Patriarchy_sentence_156

In his study, he states women behave a certain way not because they are biologically inclined to, but rather because they are judged by "how well they conform to the stereotypical local image of femininity". Patriarchy_sentence_157

Feminists believe that people have gendered biases, which are perpetuated and enforced across generations by those who benefit from them. Patriarchy_sentence_158

For instance, it has historically been claimed that women cannot make rational decisions during their menstrual periods. Patriarchy_sentence_159

This claim cloaks the fact that men also have periods of time where they can be aggressive and irrational; furthermore, unrelated effects of aging and similar medical problems are often blamed on menopause, amplifying its reputation. Patriarchy_sentence_160

These biological traits and others specific to women, such as their ability to get pregnant, are often used against them as an attribute of weakness. Patriarchy_sentence_161

Sociologist Sylvia Walby has composed six overlapping structures that define patriarchy and that take different forms in different cultures and different times: Patriarchy_sentence_162

Patriarchy_ordered_list_1

  1. The state: women are unlikely to have formal power and representationPatriarchy_item_1_6
  2. The household: women are more likely to do the housework and raise the childrenPatriarchy_item_1_7
  3. Violence: women are more prone to being abusedPatriarchy_item_1_8
  4. Paid work: women are likely to be paid lessPatriarchy_item_1_9
  5. Sexuality: women's sexuality is more likely to be treated negativelyPatriarchy_item_1_10
  6. Culture: representation of women in media, and popular culture is "within a patriarchal gaze".Patriarchy_item_1_11

The idea that patriarchy is natural has, however, come under attack from many sociologists, explaining that patriarchy evolved due to historical, rather than biological, conditions. Patriarchy_sentence_163

In technologically simple societies, men's greater physical strength and women's common experience of pregnancy combined together to sustain patriarchy. Patriarchy_sentence_164

Gradually, technological advances, especially industrial machinery, diminished the primacy of physical strength in everyday life. Patriarchy_sentence_165

Similarly, contraception has given women control over their reproductive cycle. Patriarchy_sentence_166

Psychoanalytic theories Patriarchy_section_12

While the term patriarchy often refers to male domination generally, another interpretation sees it as literally "rule of the father". Patriarchy_sentence_167

So some people believe patriarchy does not refer simply to of male power over women, but the expression of power dependent on age as well as gender, such as by older men over women, children, and younger men. Patriarchy_sentence_168

Some of these younger men may inherit and therefore have a stake in continuing these conventions. Patriarchy_sentence_169

Others may rebel. Patriarchy_sentence_170

This psychoanalytic model is based upon revisions of Freud's description of the normally neurotic family using the analogy of the story of Oedipus. Patriarchy_sentence_171

Those who fall outside the Oedipal triad of mother/father/child are less subject to male authority. Patriarchy_sentence_172

The operations of power in such cases are usually enacted unconsciously. Patriarchy_sentence_173

All are subject, even fathers are bound by its strictures. Patriarchy_sentence_174

It is represented in unspoken traditions and conventions performed in everyday behaviors, customs, and habits. Patriarchy_sentence_175

The triangular relationship of a father, a mother and an inheriting eldest son frequently form the dynamic and emotional narratives of popular culture and are enacted performatively in rituals of courtship and marriage. Patriarchy_sentence_176

They provide conceptual models for organising power relations in spheres that have nothing to do with the family, for example, politics and business. Patriarchy_sentence_177

Arguing from this standpoint, radical feminist Shulamith Firestone wrote in her 1970 The Dialectic of Sex: Patriarchy_sentence_178

See also Patriarchy_section_13

Patriarchal models Patriarchy_section_14

Patriarchy_unordered_list_2

Related topics Patriarchy_section_15

Patriarchy_unordered_list_3

Comparable social models Patriarchy_section_16

Patriarchy_unordered_list_4

Contrast Patriarchy_section_17

Patriarchy_unordered_list_5


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patriarchy.