For other places with the same name, see Peckham (disambiguation).
|Population||71,552 (Peckham, Peckham Rye, Nunhead, Livesey and The Lane wards 2011)|
|OS grid reference|
|Ceremonial county||Greater London|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
It is 3.5 miles (5.6 km) south-east of Charing Cross.
At the 2001 Census the Peckham ward had a population of 14,720.
In 1965, the borough was abolished and the area became part of the newly created London Borough of Southwark.
Archaeological evidence indicates earlier Roman occupation in the area, although the name of this settlement is lost.
Peckham appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Pecheham.
Its Domesday assets were: 2 hides.
It rendered 30 shillings (£1.50).
When Robert married the heiress to Camberwell the two manors were united under royal ownership.
The fair grew to be a rowdy major event lasting three weeks until its abolition in 1827.
Peckham became popular as a wealthy residential area by the 16th century and there are several claims that Christopher Wren had local links.
By the 18th century the area was a more commercial centre and attracted industrialists who wanted to avoid paying the expensive rents in central London.
Local produce included melons, figs and grapes.
The house was finally demolished in 1797 for the formation of Peckham Hill Street, as the Shard family developed the area.
Today Shard's Terrace, the block that contains Manze's Pie and Mash shop, and the western side of Peckham Hill Street represent this Georgian planned expansion.
The village was the last stopping point for many cattle drovers taking their livestock for sale in London.
The drovers stayed in the local inns (such as the Red Cow) while the cattle were safely secured overnight in holding pens.
Most of the villagers were agricultural or horticultural workers but with the early growth of the suburbs an increasing number worked in the brick industry that exploited the local London Clay.
In 1993, at the request of the Dulwich Festival, artist Stan Peskett painted a mural of Blake's vision next to the Goose Green playground in East Dulwich.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Peckham was synonymous with Peckham Rye: a "small, quiet, retired village surrounded by fields".
The canal was built from Surrey Commercial Docks to Peckham before the builders ran out of funds in 1826.
The abbreviated canal was used to ship soft wood for construction and even though the canal was drained and backfilled in 1970 Whitten's timber merchants still stands on the site of the canal head.
Tilling's buses were the first to use pre-arranged bus stops, which helped them to run to a reliable timetable.
During the mid-19th century, housing had spread north and west of Peckham Rye.
The area in the north, towards Old Kent Road, on land previously owned by the Hill family (from whom the name Peckham Hill Street was derived) was initially known as Peckham New Town, although it would later become synonymous with Peckham in general (and the "New Town" was abandoned).
Peckham Rye railway station was opened, in 1865.
With the arrival of the railway and the introduction of horse-drawn trams about ten years later, Peckham became accessible to artisans and clerical staff working in the city and the docks.
Housing for this socio-economic group filled almost all the remaining fields except the Rye.
Responding to concerns about the dangerous overcrowding of the common on holidays the vestry bought the adjacent Homestall Farm (the last farm in the area) in 1894 and opened this as Peckham Rye Park.
With the influx of younger residents with money to spend Rye Lane became a major shopping street.
Jones & Higgins opened a small shop in 1867 (on the corner of Rye Lane and Peckham High Street) that became the best known department store in south London for many years.
It closed in the 1980s.
In 1870 George Gibson Bussey moved to Peckham and set up a firm described as "Firearms, Ammunition & Shooting” at the Museum Works, Rye Lane, Peckham.
The Museum of Firearms was built in 1867.
The Ordnance Survey Map of 1868 shows the museum building with a rifle range at the rear extending along the side of the railway embankment for 150 yards.
The late 19th century also saw the arrival of George Batty, a manufacturer of condiments, whose main business stood at Finsbury Pavement.
The company's Peckham premises occupied 19 railway arches.
It was acquired by the H. in 1905 as their first UK manufacturing base. J. Heinz Company
Though the line was eventually dismantled due to the collapse of the embankment into the gardens of Marmora Road it is still possible to see large sections of it.
The flats on Wood Vale and the full length of Brenchley Gardens trace its route.
Close by is the Aquarius Golf Club, which is located over the cavernous Honor Oak Reservoir constructed between 1901 and 1909.
When it was completed it was the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and is still one of the largest in Europe.
The reservoir now forms part of the Southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main.
Camberwell Old Cemetery, on Forest Hill Road, is a later example of the ring of Victorian cemeteries that were built to alleviate the overcrowding of churchyards that was experienced with the rapid expansion of London in the 19th century.
It was gutted by fire in the mid-1970s and rebuilt some years later.
Camberwell Old Cemetery did not have the grandeur of nearby Nunhead Cemetery, which was one of the original London necropoleis, and once nearing capacity it was replaced by Camberwell New Cemetery on Brenchley Gardens.
Brenchley Gardens Park follows the route of the old line to the Crystal Palace culminating at the High Level station.
The park runs behind Marmora Road and the remains of the embankment then continues along Wood Vale where flats were built on it.
The line was closed in 1954 following a decline in its use after the destruction of the Crystal Palace in 1936 and due to slippage in the structure of the embankment.
Nearest railway stations
Like most of south east London, Peckham has never been served by the London Underground.
However, once the Bakerloo line extension is complete, a new tube station will be built on Asylum Road northeast of the centre of Peckham, near the A2 road and Brimmington Park.
Existing railway stations in the district are as follows:
Peckham bus garage is currently operated by London Central and is situated in Blackpool Road.
It opened in 1994 and replaced a similar but larger facility in Peckham High Street on part of whose site the present bus station now stands.
A viaduct behind it carries the railway east of Peckham Rye railway station.
References and notes
Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peckham.