Peckham

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For other places with the same name, see Peckham (disambiguation). Peckham_sentence_0

Peckham_table_infobox_0

PeckhamPeckham_header_cell_0_0_0
PopulationPeckham_header_cell_0_1_0 71,552 (Peckham, Peckham Rye, Nunhead, Livesey and The Lane wards 2011)Peckham_cell_0_1_1
OS grid referencePeckham_header_cell_0_2_0 Peckham_cell_0_2_1
London boroughPeckham_header_cell_0_3_0 Peckham_cell_0_3_1
Ceremonial countyPeckham_header_cell_0_4_0 Greater LondonPeckham_cell_0_4_1
RegionPeckham_header_cell_0_5_0 Peckham_cell_0_5_1
CountryPeckham_header_cell_0_6_0 EnglandPeckham_cell_0_6_1
Sovereign statePeckham_header_cell_0_7_0 United KingdomPeckham_cell_0_7_1
Post townPeckham_header_cell_0_8_0 LONDONPeckham_cell_0_8_1
Postcode districtPeckham_header_cell_0_9_0 SE15Peckham_cell_0_9_1
Dialling codePeckham_header_cell_0_10_0 020Peckham_cell_0_10_1
PolicePeckham_header_cell_0_11_0 MetropolitanPeckham_cell_0_11_1
FirePeckham_header_cell_0_12_0 LondonPeckham_cell_0_12_1
AmbulancePeckham_header_cell_0_13_0 LondonPeckham_cell_0_13_1
UK ParliamentPeckham_header_cell_0_14_0 Peckham_cell_0_14_1
London AssemblyPeckham_header_cell_0_15_0 Peckham_cell_0_15_1

Peckham (/ˈpɛkəm/) is a district of south London, England, within the London Borough of Southwark. Peckham_sentence_1

It is 3.5 miles (5.6 km) south-east of Charing Cross. Peckham_sentence_2

At the 2001 Census the Peckham ward had a population of 14,720. Peckham_sentence_3

Peckham was originally part of the parish of Camberwell in Surrey, which became the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell within the County of London in 1889. Peckham_sentence_4

In 1965, the borough was abolished and the area became part of the newly created London Borough of Southwark. Peckham_sentence_5

History Peckham_section_0

"Peckham" is a Saxon place name meaning the village of the River Peck, a small stream that ran through the district until it was enclosed in 1823. Peckham_sentence_6

Archaeological evidence indicates earlier Roman occupation in the area, although the name of this settlement is lost. Peckham_sentence_7

Peckham appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Pecheham. Peckham_sentence_8

It was held by the Bishop of Lisieux from Odo of Bayeux. Peckham_sentence_9

Its Domesday assets were: 2 hides. Peckham_sentence_10

It had land for 1 plough, 2 acres (8,100 m) of meadow. Peckham_sentence_11

It rendered 30 shillings (£1.50). Peckham_sentence_12

The manor was owned by King Henry I, who gave it to his son Robert, Earl of Gloucester. Peckham_sentence_13

When Robert married the heiress to Camberwell the two manors were united under royal ownership. Peckham_sentence_14

King John probably hunted at Peckham and local anecdotes suggest that the right to an annual fair was granted to celebrate a particularly good day's sport. Peckham_sentence_15

The fair grew to be a rowdy major event lasting three weeks until its abolition in 1827. Peckham_sentence_16

Peckham became popular as a wealthy residential area by the 16th century and there are several claims that Christopher Wren had local links. Peckham_sentence_17

By the 18th century the area was a more commercial centre and attracted industrialists who wanted to avoid paying the expensive rents in central London. Peckham_sentence_18

Peckham also boasted extensive market gardens and orchards growing produce for the nearby markets of London. Peckham_sentence_19

Local produce included melons, figs and grapes. Peckham_sentence_20

The formal gardens of the Peckham Manor House, rebuilt in 1672 by Sir Thomas Bond were particularly noticeable and can be seen on the Rocque map of 1746. Peckham_sentence_21

The manor house was sacked in 1688, as its then owner Sir Henry Bond was a Roman Catholic and staunch supporter of James II. Peckham_sentence_22

The house was finally demolished in 1797 for the formation of Peckham Hill Street, as the Shard family developed the area. Peckham_sentence_23

Today Shard's Terrace, the block that contains Manze's Pie and Mash shop, and the western side of Peckham Hill Street represent this Georgian planned expansion. Peckham_sentence_24

The village was the last stopping point for many cattle drovers taking their livestock for sale in London. Peckham_sentence_25

The drovers stayed in the local inns (such as the Red Cow) while the cattle were safely secured overnight in holding pens. Peckham_sentence_26

Most of the villagers were agricultural or horticultural workers but with the early growth of the suburbs an increasing number worked in the brick industry that exploited the local London Clay. Peckham_sentence_27

In 1767 William Blake visited Peckham Rye and had a vision of an angel in a tree. Peckham_sentence_28

In 1993, at the request of the Dulwich Festival, artist Stan Peskett painted a mural of Blake's vision next to the Goose Green playground in East Dulwich. Peckham_sentence_29

19th century Peckham_section_1

At the beginning of the 19th century, Peckham was synonymous with Peckham Rye: a "small, quiet, retired village surrounded by fields". Peckham_sentence_30

Since 1744 stagecoaches had travelled with an armed guard between Peckham and London to give protection from highwaymen. Peckham_sentence_31

The rough roads constrained traffic so a branch of the Grand Surrey Canal was proposed as a route from the Thames to Portsmouth. Peckham_sentence_32

The canal was built from Surrey Commercial Docks to Peckham before the builders ran out of funds in 1826. Peckham_sentence_33

The abbreviated canal was used to ship soft wood for construction and even though the canal was drained and backfilled in 1970 Whitten's timber merchants still stands on the site of the canal head. Peckham_sentence_34

In 1851 Thomas Tilling started an innovative omnibus service from Peckham to London. Peckham_sentence_35

Tilling's buses were the first to use pre-arranged bus stops, which helped them to run to a reliable timetable. Peckham_sentence_36

His services expanded to cover much of London until his horses were requisitioned for the Army in the First World War. Peckham_sentence_37

During the mid-19th century, housing had spread north and west of Peckham Rye. Peckham_sentence_38

The area in the north, towards Old Kent Road, on land previously owned by the Hill family (from whom the name Peckham Hill Street was derived) was initially known as Peckham New Town, although it would later become synonymous with Peckham in general (and the "New Town" was abandoned). Peckham_sentence_39

In the area west of Peckham Rye Common and Peckham Rye Park, many large houses were built. Peckham_sentence_40

Peckham Rye railway station was opened, in 1865. Peckham_sentence_41

With the arrival of the railway and the introduction of horse-drawn trams about ten years later, Peckham became accessible to artisans and clerical staff working in the city and the docks. Peckham_sentence_42

Housing for this socio-economic group filled almost all the remaining fields except the Rye. Peckham_sentence_43

In 1868 the vestry of Camberwell St Giles bought the Rye to keep it as common land. Peckham_sentence_44

Responding to concerns about the dangerous overcrowding of the common on holidays the vestry bought the adjacent Homestall Farm (the last farm in the area) in 1894 and opened this as Peckham Rye Park. Peckham_sentence_45

With the influx of younger residents with money to spend Rye Lane became a major shopping street. Peckham_sentence_46

Jones & Higgins opened a small shop in 1867 (on the corner of Rye Lane and Peckham High Street) that became the best known department store in south London for many years. Peckham_sentence_47

It closed in the 1980s. Peckham_sentence_48

In 1870 George Gibson Bussey moved to Peckham and set up a firm described as "Firearms, Ammunition & Shooting” at the Museum Works, Rye Lane, Peckham. Peckham_sentence_49

The Museum of Firearms was built in 1867. Peckham_sentence_50

The Ordnance Survey Map of 1868 shows the museum building with a rifle range at the rear extending along the side of the railway embankment for 150 yards. Peckham_sentence_51

The late 19th century also saw the arrival of George Batty, a manufacturer of condiments, whose main business stood at Finsbury Pavement. Peckham_sentence_52

The company's Peckham premises occupied 19 railway arches. Peckham_sentence_53

It was acquired by the H. Peckham_sentence_54 J. Heinz Company in 1905 as their first UK manufacturing base. Peckham_sentence_55

The southern end of Peckham was the location for the railway line that once served the Crystal Palace in Sydenham. Peckham_sentence_56

Though the line was eventually dismantled due to the collapse of the embankment into the gardens of Marmora Road it is still possible to see large sections of it. Peckham_sentence_57

The flats on Wood Vale and the full length of Brenchley Gardens trace its route. Peckham_sentence_58

Close by is the Aquarius Golf Club, which is located over the cavernous Honor Oak Reservoir constructed between 1901 and 1909. Peckham_sentence_59

When it was completed it was the largest brick built underground reservoir in the world and is still one of the largest in Europe. Peckham_sentence_60

The reservoir now forms part of the Southern extension of the Thames Water Ring Main. Peckham_sentence_61

Camberwell Old Cemetery, on Forest Hill Road, is a later example of the ring of Victorian cemeteries that were built to alleviate the overcrowding of churchyards that was experienced with the rapid expansion of London in the 19th century. Peckham_sentence_62

The Stone House at its main entrance was used as a film location for Entertaining Mr. Sloane (1970), adapted from the Joe Orton play. Peckham_sentence_63

It was gutted by fire in the mid-1970s and rebuilt some years later. Peckham_sentence_64

Camberwell Old Cemetery did not have the grandeur of nearby Nunhead Cemetery, which was one of the original London necropoleis, and once nearing capacity it was replaced by Camberwell New Cemetery on Brenchley Gardens. Peckham_sentence_65

Brenchley Gardens Park follows the route of the old line to the Crystal Palace culminating at the High Level station. Peckham_sentence_66

The park runs behind Marmora Road and the remains of the embankment then continues along Wood Vale where flats were built on it. Peckham_sentence_67

The line was closed in 1954 following a decline in its use after the destruction of the Crystal Palace in 1936 and due to slippage in the structure of the embankment. Peckham_sentence_68

20th century Peckham_section_2

Nearest places Peckham_section_3

Peckham_unordered_list_0

Nearest railway stations Peckham_section_4

Like most of south east London, Peckham has never been served by the London Underground. Peckham_sentence_69

However, once the Bakerloo line extension is complete, a new tube station will be built on Asylum Road northeast of the centre of Peckham, near the A2 road and Brimmington Park. Peckham_sentence_70

It will be located between another new station at Burgess Park and the existing railway station at New Cross Gate. Peckham_sentence_71

Existing railway stations in the district are as follows: Peckham_sentence_72

Peckham_unordered_list_1

Bus transport Peckham_section_5

Peckham bus garage is currently operated by London Central and is situated in Blackpool Road. Peckham_sentence_73

It opened in 1994 and replaced a similar but larger facility in Peckham High Street on part of whose site the present bus station now stands. Peckham_sentence_74

A viaduct behind it carries the railway east of Peckham Rye railway station. Peckham_sentence_75

References and notes Peckham_section_6

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peckham.