Pennsylvania

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This article is about the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_0

For other uses, see Pennsylvania (disambiguation). Pennsylvania_sentence_1

Pennsylvania_table_infobox_0

PennsylvaniaPennsylvania_header_cell_0_0_0
CountryPennsylvania_header_cell_0_1_0 United StatesPennsylvania_cell_0_1_1
Before statehoodPennsylvania_header_cell_0_2_0 Province of PennsylvaniaPennsylvania_cell_0_2_1
Admitted to the UnionPennsylvania_header_cell_0_3_0 December 12, 1787 (2nd)Pennsylvania_cell_0_3_1
CapitalPennsylvania_header_cell_0_4_0 HarrisburgPennsylvania_cell_0_4_1
Largest cityPennsylvania_header_cell_0_5_0 PhiladelphiaPennsylvania_cell_0_5_1
Largest metroPennsylvania_header_cell_0_6_0 Delaware ValleyPennsylvania_cell_0_6_1
GovernmentPennsylvania_header_cell_0_7_0
GovernorPennsylvania_header_cell_0_8_0 Tom Wolf (D)Pennsylvania_cell_0_8_1
Lieutenant GovernorPennsylvania_header_cell_0_9_0 John Fetterman (D)Pennsylvania_cell_0_9_1
LegislaturePennsylvania_header_cell_0_10_0 General AssemblyPennsylvania_cell_0_10_1
Upper housePennsylvania_header_cell_0_11_0 State SenatePennsylvania_cell_0_11_1
Lower housePennsylvania_header_cell_0_12_0 House of RepresentativesPennsylvania_cell_0_12_1
JudiciaryPennsylvania_header_cell_0_13_0 Supreme Court of PennsylvaniaPennsylvania_cell_0_13_1
U.S. senatorsPennsylvania_header_cell_0_14_0 Bob Casey Jr. (D)

Pat Toomey (R)Pennsylvania_cell_0_14_1

U.S. House delegationPennsylvania_header_cell_0_15_0 9 Democrats

9 Republicans (list)Pennsylvania_cell_0_15_1

AreaPennsylvania_header_cell_0_16_0
TotalPennsylvania_header_cell_0_17_0 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km)Pennsylvania_cell_0_17_1
LandPennsylvania_header_cell_0_18_0 44,816.61 sq mi (116,074 km)Pennsylvania_cell_0_18_1
WaterPennsylvania_header_cell_0_19_0 1,239 sq mi (3,208 km)  2.7%Pennsylvania_cell_0_19_1
Area rankPennsylvania_header_cell_0_20_0 33rdPennsylvania_cell_0_20_1
DimensionsPennsylvania_header_cell_0_21_0
LengthPennsylvania_header_cell_0_22_0 170 mi (273 km)Pennsylvania_cell_0_22_1
WidthPennsylvania_header_cell_0_23_0 283 mi (455 km)Pennsylvania_cell_0_23_1
ElevationPennsylvania_header_cell_0_24_0 1,100 ft (340 m)Pennsylvania_cell_0_24_1
Highest elevation (Mount Davis)Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_25_0 3,213 ft (979 m)Pennsylvania_cell_0_25_1
Lowest elevation (Delaware River at Delaware border)Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_26_0 0 ft (0 m)Pennsylvania_cell_0_26_1
Population (2019)Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_27_0
TotalPennsylvania_header_cell_0_28_0 12,801,989Pennsylvania_cell_0_28_1
RankPennsylvania_header_cell_0_29_0 5thPennsylvania_cell_0_29_1
DensityPennsylvania_header_cell_0_30_0 284/sq mi (110/km)Pennsylvania_cell_0_30_1
Density rankPennsylvania_header_cell_0_31_0 9thPennsylvania_cell_0_31_1
Median household incomePennsylvania_header_cell_0_32_0 $59,195Pennsylvania_cell_0_32_1
Income rankPennsylvania_header_cell_0_33_0 25thPennsylvania_cell_0_33_1
Demonym(s)Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_34_0 PennsylvanianPennsylvania_cell_0_34_1
LanguagePennsylvania_header_cell_0_35_0
Official languagePennsylvania_header_cell_0_36_0 NonePennsylvania_cell_0_36_1
Spoken languagePennsylvania_header_cell_0_37_0 English 90.15%

Spanish 4.09% German (Including Pennsylvania German) 0.87% Chinese 0.47% Italian 0.43%Pennsylvania_cell_0_37_1

Time zonePennsylvania_header_cell_0_38_0 UTC−05:00 (Eastern)Pennsylvania_cell_0_38_1
Summer (DST)Pennsylvania_header_cell_0_39_0 UTC−04:00 (EDT)Pennsylvania_cell_0_39_1
USPS abbreviationPennsylvania_header_cell_0_40_0 PAPennsylvania_cell_0_40_1
ISO 3166 codePennsylvania_header_cell_0_41_0 US-PAPennsylvania_cell_0_41_1
Traditional abbreviationPennsylvania_header_cell_0_42_0 Pa., Penn., Penna.Pennsylvania_cell_0_42_1
LatitudePennsylvania_header_cell_0_43_0 39°43′ to 42°16′ NPennsylvania_cell_0_43_1
LongitudePennsylvania_header_cell_0_44_0 74°41′ to 80°31′ WPennsylvania_cell_0_44_1
WebsitePennsylvania_header_cell_0_45_0 Pennsylvania_cell_0_45_1

Pennsylvania_table_infobox_1

Pennsylvania state symbolsPennsylvania_header_cell_1_0_0
Living insigniaPennsylvania_header_cell_1_1_0
AmphibianPennsylvania_header_cell_1_2_0 Eastern HellbenderPennsylvania_cell_1_2_1
BirdPennsylvania_header_cell_1_3_0 Ruffed grousePennsylvania_cell_1_3_1
Dog breedPennsylvania_header_cell_1_4_0 Great DanePennsylvania_cell_1_4_1
FishPennsylvania_header_cell_1_5_0 Brook troutPennsylvania_cell_1_5_1
FlowerPennsylvania_header_cell_1_6_0 Mountain laurelPennsylvania_cell_1_6_1
InsectPennsylvania_header_cell_1_7_0 Firefly (Colloquially "Lightning Bug") (Photuris pensylvanica)Pennsylvania_cell_1_7_1
MammalPennsylvania_header_cell_1_8_0 White-tailed deerPennsylvania_cell_1_8_1
TreePennsylvania_header_cell_1_9_0 Eastern hemlockPennsylvania_cell_1_9_1
Inanimate insigniaPennsylvania_header_cell_1_10_0
BeveragePennsylvania_header_cell_1_11_0 MilkPennsylvania_cell_1_11_1
DancePennsylvania_header_cell_1_12_0 PolkaPennsylvania_cell_1_12_1
FoodPennsylvania_header_cell_1_13_0 Chocolate Chip CookiePennsylvania_cell_1_13_1
FossilPennsylvania_header_cell_1_14_0 TrilobitePennsylvania_cell_1_14_1
SoilPennsylvania_header_cell_1_15_0 HazletonPennsylvania_cell_1_15_1
State route markerPennsylvania_header_cell_1_16_0
State quarterPennsylvania_header_cell_1_17_0

Pennsylvania (/ˌpɛnsəlˈveɪniə/ (listen) PEN-səl-VAY-nee-ə) (Pennsylvania German: Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state in the Northeastern, Great Lakes, Appalachian, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. Pennsylvania_sentence_2

The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey to the east, while the Appalachian Mountains run through its middle. Pennsylvania_sentence_3

Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, and the 5th-most populous state according to the most recent official U.S. Pennsylvania_sentence_4 Census count in 2010. Pennsylvania_sentence_5

It is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania_sentence_6

Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia (1,580,863), and Pittsburgh (302,407). Pennsylvania_sentence_7

The state capital and its 13th-largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania_sentence_8

Pennsylvania has 140 miles (225 km) of waterfront along Lake Erie and the Delaware River. Pennsylvania_sentence_9

The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States; it came into being in 1681 as a result of a royal land grant to William Penn, the son of the state's namesake. Pennsylvania_sentence_10

Part of Pennsylvania (along the Delaware River), together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden. Pennsylvania_sentence_11

It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Pennsylvania_sentence_12

Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in Philadelphia, the state's largest city. Pennsylvania_sentence_13

During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Pennsylvania_sentence_14

Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania_sentence_15

Geography Pennsylvania_section_0

Further information: Geography of Pennsylvania and List of counties in Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_16

Pennsylvania is 170 miles (274 km) north to south and 283 miles (455 km) east to west. Pennsylvania_sentence_17

Of a total 46,055 square miles (119,282 km), 44,817 square miles (116,075 km) are land, 490 square miles (1,269 km) are inland waters, and 749 square miles (1,940 km) are waters in Lake Erie. Pennsylvania_sentence_18

It is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania_sentence_19

Pennsylvania has 51 miles (82 km) of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles (92 km) of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Pennsylvania_sentence_20

Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean. Pennsylvania_sentence_21

The boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line (39°43' N) to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80°31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, except for a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie. Pennsylvania_sentence_22

Cities include Philadelphia, Reading, Lebanon and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, Bethlehem, and Easton in the central east (known as the Lehigh Valley). Pennsylvania_sentence_23

The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston, Nanticoke, and Hazleton. Pennsylvania_sentence_24

Erie is located in the northwest. Pennsylvania_sentence_25

State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York, Carlisle, and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region. Pennsylvania_sentence_26

The state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and the Erie Plain. Pennsylvania_sentence_27

Adjacent states and province Pennsylvania_section_1

Pennsylvania_unordered_list_0

  • Ontario (Province of Canada) (Northwest)Pennsylvania_item_0_0
  • New York (North and Northeast)Pennsylvania_item_0_1
  • New Jersey (East and Southeast)Pennsylvania_item_0_2
  • Delaware (Extreme Southeast)Pennsylvania_item_0_3
  • Maryland (South)Pennsylvania_item_0_4
  • West Virginia (Southwest)Pennsylvania_item_0_5
  • Ohio (West)Pennsylvania_item_0_6

Climate Pennsylvania_section_2

Main article: Climate of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_28

Pennsylvania's diverse topography also produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Pennsylvania_sentence_29

Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, except for the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa). Pennsylvania_sentence_30

The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. Pennsylvania_sentence_31

The largest city, Philadelphia, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa) that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Pennsylvania_sentence_32

Summers are generally hot and humid. Pennsylvania_sentence_33

Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, and snowfall amounts are greater. Pennsylvania_sentence_34

Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches (250 cm) of snowfall annually, and the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year. Pennsylvania_sentence_35

The state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into autumn. Pennsylvania_sentence_36

Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; generally speaking, these tornadoes do not cause significant damage. Pennsylvania_sentence_37

Pennsylvania_table_general_2

Monthly Average High and Low Temperatures For Various Pennsylvania Cities (in °F)Pennsylvania_cell_2_0_0
CityPennsylvania_header_cell_2_1_0 Jan.Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_1_1 Feb.Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_1_2 Mar.Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_1_3 Apr.Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_1_4 MayPennsylvania_header_cell_2_1_5 Jun.Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_1_6 Jul.Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_1_7 Aug.Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_1_8 Sep.Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_1_9 Oct.Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_1_10 Nov.Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_1_11 Dec.Pennsylvania_header_cell_2_1_12
ScrantonPennsylvania_header_cell_2_2_0 33/19Pennsylvania_cell_2_2_1 37/21Pennsylvania_cell_2_2_2 46/28Pennsylvania_cell_2_2_3 59/38Pennsylvania_cell_2_2_4 70/48Pennsylvania_cell_2_2_5 78/56Pennsylvania_cell_2_2_6 82/61Pennsylvania_cell_2_2_7 80/60Pennsylvania_cell_2_2_8 72/52Pennsylvania_cell_2_2_9 61/41Pennsylvania_cell_2_2_10 49/33Pennsylvania_cell_2_2_11 38/24Pennsylvania_cell_2_2_12
EriePennsylvania_header_cell_2_3_0 34/21Pennsylvania_cell_2_3_1 36/21Pennsylvania_cell_2_3_2 44/27Pennsylvania_cell_2_3_3 56/38Pennsylvania_cell_2_3_4 67/48Pennsylvania_cell_2_3_5 76/58Pennsylvania_cell_2_3_6 80/63Pennsylvania_cell_2_3_7 79/62Pennsylvania_cell_2_3_8 72/56Pennsylvania_cell_2_3_9 61/45Pennsylvania_cell_2_3_10 50/37Pennsylvania_cell_2_3_11 38/27Pennsylvania_cell_2_3_12
PittsburghPennsylvania_header_cell_2_4_0 36/21Pennsylvania_cell_2_4_1 39/23Pennsylvania_cell_2_4_2 49/30Pennsylvania_cell_2_4_3 62/40Pennsylvania_cell_2_4_4 71/49Pennsylvania_cell_2_4_5 79/58Pennsylvania_cell_2_4_6 83/63Pennsylvania_cell_2_4_7 81/62Pennsylvania_cell_2_4_8 74/54Pennsylvania_cell_2_4_9 63/43Pennsylvania_cell_2_4_10 51/35Pennsylvania_cell_2_4_11 39/25Pennsylvania_cell_2_4_12
HarrisburgPennsylvania_header_cell_2_5_0 37/23Pennsylvania_cell_2_5_1 41/25Pennsylvania_cell_2_5_2 50/33Pennsylvania_cell_2_5_3 62/42Pennsylvania_cell_2_5_4 72/52Pennsylvania_cell_2_5_5 81/62Pennsylvania_cell_2_5_6 85/66Pennsylvania_cell_2_5_7 83/64Pennsylvania_cell_2_5_8 76/56Pennsylvania_cell_2_5_9 64/45Pennsylvania_cell_2_5_10 53/35Pennsylvania_cell_2_5_11 41/27Pennsylvania_cell_2_5_12
PhiladelphiaPennsylvania_header_cell_2_6_0 40/26Pennsylvania_cell_2_6_1 44/28Pennsylvania_cell_2_6_2 53/34Pennsylvania_cell_2_6_3 64/44Pennsylvania_cell_2_6_4 74/54Pennsylvania_cell_2_6_5 83/64Pennsylvania_cell_2_6_6 87/69Pennsylvania_cell_2_6_7 85/68Pennsylvania_cell_2_6_8 78/60Pennsylvania_cell_2_6_9 67/48Pennsylvania_cell_2_6_10 56/39Pennsylvania_cell_2_6_11 45/30Pennsylvania_cell_2_6_12
AllentownPennsylvania_header_cell_2_7_0 36/20Pennsylvania_cell_2_7_1 40/22Pennsylvania_cell_2_7_2 49/29Pennsylvania_cell_2_7_3 61/39Pennsylvania_cell_2_7_4 72/48Pennsylvania_cell_2_7_5 80/58Pennsylvania_cell_2_7_6 84/63Pennsylvania_cell_2_7_7 82/61Pennsylvania_cell_2_7_8 75/53Pennsylvania_cell_2_7_9 64/41Pennsylvania_cell_2_7_10 52/33Pennsylvania_cell_2_7_11 40/24Pennsylvania_cell_2_7_12
Sources:Pennsylvania_cell_2_8_0

History Pennsylvania_section_3

Main article: History of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_38

See also: List of Pennsylvania firsts and List of people from Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_39

Historically, as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape (also Delaware), the Iroquoian Susquehannock, and Petun (also Tionontati, Kentatentonga, Tobacco, Wenro) and the presumably Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Pennsylvania_sentence_40

Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Tutelo, Saponi, Shawnee, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others. Pennsylvania_sentence_41

Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Pennsylvania_sentence_42

17th century Pennsylvania_section_4

Main articles: New Netherland, New Sweden, and Province of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_43

Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America. Pennsylvania_sentence_44

The Dutch were the first to take possession. Pennsylvania_sentence_45

By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. Pennsylvania_sentence_46

In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. Pennsylvania_sentence_47

New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania) but settled few colonists there. Pennsylvania_sentence_48

On March 12, 1664, King Charles II of England gave James, Duke of York a grant that incorporated all lands included in the original Virginia Company of Plymouth Grant plus other lands. Pennsylvania_sentence_49

This grant was in conflict with the Dutch claim for New Netherland, which included parts of today's Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_50

On June 24, 1664, the Duke of York sold the portion of his large grant that included present-day New Jersey to John Berkeley and George Carteret for a proprietary colony. Pennsylvania_sentence_51

The land was not yet in British possession, but the sale boxed in the portion of New Netherland on the West side of the Delaware River. Pennsylvania_sentence_52

The British conquest of New Netherland began on August 29, 1664, when New Amsterdam was coerced to surrender while facing cannons on British ships in New York Harbor. Pennsylvania_sentence_53

This conquest continued, and was completed in October 1664, when the British captured Fort Casimir in what today is New Castle, Delaware. Pennsylvania_sentence_54

The Peace of Breda between England, France and the Netherlands confirmed the English conquest on July 21, 1667, although there were temporary reversions. Pennsylvania_sentence_55

On September 12, 1672, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, the Dutch re-conquered New York Colony/New Amsterdam, establishing three County Courts, which went on to become original Counties in present-day Delaware and Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_56

The one that later transferred to Pennsylvania was Upland. Pennsylvania_sentence_57

This was partially reversed on February 9, 1674, when the Treaty of Westminster ended the Third Anglo-Dutch War, and reverted all political situations to the status quo ante bellum. Pennsylvania_sentence_58

The British retained the Dutch Counties with their Dutch names. Pennsylvania_sentence_59

By June 11, 1674, New York reasserted control over the outlying colonies, including Upland, but the names started to be changed to British names by November 11, 1674. Pennsylvania_sentence_60

Upland was partitioned on November 12, 1674, producing the general outline of the current border between Pennsylvania and Delaware. Pennsylvania_sentence_61

On February 28, 1681, Charles II granted a land charter to William Penn to repay a debt of £16,000 (around £2,100,000 in 2008, adjusting for retail inflation) owed to William's father, Admiral William Penn. Pennsylvania_sentence_62

This was one of the largest land grants to an individual in history. Pennsylvania_sentence_63

The King named it Pennsylvania (literally "Penn's Woods") in honor of the Admiral. Pennsylvania_sentence_64

Penn, the son, who wanted it to be called New Wales, and then Sylvania (from the Latin silva: "forest, woods"), was embarrassed at the change, fearing that people would think he had named it after himself, but King Charles would not rename the grant. Pennsylvania_sentence_65

Penn established a government with two innovations that were much copied in the New World: the county commission and freedom of religious conviction. Pennsylvania_sentence_66

What had been Upland on what became the Pennsylvania side of the Pennsylvania-Delaware Border was renamed as Chester County when Pennsylvania instituted their colonial governments on March 4, 1681. Pennsylvania_sentence_67

The Quaker leader William Penn had signed a peace treaty with Tammany, leader of the Delaware tribe, beginning a long period of friendly relations between the Quakers and the Indians. Pennsylvania_sentence_68

Additional treaties between Quakers and other tribes followed. Pennsylvania_sentence_69

The treaty of William Penn was never violated. Pennsylvania_sentence_70

18th century Pennsylvania_section_5

Main articles: French and Indian War, Treaty of Paris (1763), Indian Reserve (1763), Pennsylvania in the American Revolution, First Continental Congress, American Revolutionary War, Second Continental Congress, Lee Resolution, United States Declaration of Independence, Philadelphia campaign, Articles of Confederation § Ratification, Treaty of Paris (1783), Constitutional Convention (United States), Admission to the Union, and List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union Pennsylvania_sentence_71

Between 1730 and when it was shut down by Parliament with the Currency Act of 1764, the Pennsylvania Colony made its own paper money to account for the shortage of actual gold and silver. Pennsylvania_sentence_72

The paper money was called Colonial Scrip. Pennsylvania_sentence_73

The Colony issued "bills of credit", which were as good as gold or silver coins because of their legal tender status. Pennsylvania_sentence_74

Since they were issued by the government and not a banking institution, it was an interest-free proposition, largely defraying the expense of the government and therefore taxation of the people. Pennsylvania_sentence_75

It also promoted general employment and prosperity, since the Government used discretion and did not issue too much to inflate the currency. Pennsylvania_sentence_76

Benjamin Franklin had a hand in creating this currency, of which he said its utility was never to be disputed, and it also met with the "cautious approval" of Adam Smith. Pennsylvania_sentence_77

James Smith wrote that in 1763, "the Indians again commenced hostilities, and were busily engaged in killing and scalping the frontier inhabitants in various parts of Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania_sentence_78

Further, "This state was then a Quaker government, and at the first of this war the frontiers received no assistance from the state." Pennsylvania_sentence_79

The ensuing hostilities became known as Pontiac's War. Pennsylvania_sentence_80

After the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, Delegate John Dickinson of Philadelphia wrote the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. Pennsylvania_sentence_81

The Congress was the first meeting of the Thirteen Colonies, called at the request of the Massachusetts Assembly, but only nine colonies sent delegates. Pennsylvania_sentence_82

Dickinson then wrote Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, To the Inhabitants of the British Colonies, which were published in the Pennsylvania Chronicle between December 2, 1767, and February 15, 1768. Pennsylvania_sentence_83

When the Founding Fathers of the United States convened in Philadelphia in 1774, 12 colonies sent representatives to the First Continental Congress. Pennsylvania_sentence_84

The Second Continental Congress, which also met in Philadelphia (in May 1775), drew up and signed the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia, but when that city was captured by the British, the Continental Congress escaped westward, meeting at the Lancaster courthouse on Saturday, September 27, 1777, and then to York. Pennsylvania_sentence_85

There they and its primary author, John Dickinson, drew up the Articles of Confederation that formed 13 independent States into a new union. Pennsylvania_sentence_86

Later, the Constitution was written, and Philadelphia was once again chosen to be cradle to the new American Union. Pennsylvania_sentence_87

The Constitution was drafted and signed at the Pennsylvania State House, now known as Independence Hall, and the same building where the Declaration of Independence was signed. Pennsylvania_sentence_88

Pennsylvania became the first large state, and the second state to ratify the U.S. Pennsylvania_sentence_89 Constitution on December 12, 1787, five days after Delaware became the first. Pennsylvania_sentence_90

At the time it was the most ethnically and religiously diverse of the thirteen States. Pennsylvania_sentence_91

Because one-third of Pennsylvania's population spoke German, the Constitution was presented in German to include those citizens in the discussion. Pennsylvania_sentence_92

Reverend Frederick Muhlenberg acted as the chairman of the state's ratifying convention. Pennsylvania_sentence_93

Dickinson College of Carlisle was the first college founded after the States united. Pennsylvania_sentence_94

Established in 1773, the college was ratified five days after the Treaty of Paris on September 9, 1783. Pennsylvania_sentence_95

The school was founded by Benjamin Rush and named after John Dickinson. Pennsylvania_sentence_96

For half a century, the Commonwealth's General Assembly (legislature) met at various places in the general Philadelphia area before starting to meet regularly in Independence Hall in Philadelphia for 63 years. Pennsylvania_sentence_97

But it needed a more central location, as for example the Paxton Boys massacres of 1763 had made the legislature aware. Pennsylvania_sentence_98

So, in 1799 the General Assembly moved to the Lancaster Courthouse, and finally in 1812 to Harrisburg. Pennsylvania_sentence_99

19th century Pennsylvania_section_6

The General Assembly met in the old Dauphin County Court House until December 1821, when the Federal-style "Hills Capitol" (named for its builder, Stephen Hills, a Lancaster architect) was constructed on a hilltop land grant of four acres set aside for a seat of state government by the prescient, entrepreneurial son and namesake of John Harris, Sr., a Yorkshire native who had founded a trading post in 1705 and ferry (1733) on the east shore of the Susquehanna River. Pennsylvania_sentence_100

The Hills Capitol burned down on February 2, 1897, during a heavy snowstorm, presumably because of a faulty flue. Pennsylvania_sentence_101

The General Assembly met at Grace Methodist Church on State Street (still standing) until a new capitol could be built. Pennsylvania_sentence_102

Following an architectural selection contest that many alleged had been "rigged", Chicago architect Henry Ives Cobb was charged with designing and building a replacement building; however, the legislature had little money to allocate to the project, and a roughly finished, somewhat industrial building (the Cobb Capitol) was completed. Pennsylvania_sentence_103

The General Assembly refused to occupy the building. Pennsylvania_sentence_104

Political and popular indignation in 1901 prompted a second contest that was restricted to Pennsylvania architects, and Joseph Miller Huston of Philadelphia was chosen to design the present Pennsylvania State Capitol that incorporated Cobb's building into magnificent public work finished and dedicated in 1907. Pennsylvania_sentence_105

The new state Capitol drew rave reviews. Pennsylvania_sentence_106

Its dome was inspired by the domes of St. Pennsylvania_sentence_107 Peter's Basilica in Rome and the United States Capitol. Pennsylvania_sentence_108

President Theodore Roosevelt called it "the most beautiful state Capital in the nation" and said, "It's the handsomest building I ever saw" at the dedication. Pennsylvania_sentence_109

In 1989, The New York Times praised it as "grand, even awesome at moments, but it is also a working building, accessible to citizens ... a building that connects with the reality of daily life". Pennsylvania_sentence_110

James Buchanan, of Franklin County, the only bachelor president of the United States (1857–1861), was the only one to be born in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_111

The Battle of Gettysburg—the major turning point of the Civil War—took place near Gettysburg. Pennsylvania_sentence_112

An estimated 350,000 Pennsylvanians served in the Union Army forces including 8,600 African American military volunteers. Pennsylvania_sentence_113

Pennsylvania was also the home of the first commercially drilled oil well. Pennsylvania_sentence_114

In 1859, near Titusville, Pennsylvania, Edwin Drake successfully drilled the well, which led to the first major oil boom in United States history. Pennsylvania_sentence_115

20th century Pennsylvania_section_7

At the beginning of the 20th century, Pennsylvania's economy centered on steel production, logging, coal mining, textile production and other forms of industrial manufacturing. Pennsylvania_sentence_116

A surge in immigration to the U.S. during the late 19th and early 20th centuries provided a steady flow of cheap labor for these industries, which often employed children and people who could not speak English. Pennsylvania_sentence_117

In 1923, President Calvin Coolidge established the Allegheny National Forest under the authority of the Weeks Act of 1911. Pennsylvania_sentence_118

The forest is located in the northwest part of the state in Elk, Forest, McKean, and Warren Counties for the purposes of timber production and watershed protection in the Allegheny River basin. Pennsylvania_sentence_119

The Allegheny is the state's only national forest. Pennsylvania_sentence_120

The Three Mile Island accident was the most significant nuclear accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant history. Pennsylvania_sentence_121

21st century Pennsylvania_section_8

United Airlines Flight 93 crashed into a field near Shanksville during the September 11th attacks, killing 44. Pennsylvania_sentence_122

Within the first half of 2003, the annual Tekko commences in Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania_sentence_123

In October 2018, the Tree of Life – Or L'Simcha Congregation experienced the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting. Pennsylvania_sentence_124

Demographics Pennsylvania_section_9

Further information: List of people from Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_125

As of 2019, Pennsylvania has an estimated population of 12,801,989, which is a decrease of 5,071 from the previous year and an increase of 99,610 since the year 2010. Pennsylvania_sentence_126

Net migration to other states resulted in a decrease of 27,718, and immigration from other countries resulted in an increase of 127,007. Pennsylvania_sentence_127

Net migration to the Commonwealth was 98,289. Pennsylvania_sentence_128

Migration of native Pennsylvanians resulted in a decrease of 100,000 people. Pennsylvania_sentence_129

From 2008 to 2012, 5.8% of the population was foreign-born. Pennsylvania_sentence_130

Place of origin Pennsylvania_section_10

Of the people residing in Pennsylvania, 74.5% were born in Pennsylvania, 18.4% were born in a different U.S. state, 1.5% were born in Puerto Rico, U.S. Island areas, or born abroad to American parent(s), and 5.6% were foreign born. Pennsylvania_sentence_131

Foreign-born Pennsylvanians are largely from Asia (36.0%), Europe (35.9%), and Latin America (30.6%), with the remainder from Africa (5%), North America (3.1%), and Oceania (0.4%). Pennsylvania_sentence_132

The largest ancestry groups are listed below, expressed as a percentage of total people who responded with a particular ancestry for the 2010 census: Pennsylvania_sentence_133

Pennsylvania_unordered_list_1

Racial breakdown Pennsylvania_section_11

Pennsylvania_table_general_3

Pennsylvania Racial Breakdown of PopulationPennsylvania_table_caption_3
Racial compositionPennsylvania_header_cell_3_0_0 1990Pennsylvania_header_cell_3_0_1 2000Pennsylvania_header_cell_3_0_2 2010Pennsylvania_header_cell_3_0_3
WhitePennsylvania_cell_3_1_0 88.5%Pennsylvania_cell_3_1_1 85.4%Pennsylvania_cell_3_1_2 81.9%Pennsylvania_cell_3_1_3
BlackPennsylvania_cell_3_2_0 9.2%Pennsylvania_cell_3_2_1 10.0%Pennsylvania_cell_3_2_2 10.9%Pennsylvania_cell_3_2_3
AsianPennsylvania_cell_3_3_0 1.2%Pennsylvania_cell_3_3_1 1.8%Pennsylvania_cell_3_3_2 2.8%Pennsylvania_cell_3_3_3
NativePennsylvania_cell_3_4_0 0.1%Pennsylvania_cell_3_4_1 0.1%Pennsylvania_cell_3_4_2 0.2%Pennsylvania_cell_3_4_3
Native Hawaiian and

other Pacific IslanderPennsylvania_cell_3_5_0

Pennsylvania_cell_3_5_1 Pennsylvania_cell_3_5_2 Pennsylvania_cell_3_5_3
Other racePennsylvania_cell_3_6_0 1.0%Pennsylvania_cell_3_6_1 1.5%Pennsylvania_cell_3_6_2 2.4%Pennsylvania_cell_3_6_3
Two or more racesPennsylvania_cell_3_7_0 Pennsylvania_cell_3_7_1 1.2%Pennsylvania_cell_3_7_2 1.9%Pennsylvania_cell_3_7_3

As of 2011, 32.1% of Pennsylvania's population younger than age 1 were minorities. Pennsylvania_sentence_134

Pennsylvania's Hispanic population grew by 82.6% between 2000 and 2010, making it one of the largest increases in a state's Hispanic population. Pennsylvania_sentence_135

The significant growth of the Hispanic population is due to immigration to the state mainly from Puerto Rico, which is a US territory, but to a lesser extent from countries such as the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and various Central and South American nations, as well as from the wave of Hispanics leaving New York and New Jersey for safer and more affordable living. Pennsylvania_sentence_136

The Asian population swelled by almost 60%, which was fueled by Indian, Vietnamese, and Chinese immigration, as well the many Asian transplants moving to Philadelphia from New York. Pennsylvania_sentence_137

The rapid growth of this community has given Pennsylvania one of the largest Asian populations in the nation by numerical values. Pennsylvania_sentence_138

The Black and African American population grew by 13%, which was the largest increase in that population amongst the state's peers (New York, New Jersey, Ohio, Illinois, and Michigan). Pennsylvania_sentence_139

Twelve other states saw decreases in their White populations. Pennsylvania_sentence_140

The state of Pennsylvania has a high in-migration of black and Hispanic people from other nearby states, with eastern and south-central portions of the state seeing the bulk of the increases. Pennsylvania_sentence_141

The majority of Hispanics in Pennsylvania are of Puerto Rican descent, having one of the largest and fastest-growing Puerto Rican populations in the country. Pennsylvania_sentence_142

Most of the remaining Hispanic population is made up of Mexicans and Dominicans. Pennsylvania_sentence_143

Most Hispanics are concentrated in Philadelphia, Lehigh Valley and South Central Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_144

Pennsylvania's reported population of Hispanics, especially among the Black race, has markedly increased in recent years. Pennsylvania_sentence_145

The Hispanic population is greatest in Bethlehem, Allentown, Reading, Lancaster, York, and around Philadelphia. Pennsylvania_sentence_146

It is not clear how much of this change reflects a changing population and how much reflects increased willingness to self-identify minority status. Pennsylvania_sentence_147

As of 2010, it is estimated that about 85% of all Hispanics in Pennsylvania live within a 150-mile (240 km) radius of Philadelphia, with about 20% living within the city itself. Pennsylvania_sentence_148

Of the black population, the vast majority in the state are African American, being descendants of African slaves brought to the US south during the colonial era. Pennsylvania_sentence_149

There are also a growing number of blacks of West Indian, recent African, and Hispanic origins. Pennsylvania_sentence_150

Most blacks live in the Philadelphia area, Pittsburgh, and South Central Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_151

Whites make up the majority of Pennsylvania; they are mostly descended from German, Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Italian, and English immigrants. Pennsylvania_sentence_152

Rural portions of South Central Pennsylvania are famous nationwide for their notable Amish communities. Pennsylvania_sentence_153

The Wyoming Valley, consisting of Scranton and Wilkes-Barre, has the highest percentage of white residents of any metropolitan area (with a population of 500,000 or above) in the U.S., with 96.2% of its population claiming to be white with no Hispanic background. Pennsylvania_sentence_154

The center of population of Pennsylvania is located in Perry County, in the borough of Duncannon. Pennsylvania_sentence_155

Age and poverty Pennsylvania_section_12

The state had the fourth-highest proportion of elderly (65+) citizens in 2010–15.4%, as compared to 13.0% nationwide. Pennsylvania_sentence_156

According to U.S. Census Bureau estimates, the state's poverty rate was 12.5% in 2017, compared to 13.4% for the United States as a whole. Pennsylvania_sentence_157

Pennsylvania_table_general_4

Population Aged 65 and Older: Top 10 StatesPennsylvania_table_caption_4
StatePennsylvania_header_cell_4_0_0 % of populationPennsylvania_header_cell_4_0_1
FloridaPennsylvania_cell_4_1_0 17.3Pennsylvania_cell_4_1_1
West VirginiaPennsylvania_cell_4_2_0 16.0Pennsylvania_cell_4_2_1
MainePennsylvania_cell_4_3_0 15.9Pennsylvania_cell_4_3_1
PennsylvaniaPennsylvania_cell_4_4_0 15.4Pennsylvania_cell_4_4_1
IowaPennsylvania_cell_4_5_0 14.9Pennsylvania_cell_4_5_1
MontanaPennsylvania_cell_4_6_0 14.8Pennsylvania_cell_4_6_1
VermontPennsylvania_cell_4_7_0 14.6Pennsylvania_cell_4_7_1
North DakotaPennsylvania_cell_4_8_0 14.5Pennsylvania_cell_4_8_1
Rhode IslandPennsylvania_cell_4_9_0 14.4Pennsylvania_cell_4_9_1
ArkansasPennsylvania_cell_4_10_0 14.4Pennsylvania_cell_4_10_1

Birth data Pennsylvania_section_13

Note: Births in table do not add up because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Pennsylvania_sentence_158

Pennsylvania_table_general_5

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of MotherPennsylvania_table_caption_5
RacePennsylvania_header_cell_5_0_0 2013Pennsylvania_header_cell_5_0_1 2014Pennsylvania_header_cell_5_0_2 2015Pennsylvania_header_cell_5_0_3 2016Pennsylvania_header_cell_5_0_4 2017Pennsylvania_header_cell_5_0_5 2018Pennsylvania_header_cell_5_0_6
WhitePennsylvania_cell_5_1_0 109,007 (77.3%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_1_1 110,809 (77.9%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_1_2 109,595 (77.7%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_1_3 ...Pennsylvania_cell_5_1_4 ...Pennsylvania_cell_5_1_5 ...Pennsylvania_cell_5_1_6
> Non-Hispanic WhitePennsylvania_cell_5_2_0 98,751 (70.0%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_2_1 99,306 (69.8%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_2_2 97,845 (69.4%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_2_3 94,520 (67.8%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_2_4 92,297 (67.0%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_2_5 90,862 (67.0%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_2_6
BlackPennsylvania_cell_5_3_0 24,770 (17.6%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_3_1 24,024 (16.9%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_3_2 24,100 (17.1%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_3_3 18,338 (13.1%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_3_4 18,400 (13.4%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_3_5 17,779 (13.1%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_3_6
AsianPennsylvania_cell_5_4_0 6,721 (4.7%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_4_1 7,067 (5.0%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_4_2 6,961 (4.9%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_4_3 6,466 (4.6%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_4_4 6,401 (4.6%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_4_5 6,207 (4.6%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_4_6
American IndianPennsylvania_cell_5_5_0 423 (0.3%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_5_1 368 (0.3%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_5_2 390 (0.3%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_5_3 86 (0.1%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_5_4 135 (0.1%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_5_5 128 (0.1%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_5_6
Hispanic (of any race)Pennsylvania_cell_5_6_0 14,163 (10.1%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_6_1 14,496 (10.2%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_6_2 14,950 (10.6%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_6_3 15,348 (11.0%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_6_4 15,840 (11.5%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_6_5 15,826 (11.7%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_6_6
Total PennsylvaniaPennsylvania_cell_5_7_0 140,921 (100%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_7_1 142,268 (100%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_7_2 141,047 (100%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_7_3 139,409 (100%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_7_4 137,745 (100%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_7_5 135,673 (100%)Pennsylvania_cell_5_7_6

Pennsylvania_unordered_list_2

  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin have not been collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.Pennsylvania_item_2_14

Languages Pennsylvania_section_14

Pennsylvania_table_general_6

Top 10 Non-English Languages Spoken in PennsylvaniaPennsylvania_table_caption_6
LanguagePennsylvania_header_cell_6_0_0 Percentage of population

(as of 2010)Pennsylvania_header_cell_6_0_1

SpanishPennsylvania_cell_6_1_0 4.09%Pennsylvania_cell_6_1_1
German (including Pennsylvania German)Pennsylvania_cell_6_2_0 0.87%Pennsylvania_cell_6_2_1
Chinese (including Mandarin)Pennsylvania_cell_6_3_0 0.47%Pennsylvania_cell_6_3_1
ItalianPennsylvania_cell_6_4_0 0.43%Pennsylvania_cell_6_4_1
FrenchPennsylvania_cell_6_5_0 0.34%Pennsylvania_cell_6_5_1
RussianPennsylvania_cell_6_6_0 0.29%Pennsylvania_cell_6_6_1
VietnamesePennsylvania_cell_6_7_0 0.29%Pennsylvania_cell_6_7_1
KoreanPennsylvania_cell_6_8_0 0.25%Pennsylvania_cell_6_8_1
PolishPennsylvania_cell_6_9_0 0.21%Pennsylvania_cell_6_9_1
ArabicPennsylvania_cell_6_10_0 0.20%Pennsylvania_cell_6_10_1
HindiPennsylvania_cell_6_11_0 0.17%Pennsylvania_cell_6_11_1

As of 2010, 90.15% (10,710,239) of Pennsylvania residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 4.09% (486,058) spoke Spanish, 0.87% (103,502) German (which includes Pennsylvania Dutch) and 0.47% (56,052) Chinese (which includes Mandarin) of the population over the age of five. Pennsylvania_sentence_159

In total, 9.85% (1,170,628) of Pennsylvania's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English. Pennsylvania_sentence_160

Pennsylvania German language Pennsylvania_section_15

Main article: Pennsylvania German language Pennsylvania_sentence_161

Pennsylvania German is often—even though misleadingly—called "Pennsylvania Dutch". Pennsylvania_sentence_162

The term Dutch used to mean "German" (including the Netherlands), before the Latin name for them replaced it (but stuck with the Netherlands). Pennsylvania_sentence_163

When referring to the language spoken by the Pennsylvania Dutch people (Pennsylvania German) it means "German" or "Teutonic" rather than "Netherlander". Pennsylvania_sentence_164

Germans, in their own language, call themselves "Deutsch", (Pennsylvania German: "Deitsch"). Pennsylvania_sentence_165

The Pennsylvania German language is a descendant of German, in the West Central German dialect family. Pennsylvania_sentence_166

It is closest to Palatine German. Pennsylvania_sentence_167

Pennsylvania German is still very vigorous as a first language among Old Order Amish and Old Order Mennonites (principally in the Lancaster County area), whereas it is almost extinct as an everyday language outside the plain communities, though a few words have passed into English usage. Pennsylvania_sentence_168

Religion Pennsylvania_section_16

Of all the colonies, only Rhode Island had religious freedom as secure as in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_169

Voltaire, writing of William Penn in 1733, observed: "The new sovereign also enacted several wise and wholesome laws for his colony, which have remained invariably the same to this day. Pennsylvania_sentence_170

The chief is, to ill-treat no person on account of religion, and to consider as brethren all those who believe in one God." Pennsylvania_sentence_171

One result of this uncommon freedom was a wide religious diversity, which continues to the present. Pennsylvania_sentence_172

Pennsylvania's population in 2010 was 12,702,379. Pennsylvania_sentence_173

Of these, 6,838,440 (53.8%) were estimated to belong to some sort of organized religion. Pennsylvania_sentence_174

According to the Association of religion data archives (ARDA) at Pennsylvania State University, the largest religions in Pennsylvania by adherents are the Roman Catholic Church with 3,503,028 adherents, the United Methodist Church with 591,734 members, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 501,974 members. Pennsylvania_sentence_175

The fourth-largest single denomination is the Presbyterian Church (USA) with 250,000 members and 1,011 congregations. Pennsylvania_sentence_176

Pennsylvania, especially its western part and the Pittsburgh area, has one of the highest percentages of Presbyterians in the nation. Pennsylvania_sentence_177

The Presbyterian Church in America is also significant, with 112 congregations and 23,000 adherents; the EPC has around 50 congregations, as well as the ECO. Pennsylvania_sentence_178

The fourth-largest Protestant denomination, the United Church of Christ, has 180,000 members and 627 congregations. Pennsylvania_sentence_179

American Baptist Churches USA (Northern Baptist Convention) is based in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_180

Pennsylvania was the center state of the German Reformed denomination from the 1700s. Pennsylvania_sentence_181

Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, is one of the headquarters of the Moravian Church in America. Pennsylvania_sentence_182

Pennsylvania also has a very large Amish population, second only to Ohio among the states. Pennsylvania_sentence_183

In the year 2000 there was a total Amish population of 47,860 in Pennsylvania and a further 146,416 Mennonites and 91,200 Brethren. Pennsylvania_sentence_184

The total Anabapist population including Bruderhof was 232,631, about two percent of the population. Pennsylvania_sentence_185

While Pennsylvania owes its existence to Quakers, and much of the historic character of the Commonwealth is ideologically rooted in the teachings of the Religious Society of Friends (as they are officially known), practicing Quakers are a small minority of about 10,000 adherents in 2010. Pennsylvania_sentence_186

As of 2014, the religious affiliations of the people of Pennsylvania are: Pennsylvania_sentence_187

Pennsylvania_unordered_list_3

According to a 2016 Gallup poll, 38% of Pennsylvanians are very religious, 29% are moderately religious, and 34% are non-religious. Pennsylvania_sentence_188

Economy Pennsylvania_section_17

See also: List of Pennsylvania counties by per capita income and List of Pennsylvania locations by per capita income Pennsylvania_sentence_189

Pennsylvania's 2018 total gross state product (GSP) of $803 billion ranks the state 6th in the nation. Pennsylvania_sentence_190

If Pennsylvania were an independent country, its economy would rank as the 19th-largest in the world. Pennsylvania_sentence_191

On a per-capita basis, Pennsylvania's 2016 per-capita GSP of $50,665 (in chained 2009 dollars) ranks 22nd among the fifty states. Pennsylvania_sentence_192

Total employment 2016 Pennsylvania_sentence_193

Pennsylvania_unordered_list_4

  • 5,354,964Pennsylvania_item_4_29

Total employer establishments Pennsylvania_sentence_194

Pennsylvania_unordered_list_5

  • 301,484Pennsylvania_item_5_30

Philadelphia in the southeast corner, Pittsburgh in the southwest corner, Erie in the northwest corner, Scranton-Wilkes-Barre in the northeast corner, and Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton in the east central region are urban manufacturing centers. Pennsylvania_sentence_195

Much of the Commonwealth is rural; this dichotomy affects state politics as well as the state economy. Pennsylvania_sentence_196

Philadelphia is home to six Fortune 500 companies, with more located in suburbs like King of Prussia; it is a leader in the financial and insurance industry. Pennsylvania_sentence_197

Pittsburgh is home to eight Fortune 500 companies, including U.S. Pennsylvania_sentence_198 Steel, PPG Industries, and H.J. Pennsylvania_sentence_199 Heinz. Pennsylvania_sentence_200

In all, Pennsylvania is home to fifty Fortune 500 companies. Pennsylvania_sentence_201

Hershey is home to The Hershey Company, one of the largest chocolate manufacturers in the world. Pennsylvania_sentence_202

Erie is also home to GE Transportation, which is the largest producer of train locomotives in the United States. Pennsylvania_sentence_203

As in the US as a whole and in most states, the largest private employer in the Commonwealth is Walmart, followed by the University of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_204

Pennsylvania is also home to the oldest investor-owned utility company in the US, The York Water Company. Pennsylvania_sentence_205

As of May 2020, the state's unemployment rate is 13.1%. Pennsylvania_sentence_206

Pennsylvania_table_general_7

YearPennsylvania_header_cell_7_0_0 2005Pennsylvania_header_cell_7_0_1 2006Pennsylvania_header_cell_7_0_2 2007Pennsylvania_header_cell_7_0_3 2008Pennsylvania_header_cell_7_0_4 2009Pennsylvania_header_cell_7_0_5 2010Pennsylvania_header_cell_7_0_6 2011Pennsylvania_header_cell_7_0_7 2012Pennsylvania_header_cell_7_0_8 2013Pennsylvania_header_cell_7_0_9 2014Pennsylvania_header_cell_7_0_10 2015Pennsylvania_header_cell_7_0_11 2016Pennsylvania_header_cell_7_0_12
GDP in mil. US$Pennsylvania_cell_7_1_0 506.505Pennsylvania_cell_7_1_1 525.979Pennsylvania_cell_7_1_2 559.876Pennsylvania_cell_7_1_3 579.432Pennsylvania_cell_7_1_4 573.964Pennsylvania_cell_7_1_5 596.662Pennsylvania_cell_7_1_6 615.411Pennsylvania_cell_7_1_7 637.896Pennsylvania_cell_7_1_8 659.792Pennsylvania_cell_7_1_9 684.781Pennsylvania_cell_7_1_10 708.402Pennsylvania_cell_7_1_11 724.936Pennsylvania_cell_7_1_12
GDP per capita in real 2009 US$Pennsylvania_cell_7_2_0 45,035Pennsylvania_cell_7_2_1 45,021Pennsylvania_cell_7_2_2 46,330Pennsylvania_cell_7_2_3 46,862Pennsylvania_cell_7_2_4 45,312Pennsylvania_cell_7_2_5 46,387Pennsylvania_cell_7_2_6 46,872Pennsylvania_cell_7_2_7 47,540Pennsylvania_cell_7_2_8 48,278Pennsylvania_cell_7_2_9 49,155Pennsylvania_cell_7_2_10 50,418Pennsylvania_cell_7_2_11 50,997Pennsylvania_cell_7_2_12
Real growth rate in %Pennsylvania_cell_7_3_0 1.3%Pennsylvania_cell_7_3_1 0.5%Pennsylvania_cell_7_3_2 3.3%Pennsylvania_cell_7_3_3 1.5%Pennsylvania_cell_7_3_4 −2.9%Pennsylvania_cell_7_3_5 2.7%Pennsylvania_cell_7_3_6 1.3%Pennsylvania_cell_7_3_7 1.6%Pennsylvania_cell_7_3_8 1.6%Pennsylvania_cell_7_3_9 2.0%Pennsylvania_cell_7_3_10 2.6%Pennsylvania_cell_7_3_11 0.9%Pennsylvania_cell_7_3_12
unemployment rate (in July)Pennsylvania_cell_7_4_0 4.9%Pennsylvania_cell_7_4_1 4.7%Pennsylvania_cell_7_4_2 4.4%Pennsylvania_cell_7_4_3 5.2%Pennsylvania_cell_7_4_4 8.2%Pennsylvania_cell_7_4_5 8.3%Pennsylvania_cell_7_4_6 8.0%Pennsylvania_cell_7_4_7 7.9%Pennsylvania_cell_7_4_8 7.3%Pennsylvania_cell_7_4_9 5.8%Pennsylvania_cell_7_4_10 5.3%Pennsylvania_cell_7_4_11 5.5%Pennsylvania_cell_7_4_12

Banking Pennsylvania_section_18

The first nationally chartered bank in the United States, the Bank of North America, was founded in 1781 in Philadelphia. Pennsylvania_sentence_207

After a series of mergers, the Bank of North America is part of Wells Fargo, which uses national charter 1. Pennsylvania_sentence_208

Pennsylvania is also the home to the first nationally chartered bank under the 1863 National Banking Act. Pennsylvania_sentence_209

That year, the Pittsburgh Savings & Trust Company received a national charter and renamed itself the First National Bank of Pittsburgh as part of the National Banking Act. Pennsylvania_sentence_210

That bank is still in existence today as PNC Financial Services and remains based in Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania_sentence_211

PNC is the state's largest bank and the sixth-largest in the United States. Pennsylvania_sentence_212

Agriculture Pennsylvania_section_19

Main article: Agriculture in Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_213

Pennsylvania ranks 19th overall in agricultural production. Pennsylvania_sentence_214

Pennsylvania_unordered_list_6

It also ranks 8th in the nation in Winemaking. Pennsylvania_sentence_215

The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture worked with private companies to establish "PA Preferred" as a way to brand agricultural products grown or made in the state to support and promote Pennsylvania products and locally grown food. Pennsylvania_sentence_216

The financial impact of agriculture in Pennsylvania includes employment of more than 66,800 people employed by the food manufacturing industry; and over $1.7 billion in food product export (in 2011). Pennsylvania_sentence_217

Gambling Pennsylvania_section_20

Main article: Gambling in Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_218

Casino gambling was legalized in Pennsylvania in 2004. Pennsylvania_sentence_219

Currently, there are nine casinos across the state with three under construction or in planning. Pennsylvania_sentence_220

Only horse racing, slot machines and electronic table games were legal in Pennsylvania, although a bill to legalize table games was being negotiated in the fall of 2009. Pennsylvania_sentence_221

Table games such as poker, roulette, blackjack, and craps were finally approved by the state legislature in January 2010, being signed into law by the Governor on January 7. Pennsylvania_sentence_222

Former Governor Ed Rendell had considered legalizing video poker machines in bars and private clubs in 2009 since an estimated 17,000 operate illegally across the state. Pennsylvania_sentence_223

Under this plan, any establishment with a liquor license would be allowed up to five machines. Pennsylvania_sentence_224

All machines would be connected to the state's computer system, like commercial casinos. Pennsylvania_sentence_225

The state would impose a 50% tax on net gambling revenues, after winning players have been paid, with the remaining 50% going to the establishment owners. Pennsylvania_sentence_226

Film Pennsylvania_section_21

The Pennsylvania Film Production Tax Credit began in 2004 and stimulated the development of a film industry in the state. Pennsylvania_sentence_227

Governance Pennsylvania_section_22

Main article: Government of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_228

See also: Commonwealth (U.S. state) Pennsylvania_sentence_229

Pennsylvania has had five constitutions during its statehood: 1776, 1790, 1838, 1874, and . Pennsylvania_sentence_230

Before that the province of Pennsylvania was governed for a century by a Frame of Government, of which there were four versions: 1682, 1683, 1696, and 1701. Pennsylvania_sentence_231

The capital of Pennsylvania is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania_sentence_232

The legislature meets in the State Capitol there. Pennsylvania_sentence_233

Executive Pennsylvania_section_23

Main article: List of Governors of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_234

The current Governor is Tom Wolf. Pennsylvania_sentence_235

The other elected officials composing the executive branch are the Lieutenant Governor John Fetterman, Attorney General Joshua Shapiro, Auditor General Eugene DePasquale, and Pennsylvania Treasurer Joe Torsella. Pennsylvania_sentence_236

The Governor and Lieutenant Governor run as a ticket in the general election and are up for re-election every four years during the midterm elections. Pennsylvania_sentence_237

The elections for Attorney General, Auditor General, and Treasurer are held every four years coinciding with a Presidential election. Pennsylvania_sentence_238

See also: List of Pennsylvania state agencies Pennsylvania_sentence_239

Legislative Pennsylvania_section_24

Main article: Pennsylvania General Assembly Pennsylvania_sentence_240

Pennsylvania has a bicameral legislature set up by Commonwealth's constitution in 1790. Pennsylvania_sentence_241

The original Frame of Government of William Penn had a unicameral legislature. Pennsylvania_sentence_242

The General Assembly includes 50 Senators and 203 Representatives. Pennsylvania_sentence_243

Joe Scarnati is currently President Pro Tempore of the State Senate, Jake Corman the Majority Leader, and Jay Costa the Minority Leader. Pennsylvania_sentence_244

Bryan Cutler is Speaker of the House of Representatives, with Kerry A. Benninghoff as Majority Leader and Frank Dermody as Minority Leader. Pennsylvania_sentence_245

As of the 2018 elections, the Republicans hold the majority in the State House and Senate. Pennsylvania_sentence_246

Judiciary Pennsylvania_section_25

Main article: Unified Judicial System of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_247

Pennsylvania is divided into 60 judicial districts, most of which (except Philadelphia) have magisterial district judges (formerly called district justices and justices of the peace), who preside mainly over preliminary hearings in felony and misdemeanor offenses, all minor (summary) criminal offenses, and small civil claims. Pennsylvania_sentence_248

Most criminal and civil cases originate in the Courts of Common Pleas, which also serve as appellate courts to the district judges and for local agency decisions. Pennsylvania_sentence_249

The Superior Court hears all appeals from the Courts of Common Pleas not expressly designated to the Commonwealth Court or Supreme Court. Pennsylvania_sentence_250

It also has original jurisdiction to review warrants for wiretap surveillance. Pennsylvania_sentence_251

The Commonwealth Court is limited to appeals from final orders of certain state agencies and certain designated cases from the Courts of Common Pleas. Pennsylvania_sentence_252

The Supreme Court of Pennsylvania is the final appellate court. Pennsylvania_sentence_253

All judges in Pennsylvania are elected; the chief justice is determined by seniority. Pennsylvania_sentence_254

State law enforcement Pennsylvania_section_26

The Pennsylvania State Police is the chief law enforcement agency in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_255

Municipalities Pennsylvania_section_27

See also: List of counties in Pennsylvania, List of cities in Pennsylvania, List of towns and boroughs in Pennsylvania, List of townships in Pennsylvania, List of county seats in Pennsylvania (by population), List of census-designated places in Pennsylvania, and List of populated places in Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_256

Pennsylvania is divided into 67 counties. Pennsylvania_sentence_257

Counties are further subdivided into municipalities that are either incorporated as cities, boroughs, or townships. Pennsylvania_sentence_258

One county, Philadelphia County, is coterminous with the city of Philadelphia after it was consolidated in 1854. Pennsylvania_sentence_259

The most populous county in Pennsylvania is Philadelphia, while the least populous is Cameron (5,085). Pennsylvania_sentence_260

There are a total of 56 cities in Pennsylvania, which are classified, by population, as either first-, second-, or third-class cities. Pennsylvania_sentence_261

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania's largest city, has a population of 1,526,006 and is the state's only first-class city. Pennsylvania_sentence_262

Pittsburgh (305,704) and Scranton (76,089) are second-class and second-class 'A' cities, respectively. Pennsylvania_sentence_263

The rest of the cities, like the third and fourth-largest—Allentown (120,443) and Erie (98,593)—to the smallest—Parker with a population of only 820—are third-class cities. Pennsylvania_sentence_264

First- and second-class cities are governed by a "strong mayor" form of mayor–council government, whereas third-class cities are governed by either a "weak mayor" form of government or a council–manager government. Pennsylvania_sentence_265

Boroughs are generally smaller than cities, with most Pennsylvania cities having been incorporated as a borough before being incorporated as a city. Pennsylvania_sentence_266

There are 958  boroughs in Pennsylvania, all of which are governed by the "weak mayor" form of mayor-council government. Pennsylvania_sentence_267

The largest borough in Pennsylvania is State College (41,992) and the smallest is Centralia. Pennsylvania_sentence_268

Townships are the third type of municipality in Pennsylvania and are classified as either first-class or second-class townships. Pennsylvania_sentence_269

There are 1,454 second-class townships and 93 first-class townships. Pennsylvania_sentence_270

Second-class townships can become first-class townships if they have a population density greater than 300 inhabitants per square mile (120/km) and a referendum is passed supporting the change. Pennsylvania_sentence_271

Pennsylvania's largest township is Upper Darby Township (82,629), and the smallest is East Keating Township. Pennsylvania_sentence_272

There is one exception to the types of municipalities in Pennsylvania: Bloomsburg was incorporated as a town in 1870 and is, officially, the only town in the state. Pennsylvania_sentence_273

In 1975, McCandless Township adopted a home-rule charter under the name of "Town of McCandless", but is, legally, still a first-class township. Pennsylvania_sentence_274

The total of 56 cities, 958 boroughs, 93 first-class townships, 1,454 second-class townships, and one town (Bloomsburg) is 2,562 municipalities. Pennsylvania_sentence_275

See also: List of municipalities in Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_276

Politics Pennsylvania_section_28

Main article: Politics of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_277

For most of the second half of the 20th century and into the 21st century, Pennsylvania has been a powerful swing state. Pennsylvania_sentence_278

It supported the losing candidate in a presidential election only twice from 1932 to 1988, (Herbert Hoover in 1932 and Hubert Humphrey in 1968). Pennsylvania_sentence_279

Since 1992, Pennsylvania has been trending Democratic in Presidential elections, voting for Bill Clinton twice by large margins, and slightly closer in 2000 for Al Gore. Pennsylvania_sentence_280

In the 2004 Presidential Election, Senator John F. Kerry beat President George W. Bush in Pennsylvania 2,938,095 (50.92%) to 2,793,847 (48.42%). Pennsylvania_sentence_281

In the 2008 Presidential Election, Democrat Barack Obama defeated Republican John McCain in Pennsylvania, 3,184,778 (54%) to 2,584,088 (44%). Pennsylvania_sentence_282

Most recently, in the 2016 presidential election, Donald Trump became the first Republican candidate to win the state since 1988, winning the state 48.6% to 47.8%. Pennsylvania_sentence_283

The state, however, returned to the Democratic column in 2020 by narrowly voting for Joe Biden, the winner, over Trump. Pennsylvania_sentence_284

The state holds 20 electoral votes. Pennsylvania_sentence_285

In recent national elections since 1992, Pennsylvania had leaned for the Democratic Party. Pennsylvania_sentence_286

The state voted for the Democratic ticket for president in every election between 1992 and 2012. Pennsylvania_sentence_287

During the 2008 election campaign, a recruitment drive saw registered Democrats outnumber registered Republicans by 1.2 million. Pennsylvania_sentence_288

However, Pennsylvania has a history of electing Republican senators. Pennsylvania_sentence_289

From 2009 to 2011, the state was represented by two Democratic senators for the first time since 1947. Pennsylvania_sentence_290

In 2010, Republicans recaptured a U.S. Senate seat as well as a majority of the state's congressional seats, control of both chambers of the state legislature and the governor's mansion. Pennsylvania_sentence_291

Democrats won back the governor's mansion four years later in the 2014 election. Pennsylvania_sentence_292

It was the first time since a governor became eligible to succeed himself that an incumbent governor had been defeated for reelection. Pennsylvania_sentence_293

Pennsylvania_table_general_8

Voter Registration Totals as of November 5, 2019Pennsylvania_table_caption_8
PartyPennsylvania_header_cell_8_0_0 Number of VotersPennsylvania_header_cell_8_0_2 PercentagePennsylvania_header_cell_8_0_3
Pennsylvania_cell_8_1_0 DemocraticPennsylvania_cell_8_1_1 4,059,864 (-51,461)Pennsylvania_cell_8_1_2 47.59%Pennsylvania_cell_8_1_3
Pennsylvania_cell_8_2_0 RepublicanPennsylvania_cell_8_2_1 3,245,979 (-24,903)Pennsylvania_cell_8_2_2 38.05%Pennsylvania_cell_8_2_3
Pennsylvania_cell_8_3_0 Minor parties /
UnaffiliatedPennsylvania_cell_8_3_1
1,225,140 (-2,533)Pennsylvania_cell_8_3_2 14.36%Pennsylvania_cell_8_3_3
TotalPennsylvania_header_cell_8_4_0 8,530,983 (-78,897)Pennsylvania_header_cell_8_4_2 100%Pennsylvania_header_cell_8_4_3
Lost between November 6, 2018, and November 5, 2019.Pennsylvania_cell_8_5_0

Historically, Democratic strength was concentrated in Philadelphia in the southeast, the Pittsburgh and Johnstown areas in the southwest, and Scranton/Wilkes-Barre in the northeast. Pennsylvania_sentence_294

Republican strength was concentrated in the Philadelphia suburbs, as well as the more rural areas in the central, northeastern, and western portions. Pennsylvania_sentence_295

The latter counties have long been among the most conservative areas in the nation. Pennsylvania_sentence_296

Since 1992, however, the Philadelphia suburbs have swung Democratic; the brand of Republicanism there was traditionally a moderate one. Pennsylvania_sentence_297

The Pittsburgh suburbs, historically a Democratic stronghold, have swung more Republican since the turn of the millennium. Pennsylvania_sentence_298

Democratic political consultant James Carville once pejoratively described Pennsylvania as "Philadelphia in the east, Pittsburgh in the west and Alabama in the middle". Pennsylvania_sentence_299

Political analysts and editorials refer to central Pennsylvania as the "T" in statewide elections. Pennsylvania_sentence_300

The Three Valleys (Delaware, Lehigh, and Wyoming) and greater Pittsburgh generally vote for Democratic candidates, while the majority of the counties in the central part of the state vote Republican. Pennsylvania_sentence_301

As a result, maps showing the results of statewide elections invariably form a "T" shape. Pennsylvania_sentence_302

Taxation Pennsylvania_section_29

Pennsylvania had the 15th-highest state and local tax burden in the United States in 2012, according to the Tax Foundation. Pennsylvania_sentence_303

Residents paid a total of $83.7 billion in state and local taxes with a per capita average of $4,589 annually. Pennsylvania_sentence_304

Residents share 76% of the total tax burden. Pennsylvania_sentence_305

Many state politicians have tried to increase the share of taxes paid by out of state sources. Pennsylvania_sentence_306

Suggested revenue sources include taxing natural gas drilling as Pennsylvania is the only state without such a tax on gas drilling. Pennsylvania_sentence_307

Additional revenue prospects include trying to place tolls on interstate highways; specifically Interstate 80, which is used heavily by out of state commuters with high maintenance costs. Pennsylvania_sentence_308

Sales taxes provide 39% of the Commonwealth's revenue; personal income taxes 34%; motor vehicle taxes about 12%, and taxes on cigarettes and alcoholic beverages 5%. Pennsylvania_sentence_309

The personal income tax is a flat 3.07%. Pennsylvania_sentence_310

An individual's taxable income is based on the following eight types of income: compensation (salary); interest; dividends; net profits from the operation of a business, profession or farm; net gains or income from the dispositions of property; net gains or income from rents, royalties, patents and copyrights; income derived through estates or trusts; and gambling and lottery winnings (other than Pennsylvania Lottery winnings). Pennsylvania_sentence_311

Counties, municipalities, and school districts levy taxes on real estate. Pennsylvania_sentence_312

In addition, some local bodies assess a wage tax on personal income. Pennsylvania_sentence_313

Generally, the total wage tax rate is capped at 1% of income but some municipalities with home rule charters may charge more than 1%. Pennsylvania_sentence_314

Thirty-two of the Commonwealth's sixty-seven counties levy a personal property tax on stocks, bonds, and similar holdings. Pennsylvania_sentence_315

With the exception of the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, municipalities and school districts are allowed to enact a local earned income tax within the purview of Act 32. Pennsylvania_sentence_316

Residents of these municipalities and school districts are required to file a local income tax return in addition to federal and state returns. Pennsylvania_sentence_317

This local return is filed with the local income tax collector, a private collection agency (e.g. Berkheimer, Keystone Collections, and Jordan Tax Service) appointed by a particular county to collect the local earned income and local services tax (the latter a flat fee deducted from salaried employees working within a particular municipality or school district). Pennsylvania_sentence_318

The City of Philadelphia has its own local income taxation system. Pennsylvania_sentence_319

Philadelphia-based employers are required to withhold the Philadelphia wage tax from the salaries of their employees. Pennsylvania_sentence_320

Residents of Philadelphia working for an employer are not required to file a local return as long as their Philadelphia wage tax is fully withheld by their employer. Pennsylvania_sentence_321

If their employer does not withhold the Philadelphia wage tax, residents are required to register with the Revenue Department and file an Earnings Tax return. Pennsylvania_sentence_322

Residents of Philadelphia with self-employment income are required to file a Net Profits Tax (NPT) return, while those with business income from Philadelphia sources are required to obtain a Commercial Activity License (CAL) and pay the Business Income and Receipts Tax (BIRT) and the NPT. Pennsylvania_sentence_323

Residents with unearned income (except for interest from checking and savings accounts) are required to file and pay the School Income-tax (SIT). Pennsylvania_sentence_324

The complexity of Pennsylvania's local tax filing system has been criticized by experts, who note that the outsourcing of collections to private entities is akin to tax farming and that many new residents are caught off guard and end up facing "failure to file" penalties even if they did not owe any tax. Pennsylvania_sentence_325

Attempts to transfer local income tax collections to the state level (i.e. by having a separate local section on the state income tax return, currently the method used to collect local income taxes in New York, Maryland, Indiana, and Iowa) have been unsuccessful. Pennsylvania_sentence_326

Federal representation Pennsylvania_section_30

Main article: Pennsylvania's congressional districts Pennsylvania_sentence_327

Pennsylvania's two U.S. Pennsylvania_sentence_328 Senators are Democrat Bob Casey, Jr. and Republican Pat Toomey. Pennsylvania_sentence_329

Pennsylvania has 18 seats in the United States House of Representatives, as of the 2010 Census. Pennsylvania_sentence_330

Health Pennsylvania_section_31

Pennsylvania has a mixed health record, and is ranked as the 29th-overall-healthiest state according to the 2013 United Health Foundation's Health Rankings. Pennsylvania_sentence_331

Education Pennsylvania_section_32

Main article: Education in Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_332

Pennsylvania has 500 public school districts, thousands of private schools, publicly funded colleges and universities, and over 100 private institutions of higher education. Pennsylvania_sentence_333

Primary and secondary education Pennsylvania_section_33

In general, under state law, school attendance in Pennsylvania is mandatory for a child from the age of 8 until the age of 17, or until graduation from an accredited high school, whichever is earlier. Pennsylvania_sentence_334

As of 2005, 83.8% of Pennsylvania residents age 18 to 24 have completed high school. Pennsylvania_sentence_335

Among residents age 25 and over, 86.7% have graduated from high school. Pennsylvania_sentence_336

The following are the four-year graduation rates for students completing high school in 2016: Pennsylvania_sentence_337

Pennsylvania_table_general_9

CohortPennsylvania_header_cell_9_0_0 All StudentsPennsylvania_header_cell_9_0_1 MalePennsylvania_header_cell_9_0_2 FemalePennsylvania_header_cell_9_0_3 WhitePennsylvania_header_cell_9_0_4 HispanicPennsylvania_header_cell_9_0_5 BlackPennsylvania_header_cell_9_0_6 AsianPennsylvania_header_cell_9_0_7 Special EducationPennsylvania_header_cell_9_0_8
% graduatingPennsylvania_cell_9_1_0 86.09Pennsylvania_cell_9_1_1 84.14Pennsylvania_cell_9_1_2 88.13Pennsylvania_cell_9_1_3 90.48Pennsylvania_cell_9_1_4 72.83Pennsylvania_cell_9_1_5 73.22Pennsylvania_cell_9_1_6 91.21Pennsylvania_cell_9_1_7 74.06Pennsylvania_cell_9_1_8

Additionally, 27.5% have gone on to obtain a bachelor's degree or higher. Pennsylvania_sentence_338

State students consistently do well in standardized testing. Pennsylvania_sentence_339

In 2007, Pennsylvania ranked 14th in mathematics, 12th in reading, and 10th in writing for 8th grade students. Pennsylvania_sentence_340

In 1988, the Pennsylvania General Assembly passed Act 169, which allows parents or guardians to homeschool their children as an option for compulsory school attendance. Pennsylvania_sentence_341

This law specifies the requirements and responsibilities of the parents and the school district where the family lives. Pennsylvania_sentence_342

Higher education Pennsylvania_section_34

See also: List of colleges and universities in Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_343

The Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE) is the public university system of the Commonwealth, with 14 state-owned schools. Pennsylvania_sentence_344

West Chester University has by far the largest student body of the 14 universities. Pennsylvania_sentence_345

The Commonwealth System of Higher Education is an organizing body of the four state-related schools in Pennsylvania; these schools (Pennsylvania State University, Lincoln University, the University of Pittsburgh, and Temple University) are independent institutions that receive some state funding. Pennsylvania_sentence_346

There are also 15 publicly funded two-year community colleges and technical schools that are separate from the PASSHE system. Pennsylvania_sentence_347

Additionally, there are many private two- and four-year technical schools, colleges, and universities. Pennsylvania_sentence_348

Carnegie Mellon University, The Pennsylvania State University, the University of Pennsylvania, and the University of Pittsburgh are members of the Association of American Universities, an invitation-only organization of leading research universities. Pennsylvania_sentence_349

Lehigh University is a private research university located in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_350

The Pennsylvania State University is the Commonwealth's land-grant university, Sea Grant College and, Space Grant College. Pennsylvania_sentence_351

The University of Pennsylvania, located in Philadelphia, is considered the first university in the United States and established the country's first medical school. Pennsylvania_sentence_352

The University of Pennsylvania is also the Commonwealth's only, and geographically most southern, Ivy League school. Pennsylvania_sentence_353

The Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine (LECOM) is a private graduate school of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy with a main campus in Erie, Pennsylvania, and a branch campus located in Greensburg, Pennsylvania (with two other campuses outside of Pennsylvania). Pennsylvania_sentence_354

With over 2,200 enrolled medical students, the College of Osteopathic Medicine at LECOM is the largest medical school in the United States. Pennsylvania_sentence_355

The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts is the first and oldest art school in the United States. Pennsylvania_sentence_356

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, now a part of University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, was the first pharmacy school in the United States. Pennsylvania_sentence_357

Recreation Pennsylvania_section_35

Pennsylvania is home to the nation's first zoo, the Philadelphia Zoo. Pennsylvania_sentence_358

Other long-accredited AZA zoos include the Erie Zoo and the Pittsburgh Zoo & PPG Aquarium. Pennsylvania_sentence_359

The Lehigh Valley Zoo and ZOOAMERICA are other notable zoos. Pennsylvania_sentence_360

The Commonwealth boasts some of the finest museums in the country, including the Carnegie Museums in Pittsburgh, the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and several others. Pennsylvania_sentence_361

One unique museum is the Houdini Museum in Scranton, the only building in the world devoted to the legendary magician. Pennsylvania_sentence_362

Pennsylvania is also home to the National Aviary, located in Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania_sentence_363

All 121 state parks in Pennsylvania feature free admission. Pennsylvania_sentence_364

Pennsylvania offers a number of notable amusement parks, including Camel Beach, Conneaut Lake Park, Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom, Dutch Wonderland, DelGrosso's Amusement Park, Hersheypark, Idlewild Park, Kennywood, Knoebels, Lakemont Park, Sandcastle Waterpark, Sesame Place, Great Wolf Lodge and Waldameer Park. Pennsylvania_sentence_365

Pennsylvania also is home to the largest indoor waterpark resort on the East Coast, Splash Lagoon in Erie. Pennsylvania_sentence_366

There are also notable music festivals that take place in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_367

These include Musikfest and NEARfest in Bethlehem, the Philadelphia Folk Festival, Creation Festival, the Great Allentown Fair, and Purple Door. Pennsylvania_sentence_368

There are nearly one million licensed hunters in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_369

Whitetail deer, black bear, cottontail rabbits, squirrel, turkey, and grouse are common game species. Pennsylvania_sentence_370

Pennsylvania is considered one of the finest wild turkey hunting states in the Union, alongside Texas and Alabama. Pennsylvania_sentence_371

Sport hunting in Pennsylvania provides a massive boost for the Commonwealth's economy. Pennsylvania_sentence_372

A report from The Center for Rural Pennsylvania (a Legislative Agency of the Pennsylvania General Assembly) reported that hunting, fishing, and furtaking generated a total of $9.6 billion statewide. Pennsylvania_sentence_373

The Boone and Crockett Club shows that five of the ten largest (skull size) black bear entries came from the state. Pennsylvania_sentence_374

The state also has a tied record for the largest hunter shot black bear in the Boone & Crockett books at 733 lb (332 kg) and a skull of 23 3/16 tied with a bear shot in California in 1993. Pennsylvania_sentence_375

The largest bear ever found dead was in Utah in 1975, and the second-largest was shot by a poacher in the state in 1987. Pennsylvania_sentence_376

Pennsylvania holds the second-highest number of Boone & Crockett-recorded record black bears at 183, second only to Wisconsin's 299. Pennsylvania_sentence_377

Transportation Pennsylvania_section_36

See also: List of airports in Pennsylvania, List of public transit authorities in Pennsylvania, and List of Pennsylvania railroads Pennsylvania_sentence_378

Road Pennsylvania_section_37

The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, abbreviated as PennDOT, owns 39,861 miles (64,150 km) of the 121,770 miles (195,970 km) of roadway in the state, making it the fifth-largest state highway system in the United States. Pennsylvania_sentence_379

The Pennsylvania Turnpike system is 535 miles (861 km) long, with the mainline portion stretching from Ohio to Philadelphia and New Jersey. Pennsylvania_sentence_380

It is overseen by the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission. Pennsylvania_sentence_381

Another major east–west route is Interstate 80, which runs primarily in the northern tier of the state from Ohio to New Jersey at the Delaware Water Gap. Pennsylvania_sentence_382

Interstate 90 travels the relatively short distance between Ohio and New York through Erie County, in the extreme northwestern part of the state. Pennsylvania_sentence_383

Primary north–south highways are Interstate 79 from its terminus in Erie through Pittsburgh to West Virginia, Interstate 81 from New York through Scranton, Lackawanna County and Harrisburg to Maryland and Interstate 476, which begins 7 miles (11 km) north of the Delaware border, in Chester, Delaware County and travels 132 miles (212 km) to Clarks Summit, Lackawanna County, where it joins I-81. Pennsylvania_sentence_384

All but 20 miles (32 km) of I-476 is the Northeast Extension of the Pennsylvania Turnpike, while the highway south of the mainline of the Pennsylvania Turnpike is officially called the "Veterans Memorial Highway", but is commonly referred to by locals as the "Blue Route". Pennsylvania_sentence_385

Rail Pennsylvania_section_38

The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) is the sixth-largest transit agency in the United States and operates the commuter, heavy and light rail transit, and transit bus service in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. Pennsylvania_sentence_386

The Port Authority of Allegheny County is the 25th-largest transit agency and provides transit bus and light rail service in and around Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania_sentence_387

Intercity passenger rail transit is provided by Amtrak, with the majority of traffic occurring on the Keystone Service in the high-speed Keystone Corridor between Harrisburg and Philadelphia's 30th Street Station before heading north to New York City, as well as the Northeast Regional providing frequent high-speed service up and down the Northeast Corridor. Pennsylvania_sentence_388

The Pennsylvanian follows the same route from New York City to Harrisburg, but extends out to Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania_sentence_389

The Capitol Limited also passes through Pittsburgh, as well as Connellsville, on its way from Chicago to Washington, D.C. Traveling between Chicago and New York City, the Lake Shore Limited passes through Erie once in each direction. Pennsylvania_sentence_390

There are 67 short-line, freight railroads operating in Pennsylvania, the highest number in any U.S. state. Pennsylvania_sentence_391

Bus and coach Pennsylvania_section_39

Intercity bus service is provided between cities in Pennsylvania and other major points in the Northeast by Bolt Bus, Fullington Trailways, Greyhound Lines, Martz Trailways, Megabus, OurBus, Trans-Bridge Lines, as well as various Chinatown bus companies. Pennsylvania_sentence_392

In 2018, OurBus began offering service from West Chester, PA – Malvern, PA – King of Prussia, PA – Fort Washington, PA – New York, NY. Pennsylvania_sentence_393

Air Pennsylvania_section_40

Pennsylvania has seven major airports: Philadelphia International, Pittsburgh International, Lehigh Valley International, Harrisburg International, Erie International, University Park Airport and Wilkes-Barre/Scranton International. Pennsylvania_sentence_394

A total of 134 public-use airports are located in the state. Pennsylvania_sentence_395

The port of Pittsburgh is the second-largest inland port in the United States and the 18th-largest port overall; the Port of Philadelphia is the 24th-largest port in the United States. Pennsylvania_sentence_396

Pennsylvania's only port on the Great Lakes is located in Erie. Pennsylvania_sentence_397

Water Pennsylvania_section_41

The Allegheny River Lock and Dam Two is the most-used lock operated by the United States Army Corps of Engineers of its 255 nationwide. Pennsylvania_sentence_398

The dam impounds the Allegheny River near Downtown Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania_sentence_399

Culture Pennsylvania_section_42

Arts Pennsylvania_section_43

Sports Pennsylvania_section_44

Main article: Sports in Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_400

Pennsylvania is home to many major league professional sports teams: the Philadelphia Phillies and Pittsburgh Pirates of Major League Baseball, the Philadelphia 76ers of the National Basketball Association, the Pittsburgh Steelers and Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League, the Philadelphia Flyers and Pittsburgh Penguins of the National Hockey League, and the Philadelphia Union of Major League Soccer. Pennsylvania_sentence_401

Among them, these teams have accumulated 7 World Series Championships (Pirates 5, Phillies 2), 16 National League Pennants (Pirates 9, Phillies 7), 3 pre-Super Bowl era NFL Championships (Eagles), 7 Super Bowl Championships (Steelers 6, Eagles 1), 2 NBA Championships (76ers), and 7 Stanley Cups (Penguins 5, Flyers 2). Pennsylvania_sentence_402

Pennsylvania also has minor league and semi-pro sports teams: the Triple-A baseball Lehigh Valley IronPigs and the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre RailRiders of the International League; the Double-A baseball Altoona Curve, Erie SeaWolves, Harrisburg Senators, and Reading Fightin Phils of the Eastern League; the Class A-Short Season baseball State College Spikes and Williamsport Crosscutters of the New York–Penn League; the independent baseball Lancaster Barnstormers and York Revolution of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball; the independent baseball Washington Wild Things of the Frontier League; the Erie BayHawks of the NBA G League; the Lehigh Valley Phantoms, Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins, and Hershey Bears of the American Hockey League; the Reading Royals and of the ECHL; and the Philadelphia Soul of the Arena Football League. Pennsylvania_sentence_403

Among them, these teams have accumulated 12 triple and double-A baseball league titles (RailRiders 1, Senators 6, Fightin Phils 4 Curve 1), 3 Arena Bowl Championships (Soul), and 11 Calder Cups (Bears). Pennsylvania_sentence_404

The first World Series between the Boston Pilgrims (which became the Boston Red Sox) and Pittsburgh Pirates was played in Pittsburgh in 1903. Pennsylvania_sentence_405

Since 1959, the Little League World Series is held each summer in South Williamsport, near where Little League Baseball was founded in Williamsport. Pennsylvania_sentence_406

Soccer is gaining popularity within the state of Pennsylvania as well. Pennsylvania_sentence_407

With the addition of the Philadelphia Union in the MLS, the state now boasts three teams that are eligible to compete for the Lamar Hunt U.S. Open Cup annually. Pennsylvania_sentence_408

The other two teams are Philadelphia Union II and the Pittsburgh Riverhounds. Pennsylvania_sentence_409

However, Penn FC (formally Harrisburg City Islanders) used to be one of these teams before they announced they'd be on hiatus in 2019; although they would be returning for the 2020 season. Pennsylvania_sentence_410

Both of the United Soccer League (USL). Pennsylvania_sentence_411

Within the American Soccer Pyramid, the MLS takes the first tier, while the USL-2 claims the third tier. Pennsylvania_sentence_412

Arnold Palmer, one of the 20th century's most notable pro golfers, comes from Latrobe, while Jim Furyk, a current PGA member, grew up near in Lancaster. Pennsylvania_sentence_413

PGA tournaments in Pennsylvania include the 84 Lumber Classic, played at Nemacolin Woodlands Resort, in Farmington and the Northeast Pennsylvania Classic, played at Glenmaura National Golf Club, in Moosic. Pennsylvania_sentence_414

Philadelphia is home to LOVE Park, once a popular spot for skateboarding, and across from City Hall, host to ESPN's X Games in 2001 and 2002. Pennsylvania_sentence_415

Racing Pennsylvania_section_45

In motorsports, the Mario Andretti dynasty of race drivers hails from Nazareth in the Lehigh Valley. Pennsylvania_sentence_416

Notable racetracks in Pennsylvania include the Jennerstown Speedway in Jennerstown, the Lake Erie Speedway in North East, the Mahoning Valley Speedway in Lehighton, the Motordome Speedway(closed) in Smithton, the Mountain Speedway in St. Pennsylvania_sentence_417 Johns, the Nazareth Speedway in Nazareth (closed); the Lernerville Speedway in Sarver and the Pocono Raceway in Long Pond, which is home to two NASCAR Cup Series races and an IndyCar Series race. Pennsylvania_sentence_418

The state is also home to Maple Grove Raceway, near Reading, which hosts major National Hot Rod Association sanctioned drag racing events each year. Pennsylvania_sentence_419

There are also two motocross race tracks that host a round of the AMA Toyota Motocross Championships in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_420

is located in Mt. Pennsylvania_sentence_421

Morris, Pennsylvania, and Steel City is located in Delmont, Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_422

Horse racing courses in Pennsylvania consist of The Meadows near Pittsburgh, Pocono Downs in Wilkes-Barre, and Harrah's Philadelphia in Chester, which offer harness racing, and Penn National Race Course in Grantville, Parx Racing (formerly Philadelphia Park) in Bensalem, and Presque Isle Downs near Erie, which offer thoroughbred racing. Pennsylvania_sentence_423

Smarty Jones, the 2004 Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes winner, had Philadelphia Park as his home course. Pennsylvania_sentence_424

College sports Pennsylvania_section_46

College football is popular in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_425

There are three colleges in Pennsylvania that play at the highest level of collegiate football competition, the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision. Pennsylvania_sentence_426

Two play in Power Five conferences, the Penn State University Nittany Lions of the Big Ten Conference and the University of Pittsburgh Panthers of the Atlantic Coast Conference, while the Temple University Owls play in the American Athletic Conference. Pennsylvania_sentence_427

Penn State claims two national championships (1982 & 1986) as well as seven undefeated seasons (1887, 1912, 1968, 1969, 1973, 1986 and 1994). Pennsylvania_sentence_428

Penn State plays its home games in the second-largest stadium in the United States, Beaver Stadium, which seats 106,572, and is currently led by head coach James Franklin. Pennsylvania_sentence_429

The University of Pittsburgh Panthers claims nine national championships (1915, 1916, 1918, 1929, 1931, 1934, 1936, 1937 and 1976) and has played eight undefeated seasons (1904, 1910, 1915, 1916, 1917, 1920, 1937 and 1976). Pennsylvania_sentence_430

Pitt plays its home games at Heinz Field, a facility it shares with the Pittsburgh Steelers, and is led by current head football coach Pat Narduzzi. Pennsylvania_sentence_431

Other Pennsylvania schools that have won national titles in football include Lafayette College (1896), Villanova University (FCS 2009), the University of Pennsylvania (1895, 1897, 1904 and 1908) and Washington and Jefferson College (1921). Pennsylvania_sentence_432

College basketball is also popular in the state, especially in the Philadelphia area where five universities, collectively termed the Big Five, have a rich tradition in NCAA Division I basketball. Pennsylvania_sentence_433

National titles in college basketball have been won by La Salle University (1954), Temple University (1938), University of Pennsylvania (1920 and 1921), University of Pittsburgh (1928 and 1930), and Villanova University (1985, 2016, and 2018). Pennsylvania_sentence_434

Food Pennsylvania_section_47

Further information: :Category:Cuisine of Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_435

Author Sharon Hernes Silverman calls Pennsylvania the snack food capital of the world. Pennsylvania_sentence_436

It leads all other states in the manufacture of pretzels and potato chips. Pennsylvania_sentence_437

The Sturgis Pretzel House introduced the pretzel to America, and companies like Anderson Bakery Company, Intercourse Pretzel Factory, and Snyder's of Hanover are leading manufacturers in the Commonwealth. Pennsylvania_sentence_438

Two of the three companies that define the U.S. potato chip industry are based in Pennsylvania: Utz Quality Foods, which started making chips in Hanover, Pennsylvania, in 1921, Wise Foods, which started making chips in Berwick in 1921, the third, Frito-Lay (part of PepsiCo, based in Plano, Texas). Pennsylvania_sentence_439

Other companies such as Herr's Snacks, Martin's Potato Chips, Snyder's of Berlin (not associated with Snyder's of Hanover) and Troyer Farms Potato Products are popular chip manufacturers. Pennsylvania_sentence_440

The U.S. chocolate industry is centered in Hershey, Pennsylvania, with Mars, Godiva, and Wilbur Chocolate Company nearby, and smaller manufacturers such as Asher's in Souderton, and Gertrude Hawk Chocolates of Dunmore. Pennsylvania_sentence_441

Other notable companies include Just Born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, makers of Hot Tamales, Mike and Ikes, the Easter favorite marshmallow Peeps, and Boyer Brothers of Altoona, Pennsylvania, which is well known for its Mallo Cups. Pennsylvania_sentence_442

Auntie Anne's Pretzels began as a market-stand in Downingtown, Pennsylvania, and now has corporate headquarters in Lancaster City. Pennsylvania_sentence_443

Traditional Pennsylvania Dutch foods include chicken potpie, ham potpie, schnitz un knepp (dried apples, ham, and dumplings), fasnachts (raised doughnuts), scrapple, pretzels, bologna, chow-chow, and Shoofly pie. Pennsylvania_sentence_444

Martin's Famous Pastry Shoppe, Inc., headquartered in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, specializes in potato bread, another traditional Pennsylvania Dutch food. Pennsylvania_sentence_445

D.G. Pennsylvania_sentence_446 Yuengling & Son, America's oldest brewery, has been brewing beer in Pottsville since 1829. Pennsylvania_sentence_447

Among the regional foods associated with Philadelphia are cheesesteaks, hoagie, soft pretzels, Italian water ice, Irish potato candy, scrapple, Tastykake, and strombolis. Pennsylvania_sentence_448

In Pittsburgh, tomato ketchup was improved by Henry John Heinz from 1876 to the early 20th century. Pennsylvania_sentence_449

Famous to a lesser extent than Heinz ketchup is the Pittsburgh's Primanti Brothers Restaurant sandwiches, pierogies, and city chicken. Pennsylvania_sentence_450

Outside of Scranton, in Old Forge there are dozens of Italian restaurants specializing in pizza made unique by thick, light crust and American cheese. Pennsylvania_sentence_451

Erie also has its share of unique foods, including Greek sauce and sponge candy. Pennsylvania_sentence_452

Sauerkraut along with pork and mashed potatoes is a common meal on New Year's Day in Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania_sentence_453

State symbols Pennsylvania_section_48

Main article: List of Pennsylvania state symbols Pennsylvania_sentence_454

Pennsylvania_unordered_list_7

Nicknames Pennsylvania_section_49

Pennsylvania has been known as the Keystone State since 1802, based in part upon its central location among the original Thirteen Colonies forming the United States, and also in part because of the number of important American documents signed in the state (such as the Declaration of Independence). Pennsylvania_sentence_455

It was also a keystone state economically, having both the industry common to the North (making such wares as Conestoga wagons and rifles) and the agriculture common to the South (producing feed, fiber, food, and tobacco). Pennsylvania_sentence_456

Another one of Pennsylvania's nicknames is the Quaker State; in colonial times, it was known officially as the Quaker Province, in recognition of Quaker William Penn's First Frame of Government constitution for Pennsylvania that guaranteed liberty of conscience. Pennsylvania_sentence_457

He knew of the hostility Quakers faced when they opposed religious ritual, taking oaths, violence, war and military service, and what they viewed as ostentatious . Pennsylvania_sentence_458

"The Coal State", "The Oil State", "The Chocolate State", and "The Steel State" were adopted when those were the state's greatest industries. Pennsylvania_sentence_459

"The State of Independence" currently appears on many road signs entering the state. Pennsylvania_sentence_460

Notable people Pennsylvania_section_50

Main article: List of people from Pennsylvania Pennsylvania_sentence_461

Sister regions Pennsylvania_section_51

Pennsylvania_unordered_list_8

See also Pennsylvania_section_52

Pennsylvania_unordered_list_9


Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pennsylvania.