Percussion instrument

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"Percussion" redirects here. Percussion instrument_sentence_0

For other uses, see Percussion (disambiguation). Percussion instrument_sentence_1

A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles struck, scraped or rubbed by hand or struck against another similar instrument. Percussion instrument_sentence_2

Excluding zoomusicological instruments and the human voice, the percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments. Percussion instrument_sentence_3

The percussion section of an orchestra most commonly contains instruments such as the timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle and tambourine. Percussion instrument_sentence_4

However, the section can also contain non-percussive instruments, such as whistles and sirens, or a blown conch shell. Percussion instrument_sentence_5

Percussive techniques can even be applied to the human body itself, as in body percussion. Percussion instrument_sentence_6

On the other hand, keyboard instruments, such as the celesta, are not normally part of the percussion section, but keyboard percussion instruments such as the glockenspiel and xylophone (which do not have piano keyboards) are included. Percussion instrument_sentence_7

Percussion instruments are most commonly divided into two classes: pitched percussion instruments, which produce notes with an identifiable pitch, and unpitched percussion instruments, which produce notes or sounds in an indefinite pitch. Percussion instrument_sentence_8

Function Percussion instrument_section_0

Percussion instruments may play not only rhythm, but also melody and harmony. Percussion instrument_sentence_9

Percussion is commonly referred to as "the backbone" or "the heartbeat" of a musical ensemble, often working in close collaboration with bass instruments, when present. Percussion instrument_sentence_10

In jazz and other popular music ensembles, the pianist, bassist, drummer and sometimes the guitarist are referred to as the rhythm section. Percussion instrument_sentence_11

Most classical pieces written for full orchestra since the time of Haydn and Mozart are orchestrated to place emphasis on the strings, woodwinds, and brass. Percussion instrument_sentence_12

However, often at least one pair of timpani is included, though they rarely play continuously. Percussion instrument_sentence_13

Rather, they serve to provide additional accents when needed. Percussion instrument_sentence_14

In the 18th and 19th centuries, other percussion instruments (like the triangle or cymbals) have been used, again generally sparingly. Percussion instrument_sentence_15

The use of percussion instruments became more frequent in the 20th century classical music. Percussion instrument_sentence_16

In almost every style of music, percussion plays a pivotal role. Percussion instrument_sentence_17

In military marching bands and pipes and drums, it is the beat of the bass drum that keeps the soldiers in step and at a regular speed, and it is the snare that provides that crisp, decisive air to the tune of a regiment. Percussion instrument_sentence_18

In classic jazz, one almost immediately thinks of the distinctive rhythm of the hi-hats or the ride cymbal when the word-swing is spoken. Percussion instrument_sentence_19

In more recent popular-music culture, it is almost impossible to name three or four rock, hip-hop, rap, funk or even soul charts or songs that do not have some sort of percussive beat keeping the tune in time. Percussion instrument_sentence_20

Because of the diversity of percussive instruments, it is not uncommon to find large musical ensembles composed entirely of percussion. Percussion instrument_sentence_21

Rhythm, melody, and harmony are all represented in these ensembles. Percussion instrument_sentence_22

Percussion notation Percussion instrument_section_1

Main article: Percussion notation Percussion instrument_sentence_23

Music for pitched percussion instruments can be notated on a staff with the same treble and bass clefs used by many non-percussive instruments. Percussion instrument_sentence_24

Music for percussive instruments without a definite pitch can be notated with a specialist rhythm or percussion-clef. Percussion instrument_sentence_25

The guitar also has a special "tab" staff. Percussion instrument_sentence_26

More often a bass clef is substituted for rhythm clef. Percussion instrument_sentence_27

Classification Percussion instrument_section_2

Main article: Classification of percussion instruments Percussion instrument_sentence_28

See also: List of percussion instruments Percussion instrument_sentence_29

Percussion instruments are classified by various criteria sometimes depending on their construction, ethnic origin, function within musical theory and orchestration, or their relative prevalence in common knowledge. Percussion instrument_sentence_30

The word percussion derives from the Latin verb percussio to beat, strike in the musical sense, and the noun percussus, a beating. Percussion instrument_sentence_31

As a noun in contemporary English, Wiktionary describes it as the collision of two bodies to produce a sound. Percussion instrument_sentence_32

The term is not unique to music, but has application in medicine and weaponry, as in percussion cap. Percussion instrument_sentence_33

However, all known uses of percussion appear to share a similar lineage beginning with the original Latin percussus. Percussion instrument_sentence_34

In a musical context then, the percussion instruments may have been originally coined to describe a family of musical instruments including drums, rattles, metal plates, or blocks that musicians beat or struck to produce sound. Percussion instrument_sentence_35

The Hornbostel–Sachs system has no high-level section for percussion. Percussion instrument_sentence_36

Most percussion instruments as the term is normally understood are classified as idiophones and membranophones. Percussion instrument_sentence_37

However the term percussion is instead used at lower-levels of the Hornbostel–Sachs hierarchy, including to identify instruments struck with either a non sonorous object hand, stick, striker or against a non-sonorous object human body, the ground. Percussion instrument_sentence_38

This is opposed to concussion, which refers to instruments with two or more complementary sonorous parts that strike against each other and other meanings. Percussion instrument_sentence_39

For example: Percussion instrument_sentence_40

111.1 Concussion idiophones or clappers, played in pairs and beaten against each other, such as zills and clapsticks. Percussion instrument_sentence_41

111.2 Percussion idiophones, includes many percussion instruments played with the hand or by a percussion mallet, such as the hang, gongs and the xylophone, but not drums and only some cymbals. Percussion instrument_sentence_42

21 Struck drums, includes most types of drum, such as the timpani, snare drum, and tom-tom. Percussion instrument_sentence_43

412.12 Percussion reeds, a class of wind instrument unrelated to percussion in the more common sense Percussion instrument_sentence_44

There are many instruments that have some claim to being percussion, but are classified otherwise: Percussion instrument_sentence_45

Percussion instrument_unordered_list_0

Percussion instruments are sometimes classified as pitched or unpitched. Percussion instrument_sentence_46

While valid, this classification is widely seen as inadequate. Percussion instrument_sentence_47

Rather, it may be more informative to describe percussion instruments in regards to one or more of the following four paradigms: Percussion instrument_sentence_48

By methods of sound production Percussion instrument_section_3

Main article: Hornbostel–Sachs Percussion instrument_sentence_49

Many texts, including Teaching Percussion by Gary Cook of the University of Arizona, begin by studying the physical characteristics of instruments and the methods by which they can produce sound. Percussion instrument_sentence_50

This is perhaps the most scientifically pleasing assignment of nomenclature whereas the other paradigms are more dependent on historical or social circumstances. Percussion instrument_sentence_51

Based on observation and experimentation, one can determine how an instrument produces sound and then assign the instrument to one of the following four categories: Percussion instrument_sentence_52

Idiophone Percussion instrument_section_4

Main article: Idiophone Percussion instrument_sentence_53

See also: :Category:Idiophones Percussion instrument_sentence_54

"Idiophones produce sounds through the vibration of their entire body." Percussion instrument_sentence_55

Examples of idiophones: Percussion instrument_sentence_56

Membranophone Percussion instrument_section_5

Main article: Membranophone Percussion instrument_sentence_57

See also: :Category:Membranophones Percussion instrument_sentence_58

Most objects commonly known as drums are membranophones. Percussion instrument_sentence_59

Membranophones produce sound when the membrane or head is struck with a hand, mallet, stick, beater, or improvised tool. Percussion instrument_sentence_60

Examples of membranophones: Percussion instrument_sentence_61

Chordophone Percussion instrument_section_6

Main article: Chordophone Percussion instrument_sentence_62

See also: :Category:String instruments Percussion instrument_sentence_63

Most instruments known as chordophones are defined as string instruments, wherein their sound is derived from the vibration of a string, but some such as these examples also fall under percussion instruments. Percussion instrument_sentence_64

Aerophone Percussion instrument_section_7

Main article: Aerophone Percussion instrument_sentence_65

See also: :Category:Aerophones Percussion instrument_sentence_66

Most instruments known as aerophones are defined as wind instruments such as a saxophone whereby sound is produced by a stream of air being blown through the object. Percussion instrument_sentence_67

Although most aerophones are played by specialist players who are trained for that specific instrument, in a traditional ensemble setting, aerophones are played by a percussionist, generally due to the instrument's unconventional nature. Percussion instrument_sentence_68

Examples of aerophones played by percussionists Percussion instrument_sentence_69

By musical function or orchestration Percussion instrument_section_8

When classifying instruments by function it is useful to note if a percussion instrument makes a definite pitch or indefinite pitch. Percussion instrument_sentence_70

For example, some percussion instruments such as the marimba and timpani produce an obvious fundamental pitch and can therefore play melody and serve harmonic functions in music. Percussion instrument_sentence_71

Other instruments such as crash cymbals and snare drums produce sounds with such complex overtones and a wide range of prominent frequencies that no pitch is discernible. Percussion instrument_sentence_72

Definite pitch of Music Percussion instrument_section_9

Main article: pitched percussion instrument Percussion instrument_sentence_73

Percussion instruments in this group are sometimes referred to as pitched or tuned. Percussion instrument_sentence_74

Examples of percussion instruments with definite pitch: Percussion instrument_sentence_75

Indefinite pitch Percussion instrument_section_10

Main article: unpitched percussion instrument Percussion instrument_sentence_76

Instruments in this group are sometimes referred to as non-pitched, unpitched, or untuned. Percussion instrument_sentence_77

Traditionally these instruments are thought of as making a sound that contains such complex frequencies that no discernible pitch can be heard. Percussion instrument_sentence_78

In fact many traditionally unpitched instruments, such as triangles and even cymbals, have also been produced as tuned sets. Percussion instrument_sentence_79

Examples of percussion instruments with indefinite pitch: Percussion instrument_sentence_80

By prevalence in common knowledge Percussion instrument_section_11

It is difficult to define what is common knowledge but there are instruments percussionists and composers use in contemporary music that most people wouldn't consider musical instruments. Percussion instrument_sentence_81

It is worthwhile to try to distinguish between instruments based on their acceptance or consideration by a general audience. Percussion instrument_sentence_82

For example, most people would not consider an anvil, a brake drum (on a vehicle with drum brakes, the circular hub the brake shoes press against), or a fifty-five gallon oil barrel musical instruments yet composers and percussionists use these objects. Percussion instrument_sentence_83

Percussion instruments generally fall into the following categories: Percussion instrument_sentence_84

Conventional or popular Percussion instrument_section_12

Unconventional Percussion instrument_section_13

One pre-20th century example of found percussion is the use of cannon usually loaded with blank charges in Tchiakovsky's 1812 Overture. Percussion instrument_sentence_85

John Cage, Harry Partch, Edgard Varèse, and Peter Schickele, all noted composers, created entire pieces of music using unconventional instruments. Percussion instrument_sentence_86

Beginning in the early 20th century perhaps with Ionisation by Edgard Varèse which used air-raid sirens among other things, composers began to require that percussionists invent or find objects to produce desired sounds and textures. Percussion instrument_sentence_87

Another example the use of a hammer and saw in Penderecki's De Natura Sonoris No. Percussion instrument_sentence_88 2. Percussion instrument_sentence_89

By the late 20th century, such instruments were common in modern percussion ensemble music and popular productions, such as the off-Broadway show, Stomp. Percussion instrument_sentence_90

Rock band Aerosmith used a number of unconventional instruments in their song Sweet Emotion, including shotguns, brooms, and a sugar bag. Percussion instrument_sentence_91

The metal band Slipknot is well known for playing unusual percussion items, having two percussionists in the band. Percussion instrument_sentence_92

Along with deep sounding drums, their sound includes hitting baseball bats and other objects on beer kegs to create a distinctive sound. Percussion instrument_sentence_93

By cultural significance or tradition Percussion instrument_section_14

It is not uncommon to discuss percussion instruments in relation to their cultural origin. Percussion instrument_sentence_94

This led to a division between instruments considered common or modern, and folk instruments with significant history or purpose within a geographic region or culture. Percussion instrument_sentence_95

Folk percussion instruments Percussion instrument_section_15

"Common" drums Percussion instrument_section_16

This category includes instruments that are widely available and popular throughout the world: Percussion instrument_sentence_96

By capability of melodic production Percussion instrument_section_17

Percussion instrument_unordered_list_1

By percussive beater Percussion instrument_section_18

The percussionist uses various objects to strike a percussion instrument to produce sound. Percussion instrument_sentence_97

Names for percussionists Percussion instrument_section_19

The general term for a musician who plays percussion instruments is "percussionist" but the terms listed below often describe specialties: Percussion instrument_sentence_98

Within rock music, the term "percussionist" is often used to refer to someone who plays percussion instruments but is not primarily a drummer. Percussion instrument_sentence_99

The term is especially found in bands where one person plays drums and another plays other hit instruments. Percussion instrument_sentence_100

See also Percussion instrument_section_20

Credits to the contents of this page go to the authors of the corresponding Wikipedia page: instrument.